Nodody Won Essay

When the Arthur Andersen LLP/Enron dirt surfaced in 2001. there was much confusion as to whom committed what offense and how many employees were really involved. After the facts and condemnable charges were concluding. the sequence of events makes sense ; the brotherhood of two companies. the rise of the take parting executives. and eventually the terminal of the money drive. The leaders of both companies used dishonesty to do an abundant sum of money and addition power position ( Thomas 2002 ) . Christopher Bergland said it best when he wrote. “Karma is a throwing stick and the long-run shame and anxiousness of rip offing will finally contradict the short-run additions of triumph. ” . This decidedly held true for the employees who were disgraced at the decision of the legal proceedings ; they may hold had more money than they needed. but they finally lost in the terminal.

The Beginning
The connection between Arthur Andersen LLP and Enron was a matrimony excessively good to be true. The relationship started in 1986 when Enron hired the accounting house Arthur Andersen LLP to execute “creative accounting. ” leting the energy company to look more powerful on paper than it truly was. Enron Corporation started puting monolithic sums of money in “Special Purpose Entities” to bring forth immense sums of grosss. Particular Purpose Entities are originative ways for companies to more expeditiously raise debt. but they besides make it tougher for investors to decode a company’s existent debt exposure. Company Backgrounds

Both companies were built on finding. dedication. and difficult work. The laminitis. Arthur Andersen. who was orphaned at the age of 16. worked as a mailboy during the twenty-four hours and attended school at dark. By the age of 23. he became the youngest Certified public accountant in Illinois. A mere five old ages subsequently he started his ain accounting house. The same head set Andersen possessed in his adolescent old ages carried over to his grownup life.

He realized the key to his concern succeeding was by “…promoting unity and sound audits…” . Enron was founded on the same features plus a few others: pride. haughtiness. and greed. Kenneth Lay wanted to hold the largest money doing company he could and succeeded by forcing for deregulating of the power industry. In 1985. Mr. Lay took advantage of the government’s determination to allow gas monetary values fluctuate/float with the currents of the market. By making this. Enron grew from 10 billion to 65 billion in assets in 16 old ages. Lay had visions of what he wanted Enron to be and so sold them to his staff. Hiting it Large

In order for a new thought to be successful. a leader with confidence and assurance must be present. Mr. Lay found these qualities present in Jeffrey Skilling and hired him as a Chief Executive Officer. Skilling believed in the endurance of the fittest. He had an sentiment that money is the lone inducement that motivated people and he created a competitory. ruthless. and fierce workplace. Skilling implemented the Performance Review Committee. Performance Review Committee. or PRC. is an employee rating system which graded workers from 1-5. 5 being the lowest and ensuing in dismissal from the company. The Enron staff knew it better as “rank and yank” . One employee who was a bargainer was quoted stating. “…if I can acquire a $ 5 million fillip for stepping on someone’s toes. I’ll stomp on their throat…” .

Both companies worked hard to construct a repute. Andersen expected all of his staff to be honorable and ever to set the client’s needs in forepart of their ain docket unless it involved falsifying certifications. Early on in the company’s beginning. Mr. Andersen was faced with a moral determination refering fabricating records for a client. Andersen. with his unity integral. refused.

The house continued with the “think directly and speak straight” tradition after the decease of Andersen and through the passage of promoted employee Leonard Spacek. With Spacek at the controls. the company continued to boom while staying committed to the regimented direction manner of the laminitis. Offices were opened throughout the United States. so finally around the universe. At this point. the house started confer withing every bit good as offering audits. Under Spacek’s supervising. Arthur Andersen LLP became one the most outstanding accounting houses labeling them as one of the “Big Five” . The company grew so vastly that Spacek had to turn down clients.

Enron had the same growing jet as Andersen. In a few short old ages. the company became the 7th largest corporation. It was touted as being led by the best and the brightest. Ken Lay. Cliff Baxter. Jeff Skilling. and Lou Pi were work forces who thought they were unstoppable. These pitiless leaders took immense hazards in order to do money. They were neglecting miserably. but Ken Lay reported otherwise to the populace. He said in intelligence conferences that Enron was booming and thriving because of his staff’s willingness to take hazards. With the growth of both houses. it was apparent that structural alterations were needed. Structural Changes at Andersen

The client burden for Andersen was going excessively much for merely one company. It was apparent that equilibrating the committedness to scrutinizing while adding a confer withing pattern was so much of a battle that Arthur Andersen LLP decided to make another division within the company. In the mid-1980’s. the bulk of Andersen’s grosss were being generated from the confer withing fees. but were still being dispersed with the accounting side. This caused a strain between the two parties. The advisers felt since they were lending more to the company their wages should be increased.

The lone solution was to alter the current organisational construction and make two divisions. Andersen Consulting along with Arthur Andersen LLP became fractional monetary units of Andersen Worldwide Organization. Spacek. like his predecessor. was a leader who liked to be seen by his staff. was good informed of concern traffics. and continued to promote honestness. Bing decentralized allowed the decision-making to be made by the divisions. subdivisions. sections. or subordinates. Both parts of Andersen Worldwide Organization could run nevertheless they chose and make their ain determinations. including which clients they took on. Ultimately. it was the accounting division that took on Enron. How the Two Companies Fit

Enron functionaries knew that Andersen had made some questionable determinations in the past and were coming away of a quiet case that involved some “creative accounting” . Andersen fit the profile that Skilling knew he needed in order for his visions to work. With Andersen being divided up into two divisions. Spacek could non command what was go oning in both sides of the house. Lay. on the other manus. cognize precisely what his executives were making. Enron
hired the accounting house to do the energy company to look more powerful on paper than it truly was. Enron Corporation started puting monolithic sums of money in “Special Purpose Entities” to bring forth immense sums of grosss.

Particular Purpose Entities are originative ways for companies to more expeditiously raise debt. but they besides make it tougher for investors to decode a company’s existent debt exposure. They were besides utilizing mark-to-market to book possible hereafter net incomes irrespective of existent money. Net incomes were whatever Enron said they were based on conjectural hereafter value or HFV. Mike Muckleroy. a former Enron executive. warned Mr. Lay of the hazards associated with wagering on the oil market. but Lay did non alter any policies or processs. In fact. he approved of the current behaviours. Lay sent out a memo to his executives stating to maintain up the good work. Equally long as money was being made. he chose to disregard the dishonesty. The money drive came to a sudden arrest in 2001.

For about 16 old ages. Arthur Andersen LLP would scrutinize Enron’s fiscal statements. Not merely would the accounting house provide external audit services. but besides handle the internal auditing procedures every bit good. As Enron’s grosss dramatically increased twelvemonth after twelvemonth. the paperwork and audit information had to fit consequently. Enron needed Arthur Andersen’s employees to do the ocular analogue happen and compensated them 1000000s of dollars for their services. At one clip. Arthur Andersen LLP had about one hundred people assigned distinctively to Enron. There had become such a important sum of work that accounting offices were designated for the accounting employees and staff was transferred to Enron’s central offices in Houston. Finally. the duty of Enron’s Chicago and London locations were added to their caseloads doing Enron one of Arthur Andersen LLP’s largest clients worldwide. Pump-n-Dump

Top leaders in both houses were doing an obscene sum of money. An anon. tip was given to governments about former President of Enron. Louis Borget. It was said he had taken over three million dollars of corporate financess and set it into his ain history. and that was merely the beginning. Enron reported a loss in the 3rd one-fourth net incomes at the same clip as a decrease of shareholder equity. Former CEO Jeff Skiing. current CEO Kenneth Lay. and other executives started to sell big sums of Enron stock as monetary values dropped from $ 90 to less than a dollar ; this pattern was called “pump-n-dump” . This strategy allowed top executives to force the stock monetary values up so hard currency in their multimillion dollar options.

Lou Pi was the leader for Enron Energy Services at the clip and after he sold his stock utilizing this method. he made profited $ 250 million. Selling of this much stock gained attending of the U. S. Securities and Exchange Commission which led to an probe. It was evident that a divorce. a test. and likely prison clip was in the close hereafter for Arthur Andersen LLP and Enron leaders who were involved. No affair what the result of the test was traveling to be. the one time faultless Arthur Andersen and powerhouse Enron were doomed companies because the harm had already been done. Crumbling Companies

Andersen’s company. one time led by an honest. seeable leader who was filled with unity by doing ethical picks was now being led by greedy. selfish executives who saw dollar marks alternatively of ethical motives. Andersen’s repute was ruined and happening clients was traveling to be following to impossible because of the promotion the dirt received. David Duncan who was responsible for the Enron audit. was fired by Arthur Andersen LLP for mass devastation of Enron paperss and Enron relieved Arthur Andersen LLP of all accounting and auditing responsibilities. Even though Arthur Andersen pled non guilty to the charges brought against them. the concluding determination of the tribunals was Arthur Andersen LLP was found guilty of obstructor of justness and received five old ages probation. had to pay a $ 500. 000 mulct. lost their licence in the province of Texas. and ceased their auditing services. Resulting in a annihilating loss of patronages and over 7. 000 workers had to happen new occupations.

More people were affected by Enron’s result than that of Arthur Andersen’s. After the probe. Enron filed bankruptcy. over 20. 000 people lost occupations. many functionaries served a prison sentence. and stockholders lost 10s of one million millions of dollars. As functionaries dug deeper into the cozenage. recovered paperss and many of the testimonies revealed many Bankss were guilty every bit good. Bank employees detailed how the Bankss engineered bogus minutess to maintain one million millions of dollars of debt off Enron’s balance sheet and make the semblance of increasing net incomes and runing hard currency flow. As a consequence. stricter accounting Torahs sing audits were subsequently passed by the SEC.

In this state of affairs. holding a leader who exhibits good judgement. ethical motives. ethical behavior. and unity can beef up an confederation within a work topographic point. When Arthur Andersen and Leonard Spacek were the supervisors. Arthur Andersen LLP was a major company with a unflawed repute that was wholly shattered by a few employees who did non represent such features as the former leaders. Arthur Andersen LLP split into two separate divisions. which I think was the right move because the company was turning and the current staff could non manage the patronage burden. In order for the split to work. though. both units needed supervisors like what the company was founded on ; directors who could be trusted and held accountable. If I was a spouse in Andersen and realized what was being committed. I would hold tried to set an terminal to it.

Possibly if person had the common sense to stand up for what was right. many occupations could hold been saved and investor’s money would non hold been lost. Enron. on the other manus. was dishonest from the beginning and it was merely a affair of clip before the leaders were caught of incorrect behaviors. Enron. in my sentiment. was being led by the inspiring leaders with first-class leading accomplishments and work moralss ; they merely did non hold the ethical motives to travel with it. Mr. Borget was the first to acquire caught ; Ken Lay was cognizant of Borget’s actions. but ignored it because he was non incriminated or even suspected yet. but as history reveals. his clip was coming.

Finally several old ages subsequently. Lay and his associates received their forthcoming. In the 2001 test. Ken Lay was charged with 11 condemnable Acts of the Apostless. Jeff Skilling was sentenced to prison and to this twenty-four hours still claims he did nil wrong. Cliff Baxter committed self-destruction before he was to look in tribunal. and Lou Pi lost 6 million in an insurance policy from the corporation. but ne’er saw any gaol clip.

Had Andersen Worldwide Organization declined on Enron’s concern proposal. the accounting house may hold continued to turn and perchance rule the number’s universe. From my point of position. this dirt was a lose-lose state of affairs to everybody involved. from entry degree places all the manner up to Chief Executive Officers. Enron became a major power-house in 16 old ages and merely took 24 yearss to prostration and travel bankrupt. A lay waste toing stoping to both houses ; several condemnable charges were filed against legion employees. hearings were held. and the companies which were built on aspiration and thrust were destroyed and are no longer are in being. In this instance. cipher won.

Answers. ( 2012 ) . Retrieved from Advantages and disadvantages of centralisation and decentalisation? : hypertext transfer protocol: //wiki. replies. com/Q/Advantages_and_disadvantages_of_centralization_and_decentralization BBC. ( 2003 ) . The Enron Affair. Retrieved from BBC News: hypertext transfer protocol: //news. bbc. co. uk/1/hi/in_depth/business/2002/enron/ Bergland. C. ( 2012 ) . Cheater’s Never Win. Psychology Today.

Brickley. J. . Smith. C. & A ; Zimmerman. J. ( 2009 ) . Managerial Economis and Organizational Architecture ( 5th Ed. ) . Boston. MA: McGraw-Hill Irwin. Byrne. T. ( 2002 ) . Special- Purpose Entities Are Often A Clever Way to Raise Debt Levels. Retrieved from nyu. edu: hypertext transfer protocol: //pages. austere. nyu. edu/~adamodar/New_Home_Page/articles/specpurpentity. htm Findlaw. ( 2003 ) . Indictment ( US v. Arthur Andersen. LLP ) . Retrieved from News: hypertext transfer protocol: //news. findlaw. com/hdocs/docs/enron/usandersen030702ind. html FundingUniverse. ( 2005 ) . Anderson History. Retrieved from FundingUniverse: hypertext transfer protocol: //www. fundinguniverse. com/company-histories/andersen-history/ Geller. R. ( 2002 ) . Background of the Banks’ Role in the Enron Debacle. Retrieved from The Enron Fraud: hypertext transfer protocol: //www. enronfraud. com/ Gibney. A. ( Director ) . ( 2004 ) . Enron-Smartest Guys in the Room [ Motion Picture ] . Houston Chronicle. ( 2002. April 19 ) .

Hot Topic Anderson. Houston Chronicle. Investopedia. ( 2011 ) . The Enron Collapse: A Look back. Retrieved from Investopedia: hypertext transfer protocol: //www. investopedia. com/financial-edge/1211/The-Enron-Collapse-A-Look-Back. aspx # axzz23riaPOrn NewsHour. ( 2002 ) . Enron: After the Collapse. Retrieved from PBS: hypertext transfer protocol: //www. phosphate buffer solution. org/newshour/bb/business/enron/player6. hypertext markup language Thomas. W. ( 2002 ) . The Rise and Fall of Enron. Retrieved from Journal of Accountancy: hypertext transfer protocol: //www. journalofaccountancy. com/Issues/2002/Apr/TheRiseAndFallOfEnron. htm Wikipedia. ( 2012 ) . Arthur Anderson. Retrieved from Wikipedia: hypertext transfer protocol: //en. wikipedia. org/wiki/Arthur_Andersen

Developments Of Ritas Character English Literature Essay

Willy Russell was born in Whiston, which is located merely outside Liverpool. He grew up in a on the job category household. In school, the things which he enjoyed most were reading books, playing football and twice-weekly horticulture lessons. He was non really talented in faculty members. Willy Russell wanted to be a author but he kept these ideas deep in himself for old ages. After go forthing school with hapless classs in GCSE, he ab initio became a ladies hairstylist at the suggestion of his female parent. He went on with it although he knew it was a eccentric suggestion. Unfortunately he turned out to be highly bad at that occupation. During his occupation he had a batch of trim clip which he used expeditiously in composing vocals and readings books alternatively of blowing it. Willy Russell undertook many occupations, including composing studies, poesy and vocals. He so decided to make an O-level English literature class. He took dark categories and passed the test. He so realised that he would still necessitate at least five O-levels to travel to a college. He started looking for a college which would allow him take a full-time class. He found one but he had no money to pay the fees. Therefore, he joined the night-shift girder cleaners. It was a really unsafe occupation but he was despairing to take a opportunity. Due to this opportunity he transformed from an unacademic working category adult male to one of the UK ‘s most celebrated author. He wanted to do a drama which was relevant to those who considered themselves uneducated like himself and which showed the category difference in our society. He has been successful to demo this in his drama “ Educating Rita ” . A A

The drama “ Educating Rita ” gained great popularity in the 80 ‘s. There has besides been a film made from it starring Julie Walters as Rita and Michael Caine as Frank. Educating Rita is about the major alterations that occur in Rita ‘s life. Rita ‘s life was similar to Russell ‘s life. She was non academically talented at school. She foremost became a ladies hairdresser. Like Russell, She turns out to be highly awful at that occupation. She undertakes many occupations. Rita thinks that she is trapped by her working category life so she so takes a important measure of inscribing on a literature class.

Russell reveals the make bolding character of Rita in the really first scene as she bursts through the door and starts cursing. This shows us that she does non truly cognize the difference between formal and informal conversations. If person comes for a formal interview one would anticipate him to speak in a proper manner yet Rita acts in a really relaxed manner. When Frank asks her to come in the room, she says angrily “ I ‘m comin` in, are n’t I? It ‘s that stupid bleedin` grip on the door. You wan na acquire it fixed ” . This shows us that she is non really formal. This besides shows us that she is really loud and confident. She says “ bleedin` ” which shows us her speech pattern and linguistic communication. Normally people say “ shed blooding ” alternatively of “ bleedin` ” . This besides tells us about her background that she is non from a really all right background. Frank is a university lector in English literature. He was a poet one time. He is a really formal individual and knows a batch about literature. He has a imbibing job and he has failed one matrimony because of this. He keeps his drink bottles in the bookshelf. “ Frank ( looking along the shelves ) `E` ( he thinks for a minute ) `E` e` e` … all of a sudden he remembers ) Dickens. ( Happily he moves to the Dickens subdivision and pulls out a heap of books to uncover a bottle of whiskey ) ” . This shows us how despairing he is for imbibing. He has failed one matrimony because of his imbibing job but still he drinks it and hides his drink in the bookshelf. By the terminal of the drama he has been sent off to Australia because of his bibulous behavior. Frank hates his occupation but he is making it for money.

Rita ‘s background has held her dorsum and put her at a disadvantage. Rita was born in a on the job category household or so called “ low category household ” . I presume her household could non afford to learn Rita in a good school. Middle category kids had a schooling advantage. They used to larn from more experient instructors and assist each other. They used to make good at school and because of this they were more likely to travel to good universities unlike kids of working category households like Rita. This is one of the grounds why Rita did non go through GCSE. I assume some other grounds are that she was lazy. She was non interested in the topics she was analyzing.

Rita wants to analyze because she wants to do a life and enjoy life. She wants more significance to her life. Rita is really motivated. She wants to derive assurance and be independent. She wants to command her ain life and do her ain picks. Rita feels that instruction is the lone manner which will put her free from her working category life.

We can see the category difference through the linguistic communication in the really first scene.

“ Frank: You are?

Rita: What am I?

Frank: Forgiveness?

Rita: What?

Frank: Now you are?

Rita: I am a what? ”

They do non understand each other because of the category difference and different backgrounds. Frank ‘s normal vocabulary is really formal whereas Rita ‘s often cursing like “ fuckin` trash ” and “ bleedin` door ” shows as if it is a portion of her normal vocabulary which is really informal. Frank negotiations in a low frequence linguistic communication. “ You mean that over the old ages it ‘s acquired a certain patina ” . Merely few people know the significance of word “ patina ” . Rita ‘s speech pattern is different from Frank. She says “ what y` lookin` at? ” this shows us that she is proud of her background because she is confident but nervous at the same clip. She talks like this “ Y` do n’t mind me swearin` , make y` ? ” whereas if Frank had said this sentence he would hold talked like this “ You do n’t mind me cursing, make you? ” this shows us that there is a immense category difference of Frank and Rita. When Frank negotiations about vowel rhyme Rita asks:

“ Rita: What does assonance intend? ”

This is demoing us about the character of Rita that she does n’t truly cognize a batch about literature.

Russell has created temper with the aid of her chief character Rita who is really blunt and is n’t afraid to talk her head. We can see this when she enters the office, she notices a bare image and says “ it ‘s really titillating ” and when Frank says “ yes, I suppose it is ” Russell creates wit when Rita says “ there is no suppose about it. Look at those breasts. ” The audience finds this humourous because no 1 can anticipate anyone to utilize words like “ titillating ” and “ breasts ” in their first interview. This shows us that Rita does non cognize how to speak in a formal interview.

The limitations and force per unit area are largely from her hubby. Rita does non desire to hold a babe before she is educated and “ finds herself ” but his hubby supports on supercharging her to hold a babe. She besides takes pills to non hold a babe and when his hubby finds out, he burns all the books that Frank lent her.

She tells Frank “ I told him I ‘d merely hold a babe when I had pick. But he does n’t understand. ”

This clearly shows that her hubby does n’t desire Rita to be educated and happen herself. I suppose this is because his hubby thinks that adult females should sit at place and take attention of the kids. He is afraid that Rita does non acquire cleverer than him because he is non really educated.

We see a immense alteration in the both characters “ Frank ” and “ Rita ” in the scenes of Act 2. There are farther developments in Rita ‘s character. Frank starts composing poesy and Rita comes back from the summer school and she knows a batch about English literature now. She has gained a batch of assurance. Rita is now able to discourse literature confidently with the pupils she meets on the lawn, she joins their conversations and she is able to state them that they are speaking gibberish whereas when she foremost came in the university she was impressed by all the pupils and she had no assurance to discourse literature with the pupils.

Rita changes her speech pattern and starts to speak in Standard English. When Rita negotiations in a changed speech pattern Frank says “ you have n’t got an ugly voice ; at least you did n’t hold. Talk decently. ” This shows that Frank does non like her changed speech pattern and he thinks that Rita is non being herself. She becomes really confident. She has besides become really independent, demoing Frank she does n’t necessitate him any longer. We can see the major alteration when she comes back from summer school. She amazes Frank with her cognition about Blake. When Frank asks her to read the verse form from Blake ‘s book “ Rita looks at the verse form on the page indicated and so looks at Frank declaiming from memory

`O Rose, thou art sick!

The unseeable wormaˆ¦ ”

Frank is defeated because of this alteration in Rita because he could non learn her about Blake but Rita was accomplishing what she desired for.

Rita wanted to derive instruction and she mostly succeeds in this. She learned how to compose a good essay. She additions self-respect and assurance. She loses her hubby. His hubby does n’t desire Rita to be educated. He burns her books so that she does n’t acquire better. She loses her occupation of hairdressing and becomes a waitress. She additions independency. She additions more than she loses because she becomes an educated adult female. Rita has a much better apprehension of people, and this can be seen in her address and besides behavior. At the terminal, Frank asks her to travel to Australia with him but she says “ is n’t that called Jumpin` a sinkin` ship ” this shows us that does non desire to travel with him. She wants to be independent. She declines him stating that he needs clip by himself.

I personally liked this drama and this is because of the manner Russell presented the both characters Frank and Rita. The stoping in the Educating Rita is left unfastened. No 1 knows what happens to either Rita or Frank. We can do a conjecture what happens to Rita and Frank and what waies do they take. I think this is a really good stoping because the viewing audiences have a pick to make up one’s mind what happens following. I guess Frank is still in Australia and has reformed from his imbibing job. He is now a poet in Australia and publishes his poesies every hebdomad in the newspaper whereas Rita has become an English literature instructor. She has besides started composing poesy.

Mango Case Study Essay

MANGO is an internationally celebrated transnational which designs. industries and markets women’s and men’s vesture and accoutrements. Its Headquarters are based in Palau Solita I Plegamans ( Barcelona ) .

At the current clip. the company has over 11. 000 employees out of which 82 % are females. with an mean age of 32.

The Hangar Design Center. where more than 1500 employees work. is the biggest design centre in Europe. with a surface country of 10. 000 M2 and more than 550 professionals dedicated to making manner garments and accoutrements for adult females. The Quality. Purchasing and Design sections are besides located at that place.

The cardinal offices have a entire surface country of 150. 000 M2 and their ain construction. which comprises the sections of Image and Advertising. Property Management. Expansion. Production Control and Stores Distribution. Shop Architecture and Interior Design. in add-on to Logistics. Administration and IT systems.

The company presently has a sum of 2415 shops in 107 states worldwide. Their enlargement continues in metropoliss of the stature of Tokyo. Beijing. Erlangen or Verona.

MANGO considers its keys to their success are: Concept. Team and Logistics System.


The company is really acute on holding a extremely defined construct. The MANGO construct relies on an confederation between a merchandise of a high quality with an original design and a strong trade name image. Dressing the modern. urban adult females for her day-to-day demands is the expression the company has analyzed. adapted and applied in all the states in which MANGO is present: it has been and remains one of the keys to their commercial success and international prestigiousness.

Eriksons Theory Of Development In The Outsiders English Literature Essay

Erik Erikson ‘s theory of psychosocial development is one that is really good known and respected. Erikson was a pupil of Sigmund Freud in Austria. After Freud died, he continued to research, alongside Ms. Anna Freud, his wise man ‘s girl. Initially Erikson though his work was merely an extension of Freud ‘s theory, but it shortly showed to be far more extended, and have many differences. Erikson believed in each phase of life a individual will make a crisis that will either take to good traits or bad traits. Erikson besides felt the Freud had overstated the importance that sexual development dramas in psychosocial development.

Erikson believed that one ‘s personality develops in a series of phases, eight phases to be exact. The first phase is Trust vs. Mistrust, and occurs during babyhood, the first twelvemonth of life. Harmonizing to Erikson babes are torn between swearing and distrusting their parents and health professionals. If their demands are moderately met, they will develop a sense of trust in the predictability of their milieus and environment. If there demands are non met, nevertheless, they may go leery, fearful, and concerned about their security. The 2nd phase is Autonomy vs. Shame and Doubt. This occurs in the 2nd twelvemonth of life, yearling, and is caused by the kid ‘s turning interactions with the universe around them. Children learn to pick up objects and hold points, pull strings them in different ways, and maestro bodily eliminations. If a kid fails at any/all of these undertakings they may see shame and diffidence. The following phase Initiative V. Guilt and is about the kindergartner at 3-5 old ages of age. This phase is about larning to originate undertakings, carry out programs, and take on new undertakings. Parental support in these enterprises can take to a sense of joy and security. If a kid is unable to get the new accomplishment of enterprise they may hold feelings of insufficiency, guilt, even shame. Industry vs. Inferiority take topographic point during the simple school twelvemonth, 6-pueberty. Children are invariably meeting new sets of outlooks, and need to larn the accomplishments to accommodate to the alterations. When a kid fails to run into the new criterions they develop low sense of ego assurance, experience unequal, and even lose religion in their ability to larn. Adolescence is following, from the teens to early 20 ‘s and this phase is Identity vs. Role Confusion. Here childhood is at its terminal and maturity Begins. This brings about new challenges, and the chief 1 is calculating out one ‘s ego individuality. Failure to accomplish a sense of ego can take to confusion and desperation. Intimacy V. Isolation happens during early maturity, 20’s- early 40 ‘s, and is characterized by people larning to go confidant ( emotionally and physically ) with others. This familiarity is normally in the signifier of matrimony, but can besides include long-run spouses every bit good as homosexual twosomes. To organize an confidant relationship both spouses must be swearing of each other, capable of enterprise, and have a strong sense of whom they are separately. Failing here can take to a alone life, isolation, and unhappiness. In the 40 ‘s through 60 ‘s we encounter Generativity vs. Stagnation. The end at this phase of life is to remain capable and productive. Peoples who have accomplished their ends in life are more likely to be happy in this phase of life than those who have struggled. Bing unable to stay productive in this phase of life causes feelings if dissatisfaction and desperation. Late maturity falls into the 8th phase, Integrity V. Despair. This is from the 60 ‘s through decease. Peoples at this point in their lives must come to footings with impending decease. Peoples who have navigated through the phases of development with easiness, or at least wholly, have an easier clip confronting decease.

The film The Outsiders tells the narrative of two groups of immature grownups ; the wetbacks and the socs. There is a acrimonious competition that stems from economic differences. While there are some differences, these two groups are non every bit dissimilar as one would believe ; they do hold some things in common. Cherry Valance and Ponyboy Curtis have a love of poesy, sundowns, and music in common, and these commonalties transcend all differences temporarily. This intimation at understanding makes for a bright topographic point in an otherwise instead drab plot line. The characters in the film are all alone, and while they all fall into the Identity vs. Role Confusion phase, they all act really otherwise and have different personalities. Erikson would state this is due to the crisis ‘s they faced turning up, and the new crisis that they are put in throughout the film.

Ponyboy Curtis is a 14 year-old male child who is populating with his 2 brothers after the decease of his parents. Ponyboy is really intelligent and has equal get bying accomplishments covering with the decease of his parents. Due to socio-economic factors, low-income, he has major separation anxiousness. Due to the fact that he is a twelvemonth younger than his equals he besides appears somewhat immature and unable to take duty for his actions. Harmonizing to Erikson Ponyboy falls right into the Identity vs. Role confusion phase, and this seems to suit absolutely. In the film after Ponyboy and Johnny kills a Soc, Bob, after Bob holds Ponyboy ‘s caput under a fountain until he loses consciousness. Ponyboy and Johnny are non able to confront the effects for the incident and run to happen Dally who instructs them to conceal in an abandoned church. Johnny cuts and bleaches Ponyboy ‘s hair, and Ponyboy has a difficult clip seting to that alteration. During this clip period he is really diffident of himself ; he doubts whether he will be able to populate in town once more, doubts his worth as a individual, and uncertainties that his brothers would still love him. After Johnny and Ponyboy rescue kids from a firing church they are able to return to town as heroes. It is at this point Ponyboy seems to turn up and accept his new function and the actions of his yesteryear. He talks to the tribunals about the dark of the incident and is told it would be put down every bit self-defense as Johnny was supporting his friend ‘s life. At place he has a heart-to-heart with his older brother who was worried ill about the events and loss of his small brother, and they clear the air of all ideas of Darrel non desiring his 2 small brothers populating with him. Upon the decease of Johnny Ponyboy has a realisation about who he is as a individual, and the importance of relationships with friends and household, deciding the crisis in the adolescence phase.

Johnny is besides from a low socio-economic background, and lives with parents that ever fight. He is of mean intelligence but has a difficult clip with reading comprehension, which caused him to be held back a class. At 16 he besides falls into the same phase of Identity vs. Role confusion as Ponyboy. With parents that fight a batch and are alkies it seems like he was unable to larn any sort of get bying accomplishments and relies a batch on what other people tell him to make. His shyness and a societal clumsiness lead to the inquiry of maltreatment and PTSD ; this belief is besides substantiated as he has a cicatrix on his cheque from being beaten by 5 adult work forces. Johnny besides has frequent ideas of self-destruction which could be due to depression, experiencing unloved by his parents, socially unwanted, seeing himself as “ out of topographic point ” even amongst friends, and that he internalizes that actions of others. Throughout the movie he ne’er truly comes to footings with his function in life. He runs to Dallas when he needs to do a determination, likely as he feels uncomfortable doing a determination that will impact others every bit good as himself. One mark of strength in his character is that he decides to turn himself in so the Ponyboy could travel back place to his household and friends. When he is in infirmary with dangerous Burnss and speaking to Ponyboy the first clip he says he regretted a batch of his yesteryear ; that he wished he had ne’er helped deliver the kids, and that he did n’t desire to decease even though he did n’t cognize what to make with his life. Then right before he dies he confesses that salvaging the kids was deserving it ; that their lives where so much more valuable than his. This shows that he eventually accepted his function in life, and that he was get bying with his yesteryear.

Cherry Valance is a Soc and in the same class and school as Ponyboy and Johnny. She forms a sort of bond with Ponyboy even though she said she would still hold to disregard him at school. When her fellow sees her speaking to the wetbacks he gets huffy and makes Cherry go forth with him. This is the cause of the struggle in the film and what causes the Socs to assail Ponyboy and Johnny. Cherry is really cognizant of the category difference, but still feels bad about the events and attempts to do damagess in any manner she could. Cherry ends up descrying on the Socs and feeding the information to the Greasers. She besides is willing to attest against her societal group in defence of Ponyboy and Johnny. She shows marks of already holding achieved a sense of ego ; she knows her topographic point in society, has strong friendly relationships, and besides a strong sense of right vs. incorrect.

Dallas is the “ older ” male child in the film ; he is the function theoretical account for the Greasers. Dallas is 17 but seems to be in the immature maturity phase ; he already is confident about his function and is seeking to work on organizing relationships with people. In the beginning of the film you see him hitting on Cherry and her friend really strongly, and he is so sexually aggressive it borders on colza. This demonstrates the inability to demo compassion for other, and compassion, along with friendship/love, trust, and common involvements, is cardinal to constructing stable relationships. He is really unagitated under emphasis, and that is evidenced by the fact his friends all turn to him for advice. Dallas does demo marks of an anti-social personality ; he is available to his friends and cohorts but to everyone else he is hostile and aggressive. Violence is used to derive laterality over other males, and as I stated above he is really sexually aggressive with adult females. Despite holding Ti with the Greasers, he does n’t organize new relationships and seems really entirely and stray.

Overall this film demonstrates really clearly the Adolescent phase of the theory of development that Erikson proposed. All of the characters struggle to happen a sense of who they are and what they are making. We see both the consequence of happening one ‘s ego every bit good as what can go on if that crisis is ne’er resolved. We besides glimpse the following phase in the signifier of Dallas, and we can larn how of import relationships are in personal development.

?Positive Accounting Essay

Positive economic theory and accounting patterns are nonsubjective and based on fact. Positive accounting focal points on analysing the economic statistics and informations at manus, and deducing decisions based on those figures. For illustration, if corporate growing allows a company to increase stockholder dividends over old dividend payments, positive accounting theory would reason that corporate growing causes a rise in shareholder dividends. Most clerking and informations aggregation involved with accounting relates to positive economic theory.

Normative Accounting

Normative economic theory is subjective and aims to depict what the economic hereafter should be for a company or investor. As a consequence, normative accounting pattern is a signifier of value judgement that can present subjective morality into accounting. For illustration, if a company that increased dividend payments could utilize some of those financess to better corporate sustainability steps, a normative accounting statement would bespeak how much money should be invested in those steps to prolong corporate growing. Normative accounting besides deals with future events instead than past informations, which is the sphere of positive accounting patterns.

When to Use

Positive accounting patterns are best used to explicate past fiscal events, every bit good as the causes of a business’s or individual’s current fiscal standing. Determining why a company is runing at a net loss requires the positive accounting patterns of comparing existent gross to existent disbursals over the class of a twelvemonth. These accounting patterns are typically used to build fiscal paperss, such as balance sheets or hard currency flow statements. Normative accounting patterns are best used when seeking to put future economic policy based on theory. A company’s mission statement or the market schemes included in concern programs can be viewed as normative statements — they reflect the concern ideals that a company wants to carry through.

Working Together

Proper fiscal planning for any concern or single requires the usage of both positive and normative accounting patterns. On a big graduated table, economic experts indicate fiscal policies through normative accounting statements, but these normative statements must be based on the fiscal worlds found through positive accounting patterns. The factual-based patterns of positive accounting provide a foundation for companies to prosecute in normative accounting, and a more idealistic position of how the company can run while still gaining a net income.

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Famous novelist is toni morrison

A celebrated novelist one time said “ if there ‘s a book you truly want to read but it has n’t been written yet, so you must compose it ” and that celebrated novelist is Toni Morrison, who is besides known as Chloe Ardelia Wofford. She was born on February 1930. Not merely she ‘s the first Afro-american to win the Nobel Prize, which is the most celebrated international award that is considered to be a great award for any author ( Haskins 9 ) , she besides happens to be and editor and a professor. Toni is well-known for two celebrated novels “ Beloved ” and “ Song of Solomon ” , in add-on to her singular work is her first and merely short narrative which is “ Recitatif ” . This short narrative was written in 1983, the word “ Recitatif ” , besides can be written as “ recitative ” , is defined harmonizing to Merriam Webster dictionary site as “ a rhythmically free vocal manner that imitates the natural inflexions of address and that is used for duologue and narrative in operas and cantatas ” . Furthermore, the events in the narrative revolves around two misss from different races who meet in an orphanhood during their staying they become best friends after they both departure they encounter each other several times through the narrative. although the narrative seems consecutive frontward without any complications, but I will be speaking about black vs. white and the possible anticipations, Maggie and the interior struggle, and the category differentiation in the narrative.

Before get downing with my three subjects, I ‘ll specify foremost what pragmatism is since the narrative is realistic. Harmonizing to Donna is “ the faithful representation of world ” and a continuance to what she said “ pragmatism is a technique, it besides denotes a peculiar sort of capable affair, particularly the representation of middle-class life ” ( 2010 ) the just definition that can explicate pragmatism.

First, the black vs. white and the possible anticipations in the narrative, Toni tried so difficult non uncover which 1 of the misss is black and which one is white, even though she told us in the beginning of the narrative that they ‘re both from different races “ it was something else to be stuck in a unusual topographic point with a miss from a whole other race ” ( Baym 2638 ) but she did n’t stipulate them. the author used this method to dispute the readers, make them believe and do some anticipations while reading the narrative, the possible ground for her deliberately making this is that she wants us to see them as homo non by their race ( Kusumoto 12 ) . throughout the narrative several intimations were given so the reader can get down his/her premises, like when the two misss ‘ were introduced to each Twyla remembered what her female parent said “ she said that they ne’er washed their custodies and they smelled good story ” ( Baym 2638 ) this makes us believe that Twyla is white and Roberta is non. But when the female parents we ‘re sing them in the orphanhood Roberta ‘s female parent refused to agitate custodies with Twyla ‘s ma “ she did n’t state anything, merely grabbed Roberta ‘s manus with her bible-free manus and stepped out of line, walking rapidly to the rear of it. ” ( Baym 2641 ) by this we can presume that Roberta is white and Twyla is black cognizing at that clip white people had no regard for black people. However this thought changes when Roberta negotiations about jimi Hendrix, who is an African American instrumentalist and a stone star, and Twyla ne’er heard of him ( baym 2638 ) . Still we ca n’t find who is white and who is black their race is still equivocal, we can non truly make up one’s mind at the terminal.

Second, Maggie and the interior struggle, many things in the narrative can bespeak to other things that should non be ignored like objects, colourss, topographic points, and even characters. The most of import thing I ‘ll be concentrating on is the character Maggie. In the narrative, Maggie is an old adult female in the orphanhood with some disablements ; she has been abused and beaten by the large misss. Furthermore, both of the adult females, Twyla and Roberta, remembered Maggie otherwise and both of them thought that she represented their female parents and them. For Twyla, she focused more on Maggie ‘s physical disablement when she said “ the kitchen adult female with legs like parentheses ” ( Baym 2639 ) this can stand for her female parent who dances all dark. On the other manus, Roberta focused on her mental disablement when she said “ and because she could n’t speak good, you know, I thought she was brainsick. She ‘d been brought up in an establishment like my female parent was and like I thought I would be excessively ” ( Baym 2651 ) which besides represented her ill female parent and she mentioned she represented her. Even though Twyla and Roberta remembered Maggie otherwise and both of them said that she resembles both of their female parents, but both of them desired to crush her so bad but they could n’t and wanted the large misss to ache her, this average both of them had issues with their female parents, and had strong feelings toward them.

Third, the category differentiation in the narrative, at that clip category differentiation was really common and it is obvious in the orphanhood when the separate categories were given on the top we have the fathead which is in the upper category, so after that there are the large misss, which are the adolescents mentioned in the narrative “ those misss with lip rouge and eyebraw pencil ” those misss are the most feared 1s in the orphanhood, they bully the childs and Maggie. And beneath the large misss there are the existent orphans “ with beautiful dead parents in the sky ” ( Baym 2639 ) . After that there is Twyla and Roberta the two dumped misss by their female parents, they are normally bullied by the large misss and the other childs did non desire be near them. Then there is Maggie in the last she is bullied by everyone. Those categories were organized from the stronger to the weaker.

In decision, the short narrative “ Recitatif ” was attractively written by Toni Morrison. Even though it is still equivocal to distinguish who is black and who is white, how Maggie resembles the two misss and their female parent, and the obvious category differentiation in the orphanhood, the narrative still entertaining to read, and it is written in a originative manner and good structured.

Work cited:

Baym, Nina “ The Norton Anthology of American Literature, 2637-2651. ” W. w. Norton & A ; company, inc. New York.

Kusumoto, Jitsuko “ Memories of the Daughters from “ Recitatif ” to Beloved ” , 21-24. ” Research Reports of KNCT Vol.35 ( 2008 )

hypertext transfer protocol: //

Haskins, Jim “ Toni Morrison: The Magic of Words, 9 ” the Millbrook Press, Inc. 2001

Campbell, Donna M. “ Realism in American Literature, 1860-1890. ” Literary Motions. Dept. of English, Washington State University. 03/22/2010. hypertext transfer protocol: // 12/30/2010

Crisis In Eurozone Impact On Indian Economy Economics Essay


The survey is about the euro debt crisis and how it impacts the Indian economic system. The crisis of European Union 2010 is the consequence of excess at the disbursal of cautiousness, greed, due diligence and ordinance. The crisis was chiefly felt in the PIIGS, members of the European Union which included Portugal, Ireland, Italy, Greece and Spain. These members of the European Union faced autonomous debt crisis and resulted in big current history shortages. These led to the loss of assurance in the European economic system between these states. These states had to confront a bailout. Like a “ rock dropped in a pool would take to ripplings ” , likewise the Euro crisis would impact other economic system and therefore the Indian economic system every bit good.


Overview of Euro Zone Economy:

TheA economic system of theA European Union generates a GDPA of overA a‚¬11,805.66 billion harmonizing to theA International Monetary Fund. It is the largest economic system in the universe.

Crisis in Euro Zone:

The major ground for the crisis in the Euro Zone was that the states in the European members have breached the imposed regulations on them.

Harmonizing to the economic and pecuniary brotherhood of the European Union, the authorities debt must non transcend 60 % of GDP at the terminal of the financial twelvemonth and the authorities shortage must non transcend 3 % of the GDP. But merely two states in the Euro Zone country have followed these norms set by the European Union. These two states include Luxemburg and Finland. The national debt as a per centum of GDP in the twelvemonth 2009 is shown in the map below as follows:

The above informations besides indicates that Greece shows a high debt of 115.1 % of GDP and a shortage of 13.6 % of GDP. Italy shows a debt higher than Greece as a per centum of GDP and Spain with a shortage of 11.2 % of GDP. The authorities shortage as a per centum of GDP is given below in the figure:

Sovereign debt crisis:

All the major economic systems have felt a planetary meltdown because of the autonomous debt crisis. Debt is an built-in constituent of any economic system but it has to be limited to a certain extent. Financial or public debt is indispensable in order to fund assorted growing and development undertakings viz. to run public public assistance strategies and other infrastructural undertakings. Sovereign debt crisis arises when the debt is collectible in a different currency other than the debitor ‘s currency.

Harmonizing to Standard and Poor ( S & A ; P ) , “ Sovereign debt crisis is a reverberation of debt default ” . The default arises when the authorities issues sovereign bonds and defaults in paying back the sum to the investors. Autonomous bonds are bonds which are issued by authorities of an unstable economic system in a currency of a stable economic system.

The authorities could react in order to extinguish the autonomous debt crisis. They can get at a colony or budgetary allotment with the external creditors ( loaners ) . This involves apportioning parts of the budget to debt service and supplying debt alleviation plans. These alleviation plans are provided by IMF or World Bank and this wholly depends on voluntary debt restructuring.

The PIIGS were identified by concern analysts in the twelvemonth 2008. Ireland has been the recent add-on to the debt crisis. The PIIGS were the most troubled states of the Euro Zone as they were the to a great extent indebted states of Europe which is apparent from their high external debt, high authorities debt degrees and high current history shortage.

Hellenic republic:

Greece has a high budget shortage. The full fiscal market-the Bankss and investors that buy authorities bonds are reportedly disquieted. Greece was incorporated into the European currency brotherhood on January 1st, 2001. Euro became the common currency in 2002.

Greece replaced with a dependable currency lead to increased authorities and concern adoption at lower involvement rates. The existent GDP growing increased to 3.8 % taking to a growing in its economic system. Greece had a immense authorities disbursement on unproductive sectors like edifice houses, which lead to immense shortages even during their roar old ages. This was the ground that they had to get by up with immense debts which they found it really hard,

This overspending by the authorities of Greece was due to their disbursement on all the public assistance benefits provided viz. unemployment insurance, old-age aid, wellness insurance etc provided by the modern authoritiess. This disbursement by the authorities would ensue in decelerating down the economic system or triping a recession. If Greece authorities inability to serve their debts, the loaners accept to impart merely at high rates. Cuting down the public assistance benefits or raising revenue enhancements would weaken the economic system.

Harmonizing to macroeconomist Krugman and Samuelson, the Greece debt crisis was the cause of following Euro as their currency by replacing dram. Greece can non devaluate its currency to hike its economic system. It besides could non retreat from the euro zone, because that would do a immense tally against Grecian bonds and stocks. Greece besides could non raise its involvement rates because it was controlled by the European Central bank. In order cut down authorities disbursement Greece has to take down rewards, monetary values and costs of goods to stay competitory.

In early 2010, it was discovered that the Grecian authorities had invariably misrepresented the state ‘s economic statistics and had even paid Goldman Sachs and other Bankss 100s of 1000000s of dollars for set uping minutess that hid the existent adoption degrees. These deceits resulted in extra disbursement by the Grecian authorities which hid the existent shortage degrees. Greece was identified as the worst instance of describing abnormalities, use of derived functions, and manipulating statistics, among remainder of the European Union states.

Grecian debt was downgraded to Junk position by Standard and Poor ‘s ( S & A ; P ) due to fear of crowned head default. Harmonizing to S & A ; P, investors would lose 30-50 % of their money in instance of crowned head default in Greece.

In order to avoid crowned head default, a bailout bundle was arranged for Greece and the loan understanding was reached between Greece, other Euro zone states and the International Monetary Fund. The entire loan understanding was for a amount of a‚¬10 billion.

The addition in bond outputs was a major ground for the crisis and after Greece bailout the European fiscal stableness installation ( EFSF ) has been put in topographic point.

Portuguese republic

Portugal is confronting tremendous economic challenges. The budget shortage has raised to 9.3 % of GDP in 2009. Additionally, the public debt is about 77 % of GDP, which is near to the European norm, and besides it is expected to raise more than 85 % by 2011.

Although the authorities has reduced civil service occupations and wages, there is small chance of legislative reforms or structural reorganisation. Despite the short-run focal point of the recent reform steps, critics have speculated that more economic system would diminish.

Economists, politicians and observers feel that despite serious jobs, Portugal would non follow Greece into the economic morass.

In 1986, Portugal joined the European Economic Community ( EEC ) , one of the predecessor of European Union. Portugal contributed stable economic growing in the EU, mostly through increasing trade fostered by low labour cost in Portugal and an influx of EU financess for substructure undertakings.

Subsequent entry of Portugal into EMU brought stableness in exchange rate, lower rising prices, and lower involvement rates. The service sector is now Portugal ‘s largest employer, by catching the traditional and prevailing fabrication & A ; agribusiness sectors. EU enlargement in the Eastern Europe has negated Portugal ‘s historic competitory advantage is low labour costs.

The International Monetary Fund encourages Portugal to ship on a plan of comprehensive reforms to raise its longer-term growing potency, correct its instabilities, and to re-start the convergence procedure. Harmonizing to the IMF, the reforms should concentrate on the efficiency of houses, labour productiveness, flexibleness, and encouragement of families to salvage more. In footings of Portugal ‘s public fundss, current policies might non be plenty to accomplish a 3 % shortage mark by 2013, and extra consolidation steps may be needed


Spain is the most indebted state which probably to go, catching Greece, in the following twosome of old ages. Although the state ‘s debt is low at 54.3 per centum of GDP, there is a fright that if the state goes into a recession the state of affairs could be more black than the 1 in Greece because the Spanish economic system is four times as big.

Through the mid 2000s, the Spanish economic system growed in a healthy mode because of a roar in the real-estate sector, which has been destroyed by the fiscal crisis. But, since the explosion of the lodging bubble, the budget shortage raised to 11.2 per centum of the GDP in 2009 and is merely forecasted to increase.

Turning decrease of European Union financess:

Capital parts from the EU, which contributed significantly to economic authorization, Spanish since fall ining the EEC, decreased well in recent 20 old ages due to economic standardisation in relation to other states and effects of EU expansion.

On the one manus, agricultural financess the Common Agricultural Policy of the European Union ( CAP ) is dispersed across many states, on the other, the structural and coherence financess have declined necessarily due to the Spanish economic success and due to the incorporation of less developed states, lowers the mean income per capita ( or GDP per capita ) , so that Spanish parts comparatively less developed, have come to be in the European norm or even above it. Spain bit by bit become a net subscriber of financess for less developed states of the Union.

Employment crisis:

Spain suffered a terrible reverse in October 2008 when it saw its unemployment rate billowing to 1996 degrees ( high unemployment job in 1996 ) . During the period October 2007-October 2008 Spain had its unemployment rate raising 37 % , transcending the rate of past economic crisis like 1993. In peculiar, during the month of October 2008, Spain suffered its worst unemployment rise of all time recorded and, A so far, the state is enduring biggest unemployment crisis in Europe. By July 2009, it had shed 1.2 million occupations in one twelvemonth and was to hold the same figure of idle asA FranceA andA ItalyA combined. Spain ‘s unemployment rate hit 17.4 % at the terminal of March, with the idle holding doubled over the old 12 months, when 2 million people lost their occupations ; with the outsize edifice and lodging related industries lending greatly to the lifting unemployment Numberss.

2008-09 fiscal crisis:

The Spanish authorities functionary forecast the GDP growing for 2008 in April was 2,3 % . This figure was in turn come down by the Spanish Ministry of Economy to 1.6.This figure looked better than most other developed states.

In world, this rate efficaciously represented dead GDP per individual due to Spain ‘s high population growing, itself is the consequence for a high rate of in-migration. Retrospective surveies by independent predictors estimate that the rate had really declined to 0.8 % alternatively far below the strong 3 % plus GDP one-year growing rates during the 1997-2007 decennary.

In July 2009, the IMF worsened the estimations for Spain ‘s 2009 contraction, to – 4 % of GDP for the twelvemonth ( close to the European norm of minus 4.6 % ) , besides, it estimated a farther 0.8 % contraction of the Spanish economic system for 2010, the worst chance advanced economic systems.

The appraisal of the IMF was proven to be slightly excessively pessimistic, as Spain ‘s GDP sank less than the most advanced economic systems in 2009 and by the first one-fourth of 2010 had already emerged from the recession.


Compared to that of the remainder of the indebted Euro-zone states, Italy ‘s economic system is instead stable because it has been enduring since 2006, long before the effusion of the crisis. Italy ‘s fiscal sector has managed to stay comparatively unaffected by the economic crisis. Additionally, unlike that of Spain and Greece, Italy ‘s economic system will likely non acquire worse in the close hereafter. In fact, despite a national debit of more than 100 per centum of GDP, its economic system is on the upswing from its troubled economic system of the past several old ages.

Effectss of economic crisis on Italian economic system:

The economic recession has affected the Italian production system in its entireness, differing extents harmonizing to the economic sector, geographical country and company features. In 2009, the Ministry for Economic Development ( Ministero dello Sviluppo Economico ) conducted more than 150 treatment tabular arraies with the societal spouses with the purpose of happening solutions to sectoral and corporate crises affecting more than 300,000 workers. In many instances, these crises have affected large-sized companies, with detrimental effects on subcontractors and providers.

Negative economic public presentation:

The pronounced downswing in the gross revenues of domestically produced goods and services had important effects on employment: on norm, in 2009, the figure of people in employment declined by 380,000 ( minus1.6 % on an one-year footing ) , while the unemployment rate rose to 7.8 % ( increased by 1 % compared with 2008 ) .

Another index of the troubles of the Italian production system is the figure of hours authorised for the arrangement of workers on the Wages Guarantee Fund ( Cassa Integrazione Guadagni, A CIG ) .

Employment tendencies

As mentioned above, ISTAT ( measuring of advancement in Italian society ) reported that in 2009 the figure of employed individuals decreased by 380,000: this decrease more significantly affected male workers ( 274,000 fewer work forces in employment compared to 2008 ) than female workers ( 105,000 fewer in employment ) .

At territorial degree, the lessening in employment has chiefly concerned about the South of the state ( 194,000 fewer workers ) and northern Italy ( minus161,000 workers ) . At sectoral degree, compared with 2008, employment rate has decreased most in industry ( -4.3 % ) and services ( -3.7 % ) .

Impact on India

i?? India ‘s Exports to the EU part

Economy is merely a market set up where consumers and purchasers transact and so any alteration in economic status of the state affects the consumer behavior. As a consequence of this there will be decrease in demand, which will impact the exports to European states from India and China. This is because European Union ( EU ) is one of the largest trade spouses for both the fastest turning states of the universe. Though, the impact is expected to be minimum and transient. If the crisis remains restricted to Greece, as India ‘s exports to this affected state histories for merely 1 to 2 per centum of our overall planetary exports. Further, the impact will still be fringy even if the crisis spreads to other PIIGS states as India ‘s export to PIIGS is besides limited. However, a generalised and widespread lag in the EU part, as expected by a few, would be a negative development for Indian exports as EU part histories for about a fifth of our entire planetary exports. Europe accounts for 27 % of India ‘s exports ; hence, the depreciation of the EUR will ensue in a downswing for the Indian trade and services sector.

Another issue relates to handiness of trade finance in the EU part. As Bankss in the EU part suffer losingss, they could good cut down on their overall operations including the concern of trade finance and in instance this happens so like all states India excessively would see a lag in exports to the EU part.

i?? Capital influxs to India

With deleveraging expected to go on in the planetary markets, there is likely to be flight of capital from equity markets in emerging economic systems including India. Further, debt related flows could besides be lower as planetary fiscal market participants hesitate to put in non- dollar countries. However, inward capital flows started increasing late because investors find the Indian market an attractive finish.

i?? Liquidity state of affairs

Capital flows into India is expected to decelerate down if non wholly change by reversal in the coming six months, the liquidness state of affairs is besides expected to be a small tight in the yearss and months in front. There will be some sum of capital escape in the short term as the investors in euro zone would retreat the financess for their ain usage invested in India, but some besides believe that on the contrary FII ‘s ( Foreign Institutional Investment ) may put in India as they would happen India as a safe topographic point to park their financess holding high growing potency. There would be short term susceptibleness, due to anxiety amongst investors as the hazard appetency will cut down.

Large ball of Indian borrowers who borrow from abroad at the drifting involvement rate of LIBOR ( London Interbank Offered Rate ) plus some border will happen an addition in the cost of financess because negative sentiment liberating from Greece crisis has increased both the LIBOR and the quoted border over it. This will do the foreign adoption option less moneymaking for borrowers and will thereby supercharge the domestic involvement rates.

i?? Gross:

The cordial reception sector, which was seeking to retrieve from the losingss on history of volcanic ash issue, will besides experience the heat faced by tourers from Western Europe. Not merely is there currency depreciation consequence but consumers ‘ buying power has besides gone for a tailspin. 30 % of foreign tourer reachings in India are from Western Europe. The depreciation of the euro will take to a autumn in tourers from Europe, ensuing in a drastic lessening in India ‘s gross from the touristry industry.

There is the job of capital flight. Foreign institutional investors ( FIIs ) operating in India are taking money out of India. In 2007, these FIIs brought in 20 billion dollars while in the first 10 months of 2008 they have taken out 16 billion dollars. Last twelvemonth 20 billion dollars plus. Now you have minus 16 billion dollars. This is the order of magnitude of alteration in the flow of foreign finance. When the FIIs take money out of India, stock markets tend to crash. The foreign institutional investors dominate the Indian stock market. They run the show. They decide what happens. Every clip they bring in money and purchase stocks, the market will travel up. Every clip they sell stocks and take money out, the stock market will travel down. The FIIs enter the market to do money rapidly, and they besides rapidly take their net incomes out of the state.

FIIs taking money out presently in order to run into their payment committednesss elsewhere leads to a crisp diminution in the stock market indices. Second, when foreign capital goes out in big sums, there is a large demand for dollars. This means that the demand for dollars as against the rupee goes up. As a consequence, the rupee value goes down against the dollar. In last several hebdomads, the US dollar which used to interchange for Rs. 40 has tended to interchange for Rs. 50. This is a big diminution. It means our imports became much more expensive. This in bend leads to a generalised force per unit area on monetary values. There is a inclination to rising prices. Costss of nutrient and other basic trade goods rise whenever the rupee declines in value against the dollar. That is happening now. So, capital flight means stock market diminutions and currency value goes down. For common people, this translates into a decelerating down of investing and therefore of growing and employment. It besides means a rise in monetary values. This is the crisis we are confronting. India will be able to command its fuel subsidy measure, as the crisis has pulled down trade good monetary values, including crude oil merchandises. Despite the clang in rough oil monetary values internationally, rising prices rates even as officially measured remain high at around 9 % . On the land, we know from day-to-day experience that vegetable and other indispensable trade good monetary values are in fact lifting much faster.

The current crisis is coming to India on top of about 20 old ages of neo-liberal policies. In 1991 a crisis in the planetary economic system would hold had much lesser impact on the Indian economic system. Today it has a much greater impact. In 1991, the Indian economic system was much less incorporate with the planetary economic system than it is today. The combined value of India ‘s imports and exports as a proportion of GDP was non even 10 % in 1991. Today, if we add imports and exports, the figure comes to over 40 % as a proportion of GDP. So, our economic system today is much more vulnerable to planetary trade good monetary values than it was 20 old ages ago. More of import, it is much more vulnerable to fiscal flows. So, both in footings of trade goods and in footings of capital, the Indian economic system is today much more vulnerable to alterations in the international economic system. So, the planetary crisis impacts much more strongly on India now than it would hold in the period prior to the execution of neoliberal policies.




i?? The Government is prosecuting farther liberalisation of the fiscal sector to turn to the job of ‘liquidity ‘ . i.e. , of doing more financess available to the fiscal system so as to promote private investing. Foreign entities non registered in our stock markets are allowed to take part via FIIs already registered here which is allowed by India through instruments like participatory notes ( PNs ) . The authorities, in a panicked attempt to pull foreign finance capital, has now diluted the ordinances regulating PNs.

i?? The authorities has besides introduced a Bill to raise the ceiling on FDI keeping in the insurance sector from 26 % to 49 % . The authorities is besides be aftering on some more deregulatory steps opening up the Indian fiscal system to external incursion, all of which will increase the external exposure of our economic system.

i?? The authorities has announced a financial stimulation bundle which falls far short of what is needed to cover with the likely impact of the planetary crisis on the Indian economic system. As the crisis and its impact on the Indian economic system unfold, it is clear that our exports are worsening despite the autumn in the value of the rupee against the US dollar while our import costs are traveling up. There is force per unit area on our balance of payments, particularly with FIIs go outing the state ‘s fiscal markets, exports worsening and imports traveling up.A

i?? One of the cardinal issues in the context of the present economic crisis is the highly slow growing of nutrient grain end product over the last decennary. With planetary nutrient grain markets fastening, and our balance of payments coming under force per unit area due to decelerating down of export growing, imports will non be a feasible option. This has deductions for where authorities outgo to resuscitate the economic system should travel. The State must pass money to actively advance nutrient grains end product. It can make so in two of import ways. One is to guarantee inputs at sensible monetary values, by reconstructing subsidy on fertilisers and other inputs. And the 2nd is to secure the end products at compensable monetary values. So sensible input monetary values, compensable procurance monetary values and significantly extension of procurance to all major harvests and across the state are indispensable to enable rapid recovery of the rural and agricultural economic system. However, to guarantee nutrient security in the state, we need to better nutrient grain production every bit rapidly as we can. For this intent, increased authorities outgo should travel to heighten allotment for agribusiness and rural development including irrigation and substructure. This is the country where outgo as a portion of GDP had fallen steeply between the late eightiess and early 2000s.A

i?? The complete reversal of neoliberal policies ; seting in topographic point careful regulative inadvertence of the fiscal sector ; monolithic financial stimulation through outgos directed at bettering the buying power of ordinary people and the economic viability of peasant agribusiness, little and average industry and little retail trade ; and measures to command monetary values by importing indispensable trade goods from clip to clip. Besides the above, protection must be provided to domestic agribusiness and a monolithic attempt to increase the end product of nutrient grains. None of this will go on unless we put in topographic point an alternate policy government.


The Euro debt crisis has influenced and besides has an impact on other economic systems. The European Union and the IMF have taken stairss to salvage the failing economic systems of states like Ireland and Greece with their bailout bundles. A autonomous debt crisis can impact the adoption conditions of the fiscal sector negatively. Therefore, the European Union has set up a European fiscal stableness fund ( EFSF ) as a alleviation for the member states confronting the debt crisis. The EFSF is a particular intent vehicle which was set up by the member provinces of the European Union in order to continue the fiscal stableness in Europe. The chief intent of this fund is to supply fiscal aid to Euro Zone provinces which they are faced with economic trouble. The European Union must guarantee that they provide stricter regulations and modulate the member provinces on a regular footing in order to convey such crisis under control. This crisis would non merely hold an impact on the member provinces of Europe but on other state ‘s economic systems as good. This crisis would besides be a lesson learnt for all the economic systems and aid guarantee better regulative patterns in topographic point.

Sin And Forgiveness Of Doctor Faustus English Literature Essay

Marlowe ‘s drama “ The tragic narrative of Doctor Faustus ” is an readings of a popular German fable, about a historical individual, a adult male who called himself Dr. Johann Faust. Marlowe wrote a tragic narrative of the warlock, who sold his psyche to the Satan.

Keeping integral all the of import episodes of the fable, as set out in the interlingual rendition of the German popular book about Faust, the poet has given the fable a wholly different meaning.A Faust in the calamity made by Marlow is much like his literary predecessor, but otherwise the dramatist interprets three chief jobs in the image of Faust: the job of taking between “ good ” and “ evil ” , the job of “ honest ” and “ unjust ” cognition, and the job of “ salvaging psyche ” . ( Hattaway 1970 ) .

Marlowe in his drama gives a new position on wickedness, salvation and religion. This

drama offers a new manner of looking at wickedness, disputing traditional values of right and incorrect, while during the drama readers may inquire whether or non Faust ‘s “ wickednesss ” are genuinely incorrect.

The wickedness of Faustus and his calculation for giving the psyche to the Satan.

At the beginning of the drama the writer shows that Faust was disappointed in doctrine and human ideas ; medical specialty besides was non so powerful, because it could non give people immortality ; Law was full of contradictions and was nonsensical.A

Could’st 1000s make work forces to populate everlastingly,

Or being dead, raise them to life once more,

Then this profession were to be esteemed.

Even the divinity was non the reply to the Faustus inquiries, and merely the thaumaturgy of the books attracted him.

These metaphysics of prestidigitators,

And necromantic books are heavenly ;

Lines, circles, letters, characters.

Ay, these are those that Faustus most desires.

A sound prestidigitator is a demi-god.

Here, pall my encephalons to acquire a Deity. Enter Wagner. ( Marlowe, 1.1 )

Good Angel persuades Faust to non read the blasted books full of enticements, which bring upon Faust the wrath of the Lord.

Good Angel: O Faustus, lay that damned book aside,

And gaze non on it least it tempt thy psyche,

And heap God ‘s heavy wrath upon thy caput.

Read, read the Bibles: that is blasphemy.

But Evil Angel, by contrast, incites Faust to make thaumaturgies and to understand all the secrets of nature:

Evil Angel: Go frontward, Faustus, in that celebrated art

Wherein all nature ‘s hoarded wealth is contained.

Be thou on Earth as Jove is in the sky,

Lord and Commander of these elements.

Then comes Mephistopheles, andA Faustus wants Mephistopheles to function him and execute all his desires, but Mephistopheles serves Lucifer merely. SoA Faustus decided to acknowledge the supreme swayer of Lucifer – the Godhead of darkness and Godhead of liquors.

Faustus explains that he chooses black thaumaturgy because of:

aˆ¦ a universe of net income and delectation,

Of power, of honor, of omnipotence,

[ that ] Is promised to the studious craftsman!

All things that move between the quiet poles

Shall be at my bid. Emperors and male monarchs

Are but obeyed in their several states.

Nor can they raise the air current or rip the clouds.

But this rule that exceeds in this

Stretcheth every bit far as doth the head of adult male:

A sound prestidigitator is a demi-god.

Here tyre, my encephalons to engender a divinity. ( Marlowe, 1.1. )

When Faust hesitates, Good Angel tries to carry him to go forth evil thaumaturgy, and return to God, but Evil angel gives him the thought of wealth and celebrity, and Faustus says:

Wealth? Why the seigneury of Embden shall be mine.

When Mephistophilis shall stand by me,

What power can ache me? Faustus, thou art safe.

Cast no more uncertainties ; Mephistophilis. ( Marlowe, 2.1 )

And convey glad newss from great Satan

Stay, Mephistophilis, and state me,

What good will my psyche do thy Lord?

Good Angel advises Faustus to atone and swear in the clemency of the Lord. Evil Angel is confident that God will non take commiseration on such a great evildoer, nevertheless, he is confident that Faust will non atone:

Evil Angel: Ay, but Faustus ne’er shall atone.

Faustus: My bosom is hardened ; I can non atone.

Scarce can I call redemption, religion, or heaven.

To entertain Faust, Mephistopheles leads Devils to give Faust Crown, rich apparels and dance in forepart of him, and so removed.A Faust asks Mephistopheles about hell.A Mephistopheles says:

Hell hath no bounds, nor is circumscribed,

In one ego topographic point, but where we are is hell,

And where snake pit is at that place must we of all time be.

And to be short, when all the universe dissolves,

And every animal shall be purified,

All topographic points shall be snake pit that is non heavenaˆ¦

Well, Faustus, 1000 shalt have a married woman.

He fetches in a adult female Satan.

Subsequently Faustus says:

When I behold the celestial spheres so I repent

And cuss thee wicked Mephistophilis,

Because 1000 hast deprived me of those joysaˆ¦

If heaven was made for adult male, “ twas made for me.

I will abdicate this thaumaturgy and repent.

Good Angel: Faustus, repent yet God will feel for thee.

Evil Angel: Thou art a spirit ; God can non feel for thee.

Faustus: Ay, travel, accursed spirit, to ugly hell.

‘T is thou hast damned hard-pressed Faustus ” psyche.

Is’t non excessively tardily?

Evil Angel: Too tardily.

Good Angel: Never excessively tardily, if Faustus will atone.

Faustus: My bosom is hardened ; I can non atone.

Scarce can I call redemption, religion, or heaven.

Swords, toxicant, hackamores, and envenomed steel,

Are laid before me to despatch my ego,

And long ere this, I should hold done the title,

Had non sweet pleasance conquered deep desperation.

Faustus: O, Christ my Savior, my Savior,

Aid to salvage distressed Faustus ‘ psyche. ( Marlowe, 2.2. )

Lucifer Faustus blames for the fact that Faustus violates the word and thinks about Christ, but Faustus vows that it will non go on again.A Lucifer shows Faust seven lifelessly wickednesss in their true pretense: in forepart of him are Pride, Greed, Wrath, Envy, gluttony, indolence, and profligacy.A Faust wants to see snake pit and back once more andA Lucifer promises to demo him hell, and yet gives Faustus a book to read and larn how to take any expression.

Then after the journey Faust is on the brink of decease and condemned to fire in snake pit everlastingly. He was advised to retrieve God and inquire him for mildness, but Faust realizes that he is no forgiveness, he sold his psyche to the Satan and the twenty-four hours of calculation is near. Faust wants to hold clip to atone and be saved, but the clock work stoppages, boom rumblings, lightning flashes, and the Devils led Faust off.

The thought of Faustus wickedness must demo readers take a lesson from the tragic destiny of Faust, and non to seek the cognition of the protected countries of scientific discipline, which tempt adult male and Teach to make evil.

Well, gentlemen, though Faustus ‘ terminal be such

As every Christian bosom plaints to believe on,

Yet for he was a bookman, one time admired

For fantastic cognition in our German schools,

We ‘ll give his lacerate limbs due entombment.

And all the pupils clothed in mourning black,

Shall wait upon his heavy funeral. ( Marlowe, V )

The image of Faustus as a evildoer

Marlow tells the narrative of Faustus, who sacrificed universe pleasances for the interest of ageless redemption, in order to acquire cognition of scientific disciplines, and offers a new manner of looking at the thought of wickedness.

The drama is written as a sort of calamity, where Dr. Faustus is presented as a Rebel against an oppressive morality: that is the traditional position of wickedness, which would reprobate Faustus for his contract with the Satan in exchange for cognition. Marlowe with great understanding showed letdown of Faustus in modern-day scientific discipline and doctrine, his desire to larn the deepest secrets of nature. He showed desperation of the hero ‘s, who started an unequal battle with the indestructible Godhead authorization, and the figure of Faust was lit with appeal and tragic bravery.

In a dramatic image created by Marlow, Faustus is idealized, more exactly he has those potencies, which were concluded in the fable and were contemplation of important progressive ideological motions of the Renaissance: the emancipation of the human head from the medievalA Church tenet and the homo will and behavior of the mediaeval ascetic morality.A

In the first soliloquy Faustus expresses humanistic construct of the “ never-say-die spirit ” : limitless personal freedom, unbounded possibilities of larning about the existence, adult male ‘s power over the universe. Inspired by this ideal, Faust with a sense of defeat amounts up the accomplishments of modern scientific discipline: it has a little, undistinguished purposes, full of selfish spirit.

When Faustus turns to the Scriptures he sees dogmas that are incompatible with the humanistic ideal, as it belittles the adult male because of original sin.A The ideal of the church is foreign to Faustus as it contradicts with his belief in the value of personal rights.

Characteristically for Faust, a adult male of the XVI century, which aggressively criticizes the Bible and Christian divinity, he at the same clip wants to go like God, draws his ideal in the Bible pigments.

A A A aˆ¦If you people could give immortality

A A A Or the dead to life once more appeal toaˆ¦ ( Marlowe 1.1. )

The hero of the drama is presented to the audience non as a fairy narrative hero, but as an ordinary adult male, whose extraordinary strength is in his head and senses.A The triumph of freedom and individual ‘s endowments over a hostile universe – is a dream of the scientist-humanist, but the dramatist is non so much concentrated on Faust ‘s dream of itself, but on its impact on his full religious life.

Aroused soliloquies of Faustus ( where he “ does non saturated from school scholastic scientific discipline turns to magic in hunt of spiritual wisdom ” , which he “ yearns with all his bosom ” , or speaks to the ancient image of Helen as the ultimate in animal, crude beauty ) show personal experiences of the writer and modern characteristics of that clip.

“ Dr. Faustus ” – is the philosophical and psychological play, and the writer the ranges greatest highs of prowess when portraying the hero in minutes of intense speculation, in minutes of rapture, desperation, doubt.A The image of Faustus lacerations are shown in a antic image of conversation with the Satan, with dramatic glare and significance of internal suppressions of Faustus:

Faustus: Where are you damned?

Mephostophilis: In snake pit.

Faustus: How comes it so that thou art out of Hell?

Mephostophilis: Why, this is Hell, nor am I out of it.

Think’st 1000 that I who saw the face of God

And tasted the ageless joys of Eden,

Am non tormented with 10 thousand snake pits

In being deprived of everlasting cloud nine?

O Faustus, leave these frivolous demands,

Which strikes a panic to my fainting psyche. ( Marlowe, 1.2. )

Faustus wants to hold the chance to reiterate the scriptural miracles, and by subscribing a contract with the Satan, Faustus compares himself to Christ. In the calamity of Faust ‘s journey into the “ diabolic ” the writer shows the phases of psychological development of the hero, and is non a true story.A When the ‘black thaumaturgy ‘ base on ballss into the existent life, romantic poignancy of narrative disappears, giving topographic point to the sarcasm, travesty gaiety, where the lone thaumaturgy is a fast one. Faustus enchantments do non hold any intrinsic charming power, and “ miracles ” that Faust makes, after he sold his psyche to the Satan, are depicted with deliberate sarcasm.

Faustus: What art 1000, Faustus, but a adult male condemn ‘d to decease?

Thy fatal clip draws to a concluding terminal ;

Despair doth drive misgiving into my ideas:

Confound these passions with a quiet slumber:

Tush, Christ did name the stealer upon the Cross ;

Then remainder thee, Faustus, quiet in amour propre.

Regardless of thaumaturgy, enchantments and expletives, even before run intoing with Mephistopheles Faustus was shown as a Rebel, the enemy of God. Curses, the battle of good and evil angels for the psyche of Faust ‘s, contract with Lucifer and run intoing with Mephistopheles – all this is a psychological play of Faust, the gradual realisation of the deepness of the discontinuity of his ideals to the predominating “ Godhead ” authorization, to the consecrated spiritual moral codification, and so with society, where faith was considered a land of province and was profoundly rooted in the heads of the huge bulk of people.

The attitude towards wickedness in the drama

The chief claim of the writer is that seeking cognition is non a wickedness.

The writer shows a new morality, and the thought of wickedness in this morality does non co-occur with attempts to achieve the cognition. ( Davidson, 1996 )

This new morality is that a adult male does and should seek for cognition, but without forfeits and wickedness. Faustus can seek for new cognition over the bounds of traditional values and premises, but should non be seen as a evildoer. But when Faustus reaches the terminal of rational idea and do n’t cognize where to travel following.

It is of import to observe the fact that Faustus struggles with the thought of being a metaphysical being: “ if work forces can non go as God, can non hold the superior cognition that God has, so how can God forgive the wickednesss of such wicked people ” ?

Faustus was warned and asked to squeal:

O, soft Faustus, leave this blasted art,

This thaumaturgy, that will capture thy psyche to hell,

And rather bereave thee of redemption.

Though thou hast now offended like a adult male,

Do non persever in it like a Satan.

Yet, yet, thou hast an good-humored psyche,

If sin by usage grow non into nature ;

Then, Faustus, will repentance come excessively late,

Then thou art banished from the sight of Eden ;

No person can show the strivings of snake pit.

There is a position that a wickedness can merely be redeemed with confession and repentance, and by inquiring God for his clemency, every adult male will happen the forgiveness he needs in order to be redeemed. As Redemption is a rescue from one ‘s wickednesss, clemency and forgiveness can be achieved through Confession and Penance. But Faustus believes his psyche belongs to him, and he sells it, holding sinned against God, that is why he is non irreclaimable as he himself believes. He says:

“ If we say that we have no wickedness

We deceive ourselves, and there is no truth in us.

Why so, probably, we must transgress,

And accordingly dices.

Ay, we must decease an ageless decease. ”

Faustus understands that he can non be saved as he does non believe in God as a God of love ; instead, he views God as a Deity of power. He can non grok the power of God ‘s forgiveness and clemency:

O, if my psyche must endure for my wickedness,

Enforce some terminal to my ceaseless hurting.

Let Faustus populate in snake pit a thousand old ages,

A hundred 1000, and at last be saved.

No terminal is limited to curse soulsaˆ¦

Redemption in the drama follows the Renaissance belief that redemption comes through religion. Faustus retains the God ‘s offer of forgiveness until the really terminal, and every clip he considers repenting, he is stopped either by himself or by the Satan, convinced his wickedness was excessively great. ( Davidson, 1996 )

The lesson of the importance of religion is simple: for the redeem Faustus needs religion, and belief that God will forgive him of his wickedness so he can be saved. But Faustus does non atone, so he does travel to hell, and joins the other lost psyches in Hell.

The decision is that because Faustus has deficiency of religion in God, it keeps him from being redeemed and traveling to Heaven.


“ The Tragedy of Dr. Faustus ” challenges the traditional thought of wickedness and shows that salvation comes merely through religion. The image of Faustus as a evildoer is an illustration of the procedure hunt for the truth, that each individual goes through, as readers see in Faustus ‘ battle to accept God, or to reject God.

Marlow shows the readers two of import thoughts: the first is that traveling over the bounds of an autocratic society and seeking for cognition is non iniquitous ; and the 2nd is a position that salvation is attained through religion, so it is of import ne’er to lose religion in God.

Participatory Budgeting in India

Participatory Budgeting in India


A survey on the effectivity of one of the tools of democratic battle and governance- Participatory Budgeting, in India. The chief aim of the research is to measure the extent to which Participatory Budgeting is furthering the democratic allotment of public resources and citizen engagement in the planning and budgeting process. The research besides aims at placing the challenges faced in its execution. The findings will be contextualized against the background of a fast turning urban Centre ( metropolis of Pune ) .


Democratic battle is the extent to which a citizen has a say in installations he/she is entitled to in public life. Such entitlements include conveyance, public houses, quality substructure, instruction, leisure and civilization, wellness and societal public assistance, revenue enhancement and other steps of economic development that make the citizen responsible for his position in public life. Since citizens themselves are users of these services, it is a reasonable statement to province that they ought to make up one’s mind the type, quality and proportion of services they receive from the authorities. Such a procedure non merely enhances transparence and builds public religion in the authorities, but it besides consequences in efficient disbursement as a democratic procedure is ‘need’ based and allotments are made consequently instead than a circle of authorities functionaries, to the full disconnected from inexorable world, make up one’s minding what is to be provided on the footing of ‘assumed’ demands.

One such tool of democratic battle is participatory budgeting. This is an ideal illustration of the “bottom-up” procedure, a phrase that goes manus in manus with constructs of equality and decentralization.

The participatory budgeting procedure was foremost developed in the metropolis of Porto Alegre, Brazil, in 1989.By 2005, Participatory Budgeting had spread to over 300 municipalities in more than 40 states around the Earth including India, Italy, Dominican Republic, South Africa, Ecuador, Indonesia, Mexico, Serbia, China, Spain, and Uruguay.


“The Budget needs to be seen as a fiscal mirror of the society’s economic and societal picks. Budgeting determinations should turn to jobs such as the divergency between people’s penchants and the existent impact of the Government programmes and policies.” ( Jena, 2013 ) An of import tool implemented by the democracies across the universe including India to turn to these jobs is Participatory Budgeting.

In a genuinely advanced manner that was ab initio an experiment in direct democracy, economic reform and transparence the occupants of their constituencies are made to be a portion of the several one-year budgeting procedure. Citizens give suggestions, write feedback signifiers giving their valuable input which is a left for a commission to O.K. or disapprove. This democratic attack or determination devising on the allotment parts of a municipal or public budget is called “Participatory Budgeting” ( PB ) . It helps citizens to discourse, place and prioritise public disbursement undertakings which give them power to be a portion of existent determinations and larn how many is spent.

The doctrine behind the same is to get the better of terrible inequalities in life criterions and unjust distribution of public disbursement.

Due to the top to bottom attack followed earlier in the planning procedure, the effectivity of certain programs was negligible and many parts got neglected in this procedure.

This participatory signifier of planning alterations the planning mechanism from top to bottom To bottom to exceed.

Surveies have suggested that this attack consequences in more just public disbursement, better quality of life, increased satisfaction of demands, more than before authorities transparence and answerability, democratic and citizenship acquisition and increased degrees of public engagement.

The public engagement is emphasised particularly due to the marginalized and stray occupants besides being involved in the procedure of the hope for a better life


The stuff and methods to be used would be rating of and comparing between the different Participatory Budgeting plans in different provinces of India by sifting through a broad organic structure of literature available in the signifier of research documents, instance surveies, newspaper articles, diaries etc.


Cities grow, so make the demands. There is a sense of inevitableness about this in everyone’s heads. The 73rdand 74Thursdayamendment helps the Indian Planning System work towards these demands more expeditiously. With the systematicdecentralizationin topographic point it helps the people at the top to cognize about the root degree jobs. Due to these amendments it has changed from top to bottom degree which had the said dribbling down consequence, to bottom to exceed which is guaranting better results. These set organisations ( Panchayats, Municipal governments and councils ) established in the said amendment aid in placing jobs at the underside degree which helps the planning governments to take better determinations. This in fact gave the range for Participatory Budgeting. This “Participatory Planning” besides ensures satisfaction for the citizens as their sentiments and the jobs on assorted issues are taken and told to the higher governments as feedback so that they can look into those affairs. It indirectly holds the key for better economic development by the agencies of beef uping the roots. With fit attack, societal building can be identified in a much better manner and with the aid of placing certain demographics ; these local programs help undertake inter and intra-sectoral jobs.

There are ever certain hinderances with the add-on of people or the add-on of channels in an organisational construction, some of them being communicating spreads and corruptness ; but on the much brighter side what makes up for it in general is the “happier citizen” .


The seeds of participatory budgeting, as a formalistic procedure, were sown and reaped foremost in 1989, Porto Alegre, a southern Brazilian metropolis. The procedure at that place has been a game modifier and the impact it has had on the populace is matchless. It is the benchmark that all states universe over strive to fit in footings of their public presentation in participatory budgeting. Hence, no survey of participatory budgeting is complete without a comparing with the criterions set by this Brazilian metropolis

Kerala is the lone Indian province that has successfully replicated the participatory budgeting theoretical account of Porto Alegre. Pune surely has lessons to larn from both the topographic points.

In this subdivision, we have tried to pull a comparative analysis of the three parts in regard of the procedure.

  1. Porto Alegre

The procedure begins every bit early as in March when citizens run into merely before the first unit of ammunition of formal assemblies to garner demands of single citizens. This is besides the clip when citizens their choice regional delegates. At this phase, the municipality is non involved in the community treatments. The first unit of ammunition of meetings between the citizens and the executive follows in April is in the presence of the city manager, to reexamine investing programs of the old twelvemonth, discuss proposals for the following twelvemonth, and to elect people to the budget deputation. Between March to June i.e. between the first and the 2nd unit of ammunitions informal preparative meetings are held to discourse demands for investing in sectors as presented by the assorted community associations. These demands are ranked on an go uping graduated table of 1 to 5 by the participants. These are so aggregated by the executive. Points are earned on the footing of the undermentioned standards: I ) need – measured by how much of entree a part has had to a peculiar service, and two ) population size. “Maximum points that can therefore be attained is 15: 5 points if a part has had less than 20 % entree to a service, 5 if it has more than 120,000 dwellers, and 5 if people rank it exceed on their list of demands. The 2nd unit of ammunition takes topographic point in July when two council members are elected from all 16 parts ( 32 delegates ) , from all the 5 subjects ( 10 delegates ) , in add-on to a member each from the civil servants’ trade-union and an umbrella organisation of neighbourhood communities ( 2 delegates ) to represent a 44-member Council of Participatory Budgeting ( COP ) , which is the chief participatory establishment. These council members so familiarize themselves with the province of municipal funding, argument standards for resource allotment, elaborate their constituents’ demands, and revise the budget proposal prepared by the organic structure that looks into the proficient considerations and the mayor’s cabinet.” ( Flannigan, 2004 ) For these plants, the COP assembles for two-hourly meetings one time a hebdomad until September 30 when a concluding budget proposal is submitted to the legislative assembly. Between September and December, the COP works on a elaborate investing program which lays down all specific public plants and the corresponding sums to be allocated to each part.

  1. Kerala

The forte of the procedure in Kerala is that participatory budgeting goes manus in manus with decentralization as is required to be observed under the 73rdand 74ThursdayAmendment Acts of the fundamental law on local self-governance. The procedure foremost began in 1996.

The procedure is observed in 5 phases:

Phase 1: Ward Sabha- Voters in a ward together constitute the Gram Sabha. The Sabha, at this phase, identifies the possible countries of investing.

Phase 2: Development Seminar-The countries identified for investing are capable to proficient considerations after which is published a study calledThe Panchayat/Municipality Development Report. A bill of exchange of the study forms the topic of treatment of the seminar. The seminar is attended by elective representatives, functionaries, experts, and representatives nominated by Grama Sabha. The Seminar will discourse and propose the schemes and place undertakings to be taken up for the development of the part.

Phase 3: Preparation of Projects- Working Groups are constituted for of import sectors and by and large there are 10 groups: Watershed Management, Animal Husbandry, Local Economic Development, Poverty Reduction, Development of Scheduled Caste, Development of Women and Children, Health, Water Supply and Sanitation, Education, Infrastructure and Social Security.

Phase 4: Preparation of Plan Document- The local organic structures finalize their program at this phase.

Phase 5: Plan Approval by District Planning Committee- The DPC will analyze each undertaking of a local organic structure with the aid of a Technical Advisory Committee ( TAC ) . The TAC consists of official and nonofficial experts, analyzing the proficient viability of the undertakings and urge for the blessing of DPC. If there exist any proficient imperfectnesss in a undertaking, the local organic structure has to do alterations but the TAC neither culls nor changes the precedence of the undertaking.

Phase 6: Execution, monitoring and evaluation-Each undertaking will be implemented under the supervising and control of local organic structures. There will be a Monitoring Committee for coincident monitoring of the advancement of the work. Grama Sabha has the right to analyze the advancement and other inside informations of a undertaking.

  1. Pune

In Pune, the procedure starts 4-5 months before the presentation of the bill of exchange budget.

The signifiers are out in mid-August and are available till September by which these have to be filled and submitted by citizens to the nearest ward office. The exercising is advertised through Maratha dailies and the web site of the Pune Municipal Corporation ( PMC ) . The signifiers are available in the ward offices, Citizen Multi Utility Kiosks and the PMC web site. Any citizen who resides in the several ward country can take part in this budgetary procedure. These suggestion signifiers are so subjected to the scrutiny of the Prabhag Samiti members ( consisting each brace of Corporators of a Prabhag-a bomber unit of a ward ) . The suggestions approved by the Prabhag Samiti go to the Municipal Commissioner who decides the concluding set of suggestions for which financess are to be allocated in the budget.

Other points of difference are listed in the tabular array below:


Porto Alegre



1.Share of Budget

21 %

30 % of local grants in assistance

Not more than 1 %

2. Scope of Participatory Budgeting


2. Education

3. Leisure and Culture

4.Health and societal public assistance

5. Economic

development and revenue enhancement,

6. City organisation and Urban development

1. Watershed Management

2. Local Economic Development

3. Poverty Reduction including Housing

4. Development of Scheduled Castes

5. Development of Women and Children

6. Health

7. Water Supply and Sanitation including Solid Waste

8. Education, Culture, Sports and Youth

9. Infrastructure

10.Social Security including the attention of the aged and disabled


12.Governance Plan

1.Urban Infrastructure

( roads, rhythm tracks/pavements, public parking, public lavatories, slum development, street visible radiations, traffic visible radiations, Parkss, refuse direction, electricity, H2O, garden etc )

3. Engagement

1/3rdof the population ( 50, 000 about )


3500 ( till 2013 )


The procedure in Pune is comparatively ‘closed’ andless participatoryin comparing to Porto Alegre and Kerala. The ‘participation’ stage of budgeting terminals one time citizens have handed over their suggestion signifiers to the PMC. After that, it is the discretion of the functionaries and the Prabhag Samiti to reject or O.K. proposals. Thelikeliness of rejection of suggestions is excessively highgiven howno sensitization programmesare obligatorily organised by the PMC prior to the oncoming of the procedure. Besides, there is no burden on the Prabhag Samiti to supply grounds for rejection.

However, in Kerala, a preparation programme for members of Grama Sabha/Ward Sabha is initiated by Kerala Institute of Local Administration ( KILA ) so that the likeliness of citizens doing unreasonable demands is less. Besides there is no inquiry of rejecting citizen suggestions in the province. If demands are found unviable by experts, they see to it that the demand is toned down so as to be executable. There is a strong feed-back mechanism excessively in Kerala with the local organic structures printing the position of the procedure at every phase. In Porto Alegre, citizen briefing Sessionss are held in the early phases of the procedure to turn to the issue of rejections.


Flannigan, I. B. ( 2004 ) .Reappraisal: The Porto Alegre Alternative: Direct Democracy in Action.

Jena, P. R. ( 2013, March 29th ) . Outcome Budgets, the existent thing.Business Line.

Coping As A Stepmom English Literature Essay

As far back as I can retrieve, the one thing I ever wanted to be was a ma. I had dreams of being the perfect female parent, giving and demoing love and fondness to my kids and holding them give that same sort of unconditioned love back to me. Unfortunately, that was non meant to be. It seems God had something else in shop for me, something that I was n’t wholly prepared for, and that was the function of a stepmom. Helping to raise one kid that is non biologically yours is hard, conceive of holding three of them. Coping as a stepmom is genuinely a work in advancement, filled with wagess and challenges, and many of those challenges have to be dealt with through apprehension, via media, and love.

My escapade in going a stepmom began on October 29, 2005 – the twenty-four hours I married my hubby and his three kids. He had been divorced from his ex-wife for four old ages when we eventually tied the knot. When I met him in 2004, he had been a unmarried man and individual pa for three old ages. Of class, he and his childs got use to being together and making things together, so it was n’t easy seeking to suit in – particularly for and with the childs. They rapidly allow me cognize they had a female parent and were n’t excessively interested in holding another one.

One challenge we had to turn to early on was what were the childs traveling to name me. When we foremost met, they called me Miss Sheryl, and that was O.K. because it was respectful. They did n’t cognize that their male parent and I were truly serious about each other, and had been speaking about the possibility of matrimony by the clip I was introduced to them ( which was 4 months after my hubby and I started dating ) . Right before we got engaged, I remember stating to the childs that they should drop the “ Miss ” , and merely name me by my first name. That was simple, and did n’t sound so informal and unattached. The youngest at the clip, 9-year-old Trey, and oldest, 13-year-old Haley, thought it was a good thought and made the alteration right off with no job. On the other manus, it was n’t easy for the in-between kid, 10-year-old Lunden. She had the hardest clip because she was non ready to allow travel of the thought that possibly her parents would acquire back together. Once the battle was announced and marrying programs were underway, she came about. Out of the blue, she merely started naming me by my first name.

When the conversation came up every bit to what they should name me after their pa and I were married, I told them to go on naming me Sheryl. I did n’t desire to set any force per unit area on them to name me something that would do them uncomfortable. Rearing experts say “ in their desire to show a closely knit household image, measure parents and parents frequently push for relationship footings as ma and pa, or mamma and dad, or directly female parent and male parent ” . They go on to state that for the childs, these footings could typify the replacing or loss of the biological parent, and alternatively of uniting the household, it can set up a barrier ( Visher, & A ; Visher, 1982 ) . This is surely non what I wanted to go on. By leting them to go on to name me by my first name, which is what they were usage to and most comfy with, the passage from pa ‘s girlfriend to married woman and stepmom was seamless and painless in that regard. I know I ‘m non their female parent, and the last thing I wanted was to add to their stress degree of experiencing disloyal to their ma because I was in their lives now.

Talking of their female parent, the relationship between the two of us started out a small rickety. I must state this was one challenge that I did n’t believe would of all time come to a peaceable solution, but it has to some grade. The first clip Sharon and I met was awkward. My hubby and I were still in the dating manner when we went to pick the childs up for a 4th of July field day in the park. I tried to be every bit affable as possible, but she was n’t holding it. She gave me a speedy and cold hullo, and so went about her concern of speaking to my hubby and her childs.

I remember stating one of my girlfriends that I had ne’er been treated so impolitely, and that if she was traveling to handle me that manner, I could easy reciprocate. But my girlfriend explained what Sharon was likely experiencing because she herself felt the same manner when she met her ex ‘s new girlfriend. Consequently, she told me to ever maintain the best involvement of the kids at the head. Audrey Seaton-Bacon, Ph.D. , a accredited psychologist in Whittier, California says “ holding your small 1s see birth parents and measure parent working as a squad is valuable and helpful ” ( Hunter, 2006 ) . I have found that to be so true. When my measure childs foremost heard that their parents and I really sat down together to speak about them, I sensed they were shocked and relieved. My hubby, his ex-wife and I try to maintain the lines of communicating unfastened at all times. Author Anne Burt says this is the most of import thing. She besides says no affair how much dislike there may be between a biological parent and a measure parent “ remain respectful and ne’er show any ill will or bitterness in forepart of your kid – it ‘s of import for female parent and stepmother to be grown-ups ” ( Burt, 2007 ) .

Now we all attend school dramas, concerts, and other events as a household – every bit much as we can be as a household without uncomfortableness. “ A kid ‘s public events should be an chance for the whole household to bond ” ( Burt, 2007 ) . I think one time my measure childs ‘ ma realized that I was n’t a menace to her and she could ne’er be replaced, she became less covetous of me and now she ‘s even friendlier. That has been a positive for all of us. The childs love and esteem her as their ma, and they give me the same as their measure ma. Seaton-Bacon says “ it ‘s really good for childs to develop a healthy fond regard to a measure parent ” ( Hunter, 2006 ) .

We all agreed early on that when it came to the subject issue, pa and ma would manage that. Like many stepmoms, I did n’t desire that duty for fright of bitterness. On the other manus, I felt that my hubby was excessively laid back and needed to better in that section. It was difficult for me to sit back and say nil but I learned that was best. In one of her 10 parenting tips for stepmoms, Rachelle Katz says “ when stepchildren misbehave, first concentrate your attending on your spouse instead than the kids. Let him cognize, gently and calmly, that you feel he needs to asseverate his authorization in order to assist his kids turn and develop, and experience secure and protected. If he is n’t capable of being a strong parent, so your life, his life, and your stepchildren ‘s lives will endure ” ( Katz, 2010 ) . This was and still is a touchy topic. No affair how gently I try to convey this to my hubby ‘s attending, he does n’t look to take it excessively good. I ‘m non giving up though, or endorsing down from sharing my feelings or ideas on the affair.

While seeking to develop a liqueur, working relationship with my measure childs ‘ ma, I was besides seeking to happen my topographic point in the household construction. I know my hubby loves me, but I had some difficult truths to cover with – the fact that he was married before, and that he had childs. I, excessively, was married before but did non hold any childs. Therefore, my hubby does n’t hold to cover with my ex the manner I have to cover with his. Extended household state of affairss come up rather often, with his household or her household, and it takes a batch of forbearance and apprehension to manage those state of affairss. What seems to assist me the most is retrieving that I am his married woman now, and my chief function is to be my hubby ‘s married woman and aid mate. By making this, I feel I have found my topographic point.

We are turning together and adhering as a household each and every twenty-four hours, and this procedure will go on for old ages to come. One thing that we had to make was come up with house regulations that involved doing alterations and puting boundaries. At first, I ever felt like an foreigner, and I think that had a batch to make with non cognizing what I was allowed to make or state in my ain place. Once we established the house regulations that each of us had to stay by, I was eventually able to talk up, based on whether or non the regulations were being followed. In her book, “ How to manage your hubby ‘s childs ” , stepmom and writer Jacquelyn Fletcher says this is when she eventually got some alleviation. One house regulation for her household ( and mine every bit good ) was to maintain common countries clean. Fletcher says she eventually got to state, “ Hey cats, remember we have to take our playthings up the stairs. House regulations ” ( McKinnell, 2007 ) . Just like her, I was eventually able to state what I needed to state without keeping back and keeping it in. The new regulations besides helped my hubby and I grow nearer because we found common land and a manner to “ parent ” together. “ When everyone in the household knows the house regulations, you and your spouse can endorse each other up when a evildoing occurs. Working together as a squad is of import for you as a twosome and Teachs kids that they ca n’t split and suppress ” ( Katz, 2010 ) .

As my stepchildren and I have grown closer, we ‘ve developed quality relationships. The three of them have really distinguishable personalities and have to be treated consequently. Rearing experts say basking clip with your stepchildren is a necessity. Now that they ‘re all adolescents, I ‘ve found ways to hang out with each of them that they enjoy. The oldest and I go shopping together. Our gustatory sensations in apparels are really different due to our ages, but she seems to value my sentiment, and asks my advice. My in-between stepdaughter and I spend a batch of clip merely speaking. She is the 1 that needs tonss of attending, and ever seems to hold something on her head that she needs to discourse, so I provide that listening ear. My 14-year-old stepson is easy. He ‘s really originative and surpassing. Right now he is into composing vocal and blame wordss. He asks for my sentiments and suggestions all the clip. The fact that I show an involvement in what he ‘s composing and why he ‘s composing it has made all the difference in our relationship. He is ever thanking me for my support. The book, “ The Happy Stepmother ” , states that in order to hold a good relationship with your stepchildren, you ‘ve got to pass some quality clip with them. “ Since quality relationships are built from one-on-one interactions, pass private clip with each of your stepchildren. Find common involvements and activities, such as a avocation or a athletics, to make with them ” ( Katz, 2010 ) . It has taken some clip, but we understand and accept each other without any added force per unit area or emphasis. We feel what we feel, and that ‘s okay. “ Love is an emotion that ca n’t be forced. If you love your stepchildren, that ‘s fantastic. If you do n’t, that ‘s besides acceptable, every bit long as you provide kindness, compassion and regard to them. No more and no less should be expected of you ” ( Katz, 2010 ) . I found that to be so true. Once I realized that I did n’t hold to love my stepchildren right off, and that they did n’t hold to love me back right off, it was easier for us to bond. All we had to make was be nice, sort, and respectful to each other.

Finding the right household blend in a stepfamily state of affairs can be hard at best. There are so many obstructions to get the better of and feelings to see, but these household units can go strong. It has taken a batch of difficult work but we have built a foundation based on trust and good communicating accomplishments – hearing and speaking to each other. We know that we ‘re different from “ normal ” or “ first ” households – both structurally and emotionally. An article written in 1997 for The Coalition for Collaborative Divorce states that stepfamilies would be the most common type of household in the state by the twelvemonth 2010 – this twelvemonth! So possibly we ‘re normal after all. And we ‘ve already taken on some of the helpful actions listed in the article to cover with common stepfamily challenges and develop a happy and successful stepfamily life. As I mentioned earlier, we find clip to sit, talk and listen to each other about what we we ‘re experiencing. Covering with and acknowledging emotions are of import factors when constructing a strong household unit. “ It is wise to presume that people have good grounds for their emotions and reactions, even if the grounds are non obvious. This attitude helps construct regard and trust ” ( Aronsohn, 1997 ) .

We ‘ve come up with a new household tradition. Once a month, we get together for the Williams Family Gathering. This includes my hubby ‘s immediate household ( his ma, siblings, and their households ) . This is where we all come together, conveying a dish or two, and revolve feeding at a different place. This is choice household clip that we value and look frontward to making. “ This simple everyday allows a sense of something stable, something to number on, something ‘this household ‘ does ” ( Aronsohn, 1997 ) . My measure childs are ever inquiring when and where this month. They perfectly love it, and it ‘s something that was n’t done before I came along so it truly is “ our ” new tradition. This extended household togetherness is good for our immediate stepfamily. The love, attention and concern that ‘s shown when I interact with my in-laws has besides helped me to construct solid relationships with my measure childs.

In decision, get bying as a stepmom is non the same as the function of ma. It can sometimes look like you ‘re on a roller coaster drive that ne’er stops. The defeats, misinterpretations, and injury that are portion of that drive are excessively much to bear at times. Stepmoms have to step lightly and carefully. Every state of affairs is different and needs to be handled in its ain manner. We ‘ve had our ups and downs over the last 5 old ages, and I ‘m certain we ‘ll hold many more. But now we have a stronger foundation from which to work from. We merely necessitate to accept and turn to each issue as it comes up. This work in advancement will go on to remind us of the valuable lessons we ‘ve learned – like understanding and compromising – to develop stronger, more loving, and successful relationships between us. By working together and appreciating each other ‘s function in our blended stepfamily, we ‘ve reached some common land that seems to be working for all of us.

The challenges have non come without wagess. And one of those wagess was immense for me. During a jubilation for my fiftieth birthday this past March, my three stepchildren stood together at the dais and told our household and friends that they consider me more of a ma than a stepmom. That was music to my ears. They admitted I ‘ve made a difference in their lives and the life of their male parent. When they said how much they loved and appreciated me, it brought cryings to my eyes. For the first clip, I felt like I ‘m making something right as a stepmom.


I'm Petra

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