Nodody Won Essay

Abstraction
When the Arthur Andersen LLP/Enron dirt surfaced in 2001. there was much confusion as to whom committed what offense and how many employees were really involved. After the facts and condemnable charges were concluding. the sequence of events makes sense ; the brotherhood of two companies. the rise of the take parting executives. and eventually the terminal of the money drive. The leaders of both companies used dishonesty to do an abundant sum of money and addition power position ( Thomas 2002 ) . Christopher Bergland said it best when he wrote. “Karma is a throwing stick and the long-run shame and anxiousness of rip offing will finally contradict the short-run additions of triumph. ” . This decidedly held true for the employees who were disgraced at the decision of the legal proceedings ; they may hold had more money than they needed. but they finally lost in the terminal.

The Beginning
The connection between Arthur Andersen LLP and Enron was a matrimony excessively good to be true. The relationship started in 1986 when Enron hired the accounting house Arthur Andersen LLP to execute “creative accounting. ” leting the energy company to look more powerful on paper than it truly was. Enron Corporation started puting monolithic sums of money in “Special Purpose Entities” to bring forth immense sums of grosss. Particular Purpose Entities are originative ways for companies to more expeditiously raise debt. but they besides make it tougher for investors to decode a company’s existent debt exposure. Company Backgrounds

Both companies were built on finding. dedication. and difficult work. The laminitis. Arthur Andersen. who was orphaned at the age of 16. worked as a mailboy during the twenty-four hours and attended school at dark. By the age of 23. he became the youngest Certified public accountant in Illinois. A mere five old ages subsequently he started his ain accounting house. The same head set Andersen possessed in his adolescent old ages carried over to his grownup life.

He realized the key to his concern succeeding was by “…promoting unity and sound audits…” . Enron was founded on the same features plus a few others: pride. haughtiness. and greed. Kenneth Lay wanted to hold the largest money doing company he could and succeeded by forcing for deregulating of the power industry. In 1985. Mr. Lay took advantage of the government’s determination to allow gas monetary values fluctuate/float with the currents of the market. By making this. Enron grew from 10 billion to 65 billion in assets in 16 old ages. Lay had visions of what he wanted Enron to be and so sold them to his staff. Hiting it Large

In order for a new thought to be successful. a leader with confidence and assurance must be present. Mr. Lay found these qualities present in Jeffrey Skilling and hired him as a Chief Executive Officer. Skilling believed in the endurance of the fittest. He had an sentiment that money is the lone inducement that motivated people and he created a competitory. ruthless. and fierce workplace. Skilling implemented the Performance Review Committee. Performance Review Committee. or PRC. is an employee rating system which graded workers from 1-5. 5 being the lowest and ensuing in dismissal from the company. The Enron staff knew it better as “rank and yank” . One employee who was a bargainer was quoted stating. “…if I can acquire a $ 5 million fillip for stepping on someone’s toes. I’ll stomp on their throat…” .

Both companies worked hard to construct a repute. Andersen expected all of his staff to be honorable and ever to set the client’s needs in forepart of their ain docket unless it involved falsifying certifications. Early on in the company’s beginning. Mr. Andersen was faced with a moral determination refering fabricating records for a client. Andersen. with his unity integral. refused.

The house continued with the “think directly and speak straight” tradition after the decease of Andersen and through the passage of promoted employee Leonard Spacek. With Spacek at the controls. the company continued to boom while staying committed to the regimented direction manner of the laminitis. Offices were opened throughout the United States. so finally around the universe. At this point. the house started confer withing every bit good as offering audits. Under Spacek’s supervising. Arthur Andersen LLP became one the most outstanding accounting houses labeling them as one of the “Big Five” . The company grew so vastly that Spacek had to turn down clients.

Enron had the same growing jet as Andersen. In a few short old ages. the company became the 7th largest corporation. It was touted as being led by the best and the brightest. Ken Lay. Cliff Baxter. Jeff Skilling. and Lou Pi were work forces who thought they were unstoppable. These pitiless leaders took immense hazards in order to do money. They were neglecting miserably. but Ken Lay reported otherwise to the populace. He said in intelligence conferences that Enron was booming and thriving because of his staff’s willingness to take hazards. With the growth of both houses. it was apparent that structural alterations were needed. Structural Changes at Andersen

The client burden for Andersen was going excessively much for merely one company. It was apparent that equilibrating the committedness to scrutinizing while adding a confer withing pattern was so much of a battle that Arthur Andersen LLP decided to make another division within the company. In the mid-1980’s. the bulk of Andersen’s grosss were being generated from the confer withing fees. but were still being dispersed with the accounting side. This caused a strain between the two parties. The advisers felt since they were lending more to the company their wages should be increased.

The lone solution was to alter the current organisational construction and make two divisions. Andersen Consulting along with Arthur Andersen LLP became fractional monetary units of Andersen Worldwide Organization. Spacek. like his predecessor. was a leader who liked to be seen by his staff. was good informed of concern traffics. and continued to promote honestness. Bing decentralized allowed the decision-making to be made by the divisions. subdivisions. sections. or subordinates. Both parts of Andersen Worldwide Organization could run nevertheless they chose and make their ain determinations. including which clients they took on. Ultimately. it was the accounting division that took on Enron. How the Two Companies Fit

Enron functionaries knew that Andersen had made some questionable determinations in the past and were coming away of a quiet case that involved some “creative accounting” . Andersen fit the profile that Skilling knew he needed in order for his visions to work. With Andersen being divided up into two divisions. Spacek could non command what was go oning in both sides of the house. Lay. on the other manus. cognize precisely what his executives were making. Enron
hired the accounting house to do the energy company to look more powerful on paper than it truly was. Enron Corporation started puting monolithic sums of money in “Special Purpose Entities” to bring forth immense sums of grosss.

Particular Purpose Entities are originative ways for companies to more expeditiously raise debt. but they besides make it tougher for investors to decode a company’s existent debt exposure. They were besides utilizing mark-to-market to book possible hereafter net incomes irrespective of existent money. Net incomes were whatever Enron said they were based on conjectural hereafter value or HFV. Mike Muckleroy. a former Enron executive. warned Mr. Lay of the hazards associated with wagering on the oil market. but Lay did non alter any policies or processs. In fact. he approved of the current behaviours. Lay sent out a memo to his executives stating to maintain up the good work. Equally long as money was being made. he chose to disregard the dishonesty. The money drive came to a sudden arrest in 2001.

For about 16 old ages. Arthur Andersen LLP would scrutinize Enron’s fiscal statements. Not merely would the accounting house provide external audit services. but besides handle the internal auditing procedures every bit good. As Enron’s grosss dramatically increased twelvemonth after twelvemonth. the paperwork and audit information had to fit consequently. Enron needed Arthur Andersen’s employees to do the ocular analogue happen and compensated them 1000000s of dollars for their services. At one clip. Arthur Andersen LLP had about one hundred people assigned distinctively to Enron. There had become such a important sum of work that accounting offices were designated for the accounting employees and staff was transferred to Enron’s central offices in Houston. Finally. the duty of Enron’s Chicago and London locations were added to their caseloads doing Enron one of Arthur Andersen LLP’s largest clients worldwide. Pump-n-Dump

Top leaders in both houses were doing an obscene sum of money. An anon. tip was given to governments about former President of Enron. Louis Borget. It was said he had taken over three million dollars of corporate financess and set it into his ain history. and that was merely the beginning. Enron reported a loss in the 3rd one-fourth net incomes at the same clip as a decrease of shareholder equity. Former CEO Jeff Skiing. current CEO Kenneth Lay. and other executives started to sell big sums of Enron stock as monetary values dropped from $ 90 to less than a dollar ; this pattern was called “pump-n-dump” . This strategy allowed top executives to force the stock monetary values up so hard currency in their multimillion dollar options.

Lou Pi was the leader for Enron Energy Services at the clip and after he sold his stock utilizing this method. he made profited $ 250 million. Selling of this much stock gained attending of the U. S. Securities and Exchange Commission which led to an probe. It was evident that a divorce. a test. and likely prison clip was in the close hereafter for Arthur Andersen LLP and Enron leaders who were involved. No affair what the result of the test was traveling to be. the one time faultless Arthur Andersen and powerhouse Enron were doomed companies because the harm had already been done. Crumbling Companies

Andersen’s company. one time led by an honest. seeable leader who was filled with unity by doing ethical picks was now being led by greedy. selfish executives who saw dollar marks alternatively of ethical motives. Andersen’s repute was ruined and happening clients was traveling to be following to impossible because of the promotion the dirt received. David Duncan who was responsible for the Enron audit. was fired by Arthur Andersen LLP for mass devastation of Enron paperss and Enron relieved Arthur Andersen LLP of all accounting and auditing responsibilities. Even though Arthur Andersen pled non guilty to the charges brought against them. the concluding determination of the tribunals was Arthur Andersen LLP was found guilty of obstructor of justness and received five old ages probation. had to pay a $ 500. 000 mulct. lost their licence in the province of Texas. and ceased their auditing services. Resulting in a annihilating loss of patronages and over 7. 000 workers had to happen new occupations.

More people were affected by Enron’s result than that of Arthur Andersen’s. After the probe. Enron filed bankruptcy. over 20. 000 people lost occupations. many functionaries served a prison sentence. and stockholders lost 10s of one million millions of dollars. As functionaries dug deeper into the cozenage. recovered paperss and many of the testimonies revealed many Bankss were guilty every bit good. Bank employees detailed how the Bankss engineered bogus minutess to maintain one million millions of dollars of debt off Enron’s balance sheet and make the semblance of increasing net incomes and runing hard currency flow. As a consequence. stricter accounting Torahs sing audits were subsequently passed by the SEC.
Decision

In this state of affairs. holding a leader who exhibits good judgement. ethical motives. ethical behavior. and unity can beef up an confederation within a work topographic point. When Arthur Andersen and Leonard Spacek were the supervisors. Arthur Andersen LLP was a major company with a unflawed repute that was wholly shattered by a few employees who did non represent such features as the former leaders. Arthur Andersen LLP split into two separate divisions. which I think was the right move because the company was turning and the current staff could non manage the patronage burden. In order for the split to work. though. both units needed supervisors like what the company was founded on ; directors who could be trusted and held accountable. If I was a spouse in Andersen and realized what was being committed. I would hold tried to set an terminal to it.

Possibly if person had the common sense to stand up for what was right. many occupations could hold been saved and investor’s money would non hold been lost. Enron. on the other manus. was dishonest from the beginning and it was merely a affair of clip before the leaders were caught of incorrect behaviors. Enron. in my sentiment. was being led by the inspiring leaders with first-class leading accomplishments and work moralss ; they merely did non hold the ethical motives to travel with it. Mr. Borget was the first to acquire caught ; Ken Lay was cognizant of Borget’s actions. but ignored it because he was non incriminated or even suspected yet. but as history reveals. his clip was coming.

Finally several old ages subsequently. Lay and his associates received their forthcoming. In the 2001 test. Ken Lay was charged with 11 condemnable Acts of the Apostless. Jeff Skilling was sentenced to prison and to this twenty-four hours still claims he did nil wrong. Cliff Baxter committed self-destruction before he was to look in tribunal. and Lou Pi lost 6 million in an insurance policy from the corporation. but ne’er saw any gaol clip.

Had Andersen Worldwide Organization declined on Enron’s concern proposal. the accounting house may hold continued to turn and perchance rule the number’s universe. From my point of position. this dirt was a lose-lose state of affairs to everybody involved. from entry degree places all the manner up to Chief Executive Officers. Enron became a major power-house in 16 old ages and merely took 24 yearss to prostration and travel bankrupt. A lay waste toing stoping to both houses ; several condemnable charges were filed against legion employees. hearings were held. and the companies which were built on aspiration and thrust were destroyed and are no longer are in being. In this instance. cipher won.

Mentions
Answers. ( 2012 ) . Retrieved from Advantages and disadvantages of centralisation and decentalisation? : hypertext transfer protocol: //wiki. replies. com/Q/Advantages_and_disadvantages_of_centralization_and_decentralization BBC. ( 2003 ) . The Enron Affair. Retrieved from BBC News: hypertext transfer protocol: //news. bbc. co. uk/1/hi/in_depth/business/2002/enron/ Bergland. C. ( 2012 ) . Cheater’s Never Win. Psychology Today.

Brickley. J. . Smith. C. & A ; Zimmerman. J. ( 2009 ) . Managerial Economis and Organizational Architecture ( 5th Ed. ) . Boston. MA: McGraw-Hill Irwin. Byrne. T. ( 2002 ) . Special- Purpose Entities Are Often A Clever Way to Raise Debt Levels. Retrieved from nyu. edu: hypertext transfer protocol: //pages. austere. nyu. edu/~adamodar/New_Home_Page/articles/specpurpentity. htm Findlaw. ( 2003 ) . Indictment ( US v. Arthur Andersen. LLP ) . Retrieved from News: hypertext transfer protocol: //news. findlaw. com/hdocs/docs/enron/usandersen030702ind. html FundingUniverse. ( 2005 ) . Anderson History. Retrieved from FundingUniverse: hypertext transfer protocol: //www. fundinguniverse. com/company-histories/andersen-history/ Geller. R. ( 2002 ) . Background of the Banks’ Role in the Enron Debacle. Retrieved from The Enron Fraud: hypertext transfer protocol: //www. enronfraud. com/ Gibney. A. ( Director ) . ( 2004 ) . Enron-Smartest Guys in the Room [ Motion Picture ] . Houston Chronicle. ( 2002. April 19 ) .

Hot Topic Anderson. Houston Chronicle. Investopedia. ( 2011 ) . The Enron Collapse: A Look back. Retrieved from Investopedia: hypertext transfer protocol: //www. investopedia. com/financial-edge/1211/The-Enron-Collapse-A-Look-Back. aspx # axzz23riaPOrn NewsHour. ( 2002 ) . Enron: After the Collapse. Retrieved from PBS: hypertext transfer protocol: //www. phosphate buffer solution. org/newshour/bb/business/enron/player6. hypertext markup language Thomas. W. ( 2002 ) . The Rise and Fall of Enron. Retrieved from Journal of Accountancy: hypertext transfer protocol: //www. journalofaccountancy. com/Issues/2002/Apr/TheRiseAndFallOfEnron. htm Wikipedia. ( 2012 ) . Arthur Anderson. Retrieved from Wikipedia: hypertext transfer protocol: //en. wikipedia. org/wiki/Arthur_Andersen