Sci/230 Everglades Final

Everglades Ecosystem Amber Rouse SCI/230 July 17, 2011 Everglades Ecosystem The Everglades National Park is located in southern Florida. The park is 1,506,539 acres, with a diverse set of animals calling this popular park home. According to Park Vision the Everglades National park is one of the largest national parks in the United States. The Everglades National park has only two larger than it within the United States. Over one million tourists plan this unique place as a recreational trip each year. The temperature is mild in the winter, and hot in the summer.

The humidity is roughly 90% year round. The Everglades National park is a large area of wetlands made up of marshes and swamps. The Everglades begin at a large lake in the center of Florida and ends in the Gulf of Mexico. It is close to being 50 miles wide and 110 miles long. It has also been known as “River of Grass” due to the way it looks from sky view. There are five unique habitats in which plant and animal life interact with perfect harmony. The hammock environment is higher in elevation than its surrounding areas. The vegetation is mostly hardwood, with a deep rich soil.

These are generally classified as areas of dense hardwood trees, and shrubs. Some of the animals and reptiles that live in the hammock environment are the grey fox, green snake, raccoon, box turtle, tree snail along with several species of tree frogs. The grey fox is one of only two canines with the ability to climb trees. The green snake, another within this environment, is a common southern snake; it is green in color and roughly 30 inches long and slender. The raccoon is found in several areas throughout the United States. The box turtle is found near wet areas throughout the warmer southern states.

The tree snail is found on branches, tree trunks, and rocks in this area. They have also recently been placed on the list of threatened species. There are 13 species of tree frog within the Everglades two of these tree frog species are considered an invasive, and exotic species. The mangrove environment is an area classified by evergreen trees and shrubs with thin roots and stems. This environment is found mostly along the coastline and water ways. The roots often intertwine above the water, and will also provide a food source for smaller animals and aquatic life.

The one and only identifier that are used to classify this region is the large grouping of trees which are able to grow despite the large amounts of salt in the water in these areas. Within the mangrove environment one will find a large percentage of endangered or threatened species. The brown pelican is noticeably smaller than the rest of the species. The osprey is found worldwide, and is a bird of prey often called the sea hawk. The American crocodile is often confused with the alligator. They have a long pointed snout and a visible 4th tooth on the bottom jaw.

According to Glenn Wilsey Sr. (2007) there is an amazing fact that this is the only instance where alligators and crocodile live together. The green sea turtle has become a threatened species, and there are many laws to protect them. The roseate spoonbill was hunted to the point of only 40 or so mating pairs in southern Florida. Since they have been placed on the protected list they have made a comeback, and now number at around one thousand mating pair. The Florida key deer has been placed on the federal protection list, for threatened and endangered animals.

They are roughly 3 feet tall and are at home in the Florida Key’s. The life of the manatee is in danger. Their largest killer is boating accidents. The environment and temperature also play a part in the overall survival of the species. The pineland environment is often times easy to classify, and is noted by the large amounts of pine trees that have taken root and amazingly grown from the exposed limestone. Fire is crucial to the survival of this ecosystem. Fire is what clears out the hardwood trees which grow much faster than the pine.

Without fire this ecosystem would likely be much different, as the hardwood trees would grow so fast they would choke out and kill the pine. The largest threat to this area is the logging of these trees for numerous purposes. There are many animals which are quite at home in this ecosystem. The eastern diamondback rattlesnake is one of 4 poisonous snakes found in the park. According to Rick Ferren (2010) is an average is 4 feet long but the largest ever captured in the wild was over eight feet. The Florida Panther was adopted as the Florida state mammal in 1982.

In the 1800 these mammals were extensively hunted for their pelts, and are now an endangered species. In 1989 the Florida Panther National Wildlife Refuge was established which placed roughly 24,000 acres of their natural habitat under federal protection. (Exploring the Environment, 2005). The eastern indigo snake prefers to find a home in old gopher holes, and has become known as the gopher snake. These snakes are nonpoisonous, and average between 60 to 74 inches in length. They are Black and have shimmery blue highlights when in the sun.

Their lower jaw or throats are a splotchy orange. These snakes have been placed on the threatened species list. The barred owl is on the endangered species list. These owls hunt in late afternoon as they are not completely nocturnal. They weigh roughly 1 to 1 and a half pounds, with a wingspan of 45 inches. Coral snakes are poisonous and are about two feet long. Their distinctive pattern is hard to miss. They have alternating black red and orange bands which repeat for the entire length of the body. A coral does not strike like most snakes, instead they chew.

The king snake is an average of 48 to 72 inches, with brownish yellow scales and very little amounts of black. They are considered opportunistic feeders, as they will eat almost any small animal that they can get, including venomous snakes. The red-cockaded woodpecker is quickly becoming an endangered species due to the destruction of their habitat. The Florida black bear is a semi nocturnal mammal, resting during the heat of the day. There has been a massive increase in the amount of bear sightings in southern Florida mostly due to humans slowly moving in on this animal’s territory.

They are also opportunistic feeders, and would prefer to eat what is easiest to find, even dog food. The red rat snake is also known as the corn snake. They are orange and yellow with an average length of 2. 5 to 4 feet. These snakes are constrictors and will suffocate their prey by squeezing it. The saw grass marshes are defined as the areas of the shallow river flowing from Lake Okeechobee to the Florida Bay. In order for the saw grass to survive the water must be slow moving and somewhat shallow. Fire will destroy these areas, also if the water is too deep the sawgrass will die as well.

The great blue heron call the saw grass marshes home. These birds are wading birds, and are the largest of such in the park. They will stand in the water for hours hunting fish. The wood stork is on the endangered species list, and is one of the rarest birds in the Everglades National Park. They have been named an indicator species because their habitat determines their success as a species. Bald eagles are perhaps the most famous, and largest of all the birds of prey. In 1967 they were placed on the endangered species list, and it was a felony to shoot, trap, or harm them.

DDT was very detrimental to the population as they would lay eggs with thin shells causing them to break early rather than hatch as they should. In 1995 they were removed from the endangered species list and placed on the threatened list. The zebra longwing butterfly has been the Florida state butterfly since 1996. They have long black wings with thin white stripes, and live approximately 6 months, which is quite long for a butterfly. The slough environment is located in the deeper areas between the sawgrass marshes. The water is usually an average of three feet deeper in these areas.

These areas remain flooded as long as the water flow through this area is maintained. The American alligator is found in the warm wet areas across the south eastern states. The alligator is between 13 and 18 feet long and weighs about 475 pounds. They have a shorter and blunter jaw than the crocodile. The water moccasin is dark brown in color and is found in areas with water. These snakes have the ability to sort of glide across the water. One of the most important things to remember is that one must use caution around these snakes as they are poisonous. Human intrusion has harmed wildlife and destroyed the environment.

We are invading these animal’s natural habitats at an astounding rate. Many of these species have become threatened and are endangered or threatened. Many of man’s actions have caused problems for these animals. Oil drilling is the largest problem for the aquatic animals and costal plants. Many laws have been passed to help protect the environment The Audubon Society headed efforts to save the bird population in 1832 In 1901 a law was passed prohibiting hunting of many birds in the area with an exception to large game birds In 1947 the area was dedicated as a national park

In 1971 congress mandated the amount of water required to flow into the park In 1979 an additional 107,600 acres were added to the park There are many ways to get involved * Respect the park * Leave the animals alone observation is fine but the less human involvement the better * If you take anything into the park make sure it leaves with you * Knowledge is perhaps one of the best weapons against destruction of this uniquely complex and beautiful ecosystem References: TBO. com – Tampa Bay Online . (2011). Saving wetlands, farms and the Everglades. Retrieved from http://www2. tbo. om/content/2010/aug/11/na-saving-wetlands-farms-and-the-everglades/news-opinion-editorials/ National Wildlife Federation. ( 1996-2011). National Wildlife Federation. Retrieved from http://www. nwf. org/Wildlife/Wild-Places/Everglades. aspx National Parked. (2004-2011). Everglades Fast Facts. Retrieved from http://www. nationalparked. com/US/Everglades/ Museum of Science Inc (1997) http://www. miamisci. org/ecolinks/everglades/index. html Park Vision Everglades National Park May (2010) http://www. shannontech. com/ParkVision/Everglades/Everglades. html Everglades National Park Information Page March (2009) ttp://www. everglades. national-park. com/info. htm VOA News Everglades National Park-One of the World’s Great Biological Wonders September (2011)) http://www. voanews. com/learningenglish/home/Everglades-National-Park-103356779. html Inspire Action on Everglades Restoration the Everglades Foundation (2010) http://www. evergladesfoundation. org/ Stephanie Sharpe Focus on Focus Earth: Everglades Nevermore June (2009) http://planetgreen. discovery. com/travel-outdoors/focus-earth-everglades. html Save our everglades collier county September (2010) http://www. dep. state. fl. s/lands/FFAnnual/B_SaveOurEverglades. pdf Glen Wilsey Sr. (2007) American Crocodiles http://www. aaof. us/06. 00. htm Rick Ferren (2010) Longstreet highroad Guide to the Florida Keys and Everglades http://www. sherpaguides. com/florida/sidebars/snakes_in_park. html Exploring the environment Florida everglades April (2005) http://www. cotf. edu/ete/modules/everglades/FEpanther. html Florida Museum of Natural History (2010) http://www. flmnh. ufl. edu/herpetology/fl-guide/Drymarchoncouperi. htm (note: these are all the sites I either used facts from or read to gain more knowledge on the topic. )

Analysis of Footnote to Youth

In Jose Garica Villa’s Footnote to Youth, he tackles the responsibilities and realities that come with marriage and the family life. In it, he narrates the story of Dodong, wherein we are introduced to Dodong when he is seventeen and seeking to marry his love Teang. He is problematic over how he intends to talk to his father about marrying Teang, going over the possible responses his father would give, and at the same time convincing himself that he is old enough to handle the responsibility. On his way home, he makes a stop to relieve himself. The ground was broken up into many fresh wounds and fragrant with a sweetish, earthy smell.

Many slender soft worms emerged from the furrows and then burrowed again deeper into the soil. The appearance of the worms and the occurrence of one worm crawling over Dodong’s foot is of great importance to the story, as it serves as a revealing of Dodong’s character and future. A short colorless worm marched blindly towards Dodong’s foot and crawled clammily over it. Dodong got tickled and jerked his foot, flinging the worm into the air. Several characteristics attributed to the worm can also be reflected back onto Dodong’s story, particularly the fact that the short worm was crawling blindly.

It would be interesting to note, as well, the connection this worm crawling over Dodong’s foot has with Jose Garcia Villa’s title. A footnote is simply defined as a note at the foot of the page. It is often used to give additional information to the reader regarding certain words or phrases in the text. And yet the author includes no actual footnotes in the story. As such, Jose Garcia Villa is obviously trying to put forth certain themes and messages regarding youth and life through the use of a short story. The message that comes forth to the reader through the reading of the story, then, is what we may refer to as his footnote.

However, an interesting alternative suggestion may lie within the story itself, particularly with the worm depicted in the story. The worm is described as blindly marching towards Dodong’s foot, which is exactly how we could also describe Dodong and his choices in this story. Dodong blindly marched into marriage, expecting his life to become better. However, that is not what happened. Instead, after nine months Teang was pregnant with his child, and he felt incredibly unprepared: In a few moments he would be a father. ‘Father, Father,’ he whispered the word with awe, with strangeness.

He was young, he realized now, contradicting himself nine months ago. He was very young… He felt queer, troubled, uncomfortable…. In addition to that, for six successive years, Dodong and Teang kept having children. At this point, Teang began to feel unhappy in their marriage. She cried sometimes, wishing she had not married. She did not tell Dodong this, not wishing him to dislike her. Yet she wished she had not married. Not even Dodong whom she loved. It is interesting to note here that Teang still claims to love Dodong despite the hardships they have gone through.

It should also be noted that Yet she wished she had not married, is a sentence that is separated from Not even Dodong whom she loved, meaning it is the act of marrying at a young age that she regrets, not the fact that it is Dodong whom she married. Not marrying Dodong was only an after-thought. The story goes on, however, to describe another suitor Teang had, Lucio, who was older than Dodong by nine years. Lucio had married another after her marriage to Dodong, but he and his wife were childless until now. If she had married Lucion, she wondered, would she have borne him children?

Maybe not, either. That was a better lot. But she loved Dodong…. Here we are given a clearer picture about her unhappiness and disappointment. It is particularly regarding child-bearing at a young age that Teang is unhappy with. … would she have borne him children? Maybe not, either. That was a better lot. The regret she feels about the marriage, then, is regarding the fact that they had children very early on in their lives. Just as Dodong’s thoughts raced when his first child was born: He was young, he realized now… He was very young.

The responsibility of having children was something they could not bear at such a young age, and yet it was a responsibility that they were left with and had to deal with. This, particularly, is why Dodong’s father was reluctant to give Dodong his blessing to marry. Must you marry, Dodong? his father asked. You are very young, Dodong. Despite his father’s effort to dissuade him into marrying, Dodong persisted and went through with it, much to his father’s dismay. In this, we can safely conclude, then, that Dodong is just like the worm that blindly crawled onto his foot.

The worm is a note that is intended for Dodong, and for readers as well, not to go charging blindly into the fray. For what happened to the worm? Dodong got tickled and jerked his foot, flinging the worm into the air. To stress this blindness even further we can look at Dodong’s reaction right after flinging the worm: Dodong did not bother to look where it fell, but thought of his age, seventeen, and he said to himself he was not young anymore. From the very beginning Dodong’s character is revealed as someone self-obsessed to the point that he doesn’t bother to look at the consequences of his actions.

This is the footnote to youth: not to charge blindly into adulthood. And so, just like his father before him, Dodong was suddenly faced with the dilemma when his eighteen-year-old son comes up to him and asks to marry. ‘You want to marry Tona,’ Dodong said. He did not want Blas to marry yet. Blas was very young. The life that would follow marriage would be hard…. And yet, like his father before him, Dodong did not prevent his son from experiencing those hardships as well. In this, the story’s theme becomes more universal in the sense that it is a footnote not only to the youth, but to parents as well.

The theme, then, is clear in the sense that the quality of one’s life is likened to that of a worm when marriage and adulthood is rushed into at a very young age. Dodong had a question in his mind when he stepped out one night and reflected on the life he was living: One of them was why Life did not fulfill all of Youth’s dreams. Why it must be so. Why one was forsaken… after Love… Dodong could not find the answer. Maybe the question was not to be answered. It must be so to make youth Youth. Youth must be dreamfully sweet. Dreamfully sweet.

Dodong returned to the house humiliated by himself. He had wanted to know a little wisdom but was denied it. Here, it is expressed that after the stage of love (marriage), one’s dreams would have to be forsaken. It is expressed that only the youth get to dream about how grand life could be, and that come a certain age, life becomes difficult, full of hardships, impossible even. To that thought, however, I would have to disagree. As is said in the narration, Dodong was denied a little wisdom, therefore suggesting that this train of thought is something that should be changed.

Independence Day

Independence Day (India) From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia “Fifteenth of August” redirects here. For other uses, see August 15. Independence Day The national flag of India, on the Red fort in New Delhi; a common sight on public and private buildings on national holidays like the 15th of August. Also called The Fifteenth of August ?????????? ???? (Hindi) ?? (??????? ) ????? (Hindi) Observed by India Type National Significance The day India became independent from British rule. Date August 15 Celebrations Flag hoisting, Parades, Singing patriotic songs, Speech by hePrime Minister, Family reunions,Picnics, Kite flying Independence Day of India is celebrated on Fifteenth of August (8/15/47) to commemorate its independence from British rule and its birth as a sovereignnation in 1947. [1] The day is a national holiday in India. All over the country, flag-hoisting ceremonies are conducted by the local administration inattendance. The main event takes place in New Delhi, the capital city of India, where the Prime Minister hoists the national flag at the Red Fort and deliversa nationally televised speech from its ramparts. In his speech, he highlights the achievements f his government during the past year, raises important issues and gives a call for further development. The Prime Minister also pays his tribute to leaders of the freedom struggle. The Prime Minister also declares holiday on 15 August. Contents [hide] 1 Backgrou nd 2 Celebrati ons 3 See also 4 Referenc es 5 External links [edit]Background In 1946, the Labour government in Britain, its exchequer exhausted by the recently concluded World War II, and conscious that it had neither the mandate at home, the international support, nor the reliability of native orces for continuing to control an increasingly restless India,[2][3] decided to end British rule of India, and in early 1947 Britain announced its intention of transferring power no later than June 1948. As independence approached, the violence between Hindus and Muslims in the provinces of Punjab and Bengal continued unabated. With the British army unprepared for the potential for increased violence, the new viceroy, Louis Mountbatten, advanced the date for the transfer of power, allowing less than seven months for a mutually agreed plan for independence. In June 1947, the nationalist leaders, including Pandit Nehru, Abul

Kalam Azad, Mohammed Ali Jinnah, B. R. Ambedkar and Master Tara Singh agreed to a partition of the country along religious lines. The predominantly Hindu and Sikh areas were assigned to the new India and predominantly Muslim areas to the new nation of Pakistan; the plan included a partition of the provinces of Punjab and Bengal. Many millions of Muslim, Sikh, and Hindu refugees trekked across the newly drawn borders. In Punjab, where the new border lines divided the Sikh regions in half, massive bloodshed followed; in Bengal and Bihar, where Gandhi’s presence assuaged communal tempers, the violence was more limited. In all, anywhere between 50,000 and 500,000 people on both sides of the new borders died in the violence. [4] On 14 August 1947, the new Dominion of Pakistan came into being, with Muhammad Ali Jinnahsworn in as its first Governor General in Karachi. At the stroke of midnight, as India moved into August 15, 1947, Jawaharlal Nehru, read out the famous Tryst with destiny speech proclaiming India’s independence. India, now a smaller Union of India, became an independent country with official ceremonies taking place in New Delhi, and with Jawaharlal Nehru assuming the office of the first prime minister, and the viceroy, Louis Mountbatten, staying on as its irst Governor General. [edit]Celebrations This section requires expansion. The Indian flag at Delhi Gate The Prime Minister of India hoists the Indian flag on the ramparts of the historical site, Red Fort (??? ????? ), Delhi, on August 15. This is telecasted live on the National Channel Doordarshan and many other News Channels all over India. Flag hoisting ceremonies and cultural programs take place in all the state capitals. In the cities around the country the national flag is hoisted by politicians in their constituencies. In various private organisations the flag hoisting is carried out by a senior official of that organisation.

All over the country, flags are given out to citizens who wear them proudly to show their patriotism towards India. Schools and colleges around the country organise flag hoisting ceremonies and various tural events within their premises, where younger children in costume do impersonations of their favourite characters of the Independence era. They also have a parade. Families and friends get together for lunch or dinner or for an outing. Housing colonies, cultural centres, clubs and societies hold entertainment programs and competitions, usually based on the Independence Day theme.

Most national and regional television channels screen old and new film classics with patriotic themes on Independence Day. Many non-governmental organizations telecast patriotic programs. It is a national festival that is celebrated by every Indian irrespective of religion. ???? ?? ??????????? 15 ????? , 1947 ?? ???????? ?? ???? ?????? ?? ???? ?? ?????????? ??? ???? ??? ?? ??? ?????? ?? ??? ???? ?? ???? ?? ???? ???????????? ????? ??? ????? ?? ???? ?? ????????? ???? ????? ?? ????????? ?? ???? ????? ???? ?? ????????? ??????? ?? ?????? 1857 ?? ??? ?????? ??????? ?? ???? ???? ??? ????????? ?? ??? ?????? ???? ?? ??? ? ??? ??? ?????? ????????? ???????? ?? 1830 ???????? ??????? ?? ???????? ?? ????? ?????? ?? ???? ?? ??? ” ????? ?? ????????? ” ???? ???????????? . ???? ??????? ?? ??? , 15 ????? . ?????????? ???? ???? ?? ????????? ???? ??? ???? 15 ????? ?? ??? ????????? ????????? ?? ????????? ?? ???? ??????? ?? ?? ?? ?????? , ?? ?????? ??? . ?? ??? ???? ?? ????? ?? ????????? ?????????? ???? ( ?????? ) 15 (??????? ) ????? ( ?????? ) ?????? ????? ???? ???? ????????? ????? ??? ???? ?? ??????? ???? ?? ???????? ???. ???? 15 ????? ?????? ???? ?? ??????? , ???? , ???????? ?? ??? ???? , ???? ?? ???????????? , ???????? ??????????? ?????? , ???? ????? ???? ?? ??? ?? ???? ?????????? ?? ????? 1947 ??? ??????? ???? ?? ?? ?? ??? ??? ???? ???? ?? ??????? ??????? ?? ?????????? ???? ???? ????? ?? ????????? (8/15/47) ?? ????? ???? ?? . [1 ] ??? ???? ??? ????????? ????? ??. ??? ?? ??? ??? , ???? ?? ??????? ?????? ?? ?????? ?????? ?? ??? ??? ??????? ??????? ??? ????????. ????? ???? ??? ??? ???? ???? ?????? , ??????? ??? ?? ???? ?? , ???? ???????????? hoists ????????? ???? ?? ??? ???? ?? ?????? ???? ??????? ?? ????????? ???? ?? ???? . ???? ???? ??? ???????? ????? ???? ?? ????? ???? ????? ?? ?????????? ?? ?????? ???? ??? , ?????????? ??????? ?? ????? ? ?? ??? ????? ?? ??? ?? ??? ???? ??. ???????????? ?? ?????? ?? ?? ???? ??????????? ???? ???????????? ??????? . ???????????? ?? 15 ????? ?? ?????? ?? ????? ??. ??????? [hide] ???????? ?? 1 2 ????? ? 3 ????? ? ?? ????? 4 ?????? ? 5 ????? ???? [ ??????? ???? ????????? ] 1946 ??? , ???? ??????? ??? ????? ?????? ??? ?? ??? ?????? ??????? ????? ????? ?? ?????? ?????? , ?? ??? ??? ?? ?? ?? ? ?? ?? ?? ?????? , ????????????? ?????? , ?? ? ?? ?? ??????????? ?? ???? ???? ?? ??? ?? ???? ?? ????? ???? ?? ???????? ???? ???? ?? ??? , [2] [3 ] ???? ?? ??????? ???? ?? ??? ???? ?? ?????? ???? ?? , ?? ????? ,??? ??????? ??? ????? ???? ???? ??? ?? ????? ??? ??? ??? ??????????? ???? ?? ???? ????? ?? ????? ??. ?? ??? ??? ?????????? ?? ??? , ????? ?? ????? ?? ???????? ??? ??????? ?? ????????? ?? ??? ????? ???????? ???? ???. ??????? ???? ?? ??? ?????? ??? ????? ?? ??? ?????? ?? ??? ????? ???? , ?? ??????? , ???? ????????? , ????? ????? ?? ????????? ?? ??? ????? , ?????????? ?? ??? ?? ????????? ??? ?? ???? ????? ?? ??? ??? ????? ?? ?? ?? ?? ?????? ??. ??? 1947 ??? , ???? ??????????? ?????? , ????? ????? , ???? ???? ???? , ??????? ??? ?????? , ???? ????? ??????? ?? ?????? ???? ???? ?? ??????? ???? ????? ?? ?????? ???? ?? ?? ???? . ????? ??? ?? ????? ?? ??? ????????? ?? ???? ?? ?? ??????? ?? ??? ????? ??? ?? ??????? ????????? ?? ????? ??? ????????? , ????? ?? ????? ?? ???????? ?? ?? ?????? ????? ????? ??. ??????? , ??? ?? ????? ??????????? ?? ?? ????? ?? ??? ???? ??? ?? ?? ????? ?? ?????? . ????? , ???? ?? ???? ?????? ??? ??? ??? ????????? ??????? , ???? ?????? ?? ??????? ?? ??? , ????? ?? ????? ??? , ???? ????? ?? ???????? ??????????? tempers assuaged ??? , ????? ?? ???? ????? ??. ??? ??? , ???? ?? ?? ?????? ?? ????? ?????? ?? 250,000 ?? 500,000 ????? ?? ??? ????? ??? ?????? ?? ?? . [4] 14 ????? 1947, ?? ????????? ?? ???????? ? ??? ???????? ??? ??? ?? , ??????? ??? ?????? ???? ???? ?????? ???? ?? ??? ??? ??? ?? ????? . ??? ??? ?? ??????? ?? ??? ??? ???? 15 ????? , 1947 ??? ??? ?? ???????? ????? , ???? ????? ?? ???????? ???? ?? ????? ???? ?? independence. India, ?? ???? ?? ?? ???? ??? , ????? ?? ??? ???? ?? ??? ??? ???? ?? ???????? ?????? ?? ??? ?? ???????? ??? ?? ??? ?????? ?? ????? ??? ????? ?? ??? ???? ?? ???????? ??????? ?? ??? ???????????? ?? ??????? , ???? ????????? , ???? ???? ?? ??? ??? ???? ?????? ????. [ ??????? ???? ?????? ] ?? ??? ?? ???????? ?? ??????? . ?????? ??? ?? ?????? ???? ???? ?? ???????????? hoists ?????? ???? ??????? ???? ?? ??????? ?? , ??? ???? (??? ????? ), ?????? , 15 ????? ??. ?? ????????? ???? ???????? ?? ???? ???? ??? ?? ???? ?????? ???? ?? ???????? ???? ???? ??. ???????? ?????? ?? ?????????? ??????????? ?? ??? ??????? ?? ?????????? ??? ??? ?? ??. ??? ?? ?? ????? ??? ???? ???????? ??????? ??? ?????? ?????? ????????? ???? ?????? ???? ??. ??????? ???? ??????? ??? ???????? ?? ????? ?? ?? ?????? ??????? ?????? ???? ???? ??. ??? ?? ??? ??? , ???? ???????? ?? ?? ?????? ????? ?? ???? ?? ???? ?? ????? ???? ???????? ?????? ?? ??? ???? ???? ??. ??? ?? ????? ?? ??????? ?? ??????? ?? ???? ????? ?? ???? ???????? ?????? ?? ?????? ?????????? ?????? ?? ????? , ???? ????? ??? ???? ?????? ?????????? ??? ?? ???? ??????? ??????? ?? impersonations ????. ???????? ?? ?? ?? ???? ??. ??? ?? ???? ?? ??? ?? ?? ??? ?? ??? ?????? ?? ??????? ?? ??? ????? ??. ???? ????????? , ?????????? ????????? , ???? ?? ?????? ?? ??????? ??????????? ?? ????????????? , ?? ??? ?? ?????????? ???? ?? ???? ?? ?????? ?????.?????????? ???? ?? ???????? ?? ?????? ?? ??? ?????? ?? ?? ????? ?????? ??????? ??? ????????? ?? ????????? ???? ??????. ?? ??? – ?????? ??????? ??????? ???????? ???????????. ?? ?? ????????? ??????? ?? ?? ?? ???? ?? ???? ?????? ?????? ????? ???? ??.

International Womens Day

International Women’s Day (IWD), originally called International Working Women’s Day, is marked on March 8[-;0] every year. Nowadays this is a major day of global celebration of women. In different regions the focus of the celebrations ranges from general celebration of respect, appreciation and love towards women to a celebration for women’s economic, political and social achievements. Started as a Socialist political event, the holiday blended in the culture of many countries, primarily Eastern Europe[->1], Russia[->2], and the former Soviet bloc[->3].

In many regions, the day lost its political flavour, and became simply an occasion for men to express their love for women in a way somewhat similar to a mixture of Mother’s Day[-;4] and St Valentine’s Day[->5]. In other regions, however, the original political and human rights theme designated by the United Nations[->6] runs strong, and political and social awareness of the struggles of women worldwide are brought out and examined in a hopeful manner.

The first national Women’s Day was observed on 28 February 1909 in the United States following a declaration by the Socialist Party of America[-;7]. In 1910, Socialist Second International[-;8] held the first international women’s conference in Copenhagen[->9]. Delegates (100 women from 17 countries) decided to establish an ‘International Women’s Day’ to promote equal rights, including sufferage[-;10], for women. They demanded that women be given the right to vote and to hold public office.

On the occasion of 2010 International Women’s Day the ICRC drew attention to the hardship displaced women endure. The displacement of populations is one of the gravest consequences of today’s armed conflicts. It affects women in a host of ways. International humanitarian law therefore includes specific provisions protecting women, for example when they are pregnant or as mothers of young children. Events took place in more than 100 countries on March 8, 2011 to commemorate the 100th anniversary of International Women’s Day.

In the United States, President Barack Obama[->11] proclaimed March 2011 to be “Women’s History Month”, calling Americans to mark IWD by reflecting on “the extraordinary accomplishments of women” in shaping the country’s history. In some countries, such as Cameroon[->12], Croatia[->13], Romania[->14], Bosnia and Herzegovina[->15], Serbia[->16], Bulgaria[->17] the day is not a public holiday, but is widely observed nonetheless. On this day it is customary for men to give the women in their lives – mothers, wives, girlfriends, daughters, colleagues, etc. flowers and small gifts. In some countries (such as Bulgaria and Romania) it is also observed as an equivalent of Mother’s Day, where children also give small presents to their mothers and grandmothers. Today, many events are held by women’s groups around the world. The UK-based marketing company Aurora hosts a free worldwide register of IWD local events so that women and the media can learn about local activity. Many governments and organizations around the world support IWD. http://www. youtube. com/watch? v=lr0togBJU-Y ->0] – /wiki/March_8 [->1] – /wiki/Eastern_Europe [->2] – /wiki/Russia [->3] – /wiki/Soviet_bloc [->4] – /wiki/Mother%27s_Day [->5] – /wiki/St_Valentine%27s_Day [->6] – /wiki/United_Nations [->7] – /wiki/Socialist_Party_of_America [->8] – /wiki/Second_International [->9] – /wiki/Copenhagen [->10] – /wiki/Sufferage [->11] – /wiki/Barack_Obama [->12] – /wiki/Cameroon [->13] – /wiki/Croatia [->14] – /wiki/Romania [->15] – /wiki/Bosnia_and_Herzegovina [->16] – /wiki/Serbia [->17] – /wiki/Bulgaria

Rugby Union and Apartheid South Africa

Sporting boycotts were one were part of a concerted effort to bring change to the Apartheid policies of the South African regime. These sporting boycotts, whilst not being the only measure, were an effective measure to institute change in South Africa. The sporting boycotts, lead by Commonwealth nations were significant because of the role of sport within South African society and within the Commonwealth as well. I argue that the sporting boycott of a particular sport, rugby was the most significant and the events surrounding the Springboks, the South African national rugby team, played a key role in the anti-apartheid movement.

Apartheid was a system of racial segregation enforced by white Afrikaner minority over the indigenous majority. Apartheid policy was enacted following the 1948 election of the main Afrikaner nationalist party, the Herenigde Nasionale Party. Different ethnic group were “classed ” into categories, as either white, colored, or “native. (Landis, p 14). This was significant as this separated society leading to forging of different national identities through different means. For the ruling “white” population, rugby was a source of national identity (Nauright, p 56).

It played a significant part for Afrikaner culture, with rugby being a representation of their society. (Black and Nauright, p 35). . Rugby was the avenue in which Afrikaners could compete against the world. John Carlin, The Independents’ South Africa correspondent from 1989 to 1995, wrote a book called playing the Enemy. Through his first hand experiences with Nelson Mandela, he describes how Mandela’s decision in prison to unite the South African nation was through, as he saw it, the Afrikaner “secular religion”, rugby.

Whilst international efforts focused on South African expulsion from the Olympic movement, South Africa’s expulsion from the movement was not the most crucial event in the attempt to isolate South Africa in sport. Rather, the campaigns to eliminate South Africa from international rugby were more significant when assessed in terms of influencing the target group of white South Africans. (Nauright, p 55) It is because of the way that rugby is viewed that being deprived of Springbok rugby hurt so much, as was so effective in change in apartheid.

The use of the 1995 World cup winning team, to unite post apartheid South Africa is further evidence of this. ——————————————– [ 1 ]. ‘LIKE FLEAS ON A DOG’: EMERGING NATIONAL AND INTERNATIONAL CONFLICT OVER NEW ZEALAND RUGBY TIES WITH SOUTH AFRICA, 1965-74John Nauright Department of Human Movement Studies University of Queensland [ 2 ]. Black, David R and John Nauright. Rugby and the South African Nation. Manchester; Manchester University Press, 1998. [ 3 ]. John Nauright

Mobile Phone Radiation and Their Effects on Human Health

The effect of mobile phone radiation on human health is the subject of recent interest and study, as a result of the enormous increase in mobile phone usage throughout the world (as of June 2009, there were more than 4. 3 billion users worldwide). Mobile phones use electromagnetic in the microwave range. Other digital wireless systems, such as data communication networks, produce similar radiation. The WHO has classified mobile phone radiation on the IARC scale into Group 2B – possibly carcinogenic.

That means that there “could be some risk” of carcinogenicity, so additional research into the long-term, heavy use of mobile phones needs to be conducted. Some national radiation advisory authorities have recommended measures to minimize exposure to their citizens as a precautionary approach. Effects Many scientific studies have investigated possible health symptoms of mobile phone radiation. These studies are occasionally reviewed by some scientific committees to assess overall risks. A recent assessment was published in 2007 by the European Commission Scientific Committee on Emerging and Newly Identified Health Risks (SCENIHR).

It concludes that the three lines of evidence, viz. animal, in vitro, and epidemiological studies, indicate that “exposure to RF fields is unlikely to lead to an increase in cancer in humans”. Radiation absorption Part of the radio waves emitted by a mobile telephone handset are absorbed by the human head. The radio waves emitted by a GSM handset can have a peak power of 2 watts, and a US analogue phone had a maximum transmit power of 3. 6 watts. Other digital mobile technologies, such as CDMA2000 and D-AMPS, use lower output power, typically below 1 watt.

The maximum power output from a mobile phone is regulated by the mobile phone standard and by the regulatory agencies in each country. In most systems the cell phone and the base station check reception quality and signal strength and the power level is increased or decreased automatically, within a certain span, to accommodate different situations, such as inside or outside of buildings and vehicles. The rate at which radiation is absorbed by the human body is measured by the Specific Absorption Rate (SAR), and its maximum levels for modern handsets have been set by governmental regulating agencies in many countries.

In the USA, the Federal Communications Commission (FCC) has set a SAR limit of 1. 6 W/kg, averaged over a volume of 1 gram of tissue, for the head. In Europe, the limit is 2 W/kg, averaged over a volume of 10 grams of tissue. SAR values are heavily dependent on the size of the averaging volume. Without information about the averaging volume used, comparisons between different measurements cannot be made. Thus, the European 10-gram ratings should be compared among themselves, and the American 1-gram ratings should only be compared among themselves.

SAR data for specific mobile phones, along with other useful information, can be found directly on manufacturers’ websites, as well as on third party web sites. Thermal effects One well-understood effect of microwave radiation is dielectric heating, in which any dielectric material (such as living tissue) is heated by rotations of polar molecules induced by the electromagnetic field. In the case of a person using a cell phone, most of the heating effect will occur at the surface of the head, causing its temperature to increase by a fraction of a degree.

In this case, the level of temperature increase is an order of magnitude less than that obtained during the exposure of the head to direct sunlight. The brain’s blood circulation is capable of disposing of excess heat by increasing local blood flow. However, the cornea of the eye does not have this regulation mechanism and exposure of 2–3 hours duration has been reported to produce cataracts in rabbits’ eyes at SAR values from 100-140W/kg, which produced lenticular temperatures of 41°C.

There were no cataracts detected in the eyes of monkeys exposed under similar conditions. Premature cataracts have not been linked with cell phone use, possibly because of the lower power output of mobile phones. Non-thermal effects The communications protocols used by mobile phones often result in low frequency pulsing of the carrier signal. Whether these modulations have biological significance has been subject to debate. Some researchers have argued that so-called “non-thermal effects” could be reinterpreted as a normal cellular response to an increase in temperature.

The German biophysicist Roland Glaser, for example,[8] has argued that there are several thermo receptor molecules in cells, and that they activate a cascade of second and third messenger systems, gene expression mechanisms and production of heat shock proteins in order to defend the cell against metabolic cell stress caused by heat. The increases in temperature that cause these changes are too small to be detected by studies such as REFLEX, which base their whole argument on the apparent stability of thermal equilibrium in their cell cultures.

Other researchers believe the stress proteins are unrelated to thermal effects, since they occur for both extremely low frequencies (ELF) and radio frequencies (RF), which have very different energy levels. Another preliminary study published in 2011 by The Journal of the American Medical Association conducted using fluorodeoxyglucose injections and positron emission tomography concluded that exposure toradiofrequency signal waves within parts of the brain closest to the cell phone antenna resulted in increased levels of glucose metabolism, but the clinical significance of this finding is unknown.

Blood-brain barrier effects Swedish researchers from Lund University (Salford, Brun, Persson, Eberhardt, and Malmgren) have studied the effects of microwave radiation on the rat brain. They found a leakage of albumin into the brain via a permeated blood-brain barrier. This confirms earlier work on the blood-brain barrier by Allan Frey, Oscar and Hawkins, and Albert and Kerns. Other groups have not confirmed these findings in vitro cell studies or whole animal studies. Cancer

In 2006 a large Danish study about the connection between mobile phone use and cancer incidence was published. It followed over 420,000 Danish citizens for 20 years and showed no increased risk of cancer. The German Federal Office for Radiation Protection (Bundesamt fur Strahlenschutz) considers this report inconclusive. The following studies of long time exposure have been published: §The 13 nation INTERPHONE project – the largest study of its kind ever undertaken – has now been published and did not find a solid link between mobile phones and brain tumors.

The International Journal of Epidemiology published a combined data analysis from a multi national population-based case-control study ofglioma and meningioma, the most common types of brain tumor. The authors reported the following conclusion: Overall, no increase in risk of glioma or meningioma was observed with use of mobile phones. There were suggestions of an increased risk of glioma at the highest exposure levels, but biases and error prevent a causal interpretation. The possible effects of long-term heavy use of mobile phones require further investigation.

In the press releaseaccompanying the release of the paper, Dr Christopher Wild, Director of the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) said: An increased risk of brain cancer is not established from the data from Interphone. However, observations at the highest level of cumulative call time and the changing patterns of mobile phone use since the period studied by Interphone, particularly in young people, mean that further investigation of mobile phone use and brain cancer risk is merited.

A number of independent health and government authorities have commented on this important study including The Australian Centre for Radiofrequency Bioeffects Research (ACRBR) which said in a statement that: Until now there have been concerns that mobile phones were causing increases in brain tumors. Interphone is both large and rigorous enough to address this claim, and it has not provided any convincing scientific evidence of an association between mobile phone use and the development of glioma or meningioma.

While the study demonstrates some weak evidence of an association with the highest tenth of cumulative call time (but only in those who started mobile phone use most recently), the authors conclude that biases and errors limit the strength of any conclusions in this group. It now seems clear that if there was an effect of mobile phone use on brain tumor risks in adults, this is likely to be too small to be detectable by even a large multinational study of the size of Interphone.

The Australian Radiation Protection and Nuclear Safety Agency (ARPANSA) which said in a statement that: On the basis of current understanding of the relationship between brain cancer and use of mobile phones, including the recently published data from the INTERPHONE study, ARPANSA: Concludes that currently available data do not warrant any general recommendation to limit use of mobile phones in the adult population, Continues to inform those concerned about potential health effects that they may limit their exposure by reducing call time, by making calls where reception is good, by using hands-free devices or speaker options, or by texting; and Recommends that, due to the lack of any data relating to children and long term use of mobile phones, parents encourage their children to limit their exposure by reducing call time, by making calls where reception is good, by using hands-free devices or speaker options, or by texting. The Cancer Council Australia said in a statement that it cautiously welcomed the results of the largest international study to date into mobile phone use, which has found no evidence that normal use of mobile phones, for a period up to 12 years, can cause brain cancer.

Chief Executive Officer, Professor Ian Olver, said findings from the Interphone study, conducted across 13 countries including Australia, were consistent with other research that had failed to find a link between mobile phones and cancer. This supports previous research showing mobile phones don’t damage cell DNA, meaning they can’t cause the type of genetic mutations that develop into cancer,” Professor Olver said. However, it has been suggested that electromagnetic fields associated with mobile phones may play a role in speeding up the development of an existing cancer. The Interphone study found no evidence to support this theory. §A Danish study (2004) that took place over 10 years found no evidence to support a link.

However, this study has been criticized for collecting data from subscriptions and not necessarily from actual users. It is known that some subscribers do not use the phones themselves but provide them for family members to use. That this happens is supported by the observation that only 61% of a small sample of the subscribers reported use of mobile phones when responding to a questionnaire. §A Swedish study (2005) that draws the conclusion that “the data do not support the hypothesis that mobile phone use is related to an increased risk of glioma or meningioma. ” §A British study (2005) that draws the conclusion that “The study suggests that there is no substantial risk of acoustic neuroma in the first decade after starting mobile phone use.

However, an increase in risk after longer term use or after a longer lag period could not be ruled out. ” §A German study (2006) that states “In conclusion, no overall increased risk of glioma or meningioma was observed among these cellular phone users; however, for long-term cellular phone users, results need to be confirmed before firm conclusions can be drawn. ” §A joint study conducted in northern Europe that draws the conclusion that “Although our results overall do not indicate an increased risk of glioma in relation to mobile phone use, the possible risk in the most heavily exposed part of the brain with long-term use needs to be explored further before firm conclusions can be drawn. ” Other studies on cancer and mobile phones are: A Swedish scientific team at the Karolinska Institute conducted an epidemiological study (2004) that suggested that regular use of a mobile phone over a decade or more was associated with an increased risk of acoustic neuroma, a type of benign brain tumor. The increase was not noted in those who had used phones for fewer than 10 years. §The INTERPHONE study group from Japan published the results of a study of brain tumor risk and mobile phone use. They used a new approach: determining the SAR inside a tumor by calculating the radio frequency field absorption in the exact tumor location. Cases examined included glioma, meningioma, and pituitary adenoma. They reported that the overall odds ratio (OR) was not increased and that there was no significant trend towards an increasing OR in relation to exposure, as measured by SAR. In 2007, Dr.

Lennart Hardell, from Orebro University in Sweden, reviewed published epidemiological papers (2 cohort studies and 16 case-control studies) and found that: §Cell phone users had an increased risk of malignant gliomas. §Link between cell phone use and a higher rate of acoustic neuromas. §Tumors are more likely to occur on the side of the head that the cell handset is used. §One hour of cell phone use per day significantly increases tumor risk after ten years or more. In a February 2008 update on the status of the INTERPHONE study IARC stated that the long term findings ‘…could either be causal or artifactual, related to differential recall between cases and controls. ’ §A self-published and non-peer reviewed meta-study by Dr. Vini Khurana, an Australian neurosurgeon, presented what it termed “increasing body of evidence … or a link between mobile phone usage and certain brain tumors” and that it “is anticipated that this danger has far broader public health ramifications than asbestos and smoking”. This was criticized as ‘… an unbalanced analysis of the literature, which is also selective in support of the author’s claims. ’ A publication titled “Public health implications of wireless technologies” cites that Lennart Hardell found age is a significant factor. The report repeated the finding that the use of cell phones before age 20 increased the risk of brain tumors by 5. 2, compared to 1. 4 for all ages. A review by Hardell et al. concluded that current mobile phones are not safe for long-term exposure.

In a time trends study in Europe, conducted by the Institute of Cancer Epidemiology in Copenhagen, no significant increase in brain tumors among cell phone users was found between the years of 1998 and 2003. “The lack of a trend change in incidence from 1998 to 2003 suggests that the induction period relating mobile phone use to brain tumors exceeds 5–10 years, the increased risk in this population is too small to be observed, the increased risk is restricted to subgroups of brain tumors or mobile phone users, or there is no increased risk. ” On 31 May 2011 the International Agency for Research on Cancer classified radio frequency electromagnetic fields as possibly carcinogenic to humans (Group 2B).

The IARC assessed and evaluated available literature and studies about the carcinogenicity of radio frequency electromagnetic fields (RF-EMF), and found the evidence to be “limited for carcinogenicity of RF-EMF, based on positive associations between glioma and acoustic neuroma and exposure”. The conclusion of the IARC was mainly based on the INTERPHONE study, which found an increased risk for glioma in the highest category of heavy users (30 minutes per day over a 10? year period), although no increased risk was found at lower exposure and other studies could not back up the findings. The evidence for other types of cancer was found to be “inadequate”. Some members of the Working Group opposed the conclusions and considered the current evidence in humans still as “inadequate”, citing inconsistencies between the assessed studies.

Cognitive effects A 2009 study examined the effects of exposure to radio frequency radiation (RFR) emitted by standard GSM cell phones on the cognitive functions of humans. The study confirmed longer (slower) response times to a spatial working memory task when exposed to RFR from a standard GSM cellular phone placed next to the head of male subjects, and showed that longer duration of exposure to RFR may increase the effects on performance. Right-handed subjects exposed to RFR on the left side of their head on average had significantly longer response times when compared to exposure to the right side and sham-exposure. [38] Electromagnetic hypersensitivity

Some users of mobile handsets have reported feeling several unspecific symptoms during and after its use; ranging from burning and tingling sensations in the skin of the head and extremities, fatigue, sleep disturbances, dizziness, loss of mental attention, reaction times and memory retentiveness, headaches, malaise, tachycardia (heart palpitations), to disturbances of the digestive system. Reports have noted that all of these symptoms can also be attributed to stress and that current research cannot separate the symptoms from nocebo effects. Genotoxic effects A meta-analysis (2008) of 63 in vitro and in vivo studies from the years 1990–2005 concluded that RF radiation was genotoxic only in some conditions and that the studies reporting positive effects evidenced publication bias. A meta-study (2009) of 101 publications on genotoxicity of RF electromagnetic fields showed that 49 reported a genotoxic effect and 42 not.

The authors found “ample evidence that RF-EMF can alter the genetic material of exposed cells in vivo and in vitro and in more than one way”. In 1995, in the journal Bioelectromagnetics, Henry Lai and Narenda P. Singh reported damaged DNA after two hours of microwave radiation at levels deemed safe according to government standards. In December 2004, a pan-European study named REFLEX (Risk Evaluation of Potential Environmental Hazards from Low Energy Electromagnetic Field (EMF) Exposure Using Sensitive in vitro Methods), involving 12 collaborating laboratories in several countries showed some compelling evidence of DNA damage of cells in in-vitro cultures, when exposed between 0. 3 to 2 watts/kg, whole-sample average.

There were indications, but not rigorous evidence of other cell changes, including damage to chromosomes, alterations in the activity of certain genes and a boosted rate of cell division. Research published in 2004 by a team at the University of Athens had a reduction in reproductive capacity in fruit flies exposed to 6 minutes of 900 MHz pulsed radiation for five days. Subsequent research, again conducted on fruit flies, was published in 2007, with the same exposure pattern but conducted at both 900 MHz and 1800 MHz, and had similar changes in reproductive capacity with no significant difference between the two frequencies. Following additional tests published in a third article, the authors stated they thought their research suggested the changes were “…due to degeneration of large numbers f egg chambers after DNA fragmentation of their constituent cells …”. Australian research conducted in 2009 by subjecting in vitro samples of human spermatozoa to radio-frequency radiation at 1. 8 GHz andspecific absorption rates (SAR) of 0. 4 to 27. 5 W/kg showed a correlation between increasing SAR and decreased motility and vitality in sperm, increased oxidative stress and 8-Oxo-2′-deoxyguanosine markers, stimulating DNA base adduct formation and increased DNA fragmentation. [47] Sleep and EEG effects Sleep, EEG and waking rCBF have been studied in relation to RF exposure for a decade now, and the majority of papers published to date have found some form of effect.

While a Finnish study failed to find any effect on sleep or other cognitive function from pulsed RF exposure, most other papers have found significant effects on sleep. Two of these papers found the effect was only present when the exposure was pulsed (amplitude modulated), and one early paper actually found that sleep quality (measured by the amount of participants’ broken sleep) actually improved. While some papers were inconclusive or inconsistent, a number of studies have now demonstrated reversible EEG and rCBF alterations from exposure to pulsed RF exposure. German research from 2006 found that statistically significant EEG changes could be consistently found, but only in a relatively low proportion of study participants (12 – 30%). Health hazards of base stations

Another area of concern is the radiation emitted by the fixed infrastructure used in mobile telephony, such as base stations and their antennas, which provide the link to and from mobile phones. This is because, in contrast to mobile handsets, it is emitted continuously and is more powerful at close quarters. On the other hand, field intensities drop rapidly with distance away from the base of the antenna because of the attenuation of power with the square of distance. Because base stations operate at less than 100 watts, the radiation at ground level is much weaker than a cell phone due to the inverse squared law. Base station emissions must comply with safety guidelines (see Safety standards and licensing below).

Some countries however (such as South Africa for example) have no health regulations governing the placement of base stations. Several surveys have found a variety of self-reported symptoms for people who live close to base stations. However, there are significant challenges in conducting studies of populations near base stations, especially in assessment of individual exposure. Self-report studies can also be vulnerable to the nocebo effect. Two double-blind placebo-controlled trials conducted at the University of Essex and another in Switzerland concluded that mobile phone masts were unlikely to be causing these short term effects in a group of volunteers who complained of such symptoms.

The Essex study found that subjects were unable to tell whether they were being exposed to electromagnetic fields or not, and that sensitive subjects reported lower well being independently of exposure. The principal investigator concluded, “It is clear that sensitive individuals are suffering real symptoms and often have a poor quality of life. It is now important to determine what other factors could be causing these symptoms, so appropriate research studies and treatment strategies can be developed. ” Experts consulted by France considered it was mandatory that main antenna axis not to be directly in front of a living place at a distance shorter than 100 meters.

This recommendation was modified in 2003 to say that antennas located within a 100-metre radius of primary schools or childcare facilities should be better integrated into the cityscape and was not included in a 2005 expert report. The Agence francaise de securite sanitaire environnementale currently says that there is no demonstrated short term effect of electromagnetic fields on health, but that there are open questions for long term effects, and that it’s easy to reduce exposure via technological improvements. Occupational health hazards Telecommunication workers who spend time at a short distance from the active equipment, for the purposes of testing, maintenance, installation, etcetera, may be at risk of much greater exposure than the general population.

Many times base stations are not turned off during maintenance, but the power being sent through to the antennas is cut off, so that the workers do not have to work near live antennas. A variety of studies over the past 50 years have been done on workers exposed to high RF radiation levels; studies including radar laboratory workers, military radar workers, electrical workers, and amateur radio operators. Most of these studies found no increase in cancer rates over the general population or a control group. Many positive results could have been attributed to other work environment conditions, and many negative results of reduced cancer rates also occurred. Safety standards and licensing

In order to protect the population living around base stations and users of mobile handsets, governments and regulatory bodies adopt safety standards, which translate to limits on exposure levels below a certain value. There are many proposed national and international standards, but that of the International Commission for Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection (ICNIRP) is the most respected one, and has been adopted so far by more than 80 countries. For radio stations, ICNIRP proposes two safety levels: one for occupational exposure, another one for the general population. Currently there are efforts underway to harmonize the different standards in existence. Radio base licensing procedures have been established in the majority of urban spaces regulated either at municipal/county, provincial/state or national level.

Mobile telephone service providers are, in many regions, required to obtain construction licenses, provide certification of antenna emission levels and assure compliance to ICNIRP standards and/or to other environmental legislation. Many governmental bodies also require that competing telecommunication companies try to achieve sharing of towers so as to decrease environmental and cosmetic impact. This issue is an influential factor of rejection of installation of new antennas and towers in communities. The safety standards in the U. S. are set by the Federal Communications Commission (FCC). The FCC has based its standards primarily on those standards established by the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE), specifically Subcommittee 4 of the “International Committee on Electromagnetic Safety”.

Switzerland has set safety limits lower than the ICNIRP limits for certain “sensitive areas” (classrooms, for example). Lawsuits In the USA, a small number of personal injury lawsuits have been filed by individuals against cell phone manufacturers, such as Motorola,NEC, Siemens and Nokia, on the basis of allegations of causation of brain cancer and death. In US federal court, expert testimony relating to science must be first evaluated by a judge, in a Daubert hearing, to be relevant and valid before it is admissible as evidence. In one case against Motorola, the plaintiffs alleged that the use of wireless handheld telephones could cause brain cancer, and that the use of Motorola phones caused one plaintiff’s cancer.

The judge ruled that no sufficiently reliable and relevant scientific evidence in support of either general or specific causation was proffered by the plaintiffs; accepted a motion to exclude the testimony of the plaintiffs’ experts; and denied a motion to exclude the testimony of the defendants’ experts. French High Court ruling against telecom company In February 2009 the telecom company Bouygues Telecom was ordered to take down a mobile phone mast due to uncertainty about its effect on health. Residents in the commune Charbonnieres in the Rhone department had sued the company claiming adverse health effects from the radiation emitted by the 19 meter tall antenna. The milestone ruling by the Versailles Court of Appeal reversed the burden of proofwhich is usual in such cases by emphasizing the extreme divergence between different countries in assessing safe limits for such radiation.

The court stated that, “Considering that, while the reality of the risk remains hypothetical, it becomes clear from reading the contributions and scientific publications produced in debate and the divergent legislative positions taken in various countries, that uncertainty over the harmlessness of exposure to the waves emitted by relay antennas persists and can be considered serious and reasonable”. Precaution Precautionary principle In 2000, the World Health Organization (WHO) recommended that the precautionary principle could be voluntarily adopted in this case. [81] It follows the recommendations of the European Community for environmental risks.

According to the WHO, the “precautionary principle” is “a risk management policy applied in circumstances with a high degree of scientific uncertainty, reflecting the need to take action for a potentially serious risk without awaiting the results of scientific research. ” Other less stringent recommended approaches are prudent avoidance principle and as low as reasonably practicable. Although all of these are problematic in application, due to the widespread use and economic importance of wireless telecommunication systems in modern civilization, there is an increased popularity of such measures in the general public, though also evidence that such approaches may increase concern.

They involve recommendations such as the minimization of cell phone usage, the limitation of use by at-risk population (such as children), the adoption of cell phones and micro cells with as low as reasonably practicable levels of radiation, the wider use of hands-free and earphone technologies such as Blue tooth headsets, the adoption of maximal standards of exposure, RF field intensity and distance of base stations antennas from human habitations, and so forth. Precautionary measures and health advisories In May 2011, the World Health Organization’s International Agency for Research on Cancer announced it was classifying electromagnetic fields from mobile phones and other sources as “possibly carcinogenic to humans” and advised the public to adopt safety measures to reduce exposure, like use of hands-free devices or texting. Some national radiation advisory authorities, including those of Austria, France, Germany, and Sweden, have recommended measures to minimize exposure to their citizens. Examples of the recommendations are: §Use hands-free to decrease the radiation to the head. Keep the mobile phone away from the body. §Do not use telephone in a car without an external antenna. The use of “hands-free” was not recommended by the British Consumers’ Association in a statement in November 2000 as they believed that exposure was increased. However, measurements for the (then) UK Department of Trade and Industry and others for the French l’Agence francaise de securite sanitaire environnementale showed substantial reductions. In 2005 Professor Lawrie Challis and others said clipping a ferrite bead onto hands-free kits stops the radio waves traveling up the wire and into the head. Several nations have advised moderate use of mobile phones for children.

Andrea Mantegna

Andrea Mantegna  (1431 – September 13, 1506) was a North Italian Renaissance painter, a student ofRoman archeology, and son in law of Jacopo Bellini. Like other artists of the time, Mantegna experimented with perspective, e. g. , by lowering the horizon in order to create a sense of greater monumentality. His flinty, metallic landscapes and somewhat stony figures give evidence of a fundamentally sculptural approach to painting. He also led a workshop that was the leading producer ofprints in Venice before 1500.

Mantegna was born in Isola di Carturo, close to Padua in the Republic of Venice, second son of a carpenter, Biagio. At the age of eleven he became the apprentice of Francesco Squarcione, Paduanpainter. Squarcione, whose original vocation was tailoring, appears to have had a remarkable enthusiasm for ancient art, and a faculty for acting. Like his famous compatriot Petrarca, Squarcione was something of a fanatic for ancient Rome: he travelled in Italy, and perhaps Greece, amassing antique statues, reliefs, vases, etc. forming a collection of such works, then making drawings from them himself, and throwing open his stores for others to study. All the while, he continued undertaking works on commission for which his pupils no less than himself were made available (Mantegna,2011). As many as 137 painters and pictorial students passed through Squarcione’s school, which had been established towards 1440 and which became famous all over Italy. Padua was attractive for artists coming not only from Veneto but also from Tuscany, such as Paolo Uccello, Filippo Lippi and Donatello.

Mantegna’s early career was shaped indeed by impressions of Florentine works. At the time, Mantegna was said to be a favorite pupil; Squarcione taught him the Latin language, and instructed him to study fragments of Roman sculpture. The master also preferred forced perspective, the lingering results of which may account for some of Mantegna’s later innovations. However, at the age of seventeen, Mantegna separated himself from Squarcione. He later claimed that Squarcione had profited from his work without paying the rights (Roberts,2004) .

His first work, now lost, was an altarpiece for the church of Santa Sofia in 1448. The same year Mantegna was called, together with Nicolo Pizolo, to work with a large group of painters entrusted with the decoration of the Ovetari Chapel in the transept of the church of the Eremitani. It is probable, however, that before this time some of the pupils of Squarcione, including Mantegna, had already begun the series of frescoes in the chapel of S. Cristoforo, in the church of Sant’Agostino degli Eremitani, today considered his masterpiece.

After a series of coincidences, Mantegna finished most of the work alone, though Ansuino, who collaborated with Mantegna in the Ovetari Chapel, brought his style in the Forli School of painting. The now censorious Squarcione carped about the earlier works of this series, illustrating the life of St James; he said the figures were like men of stone, and had better have been colored stone-color at once (Levinson,1999). This series was almost entirely lost in the 1944 allied bombings of Padua. The most dramatic work of the fresco cycle was the work set in the worm’s-eye view perspective, St.

James Led to His Execution. For an example of Mantegna’s use of a lowered view point, see the image at right of Saints Peter and Paul; though much less dramatic in its perspective than the St. James picture, the San Zeno altarpiece was done shortly after the St. James cycle was finished, and uses many of the same techniques, including the classicizing architectural structure. The sketch of the St. Stephen fresco survived and is the earliest known preliminary sketch which still exists to compare to the corresponding fresco. Despite the authentic look of the monument, it is not a copy of any known Roman structure.

Mantegna also adopted the wet drapery patterns of the Romans, who derived the form from the Greek invention, for the clothing of his figures, although the tense figures and interactions are derived from Donatello. The drawing shows proof that nude figures were used in the conception of works during the Early Renaissance. In the preliminary sketch, the perspective is less developed and closer to a more average viewpoint however (Levinson,1999). Among the other early Mantegna frescoes are the two saints over the entrance porch of the church ofSant’Antonio in Padua, 1452, and an altarpiece of St.

Luke and other saints for the church of S. Giustina, now in the Brera Gallery in Milan . As the young artist progressed in his work, he came under the influence of Jacopo Bellini, father of the celebrated painters Giovanni and Gentile, and of a daughter Nicolosia. In 1453 Jacopo consented to a marriage between Nicolosia and Mantegna (Levinson,1999). Aesthetic Andrea seems to have been influenced by his old preceptor’s strictures, although his later subjects, for example, those from the legend of St. Christopher, combine his sculptural style with a greater sense of naturalism and vivacity.

Trained as he had been in the study of marbles and the severity of the antique, Mantegna openly avowed that he considered ancient art superior to nature as being more eclectic in form. As a result, the painter exercised precision in outline, privileging the figure. Overall, Mantegna’s work thus tended towards rigidity, demonstrating an austere wholeness rather than graceful sensitivity of expression. His draperies are tight and closely folded, being studied from models draped in paper and woven fabrics gummed in place.

His figures are slim, muscular and bony; the action impetuous but of arrested energy. Finally, tawny landscape, gritty with littering pebbles, marks the athletic hauteur of his style (Janson et al,2005). Mantegna never changed the manner which he had adopted in Padua, though his coloring—at first neutral and undecided—strengthened and matured. Throughout his works there is more balancing of color than fineness of tone. One of his great aims was optical illusion, carried out by a mastery of perspective which, though not always mathematically correct, attained an astonishing effect in those times.

Successful and admired though he was there, Mantegna left his native Padua at an early age, and never resettled there again; the hostility of Squarcione has been assigned as the cause. He spent the rest of his life in Verona, Mantua and Rome; it has not been confirmed that he also stayed in Venice and Florence (Roberts,2004). Work in Mantua The Marquis Ludovico II Gonzaga of Mantua had for some time been pressing Mantegna to enter his service; and the following year, 1460 Mantegna was appointed court artist.

He resided at first from time to time at Goito, but, from December 1466 onwards, he moved with his family to Mantua. His engagement was for a salary of 75 lire a month, a sum so large for that period as to mark conspicuously the high regard in which his art was held. He was in fact the first painter of any eminence ever domiciled in Mantua. His Mantuan masterpiece was painted in the apartment of the Castle of the city, today known as Camera degli Sposi (literally, “Wedding Chamber”): a series of full compositions in fresco including various ortraits of the Gonzaga family and some figures of genii (Roberts,2004). The Chamber’s decoration was finished presumably in 1474. The ten years that followed were not happy ones for Mantegna and Mantua: his character grew irritable, his son Bernardino died, as well as the marquis Ludovico, his wife Barbara and his successor Federico (who had declared Mantegna cavaliere, “knight”). Only with the election of Francesco II of Gonzaga did the artistic commissions in Mantua begin again.

He built a stately house in the area of the church of San Sebastiano, and adorned it with a multitude of paintings. The house can be still seen today, although the pictures have perished. In this period he began to collect some ancient Roman busts (which were donated to Lorenzo de Medici when the Florentine leader visited Mantua in 1483), n 1488 Mantegna was called by Pope Innocent VIII to paint frescos in a chapel Belvedere in the Vatican. This series of frescos, including a noted Baptism of Christ, was destroyed by Pius VI in 1780.

The pope treated Mantegna with less liberality than he had been used to at the Mantuan court; but all things considered their connection, which ceased in 1500, was not unsatisfactory to either party (Janson et al,2005). Mantegna also met the famous Turkish hostage Jem and studied with attention the ancient monuments, but his impression of the city was a disappointing one as a whole. Returned to Mantua in 1490, he embraced again his more literary and bitter vision of antiquity, and entered in strong connection with the new marquise, the cultured and intelligent Isabella d’Este.

In what was now his city he went on with the nine tempera pictures of the Triumphs of Caesar, which he had probably begun before his leaving for Rome, and which he finished around 1492. These superbly invented and designed compositions are gorgeous with the splendour of their subject-matter, and with the classical learning and enthusiasm of one of the master-spirits of the age. Considered Mantegna’s finest work, they were sold in 1628 along with the bulk of the Mantuan art treasures to King Charles I of England.

They are now in Hampton Court Palace, somewhat faded, but many repaintings have been removed in a recent restoration. His workshop produced a series of engravings after them, which largely account for their rapid fame throughout Europe (Grey,1992). Later years In spite of declining health, Mantegna continued to be active. Other works of this period include the Madonna of the Caves, the St. Sebastian and the famous Lamentation over the Dead Christ, probably painted for his personal funerary chapel.

Another work of Mantegna’s later years was the so-calledMadonna della Vittoria, now in the Louvre. It was painted in tempera about 1495, in commemoration of the Battle of Fornovo, whose disputable outcome Francesco Gonzaga was eager to show as an Italian League victory; the church which originally housed the picture was built from Mantegna’s own design. The Madonna is here depicted with various saints, the archangel Michael and St. Maurice holding her mantle, which is extended over the kneeling Francesco Gonzaga, amid a profusion of rich festooning and other accessory.

Though not in all respects of his highest order of execution, this counts among the most obviously beautiful and attractive of Mantegna’s works from which the qualities of beauty and attraction are often excluded, in the stringent pursuit of those other excellences more germane to his severe genius, tense energy passing into haggard passion (Janson et al,2005). After 1497 Mantegna was commissioned by Isabella d’Este to translate the mythological themes written by the court poet Paride Ceresara into paintings for her private apartment (studiolo) in the Palazzo Ducale.

These paintings were dispersed in the following years: one of them, the legend of the God Comus, was left unfinished by Mantegna and completed by his successor as court painter in Mantua,Lorenzo Costa (Grey,1992). After the death of his wife, Mantegna became at an advanced age the father of a natural son, Giovanni Andrea; and at the last, although he continued launching out into various expenses and schemes, he had serious tribulations, such as the banishment from Mantua of his son Francesco, who had incurred the marquis’ displeasure.

Perhaps the aged master and connoisseur regarded as barely less trying the hard necessity of parting with a beloved antique bust of Faustina. Very soon after this transaction he died in Mantua, on September 13, 1506. In 1516, a handsome monument was set up to him by his sons in the church of Sant’Andrea, where he had painted the altar-piece of the mortuary chapel. The dome is decorated by Correggio (Grey,1992). Like Pollajuolo, Andrea delighted in copper engraving, and, among other things, reproduced his Triumphs.

They were greatly valued, because better ones had not then been seen. Among his last works was a panel at S. Maria della Vittoria, a church built under his direction by the Marquis Francesco to celebrate his victory at the River Taro when he was general of the Venetians against the French. It is painted in tempera, and was placed at the high altar. Our Lady with the Child is erected upon a pedestal; beneath her are St. Michael the Archangel, St. Anne and Joach in presenting the marquis, who is drawn from life most naturally, while the Madonna stretches out her hand to him.

This world, which gives pleasure to everyone, so delighted the marquis that he rewarded the genius and the pains of Andrea most liberally, the painter retaining to the end his honourable rank of knight, his works being admired by princes everywhere. Lorenzo da Lendinara, a rival of Andrea, was considered an excellent painter at Padua, and did some things in clay in the church of S. Antonio, and others of no great value. He maintained a close friendship with Mario da Trevisi and Mario Zoppo of Bologna, because they had been fellow-pupils of Squarcione.

Marco did a loggia for the Minorites at Padua, which serves as their chapter-house, and a picture at Pesaro, which is now in the new church of S. Giovanni Evangelista. In one picture he drew the portrait of Guidobaldo da Montefeltro, when he was captain of the Florentines. Another friend of Mantegna was Stefano, painter of Ferrara, whose works were few but meritorious. The ornamentation of the arch of S. Antonio at Padua is by him, as well as the Virgin Mary, called del Pilastro (Grey,1992). Assessments and Legacy Giorgio Vasari eulogizes Mantegna, although pointing out his litigious character.

He had been fond of his fellow-pupils at Padua: and for two of them, Dario da Trevigi and Marco Zoppo, he retained a steady friendship. Mantegna became very expensive in his habits, fell at times into difficulties, and had to urge his valid claims upon the marquis’ attention. In solid antique taste, Mantegna distanced all contemporary competition. Though substantially related to the 15th century, the influence of Mantegna on the style and tendency of his age was very marked over Italian art generally. Giovanni Bellini, in his earlier works, obviously followed the lead of his brother-in-law Andrea.

Albrecht Durer was influenced by his style during his two trips in Italy. Leonardo da Vinci took from Mantegna the use of decorations with festoons and fruit (Mantegna, 2011). Mantegna’s main legacy in considered the introduction of spatial illusionism, both in frescoes and insacra conversazione paintings: his tradition of ceiling decoration was followed for almost three centuries. Starting from the faint cupola of the Camera degli Sposi, Correggio brought on his master and collaborator’s research in perspective constructions, producing eventually a masterwork like the dome ofCathedral of Parma (Mantegna,2011).

Andrea was so gentle and amiable in all his acts that he will always be remembered, not only in his own country, but throughout the world. Thus he deserves the reference of Ariosto as much for his courteous manners as for the excellence of his‚painting. I refer to the passage at the beginning of Canto XXXIII. , where, in enumerating the most celebrated painters of the time, the poet says: Leonardo, Andrea Mantegna, Gian Bellino Andrea improved the foreshortening of figures as seen from below, and this was a difficult and fine invention.

He was also fond, as I have said, of copper engraving, a very remarkable process, by means of which the world has been able to see the Bacchanalia, the battle of the sea-monsters, the Deposition from the Cross, the Burial of Christ and the Resurrection, with Longinus and St. Andrew, all works of Mantegna, as well as the styles of all the artists who have ever lived (Mantegna ,2011). Work Cited 1. Art; London: Royal Academy of Arts, 1992) Grey, Charles Exhibition Catalog: Metropolitan Museum of Art; Royal Academy of Arts 2. “Andrea Mantegna”. Catholic Encyclopedia.

New York: Roberts, Jason Appleton Company. 1913. January 14,2004. 3. Early Italian Engravings from the National Gallery of Art; J. A. Levinson (ed); National Gallery of Art, 1973,LOC 7379624, March 18, 1999 4. Janson, H. W. , Janson, Anthony F. History of Art. Harry N. Abrams, Inc. , Publishers. 6 edition. January 1, 2005. ISBN 0-13-182895-9 5. WWW. artchive. com/artchive/M/mantegna. html. 04-21-2011 Mississippi Valley State University Department of Fine Arts Andrea Mantegna Presented to: Mrs. Tieman Presented by: Bennie L. Terry Jr. April 21, 2011

What is collagen Essay

Collagen is a simple protein made up of amino-acids. Amino acids are built from C. O and H. In fact collagen makes up about 30 % of the protein within the organic structure. As a construction Collagen is intensely strong and is a critical protein that is found all over the organic structure: In sinews and ligaments. It plays an of import function in the protection map of the tegument in that it helps restrict the soaking up and spreading of infective substances. environmental toxins. micro – beings and cancerous cells.

Why do we necessitate collagen? Collagen is the chief protein of connective tissue and is responsible for: tegument soundness. skin moisturisation. skin lissomeness. changeless reclamation of tegument cells. Research proves explicitly that the tegument ageing procedure occurs in connective tissue. whose chief ingredient is collagen. Collagen is critical for skin snap. which is indispensable for the flexibleness of the tegument without stretching. It allows our tegument to invariably spread out and contract without looking like a good worn. good loved old cardigan than has stretched beyond acknowledgment. Skin loses its snap and ability to spread out because of the diminishing ability to retain H2O.

When snap is compromised. when we put on inordinate weight. or we are pregnant. the elastin fibers are truly under force per unit area and the consequence can intend stretch Markss. Like Love and matrimony. Laurel and Hardy. and Yin and Yang. both collagen and elastin fibers support and need each other. Because of this dependence upon each other. it is of import to construct both non merely one. for existent and best consequences. It is hence of import. that. to ease increased Collagen production within the tegument. we need to guarantee that we have increased elastin fibers. H2O and energy. The synthesis of collagen requires a high degree of atmospheric O.

The collagen in these types of merchandises are traveling to make nil more than humidify the tegument. Collagen can non be absorbed by the tegument. Collagens dependence on Oxygen As mentioned in the subdivision “What is collagen” we already know Collagen is a simple protein made up of amino-acids. and that Amino acids are built from C. O and H. It is hence true to state that. in order for collagen to be produced. the organic structure needs sufficient supply of all of these 3 cardinal elements. Let look closer at how the organic structure really receives these elements and get down to appreciate what we can make to assist ourselves.

Hydrogen ( H ) – a macronutrient It would be virtually impossible to minimize the importance of this component to human life. First of all. H2O is a compound of H and O ( H2O ) . We can last old ages. or at least months without acquiring most of the other elements that we need to last. We can last hebdomads without nutrient. but we would decease after merely a few yearss without H2O. Water is improbably of import in our organic structures. In fact. about 70 % of our organic structure is made of H2O. It dissolves other life-supporting substances and transports them to fluids in and around our cells.

It is besides a topographic point in which of import reactions take topographic point in our organic structures. Chemically. H2O is a singular substance and its many alone properties make life possible. Hydrogen is evidently a critical constituent of H2O and infinitesimal chemical bonds called “hydrogen bonds” are what give H2O many of its alone properties. Besides. H is practically ever bound to the C that our organic structures are constructed of. Without this agreement. our organic structures would be little more than a heap of atoms on the land. Stomach acid is a compound of H and Cl ( hydrochloric acid. or HCl ) .

Logically. H is highly of import in leting us to digest our nutrient decently and to absorb the many other elements that we need to last. Finally. many chemical reactions that make life possible involve the H ion. Without this unique and of import component. we merely couldn’t exist. Karin Herzog merchandises based on the original and ground-breaking expression of her Late Husband. Dr Paul Herzog. have been clinically proven to present extra H2O straight into the tegument. This is no average effort and is something that most other tegument attention merchandise attempt to accomplish to lesser or greater extent.

Herzog remains the world’s merely merchandise to present non merely O but H2O deep into the tegument. We can lawfully claim that we oxygenate the tissues as we have passed the necessary clinical testing’s by a recognized European proving research lab. Using Herzog gives you peace of head and confidence that the merchandise you invest in. is making what it is supposed to make and is a major benefit to the tegument. Carbon ( C ) – a macronutrient The component C is possibly the individual most of import component to life. Virtually every portion of our organic structures is made with big sums of this component.

The C atom is ideal to construct large biological molecules. The C atom can be thought of as a basic edifice block. These edifice blocks can be attached to each other to organize long ironss. or they can be attached to other elements. This can be hard to conceive of at first. but it may assist to believe about edifice with Lego blocks. You can believe of C as a clump of ruddy Lego blocks attached together to organize one long concatenation of Lego’s. Now. you can conceive of lodging xanthous. blue and green Lego’s across the tops of the ruddy ( C ) Lego’s. These other colorss represent other elements like O. N or H.

As you stick more and more of these xanthous. blue and green Lego’s to the ruddy concatenation. it would get down to look like a skeleton of Lego’s with a “spine” of ruddy Lego’s and “bones” of yellow. blue and green Lego’s. This is a batch like the manner that large molecules are made in the organic structure. Without C. these large molecules could non be built. Now. virtually every portion of your organic structure is made up of these large molecules that are based around ironss of C atoms. This is the ground we are known as “carbon based life forms” . Without C. our organic structures would merely be a large heap of loose atoms with no manner to be built into a individual.

Carbohydrates are simple sugars. composed of C. H. and O atoms. The organic structure gets carbon therefore from a good diet because C atoms ever bond to hydrogen atoms. utilizing Herzog which delivers extra H2O allows more C to be transported. Oxygen ( O ) – a macronutrient It may look obvious that people need to take a breath O to last. but workss need this component excessively. Many people think workss “breathe” C dioxide and “exhale” O. But in world. workss besides “breathe” O at certain times. Without O. workss could non last.

Without workss. we wouldn’t have nutrient to eat. Plants do supply the O and the Earths atmosphere is made up of about 20 % Oxygen. However in contaminated countries like major inner-cities. this O count is consuming and the air quality is compromised. Oxygen is the regulator within our organic structures. It fights infection and bacterium. Oxygen has a stimulating consequence on the 10 systems of the organic structure and is used as the fuel and energy. Oxygen plays a critical function in the external respiration procedures and in the metamorphosis of the life beings. Appropriate degrees of O are critical to back up cell respiration.

Oxygen plays an of import function in the energy metamorphosis of life beings. The life cell is the site of enormous biochemical activity called metamorphosis This is the procedure of chemical and physical alteration which goes on continually in the human organic structure: build-up of new tissue. replacing of old tissue. transition of nutrient to energy. disposal of waste stuffs. reproduction – all the activities that we characterize as “life. ” All maps of our organic structure are regulated by O. It must be replaced every minute because 90 % of our lives depend on it. Oxygen energizes cells so they can renew.

Our organic structure uses O to metabolize nutrient and to extinguish toxins and waste through oxidization. Our encephalon demands oxygen each 2nd to treat information. All of our variety meats need a great trade of O to work expeditiously. The ability to believe. experience. travel eat. slumber and even speak all depend on energy generated from O. Oxygen is the lone component capable of uniting with about every other component to organize the necessities constituents necessary to construct and keep our organic structure. For illustration O + nitrogen+ hydrogen= protein: oxygen+ carbon+ hydrogen=carbohydrates: O +hydrogen=water. How of import is oxygen to a healthy organic structure?

Many experts conclude that a deficiency of O in human cells and tissue is linked to a huge assortment of and quite perchance all wellness jobs and disease. and that auxiliary O therapies have singular physiological benefits. It plays a really of import function in the organic structure moving as guardian and defender against unfriendly bacteriums and disease being. Most scientists and physicians reiterate that metabolic upsets are the consequence of blood deficient in O. When you consider the full importance of O. it becomes clear that this various component is the individual most of import substance to life.

Karin Herzog merchandises based on the original and ground-breaking expression of her Late Husband. Dr Paul Herzog. have been clinically proven to present extra Oxygen straight into the tegument. This is no average effort and is something that most other tegument attention merchandises try to emulate. Herzog remains the universes merely merchandise to present non merely O but H2O and vitamins deep into the tegument. We can lawfully claim that we oxygenate the tissues as we have passed the necessary clinical testing’s by a recognized European proving research lab.

Using Herzog gives you peace of head and confidence that the merchandise you invest in. is making what it is supposed to make and is a major benefit to the tegument. Replace. addition and so maintain exceeding up the critical life line elements for your cells ( including the tegument ) that age. environment and modern life take out on a day-to-day footing. To hold peace of head that that is in fact what you are making it is good to cognize Herzog is logical. dependable and developed and supported by Specialists. clinicians and Doctors.

Can the skin absorb collagen from a pick? Well non one to crush around the shrub and desiring so much to educate and give people the facts to enable YOU the consumer to do an educated pick about what you spend your difficult earned hard currency on… . Here we go ‘It is impossible for your tegument to absorb collagen from a pick that is placed locally onto the tegument. ’ Fact! That means that any merchandise you buy that purports to increase your collagen production by forcing collagen from the pick into the tegument. is doing a false claim. T best they can merely humidify the tegument. which yes is of import and good but so tonss of things do that and you don’t necessitate to pass unbelievable sums of money because the pick “contains” collagen! The lone logical and proved manner to increase collagen is to excite and increase your organic structures ain production of this protein. to make that it needs the elements we looked at in our old subdivisions: i. e. Oxygen – Hydrogen – Carbon Karin Herzog merchandises deliver 2 out of 3 of these elements. and the 3rd. Carbon. comes from your diet and so needs the other 2 to work to the full.

Applied right and on a regular basis you can be assured that you are replacing the critical elements needed to keep a healthy and active tegument. Because of this consequences from Herzog are Cumulative. the tegument merely supports on acquiring better and better until its the best your tegument can be. Many clients report that their tegument has got “USED” to the merchandise they use and so its non working any more. This does non and can non go on with Herzog. The tegument recognises and welcomes the bringing of indispensable elements and goes to work with them…… . Now that’s Common sense. scientific discipline and unique!

History Of Applied Theatre English Literature Essay

In this chapter will show a brief overview of the construct of Applied Theatre as my get downing point in order to reply the inquiry formulated by this thesis: “ What function can use theatre drama in the reintegration of former child-soldiers? ” Based upon the inquiry, this chapter is interested in what AT can make instead than what it is. I will so research African Indigenous[ 1 ]theater and ritual public presentation patterns to happen out if there are similarities with AT. I argue that art processes, in any signifier, whether AT or autochthonal public presentations or rites can be a utile method for alteration and for assisting people to place the spreads in society that divides and those elements that can assist to agitate alteration for a advanced community.

Applied theater is a broad scope of theater patterns that autumn outside the conventional theatre scenes ( Thompson 2003 ) with its trained histrions, five Acts of the Apostless, apron arch and paid audiences. It is theatre done in topographic points where theater is to the lowest degree expected such as in prisons, refugee cantonments, disregarded estates, infirmaries, museums, Centres for the handicapped, old people ‘s places and underserved rural small towns ( Thompson 2003:15 ) . One of its most important properties is that it gives voice to the voiceless and it is theatre for, by, and with the people. As Thompson puts it, “ aˆ¦Applied theatre becomes a pattern that engages with the political relations of prepositionsaˆ¦ ” ( Thompson 2003:15 ) ; which means that applied theatre manner of battle takes a bottom-up attack to pattern. It is a collective of theater patterns that uses theatre and drama-based procedures including, mask, puppetry, mummer, sculpting, dance, music, art, narrative fashioning and storytelling. AT covers a overplus of theatre patterns such as Theatre in Prison, Theatre in Education ( TIE ) , Theatre of the Oppressed ( TO ) , Women ‘s Theatre, Theatre in Place of War and Theatre for Development ( TfD ) . All of these are single theater patterns that utilise the theatrical procedures to prosecute persons and groups in phenomenal ways that differs loosely from the theater of the commercial genres. What these patterns have in common is that they are participatory in range and seek to accomplish, as the ultimate end, a alteration in fortunes to better the batch of peculiar groupings on the peripheries of society or as Taylor informs, these theaters signifiers are:

“ aˆ¦powered by the demand to alter: a community is aching and theaters can enable people to treat their injury ; or if there are excessively many unneeded Acts of the Apostless of disease, of hatred, and of substance maltreatment in our thick, theater might be one manner for a community to see alternativesaˆ¦ ” ( Taylor 2003 ) .

Whenever a community is fractured as a consequence of natural catastrophes, wars or even by wellness issues such as HIV/AIDS, alcohol addiction, drug dependence, Applied Theatre can be a good procedure to make what Prentki and Preston explains as “ aˆ¦processes that return participants and audiences beyond the range of conventional theater into the kingdom of a theater that is antiphonal to ordinary people and their narratives, local scenes and prioritiesaˆ¦ ” ( Prentki and Preston 2009:9 ) , or as Taylor informs, it is a good mechanism to forestall life endangering behaviours such as domestic force, race dealingss, young person self-destruction, and to mend fractured identitiesaˆ¦ ” ( Taylor 2003:1 ) . These fractured individualities may emerge from natural catastrophes, and other such anomalousnesss that upset the position quo doing pandemonium and atomization of communities and peoples such as armed struggles. It is of import to observe that applied theater participants do non necessitate preparation as histrions to prosecute since it is a theater for people to prosecute in the procedure together enabling alteration. Better put, Thompson explains therefore, that Applied Theatre does non “ leave in participants a public presentation accomplishment to be merely replayed subsequently ” ( Thompson 2003 ) , it is non like practising a scripted drama with a beginning, a center, and an terminal. In other words, participants would utilize the applied theater procedure in such a manner that the procedure becomes uninterrupted and would maintain on germinating which Thompson describes as “ action fragmentsaˆ¦ ” ( Thompson 2003 ) , and merely remembering what resonates for their needed alteration.

It is the kind of pattern that intersects with other subjects ( Thompson 2003 ) such as wellness, anthropology, instruction, the aged, adult females and gender issues, people populating with disablements it becomes a really good tool for research without seeking to feign to be an expert in those Fieldss. AT is about prosecuting people and communities so they can, together, happen another manner of covering with specific state of affairss that affect them as persons and as a group. Because of its efficacious character, participants are able to detect alternate ways of nearing a job. Furthermore, it is theatre that is done in unexpected topographic points outside the conventional theater edifices ( Thompson 2003 ) . This signifier of theater is target-specific. It is the tool of alteration that is accessible to marginalised and disempowered groups.

Examples of AT can be found in the TO ( see ) or Thompson Kothuru ( see ) in Sri Lanka to mention a few. In these illustrations, one can spot.

History of African Indigenous and Ritual theater

Expression at cultural norms, rites, community, socialization

African Indigenous Theatre

I am utilizing the term theater as an all across-the-board term to discourse African autochthonal theater patterns.

Many African bookmans and theatre practicians intimate that African theater day of the months back some 5,000 to 50,000 old ages. ( Banham 2004 ) , nevertheless, written certification of the history does non be due to the fact that Africa was chiefly an unwritten tradition and patterns are passed down orally from one individual or group to the following. African autochthonal theater patterns include, mime, dance, vocals, music, mask, festivals and rites and storytelling. Adelugba and Obafemi say that such patterns are, “ aˆ¦cycle of human life marked by a sequence of these eventsaˆ¦ ” ( Banham 2004 ) . These art signifiers, nevertheless, should non be viewed strictly as amusement since they normally have specific purposes and aims. For illustration, among these art signifiers there are public presentation humanistic disciplines for instruction, rites settling differences, birth, funerals and agricultural ( Banham 2004:138 ) .

Indigenous theater comes from the community, doing it communal in range and the groups work as a collective. The theater they create comes from the participants. It has no apron arch or raked seating. There are normally no differentiation between creative person and witnesss, and public presentations can take topographic point anyplace. This is apparent in public presentations in the streets in a football field, market, and town-squares across the continent. Another major aspect of autochthonal theater is that there are no written books. In other words, the theater comes from within the ego of the creative person. This Harding positions as:

“ aˆ¦quite different, for the art is produced in the ego of the creative person, and the entity therefore produced each clip is defined temporally in vivo, produced in and by the performing artist as both creative person and art object. It is seen and heard through presence, voice and motion and its impermanent being verified by the presence of witnesss. The quality of its temporalty is physical, embodied in the performing artist ; it is rendered everlastingly passing, bing merely for every bit long as the performing artist performsaˆ¦ ” ( Harding 2002:3 ) .

African autochthonal theaters can non be discussed without admiting the arguments environing the term. Academicians, theoretician and theater professionals argue about whether Africa ‘s autochthonal public presentations and rites can be classified as ‘theatre ‘ or as ‘drama ‘ . Finnegan argues that “ aˆ¦with a few possible exclusions, there is no tradition in Africa of artistic public presentations which includes all the elements which might be demanded in a rigorous definition of play or at least non with the accents to which we are accustomed ” ( Finnegan as cited by Kirby 1974:22 ) . Some African bookmans and theatre practician holds similar position. However they put it in a different manner. They argue that public presentation, festivals, rites, and dance were non known as theater or play. These are European footings. ( CITATION ) . Still, it does non change Africa ‘s claim ancient public presentation patterns that predate Europe. ( BARBER ) . Kirby use the term ‘quasi ‘ in mention to the African autochthonal. However, it seems he was someway confused by what he witnessed because he continued by describe some of the patterns as theatrical and play. ( KIRBY ) . When Finnegan used the term ‘we ‘ , it implies that she is talking for a huge figure of people. Because Drama comes from the Greek, dran, intending ‘to do ‘ and theaters comes from the Greek, theatron, intending the seeing topographic point, it would look, in the instance of Finnegan, that because largely a big portion of Africa were former settlements of Britain they did non Anglicised many of their ‘primitive ‘ footings. Furthermore, if ‘artistic ‘ ( Finn ) public presentation evolved in a European sense-theatre ; apron, specific aesthetic signifier of stating a narrative – if these define theater so it came in with European. This seems to be the bone of contention.

Autochthonal theater patterns and rites are utilized as tools for alteration, for development, for HIV/AIDS consciousness, for maternal and child wellness, for adult females, peace and security. Nahim informs that rites for the reintegration of ex-combatants, including misss took the signifier of dispossession, forfeit, cleansing, testimony, moving out in order to let go of what they believe to be evil, a spirit. One illustration of forfeit is: killing a caprine animal, or sheep, depending on the specific state of affairs the participants are in. The participants are so washed with the blood from the animate being, after which a public presentation of dance and enchantment takes topographic point. The immorality is transferred into the dead animate being and the individual additions freedom for all the atrociousnesss he or she may hold commission in the war. A emanation with costumes, sing, dancing marched through the town to a river where the participants are washed in the river – they so receive a new set of vesture and the old 1s are burned. ( Nahim 2009 ) .

Against this background,

“ aˆ¦Drama is an built-in portion of socio-cultural life of Sierra Leone. It features in every signifier of societal interaction. In festivals and jubilations, spiritual and cultic rites, in storytelling Sessionss and even daily interactions, the component of being in a province of ownership, of role-playing and caricature and assorted functional play as so apparent that their staginess is frequently taken for granted.

“ aˆ¦Especially noteworthy in the current context of rapprochement in Sierra Leone are grassroots enterprises for the rehabilitation of ex-combatants. Working with NGOs, local communities in many parts of the state are make overing patterns of divination and forfeit, composing ritual procedures for the cleaning, healing, and reintegration of immature ex-combatants. In so making, they create their societal and moral universe anew as they re-member it through ritual ” ( Shaw 2002:268 ) .

Byam 17 – “ Many TfD undertakings have addressed the jobs of bad roads, dirty imbibing H2O, or hapless wellness conditions without associating them to the societal and political constructions that encourage such jobs.

Throughout Africa, many autochthonal theaters patterns are ethnically contained-meaning, it is kindred to peculiar groupings of people. This does non intend that the influences on other groups have non occurred. There is a common yarn that runs the gamut of autochthonal patterns throughout Africa such as storytelling which Kirby describes as “ important autochthonal public presentation manner ‘ . The masks are besides common across Africa, at least in footings of construction.

Harmonizing to Kirby, “ rites frequently have a quasi-dramatic construction composed of sequence of more or less independent events ” KKIRBY 24 ) . The ritual signifier utilises ‘symbolic passages ” . For illustration, rites are cyclic and extend over a figure of yearss, and are structured around apothegms that are sung, interpreted, danced, and acted out, while certain objects ( natural artificats, art objects ) are displayed, manipulated, carried, and moved about in dramatic public presentations by groups of novices ( Biebuyck 74 ) Kirby ) ) 24 ) .

However, being an unwritten civilization, those in the literate universe have come to debate what Africa claims to be theatre.

Academic discourse on African autochthonal theater is combative at best as the arguments seem to connote ( Kirby 1974 ; Sheriff 2004 ; Ukaegbu 2009 ) to call a few. Some bookmans question Africa ‘s claim to theatre in their historical yesteryear. Some faculty members and theatrical professionals argue that Africa does non hold theaters and is of the position that whatever Africa has in footings of public presentation and rites or play either does non suit into what is known in the West as ‘theatre ‘ . It would connote that Finnegan is talking for a huge bulk of people when she uses the term ‘we ‘ ( Kirby 1974 ) . It seems that because largely a big portion of Africa can be described as former settlements of Britain, they did non Anglicised many of their ‘primitive ‘ footings. Furthermore, if ‘artistic public presentation ‘ ( F 516 ) evolved in a European sense-theatre, location, apron, specific aesthetic signifier of stating a narrative ; five Acts of the Apostless, manner to traditional play – if these define ‘theatre ‘ , so it came in with European.

Many African bookmans and authors besides portion Finnegan ‘s position in so far as the term ‘theatre ‘ may be concerned ; nevertheless, they put it in a different manner. They write that public presentation, festivals, rites, and dance were non known as theater or play. These are European footings. ( CITATION ) Drama comes from the Greek, dran, intending ‘to do ‘ and theaters comes from the Greek, theatron, intending the seeing topographic point. Still, it does non change Africa ‘s claim to ancient old public presentations patterns that predates colonial Europe. ( Barber et al. 1997 ; Banham 2004 ; Ukaegbu 2009 ) . Apparently, it is the term ‘theatre ‘ that is in contention and non whether Africa has similar patterns. From classical, modern-day, to going theater, Africa can tout a vivacious theater signifier autochthonal, traditional to popular and modern theatrical signifiers. Most bookmans agree that the Africa ‘s autochthonal and rites are intertwined with autochthonal public presentation pattern. This means that what the colonialists left behind has been reformed to be more far-reaching to suit within the local civilizations.

Decisions such as those presented by Finnegan, and others, are restraints imposed upon African public presentation. African bookmans ( CITATION ) are contending these restraints to take those boodles. Most of what Africa has in footings of theater, despite what some scholarships iterate as to whether it is ritual theater or play, is participatory, is endogenous, and is ever performative. What is even more of import to this paper is that African autochthonal theater is transformative.

I would wish to compare African Indigenous public presentation and rites with AT. It is clear that what Africa practiced what is now coined as AT. As many African bookmans and theater practicians have said, is more participatory and brings audience in or makes it with them. The Strength of theaters is that it is unrecorded and do non needfully necessitate a dry run as in the conventional theater puting. Pre-colonial public presentations in Africa

Applied theater has come to include mask as is apparent in Boal and others. For the post-colonial and contemporary African Theatre, mask has and is ever used as manner to decide difference. For illustration: aˆ¦ .

The same agreement holds for traditional African theater whose constructions does non needfully uncover a cumulative development of scenes. What is usually obtains is a odds and ends of independent studies all bound to a common message on communal harmoniousness. Without uncertainty, the nexus of traditional play to ritual and folklore must hold dictated this form.

Oyin Ogunba describes the construction of traditional African play: aˆ¦ is organized on an episodic footing. An histrion comes frontward and dramatizes a historical event or a myth or merely creates a scene with his visual aspect and general bearing, and this act may hold small or no relationship at all with the proceeding or subsequent one ; so two Acts of the Apostless mimed in sequence at a festival may, in history, have been separated by centuries ( foot note ) cheque ) . ( 254 ) the dramatic touch of difference: theater, ain and foreign by Erika fischer-Lichte, Josephine Riley.

As respect set uping societal alteration in the involvement of the common adult male, traditional AT may non overtly prescribe category confrontation as inescapable. A ground for this more quiet stance could be the affinity between traditional AT and worship which inherently abhors force – peculiarly of a sort that is riotous of internal peace and harmoniousness. In this context, hence, the more affable veneer of sarcasm seems preferred for demands on societal alteration. Th societal end of cheapness is non dissimilar to that of heroic poem theater, since both are finally committed to germinating a societal order that guarantees equity and the chase of felicity for all.

Ukaegbu ‘s ( 2004 ) work suggests that this may be a limited position, nevertheless, and that –

instead than being comparatively new – applied theatre signifiers are every bit ancient as theatre itself. He traces what might now be called applied theater in the earliest African public presentation rites ( 2004: 45- 54 ) , seeing much of what is applied theatre patterns as ‘later by-products ‘ ( 2004: 52 ) . He explains that: irrespective of cultural differences, traditional public presentations everyplace are applied for history informs us that while ancient Greeks ‘applied ‘ Dionysia public presentations to beef up community bonds, the early European Church used them to transform disciples ‘ overall spiritual and cultural experiences. ( 2004: 53 )

Ukaegbu argues that what is being described as applied theater has been traveling for a really long clip – but it was n’t, of class, called ‘applied theater ‘ . It was called ‘theatre ‘ or ‘performance ‘ . He explains that: ‘Traditional African public presentations straddle sacred-secular boundaries but by commanding some signifier of investing in efficacious result, most public presentations can function ritual and aesthetic maps at the same time. ‘ ( 2004: 53 ) ‘What is needed is non a new construct or definition but the re-introduction of production schemes and corporate concerns that created the traditional public presentations that audiences attended as participants alternatively of as degage witnesss. ‘ ( 2004: 53 )

Participants may take to work out issues that affect their lives and communities whether societal or political. Although aesthetic aids in beef uping the messages that may be the intended intent, it is the procedure of play that allows participants to detect legion attacks to a state of affairs. Applied Theatre is a multi-faceted field ( ) in that it transcends subjects ; working in wellness, instruction, It means theatre that that uses theatre and/or drama-based procedures that may include art, music, dance, play, improvisation and storytelling. The alone thing about this phenomenal pattern is that it is ever participant-led. Audience engagement is caution for AT although this is non an absolute.

Community theater, prison theater, medical theater, educational theater are all theatre-specific patterns that is purposeful. Mentioning O’Toole, it

“ Being actively involved in a group procedure and particularly one that requires you to physically play with incidents, narratives and emotions, might be authorising in itself. It might in fact intervene to increase the power of a certain group in a community in a direct manner. P169

This separation insists that a community must hold the power to state their ain narratives and have their cognition of the particulars of their lives respected before intercessions can be enacted. This moeel claims that intercession is merely feasible if it is based on community ‘s analysis of demands and that theatre itsel in TAR is non an intercession. P. 168 ( Participatory theater.


Banham, M. ( 2004 ) A History of Theatre in Africa, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK.

Barber, K. , Collins, J. & A ; Ricard, A. ( 1997 ) West African popular theater, Indiana Univ Pr.

Harding, F. ( 2002 ) The Performance Arts in Africa: a Reader, Routledge.

Kirby, E.T. ( 1974 ) ‘Indigenous African Theatre ‘ , The Drama Review: TDR, vol. 18 no. 4, pp. 22-35.

Nahim, E. , MD, ( 2009 ) Personal interview, Via telephone, 9 Sept. 2009.

Prentki, T. & A ; Preston, S. ( explosive detection systems. ) ( 2009 ) The Applied Theatre Reader, Routledge, Oxon, UK.

Shaw, R. ( 2002 ) Memories of the Slave Trade: Ritual and the Historical Imagination in Sierra Leone, University of Chicago Press, Chicago, IL.

Sheriff, M. ( 2004 ) ‘Sierra Leone ‘ in A History of Theatre in Africa, Banham, M. ( ed. ) , Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK, pp. 171-180.

Taylor, P. ( 2003 ) Applied Theatre: Creating Transformative Encounters in the Community, Heinemann Drama, Portsmouth, NH.

Thompson, J. ( 2003 ) Applied Theatre: Bewilderment and Beyond, Peter Lang Publishing.

Ukaegbu, V. ( 2009 ) ‘Performative brushs: public presentation intercession in marketing wellness merchandises in Nigeria ‘ , Journal of Applied Arts and Health, vol. 1 no. 1, pp. 35-51.

Abdullah of Saudi Arabia Essay

Aljanadriah Festival is a celebrated traditional jubilation that is held annually in AlJanadriah topographic point. It is about 45 kilometers from Riyadh’s metropolis territory. the kingdom’s capital metropolis.

This festival is one of the oldest festivals in Saudi Arabia. Furthermore. it is considered one of the most of import jubilations in the Arab universe. Many people come from all over the universe merely to go to Ti great festival and after. they say. ” It’s worth it “ . The intent of the Aljenadriah is to salvage our civilization and to stay us about how our parents lived and to state and learn the new coevals about it. Aljanadriah festival normally begins from the 12th to 26th of February. It’s the National Festival of Heritage and Culture in the Aljanadriyah part of Riyadh and it has been held since 1986. It is organized by the National Guard under the backing of the Custodian of the Two Holy Mosques. King Abdullah Bin Abdul Aziz.

Each twelvemonth. the jubilation will ask for a state to take part and be involved in the activity. The guest state will be in the centre and will demo us its ain civilization. so we will larn another civilization at the same clip. I remember last twelvemonth the guest state was China. They danced in particular manner that is a symbol for them. I enjoyed it really much. I am composing about this festival because it is celebrated and shows all facets of the Saudi civilization including art. theatre. heritage and history.

It is divided into different parts harmonizing to the Saudi metropoliss. which is the north part. south part. east part. and in-between part. Every one of these parts has its ain features in many facets. for illustration. vesture and dance. There are besides several public presentation held in each portion of the jubilation. When I was an intern. it was required of me to make a cultural presentation for the staff ; I chose to show a talk about this great festival.

All of the staff were non Arabs. and they enjoyed it really much. I showed them some picture from my ain camera and they got motivated to travel. I wish I could allow everyone travel at that place and detect my civilization and my state I am certain they would to love it.


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