The Changing Role and the Future Challenges of Hr

The changing role and the future challenges of HR The role of the Human Resource Manager is evolving with the change in competitive market environment and the realization that Human Resource Management must play a more strategic role in the success of an organization. Organizations that do not put their emphasis on attracting and retaining talents may find themselves in dire consequences, as their competitors may be outplaying them in the strategic employment of their human resources. Nowadays it is not possible to show a good financial or operating report unless your personnel relations are in order.

With the increase in competition, locally or globally, organizations must become more adaptable, resilient, agile, and customer-focused to succeed. And within this change in environment, the HR professional has to evolve to become a strategic partner, an employee sponsor or advocate, and a change mentor within the organization. In order to succeed, HRM must be a business driven function with a thorough understanding of the organization’s big picture and be able to influence key decisions and policies. In general, the focus of today’s HR Manager is on strategic personnel retention and talents development.

HR professionals will be coaches, counselors, mentors, and succession planners to help motivate organization’s members and their loyalty. The HR manager will also promote and fight for values, ethics, beliefs, and spirituality within their organizations, especially in the management of workplace diversity. This paper will highlight on how a HR manager can meet the challenges of workplace diversity, how to motivate employees through gain-sharing and executive information system through proper planning, organizing, leading and controlling their human resources.

Modern Perspectives on Job Satisfaction

Table of Contents {text:bookmark-start} ABSTRACT {text:bookmark-end} “Happy employees are productive employees; happy employees are not productive employees” (Saari 2004). These statements clearly explain the predicament and debate found among practitioners concerning employee attitudes and the determination of level of job satisfaction. This report is based on recent research on job satisfaction and its findings that will appear significant in present modern organisations.

As the branches of job satisfaction are numerous, for the sake of better insight, this report has main focus on the relation and effects of organisational diversity, ethical climate, and employee attitudes with job satisfaction. In the latter part of the report, there are recommendations based on latest literature review for managers to enhance organisational practices and environment that lead to increased level of employee satisfaction. {text:bookmark-start} INTRODUCTION {text:bookmark-end} Job satisfaction of employees is defined as “their positive or pleasurable emotional state based on their job experiences” (Elci 2009).

Several important behavioural factors in an organisation have relationship with job satisfaction, such as propensity to leave, turnover intention, absenteeism, productivity and performance (Saari 2004 & Wood 2006, pp. 58). Studies on the relationship between these various factors and job satisfaction date back to ages and have a very controversial history. For example, initially researchers found a trivial relationship between job satisfaction and performance but later on with recent empirical studies researchers found out that this relationship is significant and it is even stronger for professional jobs (Saari 2004; Mohr 2008 & Pitts 2009).

Building on past finding, report centres on new topics of discussion such as diversity management, ethical climate, and employee attitudes, and highlights latest findings based on latest and modern tools of research. {text:bookmark-start} FACTORS AFFECTING JOB SATISFACTION {text:bookmark-end} {draw:frame} {draw:frame} {text:bookmark-start} Diversity management {text:bookmark-end} Some organisations may experience diverse racial and ethical constitution in their employees.

When people of varied culture work together, it becomes very important to manage the environment so that employees are satisfied and contribute effectively to the organisational objectives. However going beyond the basic constituents of diversity, other categories such as gender have also been seen to come under the umbrella of diversity. (Pitts 2009) In a recent research of Pitts (2009), done in United States to determine factors that affect job satisfaction, it was observed that among racial groups white colored employees are often more satisfied with their jobs than non-white employees.

Further women have a disposition to be more satisfied with their jobs than men. A very important finding from the study revealed that in places, where practice of diversity management was the strongest, projected an overall higher job satisfaction from all racial backgrounds, than in places where it was absent or non-existent (Pitts 2009). This clearly signifies the importance of diversity management and its effects on employees in terms of race and gender. {text:bookmark-start} Ethical Climate {text:bookmark-end} {draw:frame} _ {draw:frame} {text:bookmark-start} Employee Attitudes and Nature of Work {text:bookmark-end} Concerning nature of work which includes challenges in job, autonomy, variety and scope, have also been seen to have a great positive influence on job satisfaction (Saari 2004). Moreover Mohr (2008) observed that on learning from the work environment, inter group cooperation and doing a good job itself improves job satisfaction level. {text:bookmark-start} EFFECTS OF JOB SATISFACTION {text:bookmark-end} {draw:frame}

Employee satisfaction on the job influences many organisational variables. The direct consequences of low job satisfaction can result into different withdrawal behaviours like absenteeism, turnover, lateness, grievances and unionization (Saari 2004). This may also result into significant financial implications in terms of higher labour cost and lower productivity (Wood 2006, pp. 59 & Mohr 2008). On the other hand, high levels of job satisfaction correlates with improved job performance and organisational commitment (Jaramillo et al. 2006). {draw:frame} {draw:frame} text:bookmark-start} RECOMMENDATION FOR MANAGERS {text:bookmark-end} Managers should create and encourage appropriate ethical climates for enhanced job satisfaction by making sure that universal principles, professional codes and codes of ethics are strictly adhered to. Further, an attempt can be made at creating a climate of care within the organisation, thereby promoting team interest, and caring beyond the organisation through social responsibility. Managers possess influential role, so they can significantly influence the job satisfaction level of their employees (Elci 2009).

Moreover, with improved job design, recruitment and placement practices, employees can be placed to most suitable jobs which will result into higher level of job satisfaction (Pitts 2009). {text:bookmark-start} CONCLUSION {text:bookmark-end} For many organisations employee satisfaction remains a daunting task, as it can place huge financial impacts on organisations. Research is helping practitioners to determine and control influential factors on job satisfaction, as these factors can lead to overall organisational success which otherwise could actually lead to failure.

Organisations and researchers should continue to explore and identify new factors that could lead to enhanced job satisfaction for better outputs and results. {text:bookmark-start} REFERENCES {text:bookmark-end} Elci, M & Alpkan, L 2009, ‘The Impact of Perceived Organisational Ethical Climate on Work Satisfaction’, Journal of Business Ethics, vol. 84, pp. 297-311 Jaramillo, F, Mulki, JP, & Solomon, P 2006, ‘The Role of Ethical Climate on Salesperson’s Role Stress, Job Attitudes, Turnover Intention, and Job Performance’, Journal of Personal Selling & Sales Management, vol. XXVI, no. 3, pp. 71–282 Mohr, RD & Zoghi, C 2008, ‘High-Involvement Work Design and Job Satisfaction’, Industrial and Labour Relations Review, vol. 61, no. 3, pp. 275-296 Pitts, D 2009, ‘Diversity management, job satisfaction and performance evidence from U. S. federal Agencies’, Public Administration Review, vol. 69, no. 2, pp. 328- 338 Saari, LM & Judge, TA 2004, ‘Employee attitudes and job satisfaction’, Human Resource Management, vol. 43, no. 4, pp. 395-407 Victor, B & Cullen, JB 1987, ‘A Theory and Measure of Ethical Climate in Organisations’, in W. C. Frederick (ed. ), ‘Research in Corporate Social Performance and Policy’, JAI Press, pp. 51–71

Tqm in Hotel Industry

An Integrated Research Review of Ethics Articles in Hospitality Journals 1990 to 2000 Christine Jaszay, Ph. D. Associate Professor Director of the Marion W. Isbell Endowment for Hospitality Ethics Northern Arizona University May 20,200l Purpose The purpose of this paper is to review and assess the hospitality literature on ethics to result in a synthesis of the material. At the onset, it was assumed that there were many articles on the topic of ethics in the various hospitality journals over the past ten years.

The researcher was interested in determining a summary view, which could serve as a basis for future applied research and practical application of the results. Method The Lodging, Restaurant, and Tourism Index out of Purdue University was used as the only source of hospitality journals. Articles were found under the key word heading of “Business Ethics”’ and were collected and read from the years 1990 through 2000. Thirty-three hospitality journals contained a total of 117 articles on ethics over the ten-year time period.

Once all the articles were read and analyzed, the qualitative methodology of allowing the topic areas to emerge from the data was utilized, and nine topic areas were delineated. The topic areas were rearranged in an order that represented a sequential flow of the topics. Relationships between topic areas and journal titles and publication dates were looked at for evidence of obvious trends and/or interest continuity. The articles in each topic area were rearranged until a reasonable order and outline emerged.

The researcher was not looking for any particular results or findings, satisfied with simply accepting and organizing the writings of others with the expectation that conclusions could eventually be drawn from the processing and synthesizing of the materials. Description of the Data Figure 1 lists the topic areas and the total number of articles for each topic area. Figure 2 provides a visual overview of the total number of articles written in each journal, their publishing dates, and topics. Figure 3 shows the total number of hospitality ournal articles on ethics each year for the ten-year period. Three of the four journals with the most articles on ethics were Successful Meetings, Meeting News, and Meetings & Conventions. The ethical behavior of meeting planners and the inherent ethical dilemmas they face are prime concerns of the meeting planning industry with 32 of 117 articles (27%) devoted to ethics in meeting planning. . Twenty-nine of the 32 articles fell in the first three topic areas which have to do with identifying unethical behavior and taking individual personal action to make ethical decisions.

While more ethics articles appeared in the hospitality journals between 1990 and 1994 than from 1994 to 2000, the differences were small, there weren’t enough articles, and the time period wasn’t long enough to draw valid conclusions (see Figure 3). Figure 2 is of interest in terms of who did what when, but trends or conclusions are not readily apparent. Unlike the articles on ethics in hotels or restaurants, the articles on tourism ethics did not fit in any of the other content areas (see Figure 1). The tourism articles were like the tree in “hammer, saw, screwdriver, tree” – important but not directly related.

Review of the Tonics Each of the nine topic areas were thoroughly reviewed so that anyone wishing to know what has gone on in the hospitality journals in terms of ethics in the last ten years could read this one article in lieu of all 117 articles. Unethical Actions (Topic 1) Twenty-seven of the 117 articles (23%) fell in the “Unethical Actions” category. Of the 27 articles in Topic One, 17 (63%) were from the journals of the meetings industry (Successful Meetings, Meetings & Conventions, and Meeting News). Planning the meetings and conventions which contributed an estimated $56 billion to the U. S. conomy in 1991 is extremely time consuming, expensive, and stressful (Newman, 1992). In the early 1990’s fam trip abuse (complimentary on-site visits to properties by planners) was a major issue (Carr, 1992; Ligos, 1997). The International Association of Convention & Visitor Bureaus took steps to identify bogus planners and report their activities to the IRS, state attorney generals, and the U. S. Postal Service in order to protect the reputations of legitimate planners and the planning industry (Carr, 1992). Many of the expenses for meetings, such as shuttle services, audio-visual, entertainment, receptions, convention center charges, etc. re not covered by registration fees. For the past 30 years hotels have been willing to rebate a few dollars from the negotiated room rates back to the planners to cover expenses (McNulty, 1990). The planning industry has been debating the issue of whether attendees should be notified of the rebate. Industry attorneys, however, find it unethical and potentially illegal to not disclose rebate agreements to attendees (Ligos, 1997). Rebates from the hotels sometimes go to individuals rather than to pay for meeting expenses, and kickbacks given to third parties bringing business can be criminal (Ligos, 1998).

Covert commissions, where planners demand secret payments for booking with a property, can result in commercial bribery suits. Most planners say they do not accept or ask for covert commissions (Ligos, 1997). While there are recommendations, there are no industry-wide guidelines to govern rebates and third party commissions, and planners’ decisions are left to their own discretion (Ligos, 1998). All three meeting planning journals had articles describing questionable hotel tactics. Some planners thought gifts with the hotel’s logo were acceptable but found expensive or personal gifts unacceptable (O’Brien, 1990).

Free rooms, limo service, and entertainment are among the incentives hotels have used to encourage planners to book meetings at their properties. The line between acceptable and unacceptable gifts is not clear and makes for difficult ethical decisions (O’Brien, 1990). Some hotels were reported tacking on surcharges if planners wanted to use their own vendors. Hotel recommended vendors may be very good, however, it was suggested that the issue of surcharges should be openly discussed during negotiations rather than be an after-the-fact surprise for planners (Weiland, 1991).

Often the surcharges were dropped if planners balked at paying them (Weiland, 1991). Some hotels have exclusive agreements with preferred vendors. Quality control can be improved, however services may be more expensive. Planners need to have an awareness of possible profit motives in the relationships between hotels and preferred vendors and “shop-around” (Crystal, 1993). Hyatt and Marriott offer points for booking meetings. The points can be redeemed for free rooms, vacations, and/or frequent flyer miles (Jensen, 1994).

Meeting Professionals International and The Society for Government Meeting Planners prohibit accepting points and/or gifts. The incentive programs are, however, extremely successful (Jensen, 1994). The American Medical Association, the Pharmaceutical Manufacturers Association, and the Food and Drug Administration issued ethical guidelines concerning sponsorship of medical meetings. Formally pharmaceutical companies planned lavish meetings and presented continuing medical-education courses for physicians (McNulty, 1991). Drug companies were to have no role in creating or influencing scientific exchange (McNulty, 1991).

Meeting planners, hired by drug companies, no longer considered “third party” planners by the FDA, found themselves frozen out of the business. The meeting planning industry has been very open about its ethical shortcomings. Restaurants and hotels have indicated some ethical problems also. Huxley’s and T. G. 1 Friday’s in New York were cited for charging tourists higher prices than regular customers (Alva, 1992). Deceptive advertising with the use of contrived restaurant ratings given to member restaurants came to the attention of the Center for Science in the Public Interest (Nichols, 1995).

Questionable ethical practices seem to take place on all sides. Clients have been known to share meeting planner proposals with lower bidders and implement the original planners’ ideas (Grimaldi, 1996). The Illinois Department of Public Aid asked its employees to take the amenities from the hotels they stayed in on business trips, to give to the homeless (Gillette, 1990). Liquor liability became an issue for meeting planners when meeting attendees were involved in accidents and the companies holding the meetings were held liable (Butler, 1991).

Between 25 and 50% of all trade show organizers and managers have provided inaccurate attendance figures to exhibitors. Trade show organizers were given “lukewarm” encouragement by the Society of Independent Show Organizers to audit attendance (Conlin, 1992). The treatment of founders of successful hospitality corporations such as Marie Callender’s, Pizza Hut, Popeyes, and Carl Karcher Enterprises, when they were voted or sold out, was described as “disgraceful” (Bernstein, 1994).

Ethical misbehavior resulted in a tax evasion conviction for Victor Posner whose holding company, DWG Corp. , owned Arby’s (Brooks, 1992). Kathleen Tompkins was a meeting planner for Salomon Brothers until she admitted stealing $1 million from them by submitting false invoices for gifts never given out at corporate functions (Ghitelman, 1994). British Businessman Richard Branson accused American businessman Guy Snowden of trying to bribe him, and Snowden sued for libel (Hiday, 1996).

The San Diego County Grand Jury accused and exonerated Mayor Susan Golding of misconduct for allegedly appropriating $4 million toward the San Diego Convention and Visitors Bureau’s marketing program in exchange for the San Diego County Hotel-Motel Association’s support of a new ballpark and downtown redevelopment project (Seal, 1999). Hospitality managers and employees are at risk when someone in the organization “blows the whistle” and reports wrongdoing. Whistle blowers are often wrongfully discharged, but may not be successful in court if they try to sue for their jobs (Special report, 1990).

The Professional Conduct Committee of Meeting Planners International conduct investigations of ethical breaches involving their members with the hope of avoiding law suits and/or criminal charges. Being accused of unethical behavior can ruin reputations, so Meeting Planners International strongly encourages that all investigations be conducted confidentially (Conlin, 1992). Books such as The Meeting Planner’s Legal Handbook are useful guides to the legal and ethical issues meeting planners face (Ligos, 1996). When trying to make good decisions W.

P. Fisher writes, “the best ethical posture for any organization or person is unswerving commitment to the truth, to progress, to service to others, and to the integrity of one’s own existence (Fisher, 1993). How ( TEthical Are i c o n We? 2 ) Sixteen articles spread evenly over the past decade indicate an interest in identifying the levels of ethical awareness in the various segments of the hospitality industry. The meeting industry, with 6 of the 16 articles, addressed ethics at local and national conferences regularly.

The meeting industry may be more concerned with ethical issues because of outside perceptions as a “freebie-laden industry of party throwers and party goers” (Conlin, 1992). A few of the professional meeting planner organizations adopted codes of ethics and adherence programs to improve the image of the industry, and a 1992 survey showed that some previously accepted business practices had become unacceptable (Conlin, 1992). On-going ethical instruction in the industry journals and conferences exposed professionals to appropriate ethical decisions through the use of scenarios (Your ethics, 1993; Sturken, 1007)).

The results of a poll of 104 members of Meeting Professionals International’s Georgia Chapter showed a disparity between what planners say they do and what they actually do. It was suggested that the members polled were professionals, and the disparity was caused by the actions of non-member, part-time planners (Edelstein, 1994). Organizations are realizing that values may have to come from the organizations rather than from the individuals in the organizations and are beginning to have ethics training (Sturken, 1997).

Sixty-three percent of the members attending the Society of Incentive & Travel Executives International Conference in 1999 said they had to deal with ethical situations at least once a month and felt their ethics compromised regularly (Meyers, 1999). Decisions often come down to how much the planner or company wants the business (Meyers, 1999). Results of 250 planners and industry suppliers polled at the Meeting Professionals International World Education Congress indicated lying, cheating, and stealing were not uncommon practices in the industry (Ligos, 1999).

As unethical actions become the norm, the reputation of the planning industry will be further tarnished (Ligos, 1999). Hospitality financial managers were asked if they agreed with the actions of the controller in 16 hypothetical scenarios in a survey of 630 members of the International Association of Hospitality Accountants ( Schmidgall & Damitio, 1991). Four hundred lodging managers responded to 15 similar scenarios in a survey by the same researcher (Schmidgall, 1992). Club managers were also surveyed. Controllers, lodging managers, and club managers responses were compared in a fourth similar study with just seven scenarios.

The three groups were found to be in overall agreement with club managers, however, disagreeing more often with the hypothetical club manager (Damitio & Schmidgall, 1993). Readers of Lodging were given the opportunity to take the survey for the purpose of measuring themselves against the lodging managers’ responses from the original survey (Schmidgall, 1991). Results of graduating seniors in a university hospitality program, taking the same survey, were found to parellel those of lodging managers (Casado, Miller, & Vallen, 1994). The ypothetical manager in each of the scenarios for each of the three groups was not, however, acting in defined ethical or unethical ways. Rather, managers, students, and readers were simply comparing their behavior to that of other managers instead of with an ethical standard. Three hundred forty nine students from six university hospitality programs responded to a survey requesting their perceptions of the most pressing ethical issues facing the hospitality industry. Discrimination and employment relationships were identified as problematic and perhaps related to high turnover rates.

Air/water pollution was ranked as the most serious issue (Enghagen & Hott, 1992). It was noted in later research that examples and wording can bias respondants’ answers. In a replication of the above study, with only an example changed, the perception of pollution as an ethical issue went from 34. 4% to 7. 7% Weaver, Choi, & Kaufman, 1997). Forty-two hotel human resource directors in 15 different states were interviewed to identify ethical issues. Lack of work ethic followed by drug use, theft, incivility, and lying were identified as critical (Stevens, 1999).

Thirty human resource directors in 11 states were interviewed to determine real-life ethical scenarios (in response to the Schmidgall hypothetical scenarios). A survey was created and 84 human resource directors and 8 1 university hospitality students responded as to whether the action in each scenario was ethical or unethical (Stevens & Fleckenstein, 1999). There was a clear difference between the responses of human resource directors and students indicating a continuing need for communication of ethical standards to new hires and all employees (Stevens & Fleckenstein, 1999).

Defining a code of conduct (ethics code) can help employees and managers recognize acceptable behavior. Managers are encouraged to discuss ethics with employees to positively build the culture of the organization and increase affiliation (Stevens, 1999). A survey of foodservice directors, employees, and students found that managers, older employees, and those with more experience had higher ethical scores (Ghiselli, 1999). Students scored 44% lower than foodservice directors and university hospitality programs are encouraged to teach ethics to better prepare future foodservice directors (Ghiselli, 1999).

How to do the Right Thing (Topic 3) Six of the 12 articles (50 %) in this topic area are from the meeting industry journals, while four articles are from the foodservice industry, one from hotels, and one from marketing. Ethics are not necessarily laws. Ethics may be defined as “standards of civility, duty and professionalism that cause decisions to be made and actions to be taken that are in the best individual, organizational and public interest” (Fisher’s Law, 1992). Some companies have created “corporate ethics fficers” to help managers confront difficult questions without clear cut answers (Griffin, 1993). In the absence of ethics officers and/or ethics codes managers are urged to periodically review their decisions and ask whether they would like to see their actions reported in the press or known by their clients or the public (Adams, 1996). People prefer doing business with organizations and people they trust (McCarthy, 1996). Breaking contracts or promises, giving or taking kickbacks, unfair hotel pricing policies all undermine trust and can decrease profits (McCarthy, 1996).

Foodservice suppliers often send gifts at Christmas. The intent of expensive gifts is to influence foodservice directors’ purchasing decisions. Expensive gifts (over $5) should be returned to suppliers with notes explaining no-gift policies (Bloch, 1992) or in advance of any gifts, gift policy statement letters could be sent to suppliers to avoid embarrassment (Patterson, 1992). When gifts or perks become bribes may be a function of disclosure, however in the meeting planning industry, it is ultimately up to individual planners to decide what is right to accept (Lenhart, 1998).

Meeting planner professional journals encourage planners to make ethical decisions by exposing readers to scenarios (Eisenstodt, 1992a) with ethical solutions (Eisenstodt, 1992b). Hotel pricing strategies could be construed as unfair by customers and the public. Consistent rates would enhance the reputation of the industry and result in higher profits (McCarthy, 1994). It has been suggested that the hospitality industry needs to move from transactions to relationships, that is, from control to trust. Shared ethical convictions motivating organizations benefits employees, customers, and the bottom line (Feltenstein, 1999).

Because dishonesty is a moral failure and bad for business, hospitality professionals must make personal commitments to be honest, look at their behavior, and develop integrity (McDonald, 1996). Company Values (Topic 4) Six articles were about company values. The level of the articles in this topic area rose from “this is what we do wrong and what we ought to do” to attempting to understand how underlying values of organizations affect the behaviors of managers and employees. The first three topic areas were heavily meeting planner generated. Perhaps it is the nature of the meeting planner industry, where planners are operating omewhat independently from the organizations, that accounts for the emphasis on behavior. That many of the articles in the first three topics were written by industry people rather than academics may also account for the orientation. Problems in organizations may actually be symptoms of inconsistency between values (what they say they believe) and norms (what they do). Employee turnover is a result of incompatible values and can be reduced when employees correctly perceive that the norms of the operation protect their own personal values (Goll, 1990).

Companies must clarify their own values in order to hire people with consistent values, because shared values results in more team work and long-term success (Lefever & Reich, 1991). Communication is a key to good management. Understanding the values of organizations and employees is necessary for good communication. Employees must be selected who fit the organization in terms of skills and abilities but also in terms of values and attitudes for the match to be successful in the long-term (McCleary & Vosburgh, 1990).

A survey given to foodservice managers and hospitality students showed a significant difference between the two groups in 16 out of 36 values. Communication between existing managers and young new hires may be problematic without shared values, and organizations may need a mechanism for fostering understanding (McCleary & Vosburgh, 1990). Companies can communicate their values to divers workforces by encouraging discussions, asking questions, rewarding positive behavior, and modeling exemplary behaviors (Kelley, 1997). To be successfLI1, companies must realize that the values they communicate affect the bottom line.

Profit can only be achieved, in the long-run, by balancing values with numbers (Costello, 1994). One hundred five management-level members of the Washington State Lodging Association tended to hold traditional values which were not philosophically highly developed. Hospitality students had similar results when given the same survey instrument. The managers were more inclined to respect and prefer laws when making difficult ethical decisions, and often trampled their own values in business when no laws applied (Whitney, 1990).

There are examples, however, of managers who stood-up for their values under fire and are accorded the title of “true professional” (Whitney, 1990). Ethics and Leadership (Topic 5) Nine articles concerned the relationship between ethics and leadership. Business and personal decisions need to be ethical because they affect guests, employees, suppliers, friends, and families (Peceri, 1997). Ethical people are concerned for others and live their lives according to the highest level of human principles (Fisher, 1998).

Creating ethical workplaces requires dealing with the differences in standards within the workforce (Kapoor, 1991). The shared values of the past, which helped people to make ethical decisions, are not as universal today. Leaders, through trust, must develop common value systems in the workplace (Bethel, 1999). Transformational leadership, which focuses on the future and influencing changes in attitudes and building organizational commitment, was shown to be “most effective” in a study of leadership in a large hotel management company (Tracey & Hinkin, 1994).

Transformational leaders manage the continual change of today’s business environment through adaptation rather than control, and they display strong values and pay attention to the consequences of their decisions (Tracey & Hinkin, 1994). Understanding the type of ethical work-climate in organizations can help them to understand how management and employees react to various ethical situations. A study was conducted to categorize lodging general managers according to their dominant leadership styles and the ethical work-climates of their properties (Upchurch & Ruhland, 1995).

Once the underlying decision making system is identified, management and employees can be trained in ethical theory to be able to handle ethical situations more efficiently (Upchurch & Ruhland, 1995). Two hundred twenty foodservice managers responded to two questionnaires designed to identify vexing situations in foodservice management and to rate their responses to the situations (Ghiselli & Ismail, 1999). Seventy-five percent of the foodservice managers had written codes of ethics in their operations.

The research suggested that operations with written ethical codes for foodservice managers to follow, held ethics in higher regard (Ghiselli & Ismail, 1999). Employees have differing ethical beliefs, so management should identify situations that could pose ethical dilemmas for their employees in order to provide clear rules for employees to follow. Younger employees need particular attention in terms of their higher tolerance for unethical behaviors, and ethical training is strongly recommended for all employees (Wong, 1998).

The declining ethics of workers have been lamented, however, a participant/observer study of garde manger cooks in a large hotel described the workers as “industrious, disciplined, hard working, and proud members of the workforce” being undermined by poor management (Walczak, 1997). Codes of Ethics, the Need for and How to Develop Them (Topic 6) Nineteen articles in three related topics were combined for Topic 6. Making ethical decisions requires the ability to recognize ethical issues and analyze them in terms of appropriate ethical principles (Wolfe, 1992).

People’s ethical values are not always the same, so organizations must establish common values that everyone can be comfortable with (Schaefer, 1991). A written code of shared values can serve as a guideline for dealing with ethical dilemmas (Lerman, 1990). The goal of any ethics code is to, of course, create an environment conducive to ethical behavior, because it is through ethical behavior that guests’ needs will be met or exceeded, and the organization will profit (Hogan, 1992).

When hospitality organizations are facing difficult financial times, cutbacks are often considered. However, ethical behavior and the training programs to maintain ethical behavior must continue to be a priority for organizations to survive troubled times (Hogan, 1992). Organizations need shared value systems in order to be able to maintain consistency within their organizations. As organizations globalize, their internal value systems may or may not be consistent with those of organizations of other cultures, which can undermine ethical behavior.

A global ethic may be necessary for international hospitality companies (Guest editorial, 1996). Management styles that are less self-centered and more pro-social are linked to the ethical areas of responsibility, quality, and employee welfare and have been shown to decrease costs (Fox, 2000). Pro-social management requires the capacity for higher level moral judgment. In some developing countries, it may be necessary to introduce managerial leadership training programs to develop the capacity for higher level moral reasoning (Fox, 2000).

The ethical standards of organizations, whether they be written or unwritten, serve as frameworks for employees’ behavior. Organizations prefer having trustworthy employees – ethical employees, and because traditional values have become less prevalent, written codes of ethics may be necessary (Beasley, 1995) An ethics code must match the beliefs of the organization, and all levels of the organization must be committed to its success. To successfully implement an ethics code it is necessary to introduce it and foster an awareness of ethical situations with the entire staff.

Management and workers can be taught the four step method of problem solving by (1) identifying the ethical dilemma in a case study, (2) identifying the stakeholders, (3) determining possible solutions, and (4) implementing the solution (Alderson, 1994). Case studies and lectures can help employees to match appropriate decisions and behaviors to various situations (Axline, 1991). Perceptions of unfairness, favoritism, and inconsistency in employee selection, supervision, promotion and performance may be the result of miscommunication.

For ethical awareness programs to be successful, communication must be open and honest (Axline, 199 1 ), and the standards must be communicated in clear language understood by all (Tapoor, 1992). The National Round Table on the Environment and the Economy along with the Canadian tourism industry developed a code of ethics designed to guide the industry to sustainable tourism development (D’ Amore, 1993). Some Atlanta restaurateurs in 1993 urged all Atlanta restaurants to take a “hospitality pledge” to do business ethically during the upcoming Olympics (Hayes, 1993). The International Franchise Association, on the ther hand, developed a code of ethics in response to federal and state scrutiny of the industry, thinking self-regulation would be preferable to government regulation (Allen, 1992). Professional organizations will often have codes of ethics for their memberships to enhance the reputation of the particular industry and to reduce outside regulation (Weinstein, 1993). The International Association for Exposition Management, however, concluded that ethics were up to individuals to decide for themselves and not the business of professional organizations (IAEM on ethics, 1999).

A universal Code of Ethics for the Foodservice Industry was developed as a result of analyzing the codes of ethics from five major foodservice organizations (Sawyer, 1990). Ethical Principles in Hospitality Management were offered as guides for decision making in the hospitality industry (Vallen & Miller, 1995). Codes of ethics have been criticized for being too generic and platitudinous, and without power to reward and punish, they are often ineffective (Malloy & Fennell, 1998). Fewer ethics codes are found in the hotel industry than in corporate America.

When hotel companies have ethics codes they are more likely to be used defensively to protect themselves from serious ethical errors rather than to encourage ethical behavior (Stevens, 1997). Hotels tend to stress the legal advantages of ethical behavior, that is, avoiding negative ramifications, rather than its inherent rightness (Stevens, 1997). Forty tourism codes of ethics were analyzed in terms of their theoretical framework (Malloy & Fennell, 1998). Most of the codes were found to be deontological or based on duty to follow rules (the means are more important than the ends).

Teleological ethical systems are based on the greatest good for the greatest number (the ends are more important than the means). A teleological approach to ethics requires identifying consequences of actions to all stakeholders as a means of decision making and would perhaps have more value for the hospitality industry (Malloy & Fennell, 1998). Ethics for Hospitalitv Educators (Topic 71 Four articles addressed the necessity of hospitality educators to behave ethically and recommended the establishment of an ethics code to provide guidelines to the relatively new discipline of hospitality education (Kwansa & Farrar, 1992).

While most hospitality educators’ ethical orientations fall within the norms of accepted academic behavior, there is a small but significant number who do not (Damitio, Whitney, & Schmidgall, 1992). Falsifying data and research, negotiating grades, taking bribes, working under the influence of drugs or alcohol, and lying about accomplishments were deemed extremely unethical by the majority of hospitality faculty surveyed to identify ethical attitudes and behaviors (Damitiio, Whitney, & Schmidgall, 1992).

Guidelines were proposed for the specific area of academic publishing to establish norms for hospitality researchers consistent with other academic disciplines (McCleary, 1994). Issues such as giving and taking credit for work, multiple submissions, and multiple articles from the same database were addressed in the proposed guidelines (McCleary, 1994). A survey of hoteliers indicated their belief that hospitality educators were doing a poor job of teaching ethics (Kwansa & Fararr, 1992).

If educators are to effectively teach ethics, perhaps they should have an agreed upon code of ethical behavior that will serve as a model of what they are attempting to teach. An ethical code for hospitality educators would increase the acceptance of the discipline as a profession and, if enforced, increase the level of ethical behavior (Kwansa & Farrar, 1992). A precise code, as opposed to an abstract code, would provide a model of professional behavior and reinforce professional attitudes and judgments (Farrar & Kwansa, 1993).

Teaching Ethics (Topic 8) How to teach ethics was the subject of 18 articles (15% of 117 articles). Developing an awareness and sensitivity to personal integrity should be one of the goals of all hospitality programs (Martin, 1998). It is generally agreed that it is necessary to teach ethics. One hundred fifty-nine students in a hospitality program strongly agreed that ethics should be taught in hospitality programs, and that it would positively affect their careers (Lundberg, 1994). Hospitality educators prepare students for careers in management and must address ethical and legal issues (March & Schmidgall, 1999).

It has been suggested that students and managers’ personal codes of ethics may have been less than carefully considered and developed, while hospitality educators may not have the philosophical background to effectively teach ethics (Whitney, 1989). If, however, students are to obtain the cognitive skills and integrative abilities necessary for management, they will have to be able to recognize moral distinctions (Hegarty, 1990), and it is up to hospitality educators to prepare students to be successful (Whitney, 1989).

A clear understanding of business ethics is essential for students’ professional development (Christy & Coleman, 199 1). Research has shown that college students may be guided into higher stages of moral reasoning through class discussions and “real-life” case studies (Martin, 1998; Vallen & Casado, 2000; Enghagen, 1991). Critical thinking skills may be developed by listening to students and challenging and coaching them rather than by telling them what and how to think (Costello, 1994).

Most educators agree that it is more effective to incorporate a thoroughly planned ethics component into each required course than to teach a separate ethics course (Enghagen, 1991). Age, experience, and gender were found to affect the level of moral development, with female students ahead of male students, and experienced managers ahead of all students (Freedman & Bartholomew, 1991). Values are best communicated through coaching and modeling (Stevens & Brownwell, 2000), so perhaps a four-year hospitality program with integrated ethics instruction utilizing ase studies and taught by faculty whose values are consistent with the ethics curriculum, could be positively influential. Hospitality graduates, who are attuned to their own values and those values match the values of their organizations, will be more comfortable discussing values and ethics with their own employees and more able to model appropriate ethical behavior at the work place. They will be better able to communicate organizations’ ethical expectations to achieve desired ethical outcomes (Stevens & Brownwell, 2000). Hospitality programs have incorporated industry work requirements for some time.

Some programs, however, have added additional community service requirements to foster social responsibility, professional behavior, cultural sensitivity, and communication through working with divers populations for the good of the community (O’Halloran, 199 1; Stevens, 1999). There are numerous methodologies available for ethical analysis. It is more difficult, however, to teach students to actually use the methodologies to make ethical decisions (Enghagen, 199 1). Instruction designed to encourage ethical behavior may only be evaluated by studying former students’ behaviors over time.

Attitudinal surveys will not be adequate for this purpose (Enghagen, 1991). Most hospitality educators have a subject matter specialty. All educators, however, are responsible for teaching writing, oral communication, ethics and values (Lieux & Winquist, 199 1). While some hospitality educators are less than qualified to critique writing and/or teach ethics, it has been suggested that combining writing and ethics throughout the curriculum may be more effective than just assuming that exposure to ethical literate faculty will result in ethical literate students (Lieux & Winquist, 1991).

A strong ethical foundation may be more necessary for decision making in a people oriented industry such as hospitality. To be able to make good decisions in the future, students need to develop ethical awareness and understand ethical decisionmaking. They must be able to analyze ethical issues and apply the results (Khan & McCleary, 1996). Students can be familiarized with situations that are likely to occur and given the analysis tools to be able to understand and deal with the ramifications (Upchurch, 1998). Research has shown that students tend to think in terms of outcomes of behaviors rather than ehaviors themselves (Khan & McCleary, 1996). It has been suggested that teleological systems might have more application in the hospitality industry because managers can be taught to compare outcomes to the various stakeholders (customers, employees, the company, etc. ) for each possible decision and select the decision that has the best outcomes (Khan & McCleary, 1996). Several ethical decision making models have been proposed for teaching ethical decision making. Exercises designed to promote student reflection on their own behaviors in every day situations are available to enhance ethical awareness (Enghagen, 1993).

Scenarios of ethical dilemmas facing many managers can be developed for students to practice defining and analyzing problems in terms of consequences, outcomes, and also their own personal outlooks (Upchurch, 1998). Tourism Ethics (Topic 9) Six articles make up Topic 9. Two other tourism articles were incorporated into Topic 6, but because tourism seems to be a unique industry (Walle, 1995), tourism articles became a category of themselves. The tourism industry is coming to agree with American ecologist Aldo Leopold that humanity is just one part of the whole (Lea, 1993; Hultsman, 1995; Malloy & Fennell, 1998).

As a result, a change from the old tourism paradigm of profit driven megabusiness (Hegarty, 1992) to the expanded social consciousness requiring responsible tourism and tourism development where no harm comes to any of the stakeholders (Malloy & Fennell, 1998; Lea, 1993) is urgently needed to avoid ecocatastrophe (Hegarty, 1993). Destruction of social structure and cultural values from tourism and development has been documented in parts of the Third World (Lea, 1993). The results of a survey, however, indicated that ecotourism operators were more ethically conscious than adventure, fishing or cruise/golf operators (Fennel1 & Malloy, 1999).

The ethical issues of the tourism industry are focused on sustainability which is an entirely different field of interest and will not be dealt with in this paper. Conclusion Ethical behavior results in more successful business for everyone – customers, workers, management, the community, and the company. The shared values of the past, however, are no longer vital, and organizations cannot leave it up to individuals to do the right thing, because often they don’t know what the right thing is. Organizations may say one thing but have business practices or policies that don’t agree or result in what they proclaim.

Laws are less confusing for most people and organizations. Since moral behavior is often not legislated, organizations need to have the ability to handle the ethical dilemmas they are constantly faced with. A new common ground must, therefore, be developed to enable managers and workers to make correct decisions when called for. Considerable descriptive research in the form of surveys has been conducted to identify ethical beliefs and orientations of managers, employees, and students. Unethical behavior has been identified as well as the myriad of ethical situations inherent in the various parts of the hospitality industry.

Research has shown the difference in ethical perceptions and beliefs between age groups, gender, and experience levels. It is agreed that organizations must determine realistic ethical behavior guidelines that managers and employees can be taught and that can be adhered to by all. Several sources have recommended teleological systems of ethics as the most applicable to the hospitality industry. By considering all stakeholders we can determine the decision that results in the most good for the most people.

Enough decisions and mistakes have been made over years to allow us to not have to analyze every situation over and over again. We can rely on “rules of thumb. ” Thus we have come to know that dishonesty, theft, lack of concern for others, and so forth have less than satisfactory results for all involved. The hospitality industry has professionalized to the point where managers often come through university hospitality management degree programs. Research has shown that hospitality students’ ethical belief systems are less developed than experienced managers’.

Young adults may, however, be guided into higher levels of moral reasoning. It is the responsibility of university hospitality programs to teach ethics to enable potential managers to discern ethical dilemmas, analyze outcomes, and determine correct/ethical decisions. Hospitality graduates trained in ethical analysis will enter existing organizations. It is up to organizations to identify their own ethical climates and to define preferred ethical climates. Managers and workers will have to be trained within the organization to accept a shared ethical belief system and to make decisions from that system.

Knowledge of ethical perceptions, beliefs, and orientations was initially necessary to determine needs and direction. We have now, however, established the need for ethical analysis instruction in hospitality programs and hospitality organizations. It is agreed that integrated case-studies analyzed in regard to best consequences is likely the best approach for teaching ethics in hospitality programs. Descriptive survey research has fulfilled its usefulness, and we must move into higher levels of research and look at effects of treatments, in other words, changed behaviors as a result of education. 7 8 9 Ethics for Hospitality Educators Teachi ng Ethics 1 Tourism Ethics ) I t 4 18 6 I 1 Figure 2. The Number and Year of Each Article Written on the Particular Topic for the Particular Journal. Journal Annals of Tourism Research I I I I PI 1 Restaurants USA Tourism Management Cooking for Profit Contemp. Hospitality Mgt. Hospitality Education & Research Journal Hosteur Hotel/Motel Securitv Mgmt. HSMAI Marketing Review Journal of Foodservice Systems L I 93 I l92l 94 I 99 I 98 I I 94 I 95 12 I 2 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 89 95 9o 96 91 Figure 3.

Total Number of Articles on Ethics in Each Year 1990-2000 Number Year of Articles 1998 1 (indexed with 1990) 1990 12 1991 14 1992 22 1993 11 1994 13 1995 5 1996 8 1997 7 1998 8 1999 13 3 (not a full year) 2000 TOTAL 117 117 Hospitality Journal Articles on Ethics (1990-2000) Divided into categories by topics that emerged from the articles: Unethical Actions (27 articles) Alva, M. (1992). Insights: Bilking tourists: Big apple restaurants cited for deceptions [charging tourists higher prices]. Restaurant Business. 9(4), 44. Bernstein, C. (1994).

Succession dilemma: No easy way: A founding officer should be allowed to exit as gracefully as possible. Restaurants & Institutions. S(3), 14. Brooks, S. (1992). The trials of chairman Posner. Restaurant Business. 9(8), 88. Butler, C. (1991). The party’s over: Planners can no longer ignore liquor liability. Here are the sobering facts. Successful Meetings. 40(12), 32+. Carr, D. (1992). A confidential list names the worst fam abusers: LACVB is seeking legal action. Meeting News. &j( lo), 1,8,12,44. Conlin, J. (1992). In my opinion: Loose lips: In an ethics investigation, the issue of confidentiality should not be taken lightly.

Successful Meetings. &l(2), 26. Conlin, J. (1992). Truth in numbers: While the trade show industry has grown up. Show managers are still crying: Why must we audit our shows? Successful Meetings. 41(6), part 1 p. 80+. Crystal, S. (1993). Hotels: When they foist off their favored suppliers. Meetings & Conventions. 28(l), 76-91. Fisher’s law: #138: A question of ethics, part II (1993). Restaurants USA. l3(4), 44. Ghitelman, D. (1994). Cover story: The big rip-off: Planner Kathleen Tompkins stole a million bucks from her employer. Meetings & Conventions. 29(13), 50-54. Gillette, B. (1990).

Checking out: Illinois agency has good intentions but bad ideas. Hotel & Motel Management. 205c19), A-l 58. Grimaldi, L. (1996). Incentives: “That was my idea! “: What to do when a client takes your proposal and gives the job to someone else. Meetings & Conventions. 3l(l), 33+. Hiday, J. L. (1996). United Kingdom: GTECH & Branson: A UK morality play. International Gamine & Wagering Business. l7(4), 1 Jensen, M. (1994). News: Hotel points: Questionable practice thrives: Who offers points for booking meetings? Successful Meetings. 43( 12), Part I p. 11. Ligos, M. (1998). News: Disclosure: The dispute continues [kickbacks in meetings industry].

Successful Meetings. 47(3), 17-18. Ligos, M. J. (1996). Successful methods: The meeting planner’s legal handbook. Successful Meetings. 45( 12), 94-95. Ligos, M. J. (1997). Cover story: Shady dealings: Unethical behavior. Successful Meetings. 46(4), 42-44,46-48. McClain, J. B. (1994). Controllers dance to professional ethics. Bottomline. 9(2), 23. McNulty, M. A. (1990). Room rate rebates: A legitimate way to fund meetings? Meeting News. l4(5), 1 f. McNulty, M. A. (1991). FDA, AMA, crack down on medical meetings. Meeting News. 15(13), 7+. McNulty, M. A. (1991). A bitter pill for M. D. eetings: Meeting sponsorship under fire in health-care industry. Meeting News. l5( 1 l), l+. Newman, R. (1992) Bureau business: The f&-n scam. Meetings & Conventions. 27(8), 14. Nichols, D. (1996). Marketing: Truth in advertising? (Dubious advertisements). Restaurant Business. 95( 12), 40-42. O’Brien, J. (1990). Exploring an ethical quagmire: Planner feedback reveals no consensus regarding hotel gifts. Meeting News. l4( 14), 9. Seal, K. (1999). San Diego’s mayor exonerated in tourism-funding controversy. Hotel & Motel Management. 214( 14), 2 1,143. Special report: Whistleblowing and the security director: An update. 1990). Hotel/Motel Securitv Management. g(4), 5-9. Weiland, R. (1991). Just say no: Planners cry foul at hotel’s surcharges on outside contracts. Meeting News. l5( 13), l+. How Ethical are we? (16 articles) Casado, M. A. , Miller, W. E. , & Vallen, G. K. (1994). Ethical challenges of the industry: Are graduates prepared? FIU Hosnitalitv Review. l2( l), l-7. Conlin, J. (1992). Special report on industry ethics: let’s make a deal: The meetings industry has become increasingly concerned about its ethics. Is there cause? Successful Meetings. 4l(2), 36+. Damitio, J. W. , & Schmidgall, R. S. (1993).

Ethics: Hospitality professionals’ responses to ethical situations: Seven situations with ethical implications were presented to GMs, controllers, and club managers to determine whether there was agreement regarding what is and isn’t acceptable behavior. Cornell Hotel & Restaurant Administration Quarterly, 34(4), 40-43. Edelstein, L. G. (1994). Newsline: Of right and wrong: Ethics poll raises questions. Meetings & Conventions. 29(8), 16-l 7. Enghagen, L. K. , & Hott, D. D. (1992). Students’ perceptions of ethical issues in the hospitality and tourism industry. Hospitalitv Research Journal. l5(2), 41-50. Ghiselli, R. F. (1999).

The ethical inclination of foodservice managers and hospitality students. Journal of Hospitality & Tourism Education. l-l(2-3), 92-98. Ligos, M. (1999). True confessions: Begging, borrowing, and… stealing? Successful Meetings. 48( 12), 34-36,38-40. Meyers, C. (1999). News: Ethics takes center stage. Successful Meetings. 48(5), 15. Schmidgall, R. S. (1992). Hotel managers’ responses to ethical dilemmas. FE Hospital&v Review. lO( l), 1 l- 18. Schmidgall, R. , & Damitio, J. (1991). How ethical are hospitality financial managers? : The LAHA report. Bottomline. G(4), 16- 19. Schnidgall, R. S. (1991). Human resources: Hotel scruples.

LodPing Magazine. g(5), 388-40. Stevens, B. (1999). Hotel human resources directors identify ethical issues. FIU Hospital&v Review. l7( l-2), 1 l-20. Stevens, B. , & Fleckenstein, A. (1999). Comparative ethics: How students and humanresources directors react to real-life situations. Cornell Hotel & Restaurant Administration Quarterly. 40(2), 69-75. Sturken, C. A. (1997). On the job: What’s your ethics IQ? Meetings & Conventions. 32(9), 49-52,54-56. Weaver, P. , Choi, J. , & Kaufman, T. J. (1997). Question wording and response bias: Students’ perceptions of ethical issues in the hospitality and tourism industry.

Journal of Hospital&v& Tourism Education. 9(2), 21-26. Your ethics quotient (1993). Successful Meetings. 42(2), 47. How to do the Ripht Thing (12 articles) Adams, M. (1996). Cover story: Doing the right thing [ethics]. Successful Meetings. 45(S), 34-37. Bloch, J. W. (1992). How ethical is our behavior? Foodservice associations should examine their codes of ethics and see how they can be improved, properly applied and made enforceable. Food Management. 27(8), 28-29. Eisenstodt, J. (1992). Meeting manager’s workbook: Ethical answers to tough questions: Doing the right thing. Meeting News. l6(8), 24. Eisenstodt, J. (1992).

Meeting manager’s workbook: The answers to ethical questions aren’t always clear: What’s right? What’s wrong? Meeting News. l6(7), 19. Feltenstein, T. (1999). Opinion: Marketing with integrity is more than an oxymoron, it’s a better way to do business. Nation’s Restaurant News. 33(20), 30,34. Fisher’s law: #127: A question of ethics. (1992). Restaurants USA. l2(4), 35. Griffin, E. (1993). Meeting matters: The ethical dilemma. Meetings & Conventions. 3(12), part 1 p. 18. Lenhart, M. (1998). Cover story: Can you be bought? : When supplier perks become planner payoffs. Meetings & Conventions. 33(3), 66-68,70,72,75. McCarthy, R.

T. (1996). The way I see it: It’s time to look at industry ethics. HSMAI Marketing Review. l3( l), 47-48. McCarthy, T. T. (1994). Marketing & sales: Fair rates improve profits and image: Many salespeople were forced into unethical or borderline situations in the keenly competitive times faced during the recession. Hotel & Resort Industrv. 17(91), 12-l 3. McDonald, T. (1996). Real results: To tell the truth: In business, honesty really is the best policy. Successful Meetings. 45(3), 26. Patterson, P. (1992). Purchasing: Tis the season of gift giving, a time to show appreciation. Nation’s Restaurant News. 26(47), 128.

Company Values (6 articles) Costello, T. (1994, Dec. 15). Management: What’s driving your managers? : Are values being cured in the race for good numbers? Cooking for Profit. 523,13. Goli, G. (1990). Management by values: Consistency as a predictor of success. Hospital&v Research Journal. l4( l), 55-68. Lefever, M. M. , & Reich, A. Z. (1991) Viewpoint: Shared values: No longer dirty words in company success. International Journal of Hospitalitv Management. u(4), 307-3 12. McCleary, D. W. , & Vosburgh, R. M. (1990). Towards a better understanding of the value systems of food service managers and hospitality students. Intl.

Journal of Hospitalitv Management. 9(2), 1 1 l- 123. Stevens, B. (1997). Human resources: Organizational ethics. Lodging. 23(3), 37-38. Whitney, D. L. (1990). Ethics in the hospitality industry: With a focus on hotel managers. Intl. Journal of Hospitalitv Management. 9(l), 59-68. Ethics and Leadership (9 articles) Bethel, S. M. (1999). Leadership: A leader has high ethics. Food Management. 34(7), 36. Fisher, W. P. (1998). Fisher’s law: E. T. H. I. C. S. : The qualities that drive successful people. Lodging. 23( 11). Ghiselli, R. , & Ismail, J. A. (1999). Promoting organizational effectiveness by defining managerial conduct.

Contemporary Hospitality Management. l-l(6), 294-302. Kapoor, T. (1991). A new look at ethics and its relationship to empowerment Hospitalitv & Tourism Educator. 3(l), 2 1 – 14. Peceri, M. (1997). IR&RA report: Ethics and hospitality. Hotels. 3l(lO), 60. Tracey, J. B. , & Hinkin, T. R. (1994). Transformational leaders in the hospitality industry. Cornell Hotel and Restaurant Administration Ouarterlv. 35(2), 18-24. Upchurch, R. S. , & Ruhland, S. K. (1995). An analysis of ethical work climate and leadership relationship in lodging operations. Journal of Travel Research. 34(2), 36-42. Walczak, D. (1997).

The proletarian gourmet [ethics and chefs]. FIU Hosnitalitv Review. l5(2), 27-34. Wong, S. C. K. (1998). Staff job-related ethics of hotel employees in Hong Kong. International Journal of Contemporarv Hospital&v Management. u(2-3), 107- 115. Codes of Ethics, Need For & How to Develop Them (19 articles) Alderson, M. (1994). MIS: Developing a code of ethics for an information technology department: If you ask 20 people you pass in the hall to define “ethics” or “ethical behavior,” you will more than likely get 20 different answers. Bottomline. 9(3), 1 O+. Allen, R. L. 1992. IFA updates code of ethics, approved new advisory council.

Nation’s Restaurant News. 26(49), l+. Axline, L. (1991). Good ethics is good business: Implementing an ethics program is good for your bottom line. Bottomline. e(4), 12+. Beasley, M. A. (1995). Bottom line: Developing a code of ethics. Food Management. 30(5), 40-4 1. D’Amore, L. J. (1993). Research notes & communications: A code of ethics and guidelines for socially and environmentally responsible tourism. Journal of Travel Research. 3l(3), 64-66. Fox, J. (2000). Approaching managerial ethical standards in Croatia’s hotel industry. International Journal of Contemporary Hospitalitv Management. l2( l), 70-74.

Guest editorial: The question of global ethics. (1992). Cornell Hotel & Restaurant Administration Ouarterlv. 66(6), 96. Hayes, J. (1993). News: Atlanta operators draft code for Olympics. Nation’s Restaurant News. 27(45), 8. Hogan, J. (1992). The front line: Ethics shouldn’t sway during tough times. Hotel & Resort Industry. l5(5), 44-45. IAEM on ethics: It’s a private affair. (1999). Successful Meetings. 48(2), 16. Kapoor, R. (1992). Forum: Developing, implementing, and adhering to a code of ethics. Hospitality & Tourism Educator. 4(3), 59-64. Lerman, J. (1990). Hotel gifts: Payola or perks? Meeting News. l4(1 l), l+.

Malloy, D. C. , & Fenell, D. A (1998). Codes of ethics and tourism: An exploratory content analysis. Tourism Management. l9(5), 453-461. Sawyer, C. (1991). Foodservice professional organizations: Codes of ethics. Journal of Foodservice Systems. 6(l). 23-25. Schaefer, C. J. (1991). Between the lines: Putting ethics in business. Bottomline, e(4), 5. Stevens, B. (1997). Hotel ethical codes: A content analysis. International Journal of Hospitalitv Management. l6(3), 26 l-271. Vallen, G. , & Miller, W. (1995). A question of ethics: Ethical principles in hospitality management. Hosteur. 4(2), 3 1. Weinstein, R. (1993).

Ethics: Keeping the peace. Meetings & Conventions. 28(10), supp 34-43. Wolfe, G. A. (1992). Training: Ethics on the job. Hotels. 26(4), 39. Ethics for Hospitalitv Educators (codes & their orientations) (4 articles) Damitio, J. W. , Whitney, D. L. , & Schmidgall, R. S. (1992). Ethical orientation of hospitality educators. Hospitalitv Research Journal. l6( l), 75-92. Farrar, A. L. , & Kwansa, F. A. (1993). Professionalization, ethics, and the hospitality educator. Hospital&v & Tourism Educator. 5(3), 55-49. Kwansa, F. A. , & Farrar, A. L. (1992). A conceptual framework for developing a hospitality educators’ code of ethics.

Hospitalitv Research Journal. l5(3), 27-39. McCleary, K. W. (1994). Ethics in academic publication. Hosnitalitv Research Journal. B(l), 139-148. Teaching Ethics (18 articles) Christy, C. , & Colman, V. (1991). Last call: Explore the debate for the ‘90s” Industrial ethics. Night Club & Bar Magazine. y(5), 22-25. Costello, T. , (1994). Making the tough choices: Do you persevere, compromise or ignore? Cooking For Profit. 5(23), 13. Enghagen, L. K. (1990). Ethics in hospitality/tourism education: A survey. Hospitalitv Research Journal, 14(2), 113-l 18. Enghagen, L. K. (1990). Teaching ethics in hospitality & tourism education.

Hospital&v Research Journal. l4(2), 467-474. Enghagen, L. K. (1993). Recognizing ethical issues or people who live in glass houses. Hospitalitv & Tourism Educator. 5(2), 69-7 1. Freeman, A. M. , & Bartholomew, P. S. (1990). Age/experience and gender as factors in ethical development of hospitality managers and students. Hospital&v Research Journal. l4(2), l-10. Hegarty, J. A. (1990). Ethics in hospitality education. Intl. Journal of Hospital&v Management. 9(2), 106- 109. Khan, M. M. , & McCleary, K. W. (1996). A proposed model for teaching ethics in hospitality. Hospitalitv & Tourism Educator. B(4), 7-l 1. Lieux, E.

M. & Winquist, S. C. (1991). Instruction in writing combined with an introduction to ethics in a professional discipline. Hospitalitv & Tourism Educator. j(2), 34-35. Lundberg, C. C. (1994). Topic paper: The views of future hospitality leaders on business ethics. Hosnitalitv & Tourism Educator. G(2), 1 1 – 13. March, L. & Schmidgall, R. J. (1999). Teaching legal and ethic issues: Where does tip reporting fit?. Journal of Hospital&v & Tourism Education. 11(2-3). 60-63. Martin, L. J. (1998). Integrating ethics into the hospitality curriculum. Journal of Hospitalitv & Tourism Education. lO(2), 22-25. O’Halloran, R.

M. (199 1). Ethics in hospitality and tourism education: The new managers. Hosnitalitv & Tourism Educator. 3(3), 33. Stevens, B. (1999). Fostering volunteerism: A course in managerial communication and ethics. Journal of Hospitalitv & Tourism Education. l-l(2-3), 50-53. Stevens, B. , & Brownwell, J. (2000). Communicating standards and influencing behavior. Cornell Hotel and Restaurant Administration Ouarterly. 41(2), 39-43. Upchurch, R. S. (1998). Ethics in the hospitality industry: An applied model. International Journal of Contemnorarv Hospitality Management. lO(6), 227-233. Vallen, G. & Casado, M. (2000).

Ethical principles for the hospitality curriculum. Cornell Hotel and Restaurant Administration Ouarterly. &l(2), 44-5 l/ Whitney, D. L. (1989). The ethical orientations of hotel managers and hospitality students: Implications for industry, education, and youthful careers. Hospitalitv Education & Research Journal. l3(3), 187-192. Tourism Ethics & Eco-Tourism (6 articles) Fennell, D. A. , & Malloy, D. C. (1999). Measuring the ethical nature of tourism operators. Annals of Tourism Research. z(4), 928-943. Hegarty, J. A. (1992). Discussion papers: Towards establishing a new paradigm for tourism and hospitality developments.

International Journal of Hospitalitv Management. ll(4), 309-3 17. Hultsman, J. (1995). Just tourism: an ethical framework. Annals of Tourism Research. 22(3), 553-567. Lea, J. P. (1993). Tourism development ethics in the third world. Annals of Tourism Research, 20(4), 70 l-7 15. Malloy, D. C. , & Fennell, D. (1998). Ecotourism and ethics: Moral development and organizational cultures. Journal of Travel Research. 36(4), 47-56. Walle, A. H. (1995). Current issues: Business ethics and tourism: From micro to macro perspectives. Tourism Management. x(4), 263-268.

Analytical Paper on the Kite Runner

Analytical Paper on The Kite Runner The most prevalent theme of the novel The Kite Runner is strength. In the novel main character, and protagonist, Amir takes the reader back the winter of 1975 when he witnessed an incident that would change his life forever. During the novel Amir faces obstacle courses that make him realize who he is and how he can seek redemption. The Kite Runner is an extraordinary novel for anyone who needs help finding themselves and how to be good again. “I became what I am today at the age of twelve, on a frigid overcast day in the winter of 1975.

I remember the precise moment, crouching behind a crumbling mud wall peeking into the alley near the frozen creek (pg. 1). ” These are the first two sentences of the novel and I think the reader can tell a lot about the theme of the book by these particular words. I think these sentences notify the reader that the narrator experienced a life-changing event as a child in which he needed strength in order to redeem. I also think it is implied that the narrator does not live in an extremely rich town.

The reader should be able to tell that the narrator suffered through something that would change his life in many ways. In the novel Hassan, the rich mans servant and loyal friend, is betrayed and lied to. Hassan shows great amounts of strength in the book by not letting down Amir. By doing so Hassan is let down instead by Amir. Hassan also shows a great amount of strength by standing up for others. Even though Hassan had a cleft lip and was illiterate he always stood up for what was right. Especially when he is killed trying to defend Baba’s house from being taken over by the Taliban.

Assef is the sociopath, the boy with no soul, the neighborhood bully. Assef is a young boy who worships Adolf Hitler. He has much strength but uses it only in bad ways. He enjoys hurting people mentally, physically, emotionally, and psychologically. “Fine,” Assef snapped. “All I want you weaklings to do is hold him down. Can you manage that? ” Assef says to his friends just before raping Hassan. This quote shows the strength Assef has not only physically but with his friends as well, as the leader of the pack. Twenty six years later Amir is still haunted by what had happened to Hassan.

Amir has moved to California but he can not find the strength to let it go. He tries seeking many ways of redemption but realizes the only way he can seek it, is by being bad. Amir finds the strength to go back to Kabul Afghanistan to save Hassan’s only son, Sohrab, from the orphanage that is lead by, Hassans rapist, Assef. During this adventure Amir is brutally beat by Assef, but ends up saving Hassan’s son. Amir takes Sohrab back to California to live with Amir and his wife Soraya. Throughout this unbelievable experience, Amir thankfully finds the strength to redeem him self.

From witnessing his best friend, and brother, being raped, losing his home and brother, dealing with his life-long guilty conscious, and being beaten savagely Amir has finally found his inner self. Although Amir, and everyone else in the novel, faced some of the toughest times in life, they were all able to be redeemed. The strength displayed in The Kite Runner will never be forgotten. Hassan was loved tremendously by Amir, and if he still lived he would’ve know just how much. Amir found the strength in as many ways possible to pay his dues to Hassan…”for him, a thousand times over. ”

Cultural Background

You as a Culturally Diverse Entity Maria Chavez SOC 315 Kevin L. Benbow University of Phoenix You as a Culturally Diverse Entity In this paper I will try to highlight the different sources that have contributed to my cultural background. I will start by saying that I was born in Mexico and I was raised in a big family; 5 brothers and 5 sisters. I studied at a catholic school from grade school through middle school and moved to a public school in the United States the first two years of high school. Then I moved back to Mexico to complete high school. I live in Mexico but have been working at U.

S. manufacturing companies for 20 years. My family customs and traditions definitely played a vital role in my beliefs and my behavior. I was raised with firm beliefs in catholic rules. During my childhood and teenage, I was exposed to catholic religious traditions and customs at my home and at school. I grew up to become a good catholic following the precepts of this religion. At this point in my life, I think this is one of the biggest contributors to my cultural background. As I mentions at the beginning of this essay, I come from a big family. This experience definitely marked my character.

I learned to share with my siblings almost everything; food, cloth, room, etc. It was common for me to be around people and coexist with people from different ages and different ways of thinking. I consider this experience help my development as a human being as for me is very easy to incorporate myself in any group or activity (school, work, sports, social events, etc. ) I usually have no problem dealing with different kinds of people. I studied in two different countries; Mexico and USA. This has been an experience that contributed to my culturally diversity. I was used to the Mexican culture where everybody

Ambush Essay 2

Sunday, January 10, 2010 was an eye opening experience for me: our children’s Pastor preached and his topic was “Ambushed”. At hearing the topic my mind was reeling and still is with how the enemy deceives us. The enemy’s job is to steal, kill, and destroy. And most times we think death and that is it, but there is so much more! The word Ambush means to attack an enemy; it’s a military term; concealed attack An ambush is a long-established military tactic, in which the aggressors (the ambushing force) use concealment to attack a passing enemy. Ambushers strike from concealed positions, such as among dense underbrush or behind hilltops.

Ambushes have been used consistently throughout history, from ancient to modern warfare. An ambush predator is an animal which uses similar tactics to capture prey, without the difficulty and wasted energy of a chase. (wikipedia). Satan’s Mission: (Steal, Kill, Destroy) Steal The enemy steals our joy (it amazes me still and I’m trying to figure out how the devil gets in our mind, why does he have access to our mind). The devil robs us of our time when our thoughts are not on God’s kingdom building business; when we don’t study to show ourselves approves; when we fail to think on what is right, pure.

The devil steals our hopes and dreams when we fail to put what God has given us in action- when we push pause and put God’s work on hold; when we doubt he wants to use us to accomplish his work. KILL The enemy kills our vision when we fail to push to the point of being uncomfortable and settle or comfortable because our dreams cost and we sometimes don’t want to pay the price to reach them we choose to give up and set back on comfortable and comfortable gets us nothing but heavier weights ( God wants us to lay those weights aside). DESTROY

The enemy tries to destroy us by causing division in our marriages, homes, relationships. When we talk to one another and agree (not to mention pray together) it makes the enemy upset because we agree or have an atmosphere of harmony. He is quite happy when we are non-communicative and are left with our own thoughts (when he can enter our minds and disrupt our thinking) he can plant seeds of deception and do great damage. We can easily slip into depression ( that is not the atmosphere for productivity) When the enemy can get us non-productive; halt our efforts to be….. e are in the zone of decay, uselessness, self-pity rises up and we stop being available and flexible for God’s use. Concealment We should pray that God would cause us to see the enemy afar off: The enemy’s tactic is to be up close (deception) and then he pounces on us. We usually don’t see it coming and ask where did that come from. Christians should always be on guard and take nothing for granted. We are to be watchmen not only for God’s return but for the enemy who is raging because he knows his time is short and he Is pulling out all the stops – it’s time for him to go to HELL and he wants us to go with him.

It’s no coincidence that husbands and wives can’t quite seem to stop arguing and be in sync with one another, or parents can’t seem to get an understanding with their children, We have been lulled into a dream world and are acting as if everything is fine when God has told us that this world will become weaker, men will become lovers of themselves. Our job is still to compel men, women, boys and girls to come to Jesus. But Christians have become so accepting of the things that are blatantly wrong- wrong has become the norm and no one wants to raise the standard.

The enemy is gaining ground and we are allowing it. Christians are afraid to speak out in truth- that’s the only thing the enemy can’t stand up against. Truth God is love and he is truth! When we speak the truth in love it puts the enemy to flight. We have to stop being victims of the enemy’s tactics by bathing ourselves with the Word of God. God’s word is never second choice but should roll off our tongues in an instance. The word says to take every thought captive and the only way we can take the thoughts captive is to know the word and make instant application.

Surrender our homes to God daily, pray in our homes and anoint our doorpost with oil (“literally put the devil out – purge our homes of anything considered an idol) (look around you’d be surprised – but ask the Holy Spirit to show you – then purge). Sanctify your home and ask God and the Holy Spirit to dwell richly there in! Purge your heart through fasting and prayer- ask God to show you what is there that should not be, then confess your sins and ask forgiveness) Now start anew “( we are new creations and old habits are hard to break so we have to practice daily surrendering to God, His will and His way! God loves us and he wants us to walk in the newness of life and every day is a new day with God. There is so much work to do and the enemy is out to halt the greater works that Christ said we would do. But because we are God’s workmanship, he gives us another chance to break through the deceptive walls the enemy puts up (with praying friends and family)come to our senses and start all over again. This is a tough fight but God says WE WIN – Hallelujah – WE WIN- PRAISE GOD!

Case Study of Abortion

A Case Study on Abortion Background Abortion is the most difficult and controversial moral issue being considered today in politics and religion. Being a devout Catholic Mrs. Jones decided against an abortion that may have saved her life. Statement of the Problem There are moral issues regarding if the fetus is a person, the rights of the pregnant woman and if abortion is morally wrong and if abortion should be illegal.

There are arguments regarding if it is wrong to end the life of an innocent person? Therefore, is it morally wrong to end the life of a fetus. However, in this case I would say that Mrs. Jones exercised self-determination in making a decision for her own life. Analysis and Possible Solution We must first analyze the debate on whether or not the fetus is a person? If so, it has the rights that belong to persons, including the right to life.

A possible solution in solving this question would be reviewing the bridge that connects the fetus with the right to life –1) fetus 2) personhood 3) rights. Therefore, the possible criteria would be in determining if the fetus is a person is to review these questions, is it conceived by a human, what’s its genetic structure, physical resemblance, presence of a soul and most important, does it have a future like ours.

By analyzing the above we would agree that the fetus is a person and abortion is morally wrong to end the life of an innocent person. Therefore, wrong to end the life of a fetus. However, Mrs. Jones did choose to take her own life leaving her husband to care for 9 children. The possible solution was for Mrs. Jones to have the abort the child that had not been born to save her own life so that she could take care of her children that were already born. Recommend Course of Action

We must look at the rights women possess that would entitle her to choose an abortion. Should she have the right to privacy, right to ownership to her own body, does she have a right to equal treatment and a right to self-determination? I would recommend that a right to equal treatment and the right to self-determination to take a life must be agreed upon by both parties involved the woman and man except in rape cases if society continues to legalize abortion and our religion continue to teach us that it is wrong.

Biological Approach

Running head: BIOLOGICAL AND HUMANISTIC APPROACHES TO PERSONALITY Henderson Norris University of Phoenix PSYCHOLOGY OF PERSONALITY 250 CHRIS BOLING November 10, 2009 Abstract The following paper will explain the differences in the biological and humanistic approaches to personality. Hans Eysenck’s theory will be explained, also it make clear that a complete understanding of human personality requires us to go beyond some of the traditional boundaries of the discipline. The biological approach is the notion that we inherit our personalities from our parents.

Hans Eysenck theory states that personality is based on biology. In that theory he makes 3 arguments: consistency of extraversion-introversion over time, pointing out the results of cross cultural research and the results of several studies implementing that genetics play an important role in determining a person’s level on each of the three personality dimensions. Nature-nurture is one questions involved in the biological approach to psychology. In this we can hope to change a persons personality by simply altering their upbringing.

The biological approach provides a bridge between the study of personality and biology. This is based on heavy and extensive research. The humanistic approach is one that is very hard to describe, because there are no agreed definitions of what makes the humanistic personality theory true. This approach falls into four elements, which are central viewpoints: emphasis on personal responsibility, emphasis on here and now, focus of phenomenology of individuals and the emphasis on personal growth. In the humanistic approach although it may be denied, we are ultimately responsible for what happens to us.

Being humanistic means that our behaviors, represents the personal choices of what we want to do at a particular moment or time frame. I feel that of the above mentioned approaches, I think the biological approach best describes my personality. I strongly agree that most of my personality was developed and influenced by my parents and my upbringing as a child. I have strong tendencies to make decisions based solely on what my parents may have done. In Maslow’s hierarchy of needs it is the theory of motivation and personality development. This the basic requirement for survival and growth.

This has been depicted by a pyramid of needs. In this one must reasonably be satisfied with lower needs in order to focus on high needs. There are times where one will ignore the lower needs to fulfill the higher needs. This is done when one makes a sacrifice for the purpose of self gratification. Using Maslow’s theory one emphasizes the positive aspects of human behavior, allowing for these theories to provide an understanding of the human behavior outside the complex context of mental illness and dysfunction. BIOLOGICAL AND HUMANISTIC APPROACHES

Market Equilibrium Process

Running Head: MARKET EQUILIBRATING PROCESS PAPER Market Equilibrating Process Paper Lazaro Alfonso ECO 561 University of Phoenix Prof. Gustavo E. Morles October 20, 2009 Market Equilibrating Process Paper What better fact than the writer’s experience as an owner of a vacation timeshare in Disney Vacation Club (DVC) and previous annual pass holder for Walt Disney World theme parks. When one becomes a DVC member, one buys a real state interest in a DVCResort. In addition, one gets a whole world of vacation value.

Because not only one can enjoy the comforts and benefits of all DVC Resorts, one can also vacation at other destinations around the world, including an African safari or the beaches in Mexico. As a member, one receives an annual allotment of vacation points to use toward each vacation the member takes. The member receives the same number of points every year, but he or she uses it is up to him or her. Each accommodation has a vacation point value that is determined by the type of the room and timing of the vacation stay.

One uses more vacation points for weekends and peak seasons, such as summer and fewer during weekdays and less busy times of the year, such as fall. It is with the information provided above that market equilibrium, supply and demand play a role in the author’s experiences. When the author did not have children, the author was able to take several vacations throughout the year. The author was able to accommodate his time off during value seasons where it would take less point for his accommodation.

Another example that relates would be the ability to purchase annual theme park passes. Before the childrenwere born, the author was an annual pass holder. Once the childrenwere born, it became more difficult to afford them as expenses rose. It is also important to note that annual theme park passes prices have gone up throughout the year. As the author concludes, it is noted that the higher the demand for accommodations, the higher the number of points required for the accommodations.

The same can be said when there is less demand for accommodations. The lower the demand for accommodations, the less number of points required for accommodations. It is also important to note that circumstances in a member’s live such as preference and taste can also play a role in the vacation point value. Reference McConnell, C. R. , Brue, S. L. , & Flynn, S. M. (2009) Economics: Principles, problems, and policies (18th ed. ). New York: McGraw-Hill/Irwin.

Islamic Management

Management from the Islamic Perspective Definition ?The ability to utilize resources both material and human, optimally in order to achieve goals, be it short term goals or long term goals. ?The Islamic management has been practised since the era of Prophet Muhammad s. a. w. ?It was based on the teachings generated from the holy Al-Quran and As-Sunnah. ?The holy Al-Quran and As-Sunnah were sources that provided guidance in making decisions. ?The Islamic leadership under Prophet Muhammad s. a. w had created strong (Muslim) society with prominent characteristics such as: 1)Team spirit that practised teamwork )A strong clear vision and mission 3)Values for loving and caring 4)Emphasis for trust and relationship, cooperation and teamwork. 5)The practice of consensus decision making Philosophy and Principles Islamic Organizations 1. The ultimate goal of our life should be harmoniously linked with the worldly aims. •Humans as “khalifah” must be able to balance their short and long term goals such as serving Allah, worshipping Him and seeking his worthy pleasure and rewards. 2. The moral/religious value of work should be integrated in the work or activities we do. Working is not merely a means for material gains, but also a moral obligation and a measure of pleasing Allah and getting nearer to Him. 3. Time to be well invested, not to be wasted. •Time should be treated as commodity. •Punctual, doing diligent work, never play around not to procrastinate and engage ourselves in meaningless conversation. 4. We should uphold and internalize the Islamic ethical values. •In whatever we do, we should internalize Islamic values of truthfulness, honesty, dedication, self restraints, self-discipline and fear of Allah. 5.

Self criticism should be exercised periodically both individually and collectively and should be practices by all workers at all levels. •Each individuals should review his/her works and analyse workers at all levels. 6. There shall be no favoritism and discrimination. •Heads of departments, managers and leaders must be fair to employees. •They should not be discriminated and favourite because of mutual interests or family ties etc. 7. Human nature and needs should be both considered simultaneously. •Both psychological and economical contracts of a person must be met.

Working hours must be reasonable and fair. The pay system should be fair (equity) 8. Employees must be paid sufficiently, promptly and fairly. 9. There should be conducive rewards for exceptional achievement and adequate measures to detect and prevent violations. 10. Concept of al-Shura- a consultation based on mutual discussion and inculcating cooperation among members of organization. Management Function in Islam 1. Planning (setting objectives) •According to Tan Sri Dr. Mohammad Abdul Raub, management and administration (an Islamic perspective) to ensure successful management we need planning. The planning process of setting objectives/goals is also practised in Islam. •According to Islam, human beings are created by Allah s. w. t to be the “khalifah” on the earth. •This means our life and activities must be focused to fulfill two purpose. •A long term objective/goal i. To be the worthy servants of Allah, avoiding sins and preparing ourselves to be rewarded in paradise by performing good deeds and obeying the teachings demanded by the Al-Quran and As-Sunnah. •A short term objective/goal i. Productivity may it be in the form of services or products, academic achievement, financial profit or improving in performance. . Organizing •The structure of projects as well as the structure of roles to be undertaken by human efforts. In Islam, organizing comprises the structuring an organization structure (organizational chart), utilization of resources (human), authority, power and the practise of delegation as well as decentralization and centralization. •This practise of organizing can be seen in incident of Hijrah led by Prophet Muhammad s. a. w. •If careful planning and organizing had not been done, Prophet Muhammad s. a. w. 3. Leading (Motivation) From the Islamic point of view, leadership refers to the process of moving people in a plan direction by motivating them. •Good leadership moves peoples in a direction that is in their long term best interest. •Islam says that a leader should serve and help others (followers) get ahead. •The characteristics of an Islamic leader: i. Has allegiance to Allah ii. Has global perceived goals of organization not only in terms of individual or group interests but also from a wider Islamic perspective iii. He adheres to the Syariah and the Islamic manner of doing things iv.

Delegates trust •Effective Islamic leaders: i. Syura (mutual consultations) ?The first principle. The Al-Quran has made clear that Muslim leaders are obligated to consult those with knowledge and those who would provide good advice. ?This practise of Syura will enable members of an organizations to participants in the decision making process. ?Monitors the leaders condust behaviour so that he will not deviate from the collective goals. ?Allows group members to express opinion and grievances freely without the feeling of embarrassment. ii. Justice The second hallmark of Islamic leadership. ?The leader should deal with peoplejustly and fairly regardless of race, colour, national origin, or religion. ?The Al-Quran commands Muslims to be fair even when dealing with people who oppose them. iii. Freedom of expression ?Muslim leader are encouraged to provide for and even invite constructive criticism. ?Two way communication is practised here. ?Members may freely voice their views or objections and have their questions answered. ?Example: Khulafa al-Rashidin, Saidina Umar Ibn al-Khattab. ?According to Islamic leadership Style, a leader should strive to create an atmosphere of free thinking, healthy exchange of ideas, criticism, and advice. iv. Masruiah ?The concept of legality whereby the management have to ensure that any actione must be within legal boundary of the common/man-made laws and the “Syariah Laws”. v. Qualification ?The important of selecting the right management personnel ? Based on two element: 1. “Quwwah” (strength) 2. Amanah (trustworthy) ?It should be based on the person ability expertise, experience and other suitable criteria and fits the job. i. Reward ?Managers must be fair in any action and reward people ?The Islamic management views rewards as the compensation/benefit earned not only today but till one dies. ?This known as “Pembalasan Dunia dan Akhirat” 4. Controlling (Execution) •The Islamic perspective is defined as the application of the procedures prescribed and organized according to plan as well as the performance of the roles and specifined under the organization. •Carrying out the plans and assuring that the results will conform to the actual plans.


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