How Smelling of Farts Is Imp in Our Life

we must learn to smell farts as in our life our girl frends will say to smell her ass and then she will fart but if you will do yuck! then she will leave you ssssssssFifteenth of August” redirects here. For other uses, see August 15. Independence Day The national flag of india, on the Red fort in Delhi; a common sight on public and private buildings on national holidays like the 15th of August. Also calledThe Fifteenth of August ??????????? ???? Observed byIndia TypeNational

SignificanceThe day India became independent from British rule. DateAugust 15 CelebrationsFlag hoisting, Parades, Singing patriotic songs, Speech by the Prime Minister, Family reunions, Picnics, Kite flying The Independence Day of India is celebrated on the fifteenth of August to commemorate its independence from British rule and its birth as a sovereign nation in 1947. [1] The day is a national holiday in India. All over the country, flag-hoisting ceremonies are conducted by the local administration in attendance.

The main event takes place in Delhi, the capital city of India, where the Prime Minister hoists the national flag at the Red Fort and delivers a nationally televised speech from its ramparts. In his speech, he highlights the achievements of his government during the past year, raises important issues and gives a call for further development. The Prime Minister also pays his tribute to leaders of the freedom struggle. Contents [hide] 1 Background 2 Celebrations 3 See also 4 References 5 External links [edit]Background

In 1946 the Labour government in Britain, its exchequer exhausted by the recently concluded World War II, and conscious that it had neither the mandate at home, the international support, nor the reliability of native forces for continuing to control an increasingly restless India,[2][3] decided to end British rule of India, and in early 1947 Britain announced its intention of transferring power no later than June 1948. Map of India before Partition As independence approached, the violence between Hindus and Muslims in the provinces of Punjab and Bengal continued unabated.

With the British army unprepared for the potential for increased violence, the new viceroy, Louis Mountbatten, advanced the date for the transfer of power, allowing less than seven months for a mutually agreed plan for independence. In June 1947, the nationalist leaders, including Pandit Nehru, Abul Kalam Azad, Mohammed Ali Jinnah, B. R. Ambedkar and Master Tara Singh agreed to a partition of the country along religious lines. The predominantly Hindu and Sikh areas were assigned to the new India and predominantly Muslim areas to the new nation of Pakistan; the plan included a partition of the provinces of Punjab and Bengal.

Prime Minister Nehru, delivering the speech, Tryst With Destiny, at the house. Many millions of Muslim, Sikh, and Hindu refugees trekked across the newly drawn borders. In Punjab, where the new border lines divided the Sikh regions in half, massive bloodshed followed; in Bengal and Bihar, where Mahatma Gandhi’s presence assuaged communal tempers, the violence was more limited. In all, anywhere between 250,000 and 500,000 people on both sides of the new borders died in the violence. [4] On 14 August 1947, the new Dominion of Pakistan came into being, with Muhammad Ali Jinnah sworn in as its first Governor General in Karachi.

At the stroke of midnight, as India moved into August 15, 1947, Jawaharlal Nehru, read out the famous Tryst with destiny speech proclaiming India’s independence. India, now a smaller Union of India, became an independent country with official ceremonies taking place in New Delhi, and with Jawaharlal Nehru assuming the office of the first prime minister, and the viceroy, Louis Mountbatten, staying on as its first Governor General. [edit]Celebrations This section requires expansion. The Indian flag at Delhi Gate The Prime Minister of India hoists the Indian flag on the ramparts of the historical site, Red Fort (??? ????? , Delhi, on August 15. This is telecasted live on the National Channel Doordarshan and many other News Channels all over India. Flag hoisting ceremonies and cultural programs take place in all the state capitals. In the cities around the country the national flag is hoisted by politicians in their constituencies. In various private organisations the flag hoisting is carried out by a senior official of that organisation. Schools and colleges around the country organize flag hoisting ceremonies and various cultural events within their premises, where younger children in costume represent their idols of the Independence era. [edit]

Gsm Kpi Improvement

GSM KPI Improvement Process / Guidelines Key Performance Indicators – KPIs SDCCH Blocking SDCCH Drop TCH Drop Rate Handover Success Rate Limited Internal 2 NPI Training – Retainability 2005-09-30 Accessibility Definition Call to an MS MSC/VLR 1 TRC 1 BSC 5 3 2 1. MSC/VLR sends paging command to all BSCs belonging to the location area (LA) where MS is located 2. BSC forwards the paging command to all BTSs in that LA, and the BTSs in their turn page the MS on the PCH 3. The MS responds to the BTS on the RACH and the BTS forwards the response to the BSC (forward to MSC) 2 Accessibility 4 4. The BSCs checks with the BTS if it has an SDCCH available and the BTS grants the MS an SDCCH by using the AGCH 5. The MS and the BTS signal on the SDCCH, measurement reports sent on SACCH are forwarded from the BTS to the BSC and once the signalling is done the BSC decides which TCH to use 6. TCH connection established between MS and BTS BTS BTS 3 2 4 6 5 Limited Internal 3 NPI Training – Retainability 2005-09-30 SDCCH Congestion – Overview SDCCH Activities: ? Mobility Management – Normal Location update – Periodic Registration – IMSI Attach / Detach ? Connection Management – – – Call setup SMS Point to Point Fax Setup Supplementary Services Limited Internal 4 NPI Training – Retainability 2005-09-30 SDCCH Congestion – Overview Channel Configuration: ? Channel Configuration can be done as follow – Combined BCCH/SDCCH on 1 TS (SDCCH/4) – Non-Combined BCCH and SDCCH on 2 TS (SDCCH/8) ? Cell Broadcast Channel (CBCH) – – The Cell Broadcast service provides the transmission of an SMS from a message-handling centre to all MSs in the serving area of the BTS. If the Cell Broadcast service is active in a cell, one signaling sub-channel is replaced by one CBCH resulting in a SDCCH/7

Limited Internal 5 NPI Training – Retainability 2005-09-30 SDCCH Congestion – Overview SDCCH Channel Allocation Profile (CHAP) ? ? ? Channel Allocation is the feature that selects and allocates suitable channels when one or more channels are required Channel Allocation Profile (CHAP) is the parameter that provides different channel allocation strategies For SDCCH assignments, CHAP 8 prioritize new assignments as follows: 1. OL/SDCCH 2. UL/SDCCH (if OL/SDCCH is congested) Limited Internal 6 NPI Training – Retainability 2005-09-30 SDCCH Congestion – Overview A new assignment will use the SDCCH in OL first

B S T T T T P P T S T T T T T T T T T T T T T T T T T T T T T T OL (CHGR 0) B S T P BCCH timeslot SDCCH timeslot TCH timeslot PDCH timeslot UL (CHGR 1) If the OL is congested, the SDCCH in UL will be used B S T T T T P P T S T T T T T T T T T T T T T T T T T T T T T T OL (CHGR 0) UL (CHGR 1) Note SDCCH congestion in the OL will increment, but this is not customer perceived since the SDCCH in UL will then be utilized Limited Internal 7 NPI Training – Retainability 2005-09-30 SDCCH Dimensioning Strategy GOS Approach: ? SDCCH should be dimensioned for better GOS compare to TCH.

Typical range is 0. 5% – 1%. ? Immediate Assignment of TCH with “TCH as last option strategy” is recommended. ? It is recommended to add SDCCH when 0. 5 Erlang of signaling traffic is carried by TCH. ? Half Rate penetration, usage of Extended Range cell and HSCSD should be taken into consideration. STS Approach: ? Accurate dimensioning is achieved by using STS cell statistics Limited Internal 8 NPI Training – Retainability 2005-09-30 SDCCH Congestion Optimization Analyze the following issues that could be possible reasons for SDCCH Congestion: ? SDCCH Dimensioning ?

Incorrect use of SDCCH capacity features such as Adaptive Configuration of Logical channels ? TCH Congestion ? Location Areas not optimized ? SMS usage and Cell Broadcast channel ? SDCCH Availability Limited Internal 9 NPI Training – Retainability 2005-09-30 SDCCH Congestion Optimization The following recommendations will have a positive impact on SDCCH congestion ? ? ? ? ? ? Try not to use combined BCCH/SDCCH (SDCCH/4) Use the optional SDCCH capacity features such as the Adaptive Configuration of Logical Channel feature when available. Use Immediate Assignment on TCH, SDCCH first.

For manual dimensioning, use STS cell statistics Configure one SDCCH on the BCCH carrier and the others on the hopping layer (Non-BCCH) Use the Ericsson SDCCH Dimensioning guideline. Limited Internal 10 NPI Training – Retainability 2005-09-30 SDCCH Congestion Optimization The following issues are worth taking into account when analyzing SDCCH Congestion: ? Use LAPD STS statistics to evaluate LAPD congestion and optimize the LAPD Concentration factor ? Analyze border cells with a large amount of random access attempts resulting in SDCCH congestion. – Use Random Access optimization to solve the SDCCH congestion Take into account Timeslot priority when deciding where to configure SDCCH/8 Limited Internal 11 NPI Training – Retainability 2005-09-30 SDCCH Congestion Optimization S D C C H C C h e c k H L Limited Internal 12 NPI Training – Retainability 2005-09-30 SDCCH Congestion Optimization C h e c k c C Limited Internal 13 NPI Training – Retainability 2005-09-30 SDCCH Drops – Overview SDCCH Drops are classified into one of the following categories: ? ? ? ? SDCCH Drops because of Timing Advance SDCCH Drops because of Low Signal Strength SDCCH Drops because of Bad Quality SDCCH Drops due to Other Reasons

Limited Internal 14 NPI Training – Retainability 2005-09-30 SDCCH Drops – Overview Signaling Connection Set-up MSC Too high TA ? Wrong Cause Code? BSC Channel Required Y BTS Channel Request Random Access MS 1 2 3 N N Y Immediate Assignment Reject Too high processor load ? Activation of channel Step related RA counter Free ch. Available? N 4 Y 5n 6n SCCP Conn. Req SCCP Conn. Conf. Limited Internal Channel Activation successful? Channel Activation Ack. Y 5 Chan. Neg. Ack. N Channel Activation Channel Activation Ack. 6 Chan. Neg. Ack. Immediate Assignment Establish Indication

Step CMSESTAB counter 15 NPI Training – Retainability SABM, UA 2005-09-30 SDCCH Drops – Overview Assignment: Assignment to Serving Cell MSC BSC Channel Activation Channel Act. Ack. Y X Channel Act. Neg. Ack. BTS M Possible to assign channel? Assignment Request If TCH Congestion CNRELCONG is stepped (time out). N Assignment Command Establish Indication Assignment Complete Assignment Compl. RF Channel Release, old channel RF Channel Release Ack. SABM UA Limited Internal 16 NPI Training – Retainability 2005-09-30 SDCCH Drops – Overview Connection Release, Normal Disconnection

MSC Clear Command BSC Check Cause codes, if not HO successful or Call Control, step drop call counter, CNDROP BTS MS 1 Clear Complete Channel Release Deactivate SACCH DISC Release Indication RF Channel Release RF Channel Release Ack UA SCCP Rel. SCCP Rel. Ack. Limited Internal 17 NPI Training – Retainability 2005-09-30 SDCCH Drops – Overview Connection Release, Abnormal Disconnection MSC Clear Request Clear Command BSC Step drop call counter, CNDROP BTS Channel Release Clear Complete Deactivate SACCH DISC Release Indication RF Channel Release RF Channel Release Ack SCCP Rel.

SCCP Rel. Ack. Limited Internal 18 NPI Training – Retainability 2005-09-30 UA SDCCH Drop Optimization Analyze the following issues that could be possible reasons for SDCCH Drops: ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? Low signal strength Interference Pathloss Imbalance between UL/DL High Timing Advance MS error or Subscriber behavior TCH Congestion Transmission Congestion (LAPD Concentration) Hardware or Transmission failures Limited Internal 19 NPI Training – Retainability 2005-09-30 SDCCH Drop Optimization The following issues are worth taking into account when analyzing SDCCH Drops: ? ? ? SDCCH Drops and TCH Drops often drop because of the same RF reasons, such as for example insufficient coverage Only use SDCCH power regulation and SDCCH HO when the network has good coverage BSC and transmission problems can impact SDCCH drops so investigate Transcoders, A-interface and LAPD SDCCH Drops on the hopping layer are normally showing worse values than SDCCH on the BCCH Limited Internal 20 NPI Training – Retainability 2005-09-30 SDCCH Drop Optimization C h e c k S C Limited Internal 21 NPI Training – Retainability 2005-09-30 SDCCH Drop Optimization B C Limited Internal 22 NPI Training – Retainability h e 2005-09-30

TCH Drop – Overview Connection Release, Normal Disconnection MSC Clear Command BSC Check Cause codes, if not HO successful or Call Control, step drop call counter, TFNDROP BTS MS 1 Clear Complete Channel Release Deactivate SACCH DISC Release Indication RF Channel Release RF Channel Release Ack UA SCCP Rel. SCCP Rel. Ack. Limited Internal 23 NPI Training – Retainability 2005-09-30 TCH Drop – Overview Connection Release, Abnormal Disconnection BTS Step drop call counter, TFNDROP MSC Clear Request Clear Command BSC Channel Release Clear Complete Deactivate SACCH DISC Release Indication RF Channel Release RF Channel Release SCCP Rel .

SCCP Rel . Ack . Ack UA Limited Internal 24 NPI Training – Retainability 2005-09-30 TCH Drop – Drop Call Reasons The TCH Drop Call reasons has the following priority order: ? ? ? ? ? Excessive TA – – – – – – TA > TALIM cell parameter SSUL < LOWSSUL (BSC parameter) SSDL < LOWSSDL RxQualUL> BADQUL (BSC parameter) RxQualDL> BADQDL None of the above Non radio-related Low signal strength in downlink and/or uplink Bad quality in downlink and/or uplink Sudden loss of connection Other – Limited Internal 25 NPI Training – Retainability 2005-09-30 TCH Drop – Drop Call Reasons

The TCH Drop Call reasons counters: SS uplink -60 MS sensitivity TxDISSDL LOWSSUL -104 -110 -111 -115 -110 Limited Internal TxDISSBL LOWSSDL TxDISSQADL TxDISSQAUL TxDISSQABL TxDISSUL BTS sensitivity SS downlink -104 -104 26 NPI Training – Retainability -60 2005-09-30 TCH Drop parameters ? RLINKT Radio Link Tim e -out Limited Internal 27 NPI Training – Retainability 2005-09-30 TCH Drop parameters RLINKT ? The MS sends measurement reports regarding the signal strength of neighbor cells every 480 ms ? If the BTS does not receive a measurement report the RLINKT timer is decreased by 1. If a new report is received the timer is increased by 2. ? Leaky bucket. When reaches 0 call is dropped Limited Internal 28 NPI Training – Retainability 2005-09-30 TCH Drop – Optimization ? Analyze the following issues that could be possible reasons for poor TCH Drop performance: – – – – – – – – – Low Signal strength on Uplink/Downlink Interference on Uplink/Downlink Excessive TA Incorrect/Not optimum Parameter settings for example power regulation Missing Ncells or Congestion in Ncells MS or MS Battery problems Subscriber Behavior Antenna/Hardware or Transmission faults Incorrect Installations

Limited Internal 29 NPI Training – Retainability 2005-09-30 TCH Drop – Optimization ? The following issues often cause TCH Sudden Drops: – Very sudden and severe drop in signal strength, such as when – subscribers enter into buildings, elevators, parking garages, etc. – Very sudden and severe occurrence of interference or bad quality. – MS running out of battery during conversation. – Handover Lost – BTS HW faults. – Synchronization or Abis link fault (transmission faults). – MS Faults Limited Internal 30

NPI Training – Retainability 2005-09-30 TCH Drop – Optimization D r o C h e c k B Limited Internal 31 NPI Training – Retainability 2005-09-30 TCH Drop – Optimization H Limited Internal 32 NPI Training – Retainability 2005-09-30 C h h a TCH Drop – Optimization L o w s Limited Internal 33 NPI Training – Retainability 2005-09-30 TCH Drop – Optimization Investigate TCH Drop Performance – MOTS: MOTS MOTS_tool Limited Internal 34 NPI Training – Retainability 2005-09-30 TCH Drop – Optimization Investigate TCH Drop Performance – RPMO:

AssignmentRequest HandoverCommand HandoverComplete HandoverCommand HandoverComplete HandoverCommand HandoverComplete HandoverCommand HandoverComplete ClearRequest ClearCommand IL01673 IL01673 IL04071 IL04071 IL00053 IL00053 IL04072 IL04072 IL02752 IL02752 IL02752 IL02752 IL04072 IL00053 IL04071 17:04:49 17:05:15 17:05:16 17:05:27 17:05:27 17:05:57 17:05:58 17:06:37 17:06:39 17:06:49 17:06:49 STSSTSDrop Drop Start Start Drop (Clear Request) because wrong decision to HO from IL04072 to IL02752. Solution: Inhibit that HO relation. : STS pegged drop in IL02752 : Actual drop occured south of IL04072 Limited Internal 35

Actual Actual dropdropposition position NPI Training – Retainability 2005-09-30 TCH Drop – Optimization Investigate TCH Drop Performance – RPMO: BSIC Confusion • • • • In this example mobiles do not handover to the correct cell but to a cell whose frequency it measure previously. In RPMO, this can be seen from the drop table. For example in the map a mobile traveling south needed to handov er from IL0020. 2 to IL1058. 0. IL1058. 0 has BCCH 137, and IL0404. 3 has BCCH is 137. Mobile meas ured IL0404 previously, and this can be seen from RPMO measurement reports. When mobile needed to handover from IL0020. 2 to IL1058. , it act ually makes wrong handover to IL0404. 3. Limited Internal 36 NPI Training – Retainability 2005-09-30 TCH Drop – Optimization Investigate TCH Drop Performance – RPMO: Tier 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 cCallNr 597 14 597 14 597 14 597 14 597 14 597 14 597 14 597 14 597 14 597 14 597 14 597 14 597 14 597 14 597 14 597 14 597 14 597 14 597 14 597 14 EventName C ell IL 0044 2 IL 0044 2 IL 0044 2 IL 0044 2 IL 0044 2 IL 0044 2 IL 00442 IL 0044 2 IL 0044 2 IL 0044 2 IL 0044 2 IL 0044 2 IL 0044 2 IL 0044 2 IL 0044 2 IL 0044 2 IL 0044 2 IL 0044 2 IL 0044 2 IL 0044 2 Tid TA RQUL RQDL RLUL RLDL SQI BTSPR MSPC NrNg p RxLevDLcom

M easurem tR en eport M easurem tR en eport M easurem tR en eport M easurem tR en eport M easurem tR en eport M easurem tR en eport M easurem tR en eport M easurem tR en eport M easurem tR en eport M easurem tR en eport M easurem tR en eport M easurem tR en eport M easurem tR en eport M easurem tR en eport M easurem tR en eport M easurem tR en eport M easurem tR en eport M easure m entR port e C learR que e st C learC m a o m nd 7 :1 :43 3 17 :1 :43 6 17 :1 :43 9 17 :2 :43 1 17 :2 :43 4 17 :2 :43 6 17 :2 :43 8 17 :3 :43 1 17 :3 :43 4 17 :3 :43 7 17 :4 :43 0 17 :4 :43 2 17 :4 :43 4 17 :4 :43 7 17 :5 :43 0 17 :5 :43 3 17 :5 :43 6 17 :5 :43 9 17 :0 :44 0 17 :0 :44 0 10 10 10 10 11 10 11 11 11 11 11 10 11 11 11 11 11 11 2 5 3 0 2 7 4 3 2 4 4 6 3 7 7 7 7 7 6 7 5 7 7 1 5 6 7 7 7 7 1 5 7 1 5 1 5 1 5 1 5 1 5 22 14 19 22 21 10 22 21 21 21 21 18 18 6 6 6 11 12 28 23 27 22 24 255 26 21 24 24 24 255 17 255 255 255 255 255 4 0 4 9 2 55 4 3 2 55 2 55 4 8 2 55 2 55 2 55 2 55 2 55 2 55 2 55 2 55 2 55 2 55 2 55 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 5 6 5 6 6 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2 8 2 3 2 7 2 2 2 4 2 55 2 6 2 1 2 4 2 4 2 4 2 55 1 7 2 55 2 55 2 55 2 55 2 55 Dropped Call due to Bad Quality • • • • • All drops due to bad quality UL/DL can be seen easily from RPMO drop and measurement table. The table below is a example of a short call. Call ID is 59714, and it lasted about 47 seconds. We can easily see that RXQual DL was bad since the call started. In this market, RLINK timer set to 32. Therefore, there may be s ome measurement missing ~16 seconds before the clear command.

The table shows several missing report between starting from 17: 43:44 until 17:44:00. Limited Internal 37 NPI Training – Retainability 2005-09-30 TCH Drop – Optimization Investigate TCH Drop Performance – RPMO: cCallNr 96 48 96 48 96 48 96 48 96 48 96 48 96 48 96 48 96 48 96 48 96 48 96 48 96 48 96 48 96 48 96 48 96 48 96 48 96 48 96 48 96 48 96 48 96 48 96 48 cEventCount Event id EventName Cell Tid TA RQUL RQDL RLUL RLDL SQI BTSPR MSPC NrNg RxLevDLcomp 11 4 12 4 13 4 14 4 15 4 16 4 17 4 18 4 19 4 10 5 11 5 12 5 13 5 14 5 15 5 16 5 17 5 18 5 19 5 10 6 11 6 12 6 13 6 14 6 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 2 3

Ma ue e t e ot e s r mnRp r Ma ue es r mnRp r e t e ot Ma ue e t e ot e s r mnRp r Ma ue e t e ot e s r mnRp r Ma ue e t e ot e s r mnRp r Ma ue e t e ot e s r mnRp r Ma ue e t e ot e s r mnRp r Ma ue e t e ot e s r mnRp r Ma ue e t e ot e s r mnRp r Ma ue e t e ot e s r mnRp r Ma ue e t e ot e s r mnRp r Ma ue e t e ot e s r mnRp r Ma u es r mnRp r e e t e ot Ma ue e t e ot e s r mnRp r Ma ue e t e ot e s r mnRp r Ma ue e t e ot e s r mnRp r Ma ue e t e ot e s r mnRp r Ma ue e t e ot e s r mnRp r Ma ue e t e ot e s r mnRp r Ma ue e t e ot e s r mnRp r Ma ue e t e ot e s r mnRp r Ma ue e t e ot e s r mnRp r C aRq et le r e u s C aC le r o mn m ad I 003 L48 I 003 L48 I 003 L48 I 003 L48 I 003 L48 I 003 L48 I 003 L48 I 003 L48 I 003 L48 I 003 L48 I 003 L48 I 003 L48 I 003 L48 I 003 L48 I 003 L48 I 003 L48 I 003 L48 I 003 L48 I 003 L48 I 0 48 L 03 I 003 L48 I 003 L48 I 003 L48 I 003 L48 : 50 71 : 5 1 : 50 71 : 8 1 : 51 71 : 1 1 : 51 71 : 4 1 : 51 71 : 7 1 : 52 71 : 1 1 : 52 71 : 4 1 : 52 71 : 6 1 : 52 71 : 9 1 : 53 71 : 1 1 : 53 71 : 4 1 : 53 71 : 6 1 : 53 71 : 8 1 : 54 71 : 1 1 : 54 71 : 3 1 : 54 71 : 6 1 : 54 71 : 9 1 : 55 71 : 2 1 : 55 71 : 5 1 : 55 71 : 8 1 : 60 71 : 1 1 : 60 71 : 3 1 : 60 71 : 3 1 : 60 71 : 3 5 6 6 6 6 5 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 5 5 6 4 5 7 7 7 7 7 7 6 6 7 7 5 7 7 7 6 7 7 5 4 6 2 6 1 5 1 5 5 6 1 5 6 4 5 1 5 1 5 5 1 5 1 5 7 1 5 1 5 1 5 9 1 0 7 9 7 3 6 2 2 0 2 2 1 0 1 7 0 5 3 5 2 6 1 2 1 5 1 3 1 4 8 25 5 25 5 2 2 25 5 6 6 8 25 5 25 5 7 25 5 25 5 3 25 5 25 5 25 5 4 1 4 6 4 6 4 6 3 9 3 1 1 8 1 7 1 1 1 6 1 9 3 0 2 7 2 3 1 7 1 7 3 0 1 5 1 9 2 0 2 4 1 9 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 1 0 2 1 2 1 0 0 5 0 0 0 1 2 0 0 0 0 2 3 2 1 2 1 5 1 3 1 4 8 25 5 25 5 2 2 25 5 6 6 8 25 5 25 5 7 25 5 25 5 3 25 5 25 5 25 5 Dropped Call due to Bad SS • • • We can see the calls dropped due to low signal strength in RPMO. From measurement reports, we can see when there is a drop due to low signal strength UL/DL, or both links. In the table, if we look at the part before the clear request, w e can see that RLDL (RX level DL), and RLUL (RX level UL) is quite low. In this example this call d ropped due to low SS RX level both links. Limited Internal 38 NPI Training – Retainability 2005-09-30 TCH Drop – Optimization Investigate TCH Drop Performance – RPMO:

Tier 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 cCallNr 717 63 717 63 717 63 717 63 717 63 717 63 717 63 717 63 717 63 717 63 717 63 717 63 717 63 717 63 717 63 717 63 717 63 717 63 717 63 717 63 EventName H n o rC m le a d ve o p te Mau mn e o e s re e tR p rt Mau mn e o e s re e tR p rt Mau mn e o e s re e tR p rt Mau mn e o e s re e tR p rt Mau mn e o e s re e tR p rt Mau mn e o e s re e tR p rt Mau mn e o e s re e tR p r Mau mn e o e s re e tR p rt Mau mn e o e s re e tR p rt Mau mn e o e s re e tR p rt Ma u mn e o e s re e tR p rt Mau mn e o e s re e tR p rt Mau mn e o e s re e tR p rt Mau mn e o e s re e tR p rt Mau mn e o e s re e tR p rt Mau mn e o e s re e tR p rt Mau mn e o e s re e tR p rt C a e u st le rR q e C a o mn le rC m a d t Cell IL 0 3 021 IL 0 3 021 IL 0 3 021 IL 0 3 021 IL 0 3 021 IL 0 3 021 IL 0 3 021 IL 0 3 021

IL 0 3 021 IL 0 3 021 IL 0 3 021 IL 0 3 021 IL 0 3 021 IL 0 3 021 IL 0 3 021 IL 0 3 021 IL 0 3 021 IL 0 3 021 IL 0 3 021 IL 0 3 021 Tid 1 :5 :4 7 5 1 1 :5 :4 7 5 4 1 :5 :4 7 5 6 1 :5 5 9 7 :4 1 :5 :5 7 5 2 1 :5 :5 7 5 4 1 :5 :5 7 5 6 1 :5 :5 7 5 9 1 :5 :0 7 6 1 1 :5 :0 7 6 4 1 :5 :0 7 6 7 1 :5 :1 7 6 0 1 :5 :1 7 6 2 1 :5 :1 7 6 5 1 :5 :1 7 6 8 1 :5 :2 7 6 1 1 :5 :2 7 6 3 1 :5 :2 7 6 6 1 :5 :2 6 7 6 1 :5 :2 7 6 6 TA 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 RQUL 3 3 5 3 1 4 6 4 7 7 7 7 7 7 4 7 7 RQDL 1 5 6 7 1 2 1 5 5 1 5 1 5 1 5 1 5 1 5 6 1 5 1 5 RLUL 1 6 1 3 6 1 5 1 6 1 7 7 9 4 9 0 2 3 4 8 6 5 RLDL 1 7 1 8 1 1 1 1 4 1 4 1 8 9 7 25 5 25 5 25 5 25 5 25 5 4 25 5 25 5 SQI 4 2 4 9 4 1 25 5 4 4 4 7 3 8 25 5 4 3 2 4 1 2 25 5 1 4 25 5 1 3 25 5 2 0 BTSPR 2 3 1 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 MSPC 5 5 6 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 NrNg 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 2 3 3 RxLevDLcomp 2 1 2 4 1 3 1 1 4 1 4 2 0 9 7 25 5 25 5 25 5 25 5 25 5 4 25 5 25 5 Dropped Call due to RLINK • • • • • In the table we can see drop that happened due to RLINK timer. In this example the call started on cell IL00231, and ended in t he same cell. The call lasted around 45 seconds. If we look at the last 16 seconds of the call, we can see severa l missing measurement reports.

If we see 255 or or RXQual=15 we can assume that these values ar e missing In this example we dropped the call due to low signal strength d ownlink Limited Internal 39 NPI Training – Retainability 2005-09-30 TCH Drop – Optimization Investigate TCH Drop Performance – RPMO: cCallNr me 27 2 27 2 27 2 27 2 27 2 27 2 27 2 27 2 27 2 27 2 27 2 27 2 27 2 27 2 27 2 27 2 27 2 27 2 27 2 Ca n l uy hne s B Hn oeCm a d adv r o m n Hn oeCme adv r o p t l e Ca n l uy hne s B Hn oe adv r Cm a d om n Hn oeCme adv r o p t l e Ca n l uy hne s B Hn oeCm a d adv r o m n Hn oeCme adv r o p t l e Ca n l uy hne s B Hn oeCm a d adv r o m n Hn oeCme adv r o p t l e Ca n l uy hne s B Hn oeCm a d adv r o m n Hn oeCme adv r o p t l e Ca n l hne Bs uy Hn oeCm a d adv r o m n EventNa I 0 53 L2 2 I 3 01 L0 7 I 0 53 L2 2 I 3 01

L0 7 I 0 53 L2 2 I 3 01 L0 7 I 0 53 L2 2 I 3 01 L0 7 I 0 53 L2 2 I 3 01 L0 7 I 0 53 L2 2 I 3 01 L0 7 I 0 53 L2 2 I 3 01 L0 7 I 0 53 L2 2 I 0 21 L4 7 I 0 53 L2 2 Cell I 053 L22 Cellr I 301 L07 I 053 L22 I 301 L07 I 053 L22 I 021 L47 1: 4 2 7 : 01 1: 4 2 7 : 01 1: 4 3 7 : 01 1: 4 9 7 : 01 1: 4 9 7 : 01 1: 4 9 7 : 01 1: 4 5 7 : 03 1: 4 5 7 : 03 1: 4 6 7 : 03 1: 5 1 7 : 01 1: 5 1 7 : 01 1: 5 1 7 : 01 1: 5 8 7 : 01 1: 5 8 7 : 01 1: 5 9 7 : 01 1: 5 3 7 : 02 1: 5 3 7 : 02 Tid essage CauseM 1 1 0 0 1 1 0 0 0 0 1 type subcell T HF ) C(R T HF ) C(R Type Channel T HF ) C(R T HF ) C(R T HF ) C(R T HF ) C(R C aRq et l r eu s e I 0 53 L2 2 1: 5 5 7 : 03 RD AI O I T RE E C NE F RN E MS A E ESG F I UE A R L T HF ) C(R C aCm a d l r om e n I 0 53 L2 2 1: 5 5 7 : 03

RD AI O I T RE E C NE F RN E MS A E ESG F I UE A R L T HF ) C(R Dropped Call due Handover Timer • • • • This timer expires ~11 to 14 seconds after handover command sent . When the timer expire, we can assume that handover command that was sent was not heard either by the cell, or by mobile. The table shows an example of a drop happened due to this reason . If we look the time stamp 17:05:23, we can see that we request channel from IL04271, and h andover was initiated the very same second. However, about 12 seconds after handover command, we can see tha t call drop. As we know, this can not be a RLINK timer drop because it is set to 32 (~16 secon ds).

Limited Internal 40 NPI Training – Retainability 2005-09-30 – T3103B1 TCH Drop – Optimization Investigate TCH Drop Performance – RPMO: Handover Timer – T3103B1 Limited Internal 41 NPI Training – Retainability 2005-09-30 TCH Drop – Optimization Investigate TCH Drop Performance – RPMO: cCallNr EventName 733 ChannelBusy 733 HandoverCommand 733 ChannelBusy 733 HandoverCommand 733 ClearRequest 733 ClearCommand Cell IL02813 IL04293 IL01831 IL04271 IL04271 IL04271 Cellr IL00423 IL01831 Tid 17:04:04 17:04:23 17:19:46 17:19:46 17:19:54 17:19:54 CauseMessage RADIO INTERFERENCE MESSAGE FAILURE RADIO INTERFERENCE MESSAGE FAILURE subcell type 1 1 ChannelType SDCCH TCH (FR) TCH (FR)

Dropped Call due Handover Timer – T3103B2 • • • • This timer usually expires ~ 8 to ~10 seconds after hand over co mmand request. When this timer expires, we can assume that the MS, or target ce ll heard HO command but we do not have any respond from them. In the table we can see that at 17:19:46 we have handover comman d from IL04271 to IL01831. We have clear request coming in 17:19:54 – 8 seconds after handover command Limited Internal 42 NPI Training – Retainability 2005-09-30 TCH Drop – Optimization Investigate TCH Drop Performance – RPMO: Handover Timer – T3103B2 Limited Internal 43 NPI Training – Retainability 2005-09-30 TCH Drop – Optimization

Investigate TCH Drop Performance – RPMO: Cell 973 FR FR FR OL UL Call set -up 17:31:54 Actual drop moment 17:32:53 Call dropped 17:32:59 Cell 2431 HR FR FR FR FR HR Major mistake 17:32:39 17:31:50 :00 :10 Limited Internal 44 :20 :30 :40 :50 2005-09-30 17:33:00 NPI Training – Retainability TCH Drop – Optimization Investigate TCH Drop Performance – RPMO: Cell 973 FR FR HOVERCNT HOVERSUC TFCASSALL TFMSESTB TFCALLS + SUB TFV3CALLS+SUB (TFV2CALLS+SUB TFV1CALLS+SUB TFCONGSHO+SUB? ) FR TFCALLS TFV3CALLS TASSALL TCASSALL HOVERCNT HOVERSUC TFMSESTB+SUB THMESTAB+SUB THCALLS + SUB THV3CALLS+SUB TFCALLS + SUB TFV3CALLS+SUB (TFV2CALLS+SUB TFV1CALLS+SUB TFCONGSHO+SUB? ) Cell 2431

TFCALLS + SUB TFV3CALLS+SUB TFMESTAB (dep)? TFCALLS TFV3CALLS HR FR FR FR TFCALLS TFV3CALLS FR HR HOVERCNT HORTTOCH HOVERCNT HOVERSUC TFMSESTB HOATFRHRAMR HOSUCFRHRAMR HOATHRFRAMR HOAATOL HOSUCOL THMSESTB THV3CALLS THCALLS are not stepped THNDROPSUB TFMSESTB 17:31:50 :00 :10 Limited Internal 45 :20 :30 :40 :50 2005-09-30 17:33:00 NPI Training – Retainability TCH Drop – Optimization Investigate TCH Drop Performance – DIP DIP Limited Internal 46 NPI Training – Retainability 2005-09-30 Handover – Overview ? The fundamental concept of mobile communications is the mobility, where the person using the phone moves around being handed over between cells ?

HANDOVER is the process that ensures that the user is placed on the best server and that the following requirements for mobile communications are fulfilled: – Coverage: to provide a connection with sufficient signal strength – Speech Quality: to avoid disturbances – Capacity: to even out the traffic load ? LOCATING Is the software algorithm that determines Handover Decisions Limited Internal 47 NPI Training – Retainability 2005-09-30 Handover – Overview 1 HODetect BS I BC C, S CH S u eas H M CC SA rt epo re R 2 HO FA Acc CC es H s and mm Co HO CH C FA Or 3 HO FA Com CC pl H ete 3 nd ma m Co HO CH C FA If all signaling goes well, call is established on target cell and old channel is released. Limited Internal 48

Mobile has moved too far away from serving site FACCH can’t reach (C/I-wise) Drop! NPI Training – Retainability 2005-09-30 Handover – Locating Overview For all reported neighbor cells n For serving cell s Locating ? Basic Handover Candidate list Discard n No M inimum level criterion fulfilled? Yes Penalty evaluation W ait until ranking of neighbor cell is done Yes Rank n according to L-criterion including LOFFSET and LHYST Signal strength above SUFFICIENT level including TROFFSET and TRHYST? No Rank n according to Kcriterion including KOFFSET and KHYST L-cells K-cells Yes More neighbors? Best neighbor used for serving cell sufficient condition No No Serving cell is K-cell

Signal strength above SUFFICIENT level? Yes Serving cell is L-cell L-cells K-cells Limited Internal 499702661 NPI Training – Retainability 2005-09-30 Handover – Locating Overview Locating ? Types of cell borders K-K border transition border (K-L border) equal L equal K L-L border B A effective sufficient level from B to A transition border (K-L border) effective sufficient level from A to B Limited Internal 50 NPI Training – Retainability 2005-09-30 Handover – Locating Overview Locating – Basic Ranking: Ericsson 3 ? The first three stages of the algorithm are performed in exactly the same way as Ericsson 1, but Ericsson 3 takes only the signal strength in account: 1.

Correction of the BTS output power for downlink measurements 2. Evaluation of the Minimum Signal Strength condition 3. Subtraction of the signal strength penalties 4. Signal Strength Evaluation 5. Combination into a basic ranking list sorted by a descending order of SS Limited Internal 51 NPI Training – Retainability 2005-09-30 Handover – Locating Overview Locating – Basic Ranking: Ericsson 3 R A N K = S S _ D O WsN s R A N K = p _ S S _ D O W N O F F S EsT – H Y S T,n n n ,n s w h e re H Y S T = H IH Y S T if rx le H Y S T S E P n? v H Y S T = L O H Y S T if rx < H Y S T S E P n le v Limited Internal 52 NPI Training – Retainability 2005-09-30 Handover – Locating Overview

Locating – Auxiliary Radio Network functions evaluation Six auxiliary radio network functions are incorporated in the locating software: • Assignment to another cell • Hierarchical cell structures • Overlaid and underlaid subcells • Intra-cell handover • Extended range • Cell load sharing Limited Internal 53 NPI Training – Retainability Penalty list Initiations Measurement results Filtering Urgency condition Basic ranking Auxiliary radio network functions evaluations Organizing the list Sending the list Allocation reply 2005-09-30 Handover – Locating Overview ? Locating – Auxiliary Radio Network functions evaluation Limited Internal 54 NPI Training – Retainability 2005-09-30 Handover – Locating Overview Sa ii r rd nwku tosr i ula aoe o f ni na xx y i t r c e i crot d t e ctnsfwe n pa i hl a go a: o r en o i t r ?

Locating – Auxiliary Radio Network functions evaluation P a ls e ly t nt i I ii tos na n ti Categorization 1: The candidates in the ranking list are divided into categories. The signal strength is used to •Asetmtt a t ecl for the neighboring cells. The si nthe onh e s e categories g n or l existing categories are: Msrmt eu e aen rsls et u Fe g it r l i n Ueccnii n r n odo g y t Bi r nn acakg s i •Ha– i a esuuCell with a higher ranking value than i rrh lcl t cell:e e ccBetterrcrs l t •Ora aservinga sbthe candidate list. v l i nu e i u e e d dn r cell in ls dl d cl – Worse cell: Cell with a lower ranking value than •I ta – eh d e in the candidate list. clserving cell r l a or nv •Ee –da e cell: The cell serving the connection. xn rServing t d n e g •C l asa g e o hi l d rn l ? Aii r r d ula ai x y o nt o f ni n e r uc s wk to e lan vuto a i s O ni g es r az t l t gi nhi S dg es ei t l t nn h i Actor p lo i nel l a y These categories are later used in evaluations and selection of cause values Limited Internal 55 NPI Training – Retainability 2005-09-30 Handover – Locating Overview Locatingaoe o u tosr Sa ii r rdCell r f ni na i ula – nwk c Sharing Evaluation x x y i t Load e i crot d t e ctnsfwe n pa i hl a go a: o r en o i t r The cell load sharing evaluation is performed after the normal ranking procedure.

The •Aevaluationh cl performed if si ne t a t e e s mt on is only g n or l •Ha–i a esuus i rrh lcl load r e cccelll t c sharing is active for the cell rte •Ora aif u e i sb ls v l i n no urgency conditions apply and e – dn ra u e d dl d cl – if the channel is a TCH where the channel mode •I ta – eh d e n clisa o r r l “speech/data” nv ? xn da e Ae g •Ee channel in a multislot configuration is not t d rn evaluated. •C l asa g Further, no evaluation is e o hi l d rn l performed at request of a candidate list for assignment. Limited Internal 56 NPI Training – Retainability P a ls e ly t nt i I ii tos na n ti Msrmt eu e aen rsls et u Fe g it r l i n Ueccnii n r n odo g y t Bi r nn acakg s i

Aii r r d ula ai x y o nt o f ni n e r uc s wk to e lan vuto a i s O ni g es r az t l t gi nhi S dg es ei t l t nn h i Actor p lo i nel l a y 2005-09-30 Handover – Locating Overview Locatingaoe o u tosr Sa ii r rdCell r f ni na i ula – nwk c Sharing Evaluation x x y i t Load e i crot d t e ctnsfwe n pa i hl a go a: o r en o i t r ? Only candidates that fulfill the following •Aconditionsh clinvolved in the evaluation: si ne t a t e e s mt on are l g n or – •Haha esuus is ranked Worse i rr i lcl candidate e ccThe t cr l rte – The candidate is Internal •Ora aIt u e i inu esame cell layer as serving cell v l i n existsd b ls e – dn ra sthel d dl c •I ta –clIt a o r ‘handover due to cell load sharing’ n – eh d e r l accepts nv ? n da e The g •Ee ern t d evaluation is then performed as a new ranking •C l asa g reduced hysteresis areas e o hi with l d rn l between serving cell and the neighboring cells. Limited Internal 57 NPI Training – Retainability P a ls e ly t nt i I ii tos na n ti Msrmt eu e aen rsls et u Fe g it r l i n Ueccnii n r n odo g y t Bi r nn acakg s i Aii r r d ula ai x y o nt o f ni n e r uc s wk to e lan vuto a i s O ni g es r az t l t gi nhi S dg es ei t l t nn h i Actor p lo i nel l a y 2005-09-30 Handover – Locating Overview Locatingaoe o f ni na Sa ii r rdOverlaid/Underlaid Evaluation i ula – nwku tosr xx y i t r c e i crot d t e ctnsfwe n pa i hl a go a: o r en o i t r ?

The evaluation is only performed if the •Aservinga t ecl an overlaid and underlaid si ne t cell r e s mt onhhas g n o l •Haha esuus i subcell lstructure. er i lcl t cr r cc rte ? An •Ora evaluation b lperformed to determine if a v l i a u e i sis l e dn n ra u e d dl d c s subcell change (overlaid to underlaid or •I ta – eh d e n cl a o r r l nv underlaid to overlaid) is desired. •Ee ern t d g ? xn da e The criterion is based on the downlink signal •C l asa gtiming advance measurements from e o hi l d rn l strength, the serving cell and the traffic load in the cell. Limited Internal 58 NPI Training – Retainability 2005-09-30 P a ls e ly t nt i I ii tos na n ti Msrmt eu e aen rsls et u Fe g it r l i n Ueccnii n r n odo g y t

Bi r nn acakg s i Aii r r d ula ai x y o nt o f ni n e r uc s wk to e lan vuto a i s O ni g es r az t l t gi nhi S dg es ei t l t nn h i Actor p lo i nel l a y Handover – Locating Overview Locating r Overlaid/Underlaid Sa ii r – d nwku tosr Evaluation i ula aoe o f ni na xx y i t r c e i crot d t e ctnsfwe n pa i hl a go a: o r en o i t r ? P a ls e ly t nt i I ii tos na n ti If the serving cell is co-sited with a neighboring cell that has a subcell structure, then locating evaluates if the •Ahandover nh cl proposed to the overlaid or si ne t a t ebe s mt o shall e g n or l •Haha esuus subcell. i underlaidlneighboring er i lcl t cr r cc rte ?

If the MS is located in the overlaid subcell and a bad •Ora a urgencysb ls Locating proposes a subcell v l i nu e i u e e d dn ra occurs, quality dl d cl •I ta – eh d e nchange a o overlaid to underlaid subcell to prevent r cl from r l nv the MS from remaining on connections with bad •Ee ern xn da e t d g quality. •C l timer rn l a his used to prevent an immediate return back to l ? e o sa g A d i the overlaid subcell. Msrmt eu e aen rsls et u Fe g it r l i n Ueccnii n r n odo g y t Bi r nn acakg s i Aii r r d ula ai x y o nt o f ni n e r uc s wk to e lan vuto a i s O ni g es r az t l t gi nhi S dg es ei t l t nn h i Actor p lo i nel l a y Limited Internal 59 NPI Training – Retainability 2005-09-30 Handover – Locating Overview Locatingaoe o f nHandover Evaluation Sa ii r rdIntracellcosr i ula – nwku t na xx y i t r i e i crot d t e ctnsfwe n pa i hl a go a: o r en o i t r ?

The Intracell Handover evaluation is not •Aperformedh cl si ne t a t e e s mt on at assignment and otherwise only g n or l •Haha esuus i performed cr er i lcl t if intracell handover is allowed for r cc l r t e the current subcell. •Ora a u e i sb ls v l i n n ra u e e d d dl d cl ? The criterion for determining if an intracell •I ta – eh d e n cl a o r r l nv handover is desired is based on uplink and •Ee ern quality and signal strength xn da e t d g downlink •C l asa g e o hi l d rn l measurements from the serving cell. P a ls e ly t nt i I ii tos na n ti Msrmt eu e aen rsls et u Fe g it r l i n Ueccnii n r n odo g y t Bi r nn acakg s i Aii r r d ula ai x y o nt o f ni n e r uc s wk to e lan vuto a i s O ni g es r az t l t gi nhi S dg es ei t l t nn h i Actor p lo i nel l a y Limited Internal 60 NPI Training – Retainability 2005-09-30 Handover – Locating Overview

Locating r Intracell Handover Sa ii r – d nwku tosr Evaluation i ula aoe o f ni na xx y i t r c e i crot d t e ctnsfwe n pa i hl a go a: o r en o i t r ? P a ls e ly t nt i I ii tos na n ti The criterion is fulfilled when the quality is worse than could be expected from the signal strength level. There •Aare parameterscl prevent too many consecutive si ne t a t e e s mt onh to g n or l •Haha esuus in a sequence during a connection. i intracell handovers er i lcl t cr r cc l r t e ? If the MS is located in the overlaid subcell and the •Ora a u e i sbconsecutive intracell handovers v l i n of allowede e d dn ra u ls number dl d cl •I ta – eh d e nhave beeno r r cl a executed then Locating proposes a subcell l nv hange from overlaid to underlaid subcell to prevent •Ee ern remaining on connections with bad xn dafrom t dMS g e the quality. •C l asa g e o hi l d rn l ? A timer is used to prevent an immediate return back to the overlaid subcell. Limited Internal 61 NPI Training – Retainability Msrmt eu e aen rsls et u Fe g it r l i n Ueccnii n r n odo g y t Bi r nn acakg s i Aii r r d ula ai x y o nt o f ni n e r uc s wk to e lan vuto a i s O ni g es r az t l t gi nhi S dg es ei t l t nn h i Actor p lo i nel l a y 2005-09-30 Handover – Locating Overview Sa ii r rd nwku tosr i ula aoe o f ni na xx y i t r c e i crot d t e ctnsfwe n pa i hl a go a: o r en o i t r ? Locating – Assignment to Other Cell P a ls e ly t nt i I ii tos na n ti

The normal Locating is used in order to find the most suitable cell at the call setup ? sg e t a t e e •AIf nbetternhthan the serving cell is found during the s amt o cell rcl i n o l call setup signaling, that cell will be the first one in the •Haha esuus list. This is called Assignment to a i Locating lcandidate er i lcl t cr r cc rte •Ora acell. e i sb ls v l i nu ra u e e d dn l d cl d better ? nAlso worse vr •I ta – eh dcells can be found, and at congestion in the r cl a o l n e serving cell or in the better cell, the call can be setup in •Eeworseg This is called Assignment to a worse cell. xn da e t d rncell. a e •C l asa g at a large distance from the nominal l d rn l ? o hi cells However, cell are not allowed to remain as candidates. This is controlled by the parameter AWOFFSET. Limited Internal 62 NPI Training – Retainability Msrmt eu e aen rsls et u Fe g it r l i n Ueccnii n r n odo g y t Bi r nn acakg s i Aii r r d ula ai x y o nt o f ni n e r uc s wk to e lan vuto a i s O ni g es r az t l t gi nhi S dg es ei t l t nn h i Actor p lo i nel l a y 2005-09-30 Handover – Locating Overview Locating – Hierarchical Cell Structures Sa ii rHCS nwku tosr the possibility to give priority x Theyaoe o f provides x i t r c e ? i ula rd feature ni na i crtorcells t e ctnsfwe n pad that aregothe: oot i hl a nott a strongest but provide sufficient en o i r signal strength levels ?

The appropriate level of the sufficient signal strength •Alevelstt a t ecl si nemainly depends on the co- and adjacent s m onh e g n or l •Haha esuus surrounding cells i interference from the er i lcl t cr r cc l r t e ? With low interference it is the noise level with a safety •Ora a u e i sb sufficient signal strength levels v l i nthatra thee e d dn l du ls margin d set cl ? nEach l ashould •I ta – eh d e be associated with a LAYER r ccelln vr l o ? The Layer could be defined by the traffic that the cell •Ee ern with just a basic ranking, how much traffic the xn da e t d g captures cell dimensioned for and how much the cell •C l asa g e o arern l dhi l interfere with the rest of the network ? The lower the layer the higher the priority Limited Internal 63 NPI Training – Retainability P a ls e ly t nt i I ii tos na n ti

Msrmt eu e aen rsls et u Fe g it r l i n Ueccnii n r n odo g y t Bi r nn acakg s i Aii r r d ula ai x y o nt o f ni n e r uc s wk to e lan vuto a i s O ni g es r az t l t gi nhi S dg es ei t l t nn h i Actor p lo i nel l a y 2005-09-30 Handover – Locating Overview Locating – Removal of candidates Sa ii r rd nwku tosr i ula aoe o f ni na xx y i t r c e i crot d t e ctnsfwe of candidates from the n pa n o i removal o reasons a t r The r ei hl for go a: list are: •Ai ne t a t ecl sgmt onh e s n or l •Haha esuus er i candidate rc l rte ? i Theclcl t cr belongs to a system type not •Ora a u eby u emobile. v l i n n ra sb ls e d d dl i thel supported d c ? Evaluation r •I ta – eh d e BSC parameters and timers r cl a o of l nv controlling •Ee ern handover, i. e. if it is allowed to xn da e t d g make i •C l asa g e o hhandover on SDCCH etc. The l d rn l evaluated parameters are IBHOSICH, SCHO, ASSOC, IBHOASS, TALLOC and TURGEN. Limited Internal 64 NPI Training – Retainability P a ls e ly t nt i I ii tos na n ti Msrmt eu e aen rsls et u Fe g it r l i n Ueccnii n r n odo g y t Bi r nn acakg s i Aii r r d ula ai x y o nt o f ni n e r uc s wk to e lan vuto a i s O ni g es r az t l t gi nhi S dg es ei t l t nn h i Actor p lo i nel l a y 2005-09-30 Handover – Locating Overview Locating – Removal of candidates

Sa ii r rd nwku tosr i ula aoe o f ni na xx y i t r c e The reasons for removal of candidates from the list are: i crot d t e ctnsfwe n pa i hl a go a: o r en o i t r Evaluation of co-sited neighbors. Three checks are •Aperformed:oecl si ne t a t r e s mt onh l g n ? – P a ls e ly t nt i I ii tos na n ti Msrmt eu e aen rsls et u Fe g it r l i n Ueccnii n r n odo g y t If average timing advance exceeds the MAXTA value •Haha esuus cell. i rr i for l t co-sited e cclcthercr l te – If average timing advance is less than the TALIM value •Ora a u e i sb and greater than or equal to the TALIM v l i n n ra u e e d for serving cell ls d dl d cl value for the •I ta – cl h d eis worse and in the same cell layer as serving n – e the o r co-sited cell. l a cell nv If •Ee ern and the average timing advance exceeds the xn da e t d cell g TALIM value for the co-sited cell. Bi r nn acakg s i Aii r r d ula ai x y o nt o f ni n e r uc s wk to e lan vuto a i s O ni g es r az t l t gi nhi S dg es ei t l t nn h i Actor p lo i nel l a y •C l asa g removal of candidates if the MS is l d rn l ? e o hi and Evaluation classified as a fast moving mobile (if this feature is used). Limited Internal 65 NPI Training – Retainability 2005-09-30 Handover – Locating Overview Locating – Categorization 2 Sa ii r rd nwku tosr i ula aoe o f ni na xx y i t r c e i crot d t e ctnsfwe n pa i hl a go a: o r en o i t r ?

The cells in the candidate list are then organized in the following three categories: •Ai neAbove ecl sgmtt a t S: e s – nonh Neighboring cell above serving cell in or l •Haha esuus list i rr i lcl candidate e ccthel t cr rte •Ora aBelowl S:sb ls v l i nu e i Neighboring cell below serving cell in e – dn ra u e d d d cl the candidate list •I ta –clS:a o r cell n – ehServing r l nv de •Ee ern xn da e t d g •C l asa g e o hi l d rn l P a ls e ly t nt i I ii tos na n ti Msrmt eu e aen rsls et u Fe g it r l i n Ueccnii n r n odo g y t Bi r nn acakg s i Aii r r d ula ai x y o nt o f ni n e r uc s wk to e lan vuto a i s O ni g es r az t l t gi nhi S dg es ei t l t nn h i Actor p lo i nel l a y Limited Internal 66 NPI Training – Retainability 2005-09-30 Handover – Locating Overview

Locating – Ordering the candidate list Sa ii r rd nwkuRequeste i ula aoDescriptioncosrArrived x Indication i Assignment t na e o f ni t r 1x y i cr2ot d t e ctnsfwe n pa i hAWa go urgency o r e n Excessive TA a: l state t r oi 3 •Ai ne t a t ecl sgmt onh e s n or l •Haha esuus i rr i lcl t cr e cc l r t e •Ora a u e i sb ls v l i n n ra u e e d d dl d cl •I ta – eh d e n cl a o r r l nv •Ee ern xn da e t d g •C l asa g e o hi l d rn l 4 5 detected Bad Quality urgency detected OL/UL subcell change or ICHO requested P a ls e ly t nt i I ii tos na n ti Msrmt eu e aen rsls et u Fe g it r l i n Ueccnii n r n odo g y t Bi r nn acakg s i Aii r r d ula ai x y o nt o f ni n e r uc s wk to e lan vuto a i s O ni g es r az t l t gi nhi S dg es ei t l t nn h i Actor p lo i nel l a y Limited Internal 67 NPI Training – Retainability 2005-09-30 Handover – Locating Overview

Locating – List preparation Sa ii r rd nwku tosr i ula aoe o f ni na xx y i t r c e i crot d t e ctnsfwe n pa i hl a go a: o r en o i t r •Ai ne t a t ecl sgmt onh e s n or l •Haha esuus i rr i lcl t cr e cc l r t e •Ora a u e i sb ls v l i n n ra u e e d d dl d cl •I ta – eh d e n cl a o r r l nv •Ee ern xn da e t d g •C l asa g e o hi l d rn l P a ls e ly t nt i I ii tos na n ti Msrmt eu e aen rsls et u Fe g it r l i n Ueccnii n r n odo g y t Bi r nn acakg s i Aii r r d ula ai x y o nt o f ni n e r uc s wk to e lan vuto a i s O ni g es r az t l t gi nhi S dg es ei t l t nn h i Actor p lo i nel l a y Limited Internal 68 NPI Training – Retainability 2005-09-30

Handover – Locating Overview Locating – Sending the list • If th e can did ate list is em pty (i. e. serving cell is the best) th e cand id ate list is no t sent to the ce ntral processo r. • T h e first ce ll in the ca ndidate list is the “b est” ca ndidate . A t con gestion the n ext cell in th e ca ndidate list is tried. P e n a lty lis t In itia tio n s M ea su re m e n t re su lts F ilte rin g U rg e ncy co n d itio n B asic ra n kin g A u xilia ry ra d io n e tw ork fu n ctio n s e va lua tion s O rg a niz ing th e list S e nd in g th e list Allo ca tio n re p ly Limited Internal 69 NPI Training – Retainability 2005-09-30 Handover – Locating Overview

Locating – Allocation reply • A t s u c c e s s a p e n a lty lis t is tra n s fe rre d fro m th e lo c a tin g in d iv id u a l to th e n e w o n e . If th e h a n d o v e r re a s o n w a s d u e to u rg e n c y a p e n a lty fo r th e a b a n d o n e d c e ll m u s t b e in c lu d e d . T h e o ld lo c a tin g in d iv id u a l is th e n d e le te d . • A t in te r-B S C h a n d o v e r it is n o t p o s s ib le to s e n d th e p e n a lty lis t. H o w e v e r it is p o s s ib le in d ic a te if th e c a u s e o f th e h a n d o v e r w a s d u e to b a d q u a lity o r e x c e s s iv e tim in g a d v a n c e . T h e p e n a ltie s o f th e n e w c e ll w ill th e n b e u s e d

Away by Michael Gow: Character Analysis

Coral: The death of Coral’s son has caused an emotional breakdown as she cannot accept her son’s death. Moreover, Coral has lost her social identity and tends to struggle to find a connection with anyone, as she “can’t think of anything to say” (Act 2, Scene 2). Her husband, Roy, is annoyed by her bizarre attitude and this causes Coral to lower herself to the behavior of a naive child “I’ll be good! I’ll improve! ” When Coral does begin to speak, it is presented as very expressive and mournful. Her tone is filled with emotion as she is constantly “wiping away tears”. Coral finally begins to socialize, with a woman named Leonie.

She seems instigated by the fact that Leonie (the woman) appeared to be hiding something. Leonie (like Roy) attempts to conceal her distress with a social disguise. Whilst dismissing Leonie, Coral visualizes Rick as a duplicate of her son. Rick is similar in context with her son; however he is different in circumstance. By conserving a close-knitted friendship with Rick, she continues to retain the visual memory of her son. Gwen: Gwen is a unhappy woman on the brink of a nervous breakdown. She is a nagging housewife who seems to complain or suggest a certain opinion about the slightest of situations.

Her character displays the type of relationship she has with her loved ones, family, and friends and so on. As she has no intimacy or emotional connection with her daughter Meg, Meg shows no respect or courtesy towards Gwen. “Meg: When you’re married to someone, do you ever wish they were dead? ” Jim: Please don’t be harsh towards your mother”. Meg despises Gwen because she is always nagging, seems materialistic, acts bossy and manipulative as well as being a snob in general. Gwen’s insecurity relates to her obsession with materialism, as she feels she has to always be in control of the situation.

As much as being emotional, Gwen is just as economic and fearful. “Roy: We stuck to our plans like the Bible. And we’re getting there… My plans were for me but your mother… hers are for all of us” (Act 2, Scene 2). Gwen’s journey on the caravan to the beach is her personal turning point. The storm is symbolised as a purifier of the soul, washing away her material possessions. The storm is also considered destructive as well as renewing life for mankind. The struggles against the storm were worth the price to pay, as the obstacles she had faced earlier, no longer exist. Tom: Tom is the most important character, yet he is not a flawless figure.

Tom is irritated and annoyed easily, impatient and ignorant. His anger is clearly displayed in scenes with Gwen who expresses illiterate and disrespectful comments towards Tom’s family. Tom develops to acquire his own appealing death, during the course of the play. He has been hesitant to speak about his death, as he ignores Meg’s attempt to begin a conversation on the matter: “Are you afraid? / You coming to the concert tonight? ”. Gow signifies Tom’s acceptance by giving him King Lear’s lines about crawling towards death. Tom is envisioned as Puck in his role, from A Midsummer Night’s Dream.

Tom is a unique individual, compared to Puck, he has similar magical powers. Tom has the ability to transform people by reviving love, can enliven people to a new insight on reality. The utmost evident example of his power is his task in the recovery of Coral, as he was the only one to foresee Coral as Kim Novak. “I knew who she was the second I saw her” (Act 4, Scene 2). Tom’s warmful attitude and friendly manner towards Coral has led to her confiding in him. He has inspired confidence in Coral and his gentle but effective concern has displayed pathways in which Coral can come in terms with the death of her son.

Economic Terms and Health Care

Economic Terms and Health Care History Introduction These days, the health care system is constantly changing in an attempt to meet the demands of an ever changing economy. Despite economic fluctuations, health care organizations must adjust its financing, organizational structure, and delivery of medical services to meet patient needs. Resources, however, are limited. As a result, it is vital that health care organizations understand their financial limitations all the while meeting patient demands. The following essay discusses the evolution of economics and how economics pertains to the health care system. Economics

Economics can be defined as the science that is concerned with the production, distribution, and consumption of goods and services. In essence, it is the study of the material welfare of humankind (Apollo Group, 2010). Economics in health care is concerned not only with the financial aspects of the system, but how those financial elements impact patient care. Like general economics, economics in health care makes two general hypotheses: one, people are directed by their goals and will act in their own best interest; two, although resources are limited, human needs and the potential for meeting those needs is limitless.

According to Scott, Solomon, and McGowan, “Two basic points are 1) economics is about resource allocation, and 2) efficiency in resource use (getting the most from available resources) in health care can be understood by identifying production functions representing health-care services” (CDC, 2001). Therefore, those in the health care field have needed to be concerned with ensuring that resources, including material and human, are appropriately allocated to meet the needs of patients.

Given that needs are limitless, while resources are not, health care managers must be careful not to exhaust the goods and services that are available. Microeconomics and Macroeconomics Microeconomics is concerned with how individuals and organizations decide how to allocate the resources that are available to them so that they can meet their own or consumer demands. Macroeconomics, on the other hand, concerns the general population or, in this case, health care system as a whole, rather than individual consumers or organizations.

Micro and macroeconomics explain the supply and demand of the population. Microeconomics is focused on individual product costs in any given market. On the other hand, macroeconomics helps to explain the prices of the products that are sold. Additionally, macroeconomics is influenced by several causes, including consumer consumption, inflation, and employment rates In microeconomics, for instance, individuals who may need medical care, but do not have insurance, may choose to forgo treatment until it is absolutely necessary.

The part of the health care system—a hospital or clinic–that can assist them, perhaps through Medicare or Medicaid may also may be short on resources and therefore must allocate them sparingly to meet the demands of other patients. However, microeconomics directly affects macroeconomics. For each individual or organization that has demands that are unmet, the entire system becomes strained. Supply and Demand Supply and demand has played a role in society since the dawn of man. In any given market, supply and demand has influenced prices and the quantity of goods available.

This in effect determines micro and macroeconomics. If there is not a demand for products, then the supply is affected, in either an overage or a shortage. Without a demand for products, there would be no reason to supply them. Consequently, at times, if the demand is too great, then the supply would also be limited. Supply establishes a connection between how much a product is sold for and it also establishes the quantity that a supplier can or will sell. Consumers consider costs of a product or service and its relative value to them and ultimately determine supply and demand.

Gross Domestic Product Gross domestic product, or GDP, consists of the total market value of all goods and services produced within a nation’s border during specific periods of time (Apollo Group, 2010). In other words, this comprises all of the goods and services that are produced along with their market values in a country over the course of one fiscal year. There are three ways that gross market value is determined: through expenditures, income approach, or product approach. Despite the different approaches, the outcomes are identical.

In addition, the foundation of a nation’s gross domestic income determines the standard of living. It is established through a country’s total investments, government expenditures, and consumer spending. Elasticity and Inelasticity Consumers also determine elasticity as well as the costs of products by way of supply and demand. If consumers determine that a product or service is important or essential to them, then the cost may be higher, given that they will continue to purchase it out of necessity and thus willing to pay a higher price.

Furthermore, if one product or service is in great demand and will be purchased regardless of its cost, it is considered to be inelastic. Elasticity is important in economics because it is related to consumer and government surplus. Conclusion Economics can be used to determine and predict costs within the health care industry based on supply and demand, micro and macroeconomic trends, and service elasticity or inelasticity. For instance, if a physician constantly refers patients for off-site tests, then it can be determined that that having the capabilities to do on-site tests could meet the patient demand.

Health care managers must identify what consumers need. They must not only look at the microeconomic picture, but also the macroeconomic picture to determine trends in supply and demand. In essence, without an understanding of economic principles and how to apply them, it would be difficult for society to effectively meet their wants and needs. References Scott, R. , Solomon, S. , & McGowan, J. (2001). Applying Economic Principles to Health Care. CDC. Retrieved on May 9, 2011 from http://www. cdc. gov/ncidod/eid/vol7no2/scott. htm.

Informal Networks: the Company Behind the Chart

Informal Networks: The Company Behind the Chart by David Krackhardt and Jeffrey R. Hanson D O Reprint 93406 Harvard Business Review N O T CO PY D O N O T CO PY HarvardBusinessReview RICHARD NORMANN AND RAFAEL RAMIREZ DAVID A. GARVIN GEORGE STALK, JR. AND ALAN M. WEBBER DAVID KRACKHARDT AND JEFFREY R. HANSON BARBARA PRESLEY NOBLE D JOSEPH M. JURAN ROBERT KELLEY AND JANET CAPLAN ALISTAIR D. WILLIAMSON LAURENCE HECHT AND PETER MORICI NANCY A. NICHOLS O JULY-AUGUST 1993 Reprint Number FROM VALUE CHAIN TO VALUE CONSTELLATION: DESIGNING INTERACTIVE STRATEGY BUILDING A LEARNING ORGANIZATION JAPAN’S DARK SIDE OF TIME 93408

N 93402 93409 O INFORMAL NETWORKS: THE COMPANY BEHIND THE CHART REINVENTING LABOR: AN INTERVIEW WITH UNION PRESIDENT LYNN WILLIAMS HOW BELL LABS CREATES STAR PERFORMERS 93406 93410 HBR CASE STUDY IS THIS THE RIGHT TIME TO COME OUT? WORLD VIEW MANAGING RISKS IN MEXICO FIRST PERSON MADE IN U. S. A. : A RENAISSANCE IN QUALITY IN QUESTION WHATEVER HAPPENED TO ROSIE THE RIVETER? PERSPECTIVES IS THE DEFICIT A FRIENDLY GIANT AFTER ALL? T 93405 CO 93411 93403 93404 PY 93407 93401 Mapping employees’ relationships can help managers harness the real power in their organizations. D Informal Networks: The Company y David Krackhardt and Jeffrey R. Hanson Many executives invest considerable resources in restructuring their companies, drawing and redrawing organizational charts only to be disappointed by the results. That’s because much of the real work of companies happens despite the formal organization. Often what needs attention is the informal organization, the networks of relationships that employees form across functions and divisions to accomplish tasks fast. These informal networks can cut through formal reporting procedures to jump start stalled initiatives and meet extraordinary deadlines.

But informal networks can just as easily sabotage companies’ best laid plans by blocking communication and fomenting opposition to change unless managers know how to identify and direct them. Learning how to map these social links can help managers harness the real power in their companies and revamp their formal organizations to let the informal ones thrive. If the formal organization is the skeleton of a company, the informal is the central nervous system driving the collective thought processes, actions, and reactions of its business units.

Designed to facilitate standard modes of production, the formal organization is set up to handle easily anticipated problems. But when unexpected problems arise, the informal organization kicks in. Its complex webs of social ties form every time colleagues communi- Copyright © 1993 by the President and Fellows of Harvard College. All rights reserved. O N O cate and solidify over time into surprisingly stable networks. Highly adaptive, informal networks move diagonally and elliptically, skipping entire functions to get work done.

Managers often pride themselves on understanding how these networks operate. They will readily tell you who confers on technical matters and who discusses office politics over lunch. What’s startling is how often they are wrong. Although they may be able to diagram accurately the social links of the five or six people closest to them, their assumptions about employees outside their immediate circle are usually off the mark. Even the most psychologically shrewd managers lack critical information about how employees spend their days and how they feel about their peers.

Managers simply can’t be everywhere at once, nor can they read people’s minds. So they’re left to draw conclusions based on superficial observations, without the tools to test their perceptions. Armed with faulty information, managers often rely on traditional techniques to control these netDavid Krackhardt is associate professor of organizations and public policy at the H. John Heinz III School of Public Policy and Management at Carnegie Mellon University. Jeffrey R. Hanson is president of J. R. Hanson & Company, a management consulting firm in Bronxville, New York.

DRAWINGS BY GARISON WEILAND T CO PY D Behind the Chart works. Some managers hope that the authority inherent in their titles will override the power of informal links. Fearful of any groups they can’t command, they create rigid rules that will hamper the work of the informal networks. Other managers try to recruit “moles” to provide intelligence. More enlightened managers run focus groups and host retreats to “get in touch” with their employees. But such approaches won’t rein in these freewheeling networks, nor will they give managers an accurate picture of what they look like.

Using network analysis, however, managers can translate a myriad of relationship ties into maps that show how the informal organization gets work done. Managers can get a good overall picture by diagramming three types of relationship networks: The advice network shows the prominent players in an organization on whom others depend to solve problems and provide technical information. The trust network tells which employees share delicate political information and back one another in a crisis.

The communication network reveals the employees who talk about work-related matters on a regular basis. Maps of these relationships can help managers understand the networks that once eluded them and leverage these networks to solve organizational HARVARD BUSINESS REVIEW July-August 1993 O N O problems. Case studies using fictional names, based on companies with which we have worked, show how managers can bring out the strengths in their networks, restructure their formal organizations to complement the informal, and “rewire” faulty networks to work with company goals.

T CO The Steps of Network Analysis We learned the significance of the informal network 12 years ago while conducting research at a bank that had an 80% turnover rate among its tellers. Interviews revealed that the tellers’ reasons for leaving had less to do with the bank’s formal organization than with the tellers’ relationships to key players in their trust networks. When these players left, others followed in droves. Much research had already established the influence of central figures in informal networks.

Our subsequent studies of public and private companies showed that understanding these networks could increase the influence of managers outside the inner circle. If they learned who wielded power in networks and how various coalitions functioned, they could work with the informal organization to solve problems and improve performance. 105 PY INFORMAL NETWORKS The Formal Chart Shows Who’s on Top Leers (CEO) Software Applications Field Design Integrated Communications Technologies Lang (SVP) Muller Jules Baker Daven Thomas Zanado

O’Hara (SVP) Bair Calder (SVP) Harris Benson Fleming Church Martin Lee Wilson Swinney Carlson Fiola Stewart Ruiz Hoberman Mapping advice networks, our research showed, can uncover the source of political conflicts and failure to achieve strategic objectives. Because these networks show the most influential players in the day-to-day operations of a company, they are useful to examine when a company is considering routine changes. Trust networks often reveal the causes of nonroutine problems such as poor performance by temporary teams.

Companies should examine trust networks when implementing a major change or experiencing a crisis. The communication network can help identify gaps in information flow, the inefficient use of resources, and the failure to generate new ideas. They should be examined when productivity is low. Managers can analyze informal networks in three steps. Step one is conducting a network survey using employee questionnaires. The survey is designed to solicit responses about who talks to whom about work, who trusts whom, and who advises whom on technical matters.

It is important to pretest the survey on a small group of employees to see if any questions are ambiguous or meet with resistance. In some companies, for example, employees are comfortable answering questions about friendship; in others, they deem such questions too personal and intrusive. The following are among the questions often asked: Whom do you talk to every day? Whom do you go to for help or advice at least once a week? With one day of training, whose job could you step into? 106 Whom would you recruit to support a proposal of yours that could be unpopular?

Whom would you trust to keep in confidence your concerns about Data Control Systems a work-related issue? Some companies also find it useful to conduct surveys to deterStern (SVP) mine managers’ impressions of inHuttle formal networks so that these can Atkins be compared with the actual netKibler works revealed by the employee questionnaires. In such surveys, questions are posed like this: Whom do you think Steve goes to for work-related advice? Whom would Susan trust to keep her confidence about workrelated concerns? The key to eliciting honest answers from employees is to earn their trust.

They must be assured that managers will not use their answers against them or the employees mentioned in their responses and that their immediate colleagues will not have access to the information. In general, respondents are comfortable if upper-level managers not mentioned in the surveys see the results. After questionnaires are completed, the second step is cross-checking the answers. Some employees, worried about offending their colleagues, say they talk to everyone in the department on a daily basis. If Judy Smith says she regularly talks to Bill Johnson about work, make sure that Johnson says he talks to Smith.

Managers should discount any answers not confirmed by both parties. The final map should not be based on the impressions of one employee but on the consensus of the group. The third step is processing the information using one of several commercially available computer programs that generate detailed network maps. (Drawing maps is a laborious process that tends to result in curved lines that are difficult to read. ) Maps in hand, a skilled manager can devise a strategy that plays on the strengths of the informal organization, as David Leers, the founder and CEO of a California-based computer company, found out. D O N O T

CO Whom Do You Trust? David Leers thought he knew his employees well. In 15 years, the company had trained a cadre of loyal professionals who had built a strong regionHARVARD BUSINESS REVIEW July-August 1993 PY al reputation for delivering customized office inforin the advice network – meaning that many emmation systems (see “The Formal Chart Shows ployees relied on him for technical advice (see Who’s on Top”). The field design group, responsible “The Advice Network Reveals the Experts”). But for designing and installing the systems, generated he had only one trust link with a colleague (see the largest block of revenues.

For years it had been “But When It Comes to Trust…”). Leers concluded the linchpin of the operation, led by the company’s that Harris’s weak position in the trust network technical superstars, with whom Leers kept in was a main reason for the task force’s inability to close contact. produce results. But Leers feared that the company was losing its In his job, Harris was able to leverage his position competitive edge by shortchanging its other diviin the advice network to get work done quickly. As sions, such as software applications and integrated a task force leader, however, his technical expertise communications technologies.

When members of was less important than his ability to moderate field design saw Leers start pumping more money into these divisions, they worried about losing their privileged position. Key employees started voicing dissatisBair faction about their compensation, Church and Leers knew he had the makings of a morale problem that Baker Jules could result in defections. Thomas To persuade employees to supZanado Muller Leers (CEO) Swinney port a new direction for the company, Leers decided to involve Harris Lang (SVP) Daven them in the planning process.

He Lee formed a strategic task force comO’Hara (SVP) Martin posed of members of all divisions Fiola Calder (SVP) and led by a member of field deRuiz sign to signal his continuing comWilson Carlson Stern (SVP) mitment to the group. He wanted Fleming Huttle a leader who had credibility with his peers and was a proven perBenson Kibler Atkins Hoberman former. Eight-year company veteran Tom Harris seemed obvious for the job. Leers was optimistic after the first meeting. Members generated good discussion about key competitive dilemmas. A month later, Church Lee however, he found that the group had made little progress.

Within O’Hara (SVP) Lang (SVP) Huttle two months, the group was comRuiz Calder (SVP) Stewart pletely deadlocked by members championing their own agendas. Benson Leers (CEO) Although a highly effective manDaven Carlson ager, Leers lacked the necessary Hoberman distance to identify the source of Bair Baker his problem. Fiola Swinney An analysis of the company’s Fleming Thomas trust and advice networks helped Harris him get a clearer picture of the dyMartin Kibler namics at work in the task force. The trust map turned out to be Atkins most revealing. Task force leader Muller Tom Harris held a central position HARVARD BUSINESS REVIEW

D O The Advice Network Reveals the Experts N July-August 1993 O T But When It Comes to Trust… CO PY 107 INFORMAL NETWORKS conflicting views, focus the group’s thinking, and win the commitment of task force members to mutually agreed-upon strategies. Because he was a loner who took more interest in computer games than in colleagues’ opinions, task force members didn’t trust him to take their ideas seriously or look out for their interests. So they focused instead on defending their turf. With this critical piece of information, the CEO crafted a solution. He did not want o undermine the original rationale of the task force by declaring it a failure. Nor did he want to embarrass a valued employee by summarily removing him as task force head. Any response, he concluded, had to run with the natural grain of the informal organization. He decided to redesign the team to reflect the inherent strengths of the trust network. Referring to the map, Leers looked for someone in the trust network who could share responsibilities with Harris. He chose Bill Benson, a warm, amiable person who occupied a central position in the network and with whom Harris had already established a solid working relationship.

He publicly justified his decision to name two task force heads How the CEO Views the Trust Network Fiola The Trust Network According to Calder as necessary, given the time pressures and scope of the problem. Within three weeks, Leers could see changes in the group’s dynamics. Because task force members trusted Benson to act in the best interest of the entire group, people talked more openly and let go of their fixed positions. During the next two months, the task force made significant progress in proposing a strategic direction for the company.

And in the process of working together, the task force helped integrate the company’s divisions. A further look at the company’s advice and trust networks uncovered another serious problem, this time with the head of field design, Jim Calder. The CEO had appointed Calder manager because his colleagues respected him as the most technically accomplished person in the division. Leers thought Calder would have the professional credibility to lead a diverse group of very specialized design consultants. This is a common practice in professional service organizations: make your best producer the manager.

Calder, however, turned out to be a very marginal figure in the trust network. His managerial ability and skills were sorely lacking , which proved to be a deficit that outweighed the positive effects derived from his technical expertise. He regularly told people they were stupid and paid little attention to their professionMartin al concerns. Harris Leers knew that Calder was no Church diplomat, but he had no idea to what extent the performance and Calder (SVP) morale of the group were suffering Wilson as a result of Calder’s tyrannical Lee management style.

In fact, a map Hoberman based on Leers’s initial perceptions of the trust network put Benson Calder in a central position (see Fleming “How the CEO Views the Trust Swinney Network”). Leers took for granted that Calder had good personal relationships with the people on his Carlson team. His assumption was not unusual. Frequently, senior managers presume that formal work ties will yield good relationship ties over time, and they assume that if they trust someone, others will too. The map of Calder’s perceptions Fleming Hoberman was also surprising (see “The Trust Network According to Calder”).

He saw almost no trust D 108 O N O T CO HARVARD BUSINESS REVIEW PY July-August 1993 links in his group at all. Calder was oblivious to any of the trust dependencies emerging around him – a worrisome characteristic for a manager. The information in these maps helped Leers formulate a solution. Again, he concluded that he needed to change the formal organization to reflect the structure of the informal network. Rather than promoting or demoting Calder, Leers cross-promoted him to an elite “special situations team,” reporting directly to the CEO.

His job involved working with highly sophisticated clients on specialized problems. The position took better advantage of Calder’s technical skills and turned out to be good for him socially as well. Calder, Leers learned, hated dealing with formal management responsibilities and the pressure of running a large group. Leers was now free to promote John Fleming, a tactful, even-tempered employee, to the head of field design. A central player in the trust network, Fleming was also influential in the advice network.

The field group’s performance improved significantly over the next quarter, and the company was able to create a highly profitable revenue stream through the activities of Calder’s new team. Whom Do You Talk To? When it comes to communication, more is not always better, as the top management of a large East Coast bank discovered. A survey showed that customers were dissatisfied with the information they were receiving about banking services. Branch managers, top managers realized, were not communicating critical information about available services to tellers. As a result, customers’ questions were not answered in a timely fashion.

Management was convinced that more talking among parties would improve customer service and increase profits. A memo was circulated ordering branch managers to “increase communication flow and coordination within and across branches and to make a personal effort to increase the amount and effectiveness of their own interpersonal communications with their staffs. ” A study of the communication networks of 24 branches, however, showed the error of this thinking. More communication ties did not distinguish the most profitable branches; the quality of communication determined their success.

Nonhierarchical branches, those with two-way communication between people of all levels, were 70% more profitable than branches with one-way communication patterns between “superiors” and staff. HARVARD BUSINESS REVIEW July-August 1993 The communication networks of two branches located in the same city illustrated this point. Branch 1 had a central figure, a supervisor, with whom many tellers reported communicating about their work on a daily basis. The supervisor confirmed that employees talked to her, but she reported communicating with only half of these tellers about work-related matters by the end of the day.

The tellers, we later learned, resented this one-way communication flow. Information they viewed as critical to their success flowed up the organization but not down. They complained that the supervisor was cold and remote and failed to keep them informed. As a result, productivity suffered. In contrast, Branch 2 had very few one-way communication lines but many mutual, two-way lines. Tellers in this branch said they were well-informed about the normal course of work flow and reported greater satisfaction with their jobs.

After viewing the communication map, top management abandoned the more-is-better strategy and began exploring ways of fostering mutual communication in all the branches. In this case, management did not recast the formal structure of the branches. Instead, it opted to improve relationships within the established framework. The bank sponsored mini-seminars in the branches, in which the problems revealed by the maps were openly discussed. These consciousness-raising sessions spurred many supervisors to communicate more substantive information to tellers.

District managers were charged with coming up with their own strategies for improving communication. The bank D O N O T CO The manager didn’t know that there were two distinct cultures in his branch until he saw the communication network map. surveyed employees at regular intervals to see if their supervisors were communicating effectively, and supervisors were informed of the results. The communication network of a third branch surfaced another management challenge: the branch had divided itself into two distinct groups, each with its own culture and mode of operation.

The network map showed that one group had evolved into the “main branch,” consisting of tellers, loan officers, and administrative staff. The other group was a kind of “sub-branch,” made up primarily of tellers and administrators. It turned 109 PY INFORMAL NETWORKS out that the sub-branch staff worked during nonpeak and Saturday hours, while main-branch employees worked during peak and weekday hours. The two cultures never clashed because they rarely interacted. The groups might have coexisted peacefully if customers had not begun complaining about the sub-branch.

The main-branch staff, they reported, was responsive to their needs, while the sub-branch staff was often indifferent and even rude. Subbranch employees, it turned out, felt little loyalty to the bank because they didn’t feel part of the organization. They were excluded from staff meetings, which were scheduled in the morning, and they had little contact with the branch manager, who worked a normal weekday shift. The manager, who was embedded in the main branch, was not even aware that this distinct culture existed until he saw the communication network map. His challenge was to unify the two groups.

He decided not to revamp the formal structure, nor did he mount a major public-relations campaign to integrate the two cultures, fearing that each group would reject the other because the existing ties among its members were so strong. Instead, he opted for a stealth approach. He exposed people from one group to people from the other in the hopes of expanding the informal network. Although such forced interaction does not guarantee the emergence of stable networks, more contact increases the likelihood that some new ties will stick. Previously planned technical training programs for tellers presented the opportunity to nitiate change. The manager altered his original plans for riod. By increasing his own interaction with the sub-branch, the manager discovered critical information about customers, procedures, and data systems. Without even realizing it, he had been making key decisions based on incomplete data. D 110 Network Holes and Other Problems As managers become more sophisticated in analyzing their communication networks, they can use them to spot five common configurations. None of these are inherently good or bad, functional or dysfunctional. What matters is the fit, whether networks are in sync with company goals.

When the two are at odds, managers can attempt to broaden or reshape the informal networks using a variety of tactics. Imploded relationships. Communication maps often show departments that have few links to other groups. In these situations, employees in a department spend all their time talking among themselves and neglect to cultivate relationships with the rest of their colleagues. Frequently, in such cases, only the most senior employees have ties with people outside their areas. And they may hoard these contacts by failing to introduce these people to junior colleagues.

To counter this behavior, one manager implemented a mentor system in which senior employees were responsible for introducing their apprentices to people in other groups who could help them do their jobs. Another manager instituted a policy of picking up the tab for “power breakfasts,” as long as the employees were from different departments. Irregular communication patterns. The opposite pattern can be just as troubling. Sometimes employees communicate only with members of other groups and not among themselves. To foster camaraderie, one manager sponsored seasonal sporting events with members of the “problem group” assigned to the same team.

Staff meetings can also be helpful if they’re really used to share resources and exchange important information about work. A lack of cohesion resulting in factionalism suggests a more serious underlying problem that requires bridge building. Initiating discussions among peripheral players in each faction can help uncover the root of the problem and suggest solutions. These parties will be much less resistant to compromise than the faction leaders, who will feel more impassioned about their positions. Fragile structures. Sometimes group members communicate only among themselves and with HARVARD BUSINESS REVIEW July-August 1993

What matters is the fit, whether networks are in sync with company goals. on-site training and opted instead for an off-site facility, even though it was more expensive. He sent mixed groups of sub-branch and main-branch employees to programs to promote gradual, neutral interaction and communication. Then he followed up with a series of selective “staff swaps” whereby he shifted work schedules temporarily. When someone from the main branch called in sick or was about to go on vacation, he elected a substitute from the sub-branch. And he rescheduled staff meetings so that all employees could attend.

This approach helped unify the two cultures, which improved levels of customer satisfaction with the branch as a whole over a six-month pe- O N O T CO PY employees in one other division. This can be problematic when the contribution of several areas is necessary to accomplish work quickly and spawn creativity. One insurance company manager, a naturally gregarious fellow, tried to broaden employees’ contacts by organizing meetings and cocktail parties for members of several divisions. Whenever possible, he introduced employees he thought should be cultivating working relationships.

Because of his warm, easygoing manner, they didn’t find his methods intrusive. In fact, they appreciated his personal interest in their careers. Holes in the network. A map may reveal obvious network holes, places you would expect to find relationship ties but don’t. In a large corporate law firm, for example, a group of litigators was not talking to the firm’s criminal lawyers, a state of affairs that startled the senior partner. To begin tackling the problem, the partner posed complex problems to criminal lawyers that only regular consultations with litigators could solve.

Again, arranging such interactions will not ensure the formation of enduring relationships, but continuous exposure increases the possibility. “Bow ties. ” Another common trouble spot is the bow tie, a network in which many players are dependent on a single employee but not on each other. Individuals at the center knot of a bow tie have tremendous power and control within the network, much more than would be granted them on a formal organizational chart. If the person at the knot leaves, connections between isolated groups can collapse.

If the person remains, organizational processes tend to become rigid and slow, and the individual is often torn between the demands of several groups. To undo such a knot, one manager self-consciously cultivated a stronger relationship with the person at the center. It took the pressure off the employee, who was no longer a lone operative, and it helped to diffuse some of his power. In general, managers should help employees develop relationships within the informal structure that will enable them to make valuable contributions to the company.

Managers need to guide employees to cultivate the right mix of relationships. Employees can leverage the power of informal relationships by building both strong ties, relationships with a high frequency of interaction, and weak ties, those with a lower frequency. They can call on the latter at key junctures to solve organizational problems and generate new ideas. Testing the solution. Managers can anticipate how a strategic decision will affect the informal organization by simulating network maps. This is particularly valuable when a company wants to anHARVARD BUSINESS REVIEW icipate reactions to change. A company that wants to form a strategic SWAT team that would remove key employees from the day-to-day operations of a division, for example, can design a map of the area without those players. If removing the central advice person from the network leaves the division with a group of isolates, the manager should reconsider the strategy. Failure to test solutions can lead to unfortunate results. When the trust network map of a bank showed a loan officer to be an isolate, the manager jumped to the conclusion that the officer was expendable.

The manager was convinced that he could replace the employee, a veteran of the company, with a younger, less expensive person who was more of a team player. What the manager had neglected to consider was how important this officer was to the company’s day-to-day operations. He might not have been a prime candidate for a high-level strategy team that demanded excellent social skills, but his expertise, honed by years of experience, would have been impossible to replace. In addition, he had cultivated a close relationship with the bank’s largest client – something an in-house network map would never have revealed.

Pictures don’t tell the whole story; network maps are just one tool among many. The most important change for a company to anticipate is a complete overhaul of its formal structure. Too many companies fail to consider how such a restructuring will affect their informal organizations. Managers assume that if a company eliminates layers of bureaucracy, the informal organization will simply adjust. It will adjust all right, but there’s no guarantee that it will benefit the company. Managers would do well to consider what type of redesign will play on the inherent strengths of key players and give them the freedom to thrive.

Policies should allow all employees easy access to colleagues who can help them carry out tasks quickly and efficiently, regardless of their status or area of jurisdiction. Experienced network managers who can use maps to identify, leverage, and revamp informal networks will become increasingly valuable as companies continue to flatten and rely on teams. As organizations abandon hierarchical structures, managers will have to rely less on the authority inherent in their title and more on their relationships with players in their informal networks.

They will need to focus less on overseeing employees “below” them and more on managing people across functions and disciplines. Understanding relationships will be the key to managerial success. Reprint 93406 111 D O N July-August 1993 O T CO PY Harvard Business Review HBR Subscriptions D Permissions HBR Article Reprints HBR Index and Other Catalogs HBS Cases HBS Press Books HBS Management Productions Videos HBR Custom Reprints O Harvard Business Review U. S. and Canada Subscription Service P. O. Box 52623 Boulder, CO 80322-2623 Telephone: (800) 274-3214 Fax: (617) 496-8145 Outside U. S. nd Canada Tower House Sovereign Park Lathkill Street Market Harborough Leicestershire LE16 9EF Telephone: 44-85-846-8888 Fax: 44-85-843-4958 N American Express, MasterCard, VISA accepted. Billing available. Harvard Business School Publishing Customer Service – Box 230-5 60 Harvard Way Boston, MA 02163 Telephone: U. S. and Canada (800) 545-7685 Outside U. S. and Canada: (617) 495-6117 or 495-6192 Fax: (617) 495-6985 Internet address: [email protected] harvard. edu Harvard Business School Management Productions videos are produced by award winning documentary filmmakers. You’ll find them lively, engaging, and informative.

Please inquire about HBR’s custom service and quantity discounts. We will print your company’s logo on the cover of reprints, collections, or books in black and white, two color, or four color. The process is easy, cost effective, and quick. Telephone: (617) 495-6198 or Fax: (617) 496-8866 O For permission to quote or reprint on a one-time basis: Telephone: (800) 545-7685 or Fax: (617) 495-6985 For permission to re-publish please write or call: Permissions Editor Harvard Business School Publishing Box 230-5 60 Harvard Way Boston, MA 02163 Telephone: (617) 495-6849 T CO PY

Barilla Spa Case – the Value of Information

BARILLA SpA Case The Value of Information COMAPNY BACKROUND ? Founded by Pietro Barilla in 1875 ? O Opened shop i Parma, Italy d h in l ? Subsequently run by son Ricardo, passed to his own sons Pietro & Gianni ? 1990 ? Largest Pasta maker in world g ? During 1960 constructed . 25 million sq. m. Pasta sq m Pasta plant in Pedrignano Background cont……… ? 1971 ? company sold to W. R. Grace,Inc. USA p y , ? 1979 – Grace sold the company back to Pietro ? 1980 – annual growth rate of 21% ? Growth achieved through expansion of existing business & acquisition of new business ?

Brands – BARILLA, VOIELLO & BRAIBANTI ? 1990 – 7 Divisions – 3 Pasta division, Bakery Product di i i P d division, F h b d di i i C Fresh bread division,Catering i division & International division INDUSTRY BACKGROUND ? Origin of pasta unknown ? Per capita Pasta consumption in Italy averaged 18 kilos per year ? 1980 – market grew by less than 1 % ? 1990 – Semolina & Fresh Pasta only growth segments ? export market was experiencing record g growth PRODUCTS ? Fresh Products –Fresh Pasta shelf life of 21 days,fresh days fresh bread shelf life 1 day ?

DRY Products – Medium shelf life of 10 to 12 weeks or Long shelf lif of 18 to 24 months k L h lf life f h CHANNELS OF DISTRIBUTION SALES & MARKETINGS ? Advertising ? Trade Promotions d i ? Sales representatives JITD Program ? 1980 – Barilla witnessed Fluctuating demand ? Extreme demad variability strained Barilla manufacturing and logistic operatons ? 1987 – Brando Vitali then Barilla director of logistics felt both l i i f l “ b h manufacturers & retailers f il were suffering fron thinning margins” ? Early 1988 he thought of JITD Program

JITD cont…. ? Rather than send product to the distributor as per their internal Planning ? He suggested they should send only what is needed at the stores ? To consider distributor shipment data for forecasting ? He suggested sending product only as it is needed rather than building huge inventory at both areas JITD cont…. ? He suggested they reduce distribution & inventory cost to ultimately reduce manufacturing costs ? R i Resistance f from within the company S l & i hi h Sales marketing Personnel Remarks of Sales & marketing Our sales level would flatten ? We run risk of not being able to adjust our shipment sufficiently quickly to meet demand ? objection from distribution channels ? we would not be able to run Trade promotions with JITD ? It is not clear what cost would be reduced Vitali Counter to concerns ? JITD should be considered selling tool ? We offer coustomers extra service at no extra cost ? Program will improve Barilla Visibility ? It would improve relations with Distributors ? Distributor data would improve our Planning p g process Change 1988 – Giorgio Maggiali appointed as director of logistics as Vitali promoted ? Maggiali appointed Vincenzo to help develop JITD Program ? I l Implementation was diffi l as manager of i difficult f one distribution said “ managing my stock is my J b” Job” Two Important Issues ? Extreme variations in distributors order patterns have caused severe operational inefficiencies and cost penalties for Barilla ? In JITD program Barilla’s own Logistics organisation will specify delivery quantity to distributor whereas normal process is reverse.

Returning to School

RUNNINGHEAD: Developmental Returning to School Tammy Lovitt ENG121 Instructor Raymond Nowak November 19, 2010 Introduction My paper describes how I wanted to go back to school. In this paper it allows for a chance to understand the obstacles that I had to overcome to return to school. Then I will explain how I came to the conclusion of when to return to school. From hard times and how it has changed my life and the life of my family. How I ended up in the investments of my academics to allow me to make the correct path on how and when to return to school. Thesis Statement Obtaining my GED and making the decision on returning back to school.

Reaching your goals in life and never giving up. Believing in myself to always push forward and never give up. You are never too old to return back to school. Setting a inspiring example for your children. No mountain is too high to climb as long as you have the right tools to climb. Returning to School As a child growing up I have always wanted to become a teacher. When I reached adulthood I had to return to school to get my GED. While I was attending school to get my GED I married and started a family. I graduated from GED school and was offered a job in the school district as a paraprofessional.

I was working at the school, being a mother and a wife so I had very little time for myself. My life was very hectic with working for the school, taking my children to their Cub Scout meetings, band practice, and performing my duties as a wife and mother. My husband worked two jobs to help make ends meet. He had very little time to help me with the children. During this time I thought about going back to school but, there was no time for me to fit school into my busy schedule. Several years later I went through a divorce which took a toll on the children and me.

I eventually had to work two jobs to make ends meet. This was another barrier standing in my way of returning to school. I continued to work for the school district and sonic. During the day when I was finished working at the school before I went to work at sonic I studied what I needed to do to become a teacher. I knew it was going to take me several years to return to school. No matter what I had to do I was going to find a way to return to school and reach my long-term goal. Years later I found myself engaged to a wonderful man that supported my decision to return to school.

The only thing I had to do was to wait until my children were older and they didn’t require most of my time. When the children started getting older and were gone most of the time I started to get bored. I was noticing that I had a lot of extra time on my hands so I decided it was time to return to school. After I made the decision to return to school I sat down with my family and told them. My family was excited about my decision to return to school and said that they supported me one hundred percent. Finally I was ready to return to school and then I started to get scared because of my age.

Was I really going to go back to school at my age? That question was always on my mind until I said, “it is never too late to return to school. ” Returning to school has always been a long-term goal for me and I was going to follow through. I knew that going back to school was going to be a struggle but, I was looking forward to the battle. So I started to check around at different schools to see which one was the best suited for me and my goals. With my schedule and family life online school was the best college suited for me. Time management was of the utter most importance to me.

While my children were growing up I have always taught them to go after what they wanted in life and to never let anything or anyone stand in their way. I have always preached to my children that education was important. My children know from watching me that no matter how hard things get to never give up on your goals or yourself. Always have the courage to go after the things that are important to you. Never cut yourself short about the things you do in life. Never let anyone tell you that you are too old to return to school. I believe everyone should take the opportunity to follow their goals in life.

Receive a higher paying job. As long as you believe in yourself others will believe in you. You will accomplish anything that you set out to do in life. No mountain is too high to climb as long as you have the right tools to climb it. I have really enjoyed my courses, classmates, and instructors so far and I look forward to each and every assignment. I have learned new things with each assignment and feedback from classmates as well as instructors. We are never too old to learn new and exciting ways of teaching or learning. I know I have learned new techniques to try and learn my materials for each course.

This is overall the best decision that I have made in life and I am happy that I followed through with my decision to return to school. My friends are ecstatic about my returning back to school. They said that I have inspired them to make some changes in their own lives. To witness middle aged adults on returning to school. They have also inquired about the steps on taking to enroll in school. I also feel sense there is a great demand on college backgrounds for some jobs I have made the correct decision. Returning back to school was hard at first but as the weeks go on the courses are more familiar to me.

I am learning new techniques in learning. I have also learned that everyone has a different learning style. Some people have more than one learning style. You can never learn enough in life. In returning back to school you have the opportunity to meet new people. I glimpse back and ask myself the question, “why did I wait so long to return back to school. ” Being able to recognize my overall achievements is a great honor for me. I am delighted with my decisions thus far in life. I hope that I am an inspiration for my children and all middle aged adults. Never question your ability to overcome life’s obstacles.

Have pride in yourself and the decisions you make. Having a great support system is an important key in making decisions in life. Overall I am delighted with my experience so far on returning back to school. This decision has had an enormous impact on my life. I have had some people make some ghastly remarks about me returning back to school. Learning how to ignore the terrible remarks has made me a better person. I am excited each day to sign into my class and see what topic we are working on. I look forward to all the feedback whether it is positive or negative.

Thermoregulation in the Neonate

THERMOREGULATION IN THE NEONATE By: Shubhada Ponkshe [pic] INTRODUCTION: Thermoregulation is a critical physiologic function that is closely related to the transition and survival of the infant. An understanding of transitional events and the physiologic adaptations that neonates must make is essential to helping the nurse provide an appropriate environment and help infants maintain thermal stability. Optimizing the thermal environment has proven significant for improving the chances of survival for small infants.

Understanding the basic physiologic principles and current methodology of thermoregulation is important in the clinical care of these tiny infants. Thermoregulation is the ability to balance heat production and heat loss in order to maintain body temperature within a certain ‘‘normal’’ range. Thermoregulation is controlled by the hypothalamus. Thermal stimuli providing information to the hypothalamus are derived from the body’s skin and deep thermal receptors and from thermal receptors in the pre – optic area of the hypothalamus.

It is in the hypothalamus that sensory information describing thermal status throughout the body is processed and compared against the temperature set point. Body heat-and therefore body temperature-is modified by alterations in metabolism, motor tone and activity, vasomotor activity, and sweating to produce either heat gain or loss. Neonates are prone to temperature maintenance problems. The intrauterine temperature of 37. 9o c (100. 2oF) fluctuates very little under normal circumstances. At birth, the transition from an intrauterine to extra-uterine environment creates a significant thermal change that challenges the infant’s thermoregulatory abilities. Unless someone gives immediate attention to heat loss, the neonate’s temperature can drop approximately 4. 5oC (8. loF) during the first minute after birth. ’ Because the infant is dependent on environmental temperature, providing thermal support is a primary nursing objective. MECHANISMS OF HEAT LOSS: Because of differences in physiologic function and small body size, neonates are particularly vulnerable to both under-heating and overheating.

Transfer of heat between the environment and the infant occurs by conduction, convection radiation and evaporation. [pic] Newborn loses heat by evaporation particularly soon after birth (due to evaporation of amniotic fluid from skin surface), conduction (by coming in contact with cold objects-cloth, tray etc. ), convection (by air currents in which cold air replaces warm air around baby-open windows, fans) and radiation (to colder solid objects in vicinity walls) MECHANISMS OF HEAT GAIN: The process of heat gain is by conduction, convection and radiation in addition to non-shivering thermo-genesis.

Non-shivering thermo-genesis occurs predominantly in the brown adipose tissue. Brown fat is localized around the adrenal glands, kidneys, nape of neck; inter scapular area, and axillary region. Metabolism of brown fat results in heat production. Blood flowing through the brown fat becomes warm and through circulation transfers heat to other parts of the body. THERMO NEUTRAL ENVIRONMENT: [pic] Range of environmental temperature in which an infant can maintain normal body temperature with the least amount of basal metabolic rate and oxygen consumption and baby thrives well is known as ‘Thermo- neutral range of emperature’ or ‘Neutral Thermal Environment’. For each baby, this range of temperature varies depending on gestational age. THERMAL INSTABILITY: Hypothermia / Cold stress: Occurs when the newborn’s temperature drops below 36. 5o C Degrees of Hypothermia: 36o -36. 5 o C is mild hypothermia (cold stress); 32 o – 36 o C is moderate hypothermia; Less than 32 o C is severe hypothermia. Hyperthermia: Occurs when the newborn’s body temperature rises above 37. 5 o C because the environment is too hot for the baby or the baby is overdressed.

RISK FACTORS FOR THERMOREGULATION PROBLEM: Premature, Small for gestational age, Neuro problems, Endocrine, Cardiac / respiratory problems, Large open areas in the skin, Sedated Infants, Drug exposure. These conditions make newborns are at risk because Infants have more skin surface per pound of body weight than older children or adults, more skin means more radiant heat and more insensible water loss. Less brown fat and glycogen stores decreased ability to maintain flexion increased body surface area compared to weight. SIGNS AND SYMPTOMS OF HYPOTHERMIA / COLD STRESS:

Peripheral vasoconstriction: acrocyanosis, cold extremities, decreased peripheral perfusion. CNS depression: lethargy, bradycardia, apnea, poor feeding Increased pulmonary artery pressure: respiratory distress, tachypnea Chronic signs: weight loss, failure to thrive PREVENTION OF HYPOTHERMIA: Hypothermia can be prevented by maintaining a neutral thermal environment and reducing heat loss. For prevention in reduction of heat consider the four ways by which the neonate experiences heat loss and intervene appropriately. Convective heat loss can be prevented by: Providing warm ambient air temperature • Placing infants less than 1500 grams in incubators • Keeping portholes of the incubator closed • Warming all inspired oxygen • On open warmers keeping sides up and covering infant if possible • Using Infant Servo Temperature Control Radiant heat loss can be prevented by: • Avoiding placement of incubators, warming tables and bassinets near cold windows, walls, air conditioners, etc.. • Placing a knit hat on the infant’s head • Wrapping tiny babies in saran or “bubble” wrap • Increase environmental temperature Conductive heat loss can be prevented by: Placing a warm diaper or blanket between the neonate and cold surfaces • Placing infant on pre-warmed table at time of delivery • Warming all objects that come in contact with the neonate • Admitting infant to a pre-warmed environment • Skin to skin contact Prevention of hypothermia is the best treatment but if it occurs anyway, the following is a list of what you can do to relieve the cold stress. MANAGEMENT OF HYPOTHERMIA / COLD STRESS: Management of mild hypothermia / cold stress: • Hypothermia can be prevented by maintaining a neutral thermal environment and reducing heat loss. Cover adequately – remove cold clothes and replace with warm clothes • Warm room/bed • Take measures to reduce heat loss • Ensure skin-to-skin contact with mother; if not possible, keep next to mother after fully covering the baby • Breast feeding • Monitor axillary temperature every ? hour till it reaches 36. 50 C, then hourly for next 4 hours, 2 hourly for 12 hours thereafter and 3 hourly as a routine Management of moderate Hypothermia / Cold stress :(32oc to 35. 9oc) • Skin to skin contact • Warm room/bed • Take measures to reduce heat loss • Provide extra heat: 200 W bulbs, Heater, warmer, incubator, apply warm towels.

Management of severe Hypothermia / Cold stress: (< 320C) • Take measures to reduce heat loss • Provide extra heat preferably under radiant warmer or air heated incubator rapidly warm till 340C, and then slow re-warming. • IV fluids: 60-80 ml/kg of 10% Dextrose • Oxygen, Inj. Vitamin K 1mg in term & 0. 5 mg in preterm • If still hypothermic, consider antibiotics assuming sepsis • Monitor HR, BP, Glucose HYPERTHERMIA: Hyperthermia: Occurs when the newborn’s body temperature rises above 37. 5 o C because the environment is too hot for the baby or the baby is overdressed. RISK FACTORS FOR HYPERTHERMIA: • Excessive environmental temp Sepsis • Dehydration • Alterations in the hypothalamic control mechanism due to birth trauma, anomalies, drugs SIGNS OF HYPERTHERMIA: • Tachypnea • Apnea • Tachycardia • Flushing • Hypotension • Irritability • Poor Feeding • Skin Temp > Core Temp MANAGEMENT OF HYPERTHERMIA: • Place the baby in a normal temperature environment (25 to 280C), away from any source of heat • Undress the baby partially or fully, if necessary • Give frequent breast feeds • If temperature > 390C, sponge the baby with tap water; don’t use cold / ice water for sponge • Measure the temperature hourly till it becomes normal

NURSES RESPONSIBILITIES DURING INTERVENTIONS FOR AT RISK INFANTS: • Always be prepared to intervene • Rewarm slowly (0. 5? C per hour) • Monitor closely (vital signs every 15 – 30min) • Core temp • Skin temp will be higher than axillary • Blood pressure because Rewarming may lead to vasodilatation & hypotension • Heart rate and rhythm because bradycardia & arrhythmias common with hypothermia Monitor: • Respiratory rate and effort: Increased distress, Apnea • Oxygen saturations: Hypoxemia / desaturations, be prepared for ( need for respiratory support, Monitor acid/base status • Blood glucose: Monitor- nfant at increase risk for hypoglycemia • Assess infant temp every 15-30 minutes • As infants core temp reaches set temp and infant is not showing signs of deterioration increase set temp again. • Continue process until temp within normal range While caring infant in incubator: • Incubator better control than warmer • Set temp 1 – 1. 5? C above core temp • Open incubator portholes and doors only when necessary • Blanket over incubator • Cluster care • Incubators and radiant warmers are designed to work using skin temperature to regulate the thermal environment Skin Servo Monitoring:

As temperature is higher in brown fat areas, avoid placing the temperature probe over brown fat deposit areas, such as the axilla, neck, or back. Because as the core temperature will be higher than the skin temp. , the warming device will cool the environment. The infant will then need to burn fat and calories to stay warm Temperature Probe Placement: Secure the temperature probe at/or about the costal margin of the chest, midway between the xiphoid and the navel. This placement should assure accurate skin temperature measurement. Never lay infants on the probe, as this will also cause a falsely high temperature to be registered.

Skin temperature Probes: Do not lay infant on skin probe Do not place over: Bony prominences Areas of brown fat deposits Poorly vascular areas Excoriated areas Keep probe exposed to heat source Keep probe securely attached SUMMARY Hypothermia in the newborn is due more to a lack of knowledge than to lack of equipment. Hypothermia is a preventable condition that has well documented impact on morbidity and mortality. Therefore, assisting the infant to maintain a normal body temperature and preventing hypothermia during stabilization is critical.

This is the gift from god so prevent them from thermoregulation crises. [pic] Review Questions: 1. Why is brown fat so important for infants? 2. What is NTE (Neutral Thermal Environment)? 3. Write the four ways a newborn may lose heat to the environment 4. Write down the points of “Warm chain” REFERANCES: 1. The ACoRN Editorial Board, ACoRN, Acute Care of At-Risk Newborns, Vancouver, BC, 2005. 2. Health Canada, Family-Centred Maternity and Newborn Care: National Guidelines, Minister of Public Works and Government Services, Ottawa, 2000. . Karen Thomas, Thermoregulation in Neonates neonatal network / March 1994vol. 13 no. 2 4. Thermal control of the newborn: a practical guide. WHO/FHE/MSM/93. 2. essential Newborn nursing for small hospital in resource restricted countries: learner’s guide. Publication of WHO-CC for training & research in newborn care, department of pediatrics, AIIMS, New Delhi, 2009. 5. Nursan Dede C?? nar a, Tuncay Muge Filiz Journal of Neonatal Nursing (2006) 12, 69e74. www. intl. elsevierhealth. com/journals/jneo ———————– [pic] [pic] [pic]

Statement of Purpose

STATEMENT OF PURPOSE I am interested to be a part of the organizing team of Crescendo 2011 as it is very prestigious event. Being a part of the organizing team will help me to learn the quality of coordinating and organizing such huge events as a team which is essential in today’s corporate world. It will help me to interact and gain the valuable knowledge and expertise from the corporate professionals as well as the seniors who have become familiar with organizing such annual events.

It will also help me to improve my communication skills and develop into a more informed and confident individual. I was the President of the Library Committee in my school (Bal Bharati Public School, Pitampura) and organized an annual event called Book Week where around 35 -40 schools from all over Delhi participated. So I am already familiar with organizing different events.

Crescendo is the corporate-cum cultural festival of our college which is eagerly awaited every year by the students and the corporate world alike. It provides an invaluable opportunity to the corporates to have a direct interface with the youth and to tap into the psyche of the youth in a natural and casual atmosphere. Crescendo aims at building and maintaining a momentum, to bring things to a fever pitch and to extract the highest levels of performance from all those involved in it.

Over the years the festival has managed to build a rock solid reputation as the only DU Festival which embraces and incorporates the corporate aspect seamlessly with fun and frolic that is usually associated with such events. If selected I assure you that I will work to my utmost potential to make our college’s annual fest Crescendo 2011 a successful event. I will work with total dedication and commitment to ensure that the event is even more successful than the previous editions.

Total Quality Management (890)

ALLAMA IQBAL OPEN UNIVERSITY ISLAMABAD (Department of Business Administration) TOTAL QUALITY MANAGEMENT (890) CHECKLIST SEMESTER: SPRING 2011 This packet comprises the following material: 1. Text Book (one) 2. Course Outline 3. Assignment No. 1, 2 4. Assignment Forms ( 2 sets ) In this packet, if you find anything missing from the above mentioned material, please contact at the address given below: Mailing Officer Services Block No. 28 Allama Iqbal Open University H-8, Islamabad. Course Coordinator ALLAMA IQBAL OPEN UNIVERSITY ISLAMABAD (Department of Business Administration)

WARNING 1. PLAGIARISM OR HIRING OF GHOST WRITER(S) FOR SOLVING THE ASSIGNMENT(S) WILL DEBAR THE STUDENT FROM AWARD OF DEGREE/CERTIFICATE, IF FOUND AT ANY STAGE. 2. SUBMITTING ASSIGNMENTS BORROWED OR STOLEN FROM OTHER(S) AS ONE’S OWN WILL BE PENALIZED AS DEFINED IN “AIOU PLAGIARISM POLICY”. ASSIGNMENT No. 1 Course: Total Quality Management (890)Semester: Spring 2011 Level: MBAMarks: 100 Note:All questions carry equal marks. Attempt all the questions to be supported by examples with reference Pakistan. Study the detail guidelines before attempting the questions. Q. Discuss the concept of Total Quality Management and its importance in the business management. Critically discuss the role of gurus in the development of Total Quality Management. Q. 2Define and discuss the concept of Deming philosophy and its importance in TQM. Critically discuss the 14 point of Deming philosophy and their main themes keep in view the financial sector of Pakistan. Q. 3Discuss the concept customers’ feedback in continuous quality improvement. Critically discuss the role of comments card and focus group in getting the customers’ feedback with reference to the manufacturing organization.

Q. 4Define and discuss the term team in the view of Total Quality Management. Critically discuss the role of teams in the continuous quality improvement process with reference to commercial organization. Q. 5Discuss the different improvement strategies used in continuous quality improvement management. Critically discuss the primary improvement strategies with examples in the light of business organization. Which one strategy is better in your view and why? Guidelines FOR ASSIGNMENT No. 1 You should look upon the assignments as a test of knowledge, management skills, and communication skills.

When you write an assignment answer, you are indicating your knowledge to the teacher: ? Your level of understanding of the subject; ? How clearly you think; ? How well you can reflect on your knowledge & experience; ? How well you can use your knowledge in solving problems, explaining situations, and describing organizations and management; ? How professional you are, and how much care and attention you give to what you do. To answer a question effectively, address the question directly, bring important related issues into the discussion, refer to sources, and indicate how principles from the course materials apply.

The student must also be able to identify important problems and implications arising from the answer. For citing references, writing bibliographies, and formatting the assignment, APA format should be followed. ASSIGNMENT No. 2 Total Marks: 100 This assignment is a research oriented activity. You are required to obtain information from a business/commercial organization and prepare a report of about 1000 words on the issue allotted to you to be submitted to your teacher for evaluation. You are required to select one of the following issues according to the last digit of your roll number.

For example, if your roll number is P-3427180 then you will select issue # 0 (the last digit):- List of Topics: 0. Quality council is the driver of the TQM engine. Discuss and analyze the role of Quality Council in the light of private sector organization. 1. “Translating need into requirements” is one of the important techniques used in customers’ satisfaction. Discuss the role of this technique in continuous quality improvement management by studying a private sector organization. 2. Employees’ survey is an essential step regarding the employees’ involvement.

Discuss the employees survey system used for employees involvement by studying the banking sector. 3. Kaizen is an important philosophy used in continuous quality improvement process. Discuss this approach by studying the manufacturing sector. 4. Benchmarking is an essential tool used for continuous quality improvement. Discuss and analyze the benchmarking process in the view telecommunication sector. 5. ISO certification has great importance for the services organization. Discuss the process and benefits of ISO certification for services organization. 6. Environmental policy in one of the basic concepts of Environmental management System.

Discuss the environmental policy and their developments keep in view the manufacturing organization. 7. Quality Function Development System is a planning tool. Discuss the role of QDFS regarding fulfillment of customers’ expectations in the business organization. 8. Quality by design is one of the essential terms used in TQM. Explain the rationale for implementations of quality by design by studying industrial sector. 9. Statistical process control tools plays vital role in the continuous quality management process. Discuss and analyze any two statistical process control tools keep in view manufacturing organization.

The report should follow the following format: 1. Title page 2. Acknowledgements 3. An abstract (one page summary of the paper) 4. Table of contents 5. Introduction to the issue (brief history & significance of issue assigned) 6. Practical study of the organization (with respect to the issue) 7. Data collection methods 8. SWOT analysis (strengths, weaknesses, opportunities & threats) relevant to the issue assigned 9. Conclusion (one page brief covering important aspects of your report) 10. Recommendations (specific recommendations relevant to issue assigned) 11.

References (as per APA format) 12. Annexes (if any) Guidelines for Assignment No. 2: ? 1. 5 line spacing ? Use headers and subheads throughout all sections ? Organization of ideas ? Writing skills (spelling, grammar, punctuation) ? Professionalism (readability and general appearance) ? Do more than repeat the text ? Express a point of view and defend it. Workshops: The workshop presentations provide you opportunity to express your communication skills, knowledge & understanding of concepts learned during practical study assigned in assignment No. . You should use transparencies and any other material for effective presentation. The transparencies are not the presentation, but only a tool; the presentation is the combination of the transparencies and your speech. Workshop presentation transparencies should only be in typed format. The transparencies should follow the following format: 1) Title page 2) An abstract (one page summary of the paper) 3) Introduction to the issue (brief history & significance of issue assigned) 4) Practical study of the organization (with respect to the issue) 5) Data collection methods ) SWOT analysis (strengths, weaknesses, opportunities & threats) relevant to the issue assigned 7) Conclusion (one page brief covering important aspects of your report) 8) Recommendations (specific recommendations relevant to issue assigned) GUIDELINES FOR WORKSHOP PRESENTATION: ? Make eye contact and react to the audience. Don’t read from the transparencies or from report, and don’t look too much at the transparencies (occasional glances are acceptable to help in recalling the topic to cover). ? A 15-minute presentation can be practiced several times in advance, so do that until you are confident enough.

Some people also use a mirror when rehearsing as a substitute for an audience. WEIGHTAGE OF THEORY & PRACTICAL ASPECTS IN ASSIGNMENT No. 2 AND WORKSHOP PRESENTATIONS: Assignment No. 2 & workshop presentations are evaluated on the basis of theory & its applicability. The weightage of each aspect would be: Theory:60% Applicability (practical study of the organization):40% TOTAL QUALITY MANAGEMENT Course Outline (MBA-890) Unit-1 Introduction to Total Quality Management 1. Defining Total Quality Management 2. Basic Approaches of Total Quality Management 3.

Gurus of Total Quality Management 4. TQM Framework 5. Awareness about the Improved Quality 6. Historical Review 7. Obstacles in Implementing TQM 8. Benefits of TQM Unit-2 Leadership and Total Quality Management 2. 1 Defining Leadership 2. 2 Characteristics of Quality Leaders 2. 3 Leadership Concepts 2. 4 The Seven Habits of Highly Effective People 2. 5 Ethics and Quality 2. 6 Deming Philosophy 2. 7 Role of Leaders in TQM 2. 8 Implementation 2. 9 Quality Control 2. 10 Core Values, Concepts and Framework 2. 11 Strategic Planning and Communication 2. 12 Decision Making

Unit-3 Customer Satisfaction and Employee Involvement 3. 1 Customer Satisfaction (An Overview) 3. 2 What is Customer? 3. 3 Customer Perception of Quality and Feedback from Customer 3. 4 Effectively Using Customer Complaints 3. 5 Transforming needs into Requirement of Customers and Importance of Customer Retention. 3. 6 Employee Involvement in Improving Quality. 3. 7 Motivational Theories 3. 8 Empowerment 3. 9 Teams and there Effectiveness 3. 10 Rewards, Recognition and Performance Appraisal 3. 11 Union and Employee Involvement 3. 12 Benefits of Employee Involvement

Unit-4 Continuous Process of Improvement and Performance Measures 4. 1 Perfection through Continuous Improving Process 4. 2 Process 4. 3 The Juran Approach to Continuous Improvement Process 4. 4 Improvement Strategies 4. 5 Types of Problems 4. 6 Problem Solving Method ? Kaizan ? Reengineering ? Six Sigma 4. 7 Objectives of Performance Measures 4. 8 Appropriate Strategy 4. 9 Presentation of Performance Measures 4. 10 Quality Costs 4. 11 Malcolm Baldrige National Quality Award. Unit-5 Benchmarking “A tool for Continuous Improvement” 5. 1 Concept of Benchmarking . 2 Importance of Benchmarking 5. 3 Definition of Benchmarking 5. 4 Important Reasons of Benchmarking 5. 5 Process of Benchmarking 5. 6 Deciding what to Benchmark 5. 7 Benchmark Planning 5. 8 Actions to close the Gap between Benchmark 5. 9 Pitfalls and Criticisms of Benchmarking Unit-6 Quality Management System 6. 1 ISO 6. 2 Benefits of ISO registration 6. 3 ISO 9000 Series of Standards 6. 4 ISO 9001 requirements 6. 5 Implementation of Quality Management System (ISO) 6. 6 Documentation 6. 7 Internal Audits 6. 8 ISO Certification for Service Organizations . 9 ISO Vs Baldrige Award 6. 10 Standards in Pakistan Unit-7 Environmental Management System 7. 1 Introduction to Environmental Management Standards 7. 2 ISO 14000 Series Standards 7. 3 Concept of ISO 14001 7. 4 Requirements of ISO 14001 7. 5 Benefits of Environmental Management System 7. 6 Integrating ISO 14000 with ISO 9000 7. 7 Relationship of Standards with Health and Safety Unit-8 Quality Function Deployment and Quality by Design 8. 1 Concept of Quality Function Deployment 8. 2 Role of team in QFD 8. 3 Benefits of QFD 8. 4 Driving force behind QFD 8. Process of information by organization 8. 6 House of Quality 8. 7 Building House of Quality 8. 8 Quality Function Deployment Process 8. 9 Concept of Quality by Design 8. 10 Rational of Implementing Quality by Design 8. 11 Benefits of Quality by Design 8. 12 Communication Models 8. 13 Implementation of Quality by Design 8. 14 Tools used for implementing Quality by Design Unit-9 Management and Technical Tools for improving 1. Introduction of Management Tools and there importance 2. Forced Field Analysis 3. Nominal Group Technique 4. Affinity Diagram 5.

Tree Diagram 6. Matrix Diagram 7. Process decision program chart 8. Activity network diagram 9. Just in Time and Just in Case 10. Concept of Statistical Process Control 1. Pareto Diagram 2. Process Flow diagram 3. Cause and effect diagram 4. Check sheets 5. Histogram 6. Control Charts 7. Scatter Diagram Recommended books: 1. Total Quality Management by Dale H. Besterfield Additional Readings: 1. Total quality Management; The rout to improve performance 2. Quality Management by Donna C. S. Summers 3. Total Quality Management by Joel E. Ross, 3rd Edition Tracing 28/3/11