Pharmacognostical Phytochemical And Pharmacological Properties Biology Essay

Lagenaria siceraria Bottle gourd category Magnoliopsida household Cucurbitaceae is an first-class fruit in the nature dwelling of all the indispensable components that are necessary for normal and good wellness of human existences. Lagenaria siceraria is official in Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeia. Traditionally, Lagenaria siceraria fruits had been used as a general quinine water, cardiotonic, and cardioprotective drug. In add-on, it had besides been used as aphrodisiac, diuretic, antidote to certain toxicants, Scorpio stings, and alternate cathartic. Lagenaria siceraria is besides used to alleviate hurting, ulcers and febrility. Scientific researches have shown that Lagenaria siceraria possesses anthelminthic, antibacterial, fungicidal, immunomodulatory, anti-allergic, analgetic, anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, free extremist scavenging, cytotoxic, antihyperlipidemic antidiabetic, hepatoprotective, anxiolytic and memory enhancing belongingss. In this reappraisal article we have tried to supply a elaborate study of the literature on the scientific researches of pharmacognostical, phytochemical and pharmacological belongingss of this fantastic herbal drug.

Cardinal WORDS:

Lagenaria siceraria, Cucurbitaceae, Herbal drugs, Anxiolytic and memory enhancing, Antioxidant, Antidiabetic.

1. Introduction:

Traditional herb tea drugs have proven to be a better pick when compared to modern man-made drugs. These drugs have a few or no side effects and are claimed to be safer ones1. Our traditional literature of Unani and Ayurvedic medical specialty contains a huge cognition and information about these herbal drugs. The Charaka Samhita ( 1000 B.C. ) , one of such ancient literatures, contains the medical information about 2000 herbal drugs. Some of the really of import life salvaging drugs have been obtained from these herbs2. The people of the universe believe that herbal redresss are safer and less damaging to the human organic structure than modern drugs. That is why the research workers of the universe are actively busy in testing of workss for bioactivities with curative utility. The choice of the workss for such a survey is based on the traditional curative claim. The intervention of many of the diseases is mentioned in the traditional medical system. The Ayurveda has emphasized the importance of nutrient in the direction of diseases. It has been seen that the practician of the modern system encourages the usage of dietetic points in the direction of chronic diseases3. In American wellness attention, herbal drugs are a major constituent. There has been an exponential addition in the gross revenues of herbal medical specialties. Worldwide gross revenues of herbal medical specialties have exceeded a astonishing US dollars 40 billion per annum4. Herbal drugs are easy available in the local market and these drugs are being prescribed by local practicians who are portion of the community so the patient feels really comfy in the presence of these practicians. A big figure of our modern medical specialties descend straight or indirectly from higher workss. No uncertainty, there has been a great promotion in the field of modern medical specialties but herbal drugs are still in pattern of modern practicians. Pakistan has a really rich tradition in the usage of medicative workss for the intervention of assorted complaints. Different medicative workss come from different of import works households. Out of these of import households, one is Cucurbitaceae. The common names for Cucurbitaceae household are the calabash, pumpkin or melon household. Cucurbitaceae consists of one hundred 18 ( 118 ) genera and eight hundred 20 five ( 825 ) species. These species are widely distributed in the universe. Many of them are economically of import domesticated species and many of these have nutritionary and curative potential5. Lagenaria siceraria ( Bottle calabash ) is an of import member of the Cucurbitaceae household. It is a warm-season fruit veggie. Lagenaria siceraria is cultivated throughout Pakistan and India. The fruits of Lagenaria siceraria are available the whole twelvemonth in the market. Lagenaria siceraria besides known as doodhi, lauki ( Hindi ) , kadoo ( Marathi ) is official in Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeia. Lagenaria siceraria is an first-class fruit in the nature dwelling of all the indispensable components that are necessary for normal and good wellness of human beings5. There are two assortments of this herbal drug viz. sweet assortment and acrimonious assortment. Both assortments belong to Lagenaria genus. By and large, the sweet assortment of works is used for vegetable intent, while the wild acrimonious assortment is sooner used in medical specialties. Earlier acrimonious assortment was found rampantly in many countries but now merely in some hot parts. However, these yearss, the Sweet and comestible assortment is besides used for the medicative intent because of trouble in securing and losing the involvement of cultivating of the acrimonious variety6. When we see the traditional utilizations of Lagenaria siceraria, we find that the fruits had been used as a general quinine water, cardiotonic, and cardioprotective drug. In add-on, it had besides been used as aphrodisiac, diuretic, antidote to certain toxicants, Scorpio stings, and alternate cathartic. Lagenaria siceraria, is besides used to alleviate hurting, ulcers and febrility. Tender fruits in the signifier of sirup are used to handle bronchial upsets such as thoracic cough and asthma6-8. Vitamin B-complex, ascorbic acid and beta-carotene are present in the comestible part of the fruits. The fruit is rich with choline level-A lipotropic factor, a therapist of mental upsets. Bottle calabash contains rich sums of saccharides, dietetic components and minerals9, vitamins and amino acids10. It is besides reported that the acrimonious rule of Cucurbitaceae such as triterpenoid cucurbitacins, B, D, G, H and 22-deoxycucurbitacin are besides present in the fruit. In add-on, beta glycosidase elasterase, an enzyme, is contained within the fruit juice8,11. Lagenaria siceraria foliages have emetic activity. Leaf juice is taken as emetic agent. Leaf juice is besides used in icterus. Baldness and the concern are besides treated with application of crushed foliages on the caput. There are certain studies demoing that flowers may be antidote in certain types of poisons8. From the medicative point of position, the seeds are considered as the least of import. However, they are a rich beginning of amino acids, vitamins, minerals, saponin and indispensable fixed oils of unsaturated type that is why the seeds have a great significance in human nutrition5,12. Lagenine is a protein holding ribosome inactivating activity. It was isolated from lyophilised H2O infusions of the seeds of Lagenaria siceraria. Biologically, lagenine has immunosuppressive, antifertility and antiproliferative actions13. Dropsy and writhe infection are besides treated with Lagenaria siceraria seeds. Clear limbid oil ( up to 45 % ) is obtained from the ripe seeds12. Migraine type concerns can be alleviated by using seed oil. Traditionally, furuncles had been treated with a cataplasm of poached seeds. Three gms per twenty-four hours of Lagenaria siceraria has been used as a individual intervention for diabetes mellitus in assorted parts of China8.

2. Categorization:

Harmonizing to the Ayurvedic pharmacopoeia of India, 1 ( 3 ) : 215-216 bottle calabashs have following systematic categorization.

Kingdom: Plant kingdom

Division: Angiospermae

Class: Dicotyledones

Order: Cucurbitales

Family: Gourd family

Genus: Lagenaria

Speciess: L. siceraria

Partss used: Fruit, root, leaves and seed oil14

The household Cucurbitaceae consists of one hundred 18 ( 118 ) genera and eight hundred 20 five ( 825 ) species. These species are widely distributed in the universe. Many of them are economically of import domesticated species and many of these have nutritionary and curative potential5. There are six species in genus Lagenaria. There is a general belief that Lagenaria siceraria ( antecedently known as Lagenaria vulgaris ) is autochthonal to Africa. It reached temperate and tropical countries in Asia and the America about 10000 old ages ago, as a wild species whose fruits had floated across the seas or likely with human aid.

3. DERIVATION OF Name:

The word Lagenaria has been derived from the Latin word Lagena, which means Florence flask. While the word siceraria refers to the fruit, which is utile, when it is mature and dry ( siccus ) .

4. Cultivation AND HABITAT:

Lagenaria siceraria has both wild and cultivated signifiers. The latter is native to Africa and Asia. Lagenaria siceraria is cultivated throughout the twelvemonth. All types of dirt are suited for cultivation but the best output is obtained in to a great extent manured dirt. The herb grows best in warm and humid clime. If Lagenaria is cultivated during dry conditions so plentifulness of lacrimation is required. Lagenaria siceraria seeds are sown in two different ways. At first, the seeds can be sown in baby’s room beds, and when at that place appear two to three foliages on seedlings so they can be transplanted. Second, four to five seeds together are sown straight. The organ transplant of seeds is done where there is a desire for early harvests. In India, two types of harvests are obtained. From mid October to mid March the summer harvest is seeded whereas the other harvest is sown from the beginning of March to the mid of July. In the early harvest, unit of ammunition fruits are sown while for latter harvest bottle shaped fruits are sown. Then the vines are allowed to drag on the land, walls, trees or other support. Draging over give high outputs of fruit15.

5. PHARMACOGNOSTICAL Property:

5.1. Macroscopy:

Lagenaria siceraria ( Bottle calabash ) is a pubescent works. It is a mounting or tracking works with five angled roots. The tendrils are bifid. Lagenaria has petioled, long foliages with three to five lobes. The fruits can be every bit long as 1.8 m. The fruits are heavy and with many seeded pepo. The form of the fruit is like a bottle. When the fruit is mature so the exocarp becomes difficult like a shell. The fruits contain a big figure of smooth seeds, which are white in colour. The seeds are 1.6 – 2.0 centimeter long. As the seeds are horizontally compressed, so they show fringy channel. Lagenaria flowers are lone, unisexual and calcareous white in colour. Male flowers have five lobes, five petals and three stamens. Male flowers are short lived because they remain unfastened merely for a few hours, subsequently the petals are withered. Female flowers have thick manner with three bilobed stigmas6. Equally far as the gap of the flowers is concerned, both the male and female flowers open at the same clip. When we come to the pollenation, cross-pollination takes topographic point in bottle calabash because it is a monecious harvest. Honey bees are the major pollinators16-18.

5.2. Microscopy:

Microscopy of cross subdivision of bottle calabash revealed following features: parenchymatous cells of extended form are present in upper cuticle. The cells are covered with cuticle. Parenchymatous cells of extended form with wavy walls are present in lower cuticle. A big figure of collapsed trichomes are present but glandular trichomes are really few in Numberss. The pore at upper cuticle are besides few in Numberss. The cells of the mesophyll are round in form and they contain chloroplast and arrange themselves in a compact mode organizing three to four beds. Vascular packages are of different sizes and two to three beds of sclerenchyma surround them1,19-20.

6. Phytochemical Property:

Fruits:

Phytochemicals testing of the comestible part of the fruit of Lagenaria siceraria revealed that it contains 0.2 % of protein, 0.1 % of fat, 2.9 % of saccharides, 96.3 % of wet, 0.5 % of mineral affair, & A ; lt ; 0.01 % of P, and 0.02 % of Ca. Reports show that following mineral elements are besides present. The values are per 100 g of the herb: Fe 0.7 milligram, Na 11.0 milligram, K 86.0 milligram, and iodine 4.5 mcg/ kilogram. Fructose and glucose have besides been found. Per gm amino acerb composing of the fruit is found to be: phenylalanine 0.9 milligram, leucines 0.8 milligram, valine 0.3 milligram, tyrosine 0.4 milligram, alanine 0.5 milligram, glutamic acid 0.3 milligram, serine 0.6 milligram, aspartic acid 1.9 milligram, cystine 0.6 milligram, cysteine 0.3 milligram, arginine 0.4 milligram, proline 0.3 milligram and threonine 0.2 mg.Vitamin B-complex and Vitamin C ( ascorbic acid ) have besides been detected in the fruit contents. Bitter fruits besides contain acrimonious rules in the signifier of aglycones. These rules include cucurbitacins B, D and E15. The analysis shows that two types of steroids are present in fruit. These steroids are campesterol and fucosterol21. The fresh fruits besides contain glucose and fructose in 1:1 ratio. Sucrose was besides found in hint sums. A little sum of unidentified mono- and dicaffeoylquinic acid derived function was detected22. Equally far as the flavonoid composites are concerned, Lagenaria siceraria contains flavone C-glycosides23. In add-on, this medicinal works besides contain 3b-O- ( E ) -feruloyl-D: Cfriedooleana-7,9 ( 11 ) -dien-29-ol, 3b-O- ( E ) coumaroyl-D: Cfriedooleana-7,9 ( 11 ) -dien-29-ol, 3b-O- ( E ) -coumaroyl-D: Cfriedooleana7,9 ( 11 ) -dien-29-oic acid, and methyl 2b,3b-dihydroxy-D: C-friedoolean-8-en-29-oate, D: C-friedooleanane-type triterpenes24. The fruiting organic structures of Lagenaria siceraria contain a water-soluble polyose, which is composed of 3-O-acetyl methyl- & A ; aacute ; -d-galacturonate, methyl- & A ; aacute ; -d-galacturonate, and & A ; acirc ; -d-galactose in a ratio of 1:1:1. The polyose possesses cytotoxic activity in vitro against human chest glandular cancer cell line ( MCF-7 ) 25.

Seeds:

Reports show that saponins are present in the seeds. The analysis of the seed meats showed following values: 30.72 % of protein, 8.3 % of saccharides, 2.47 % of wet, 52.54 % of oil, 4.43 % of ash, 1.58 % of fibre, 2.46 % of P2O3, and 0.11 % of CaO. The colour of oil obtained from seed meats is clear and pale yellow in visual aspect. Ripe seed meats gave 45 % of the oil. This oil has following characteristics: I value 126.6, sap. equivalent, 301.7, 0.55 % of free fatty acids and 0.68 % of unsaponified affair. Free fatty acid constituents found to be 18.3 % of oleic, 64.1 % of linoleic acids and 17.9 % of concentrated fatty acids15. Reports show that seeds besides contain Lagenin13.

Leafs:

Leafs contain cucurbitacin B. saccharides, phytosterols, saponins, phenolic compounds and tannic acids, proteins and aminic acids and flavonoids1.

Rootss:

The roots contain cucurbitacins B, D, and E and triterpene bryonolic acid26.

7. PHARMACOLOGICAL Property:

7.1. Anxiolytic and memory enhancing activity:

The aqueous infusion of Lagenaria siceraria was evaluated for anxiolytic and memory heightening consequence. In the survey, the anxiolytic activity was assessed by utilizing caput dip trial and the light/dark box trial whereas the memory heightening consequence of the drug was assessed by utilizing H2O labyrinth and the stationary rod trial. In this research, the research workers used the mice and the rats as the survey animate beings. The infusion was administered to the animate beings through unwritten path at the dosage of 200 mg/kg two times a twenty-four hours. The mice received the drug for 30 yearss and the rats received the drug for 45 yearss. The research workers have besides studied the exploratory and locomotor activities. The unfastened field trial and the cage-crossing trial were used to analyze the exploratory and locomotor activities. The consequences were calculated by comparing all values with control values by taking the mean of all of them. The pupil t-test was used to find the significance of the difference between the mean. The values of P & A ; lt ; 0.05 were considered as important. The per centum of clip spent in light box was increased in extremely important extent and the clip taken to make the platform in stationary rod activity and H2O labyrinth was significantly reduced after the disposal of the drug. The exploratory and locomotor activities were besides decreased. On the footing of above observations, it was concluded that aqueous infusion of Lagenaria siceraria possesses both anxiolytic and memory heightening activity27.

7.2. Anti-asthmatic and anti-allergic activity:

The anti-asthmatic and anti-allergic activity of the aqueous infusion of Lagenaria siceraria foliage ( LSA ) was evaluated in different carnal theoretical accounts. The histamine and acetylcholine induced bronchoconstriction theoretical account in Guinea hogs, compound 48/80 induced mast cell degranulation theoretical account in rats and paw hydrops theoretical account in mice were used. The drug was given through intraperitoneal ( i.p. ) path. The consequences of the survey revealed a important bronchodilator activity by LSA at the doses of 150 and 300 mg/kg. LSA at the concentrations of 10, 20 and 30 ?g/ml significantly inhibited. The anti-inflammatory activity was observed at the doses of 50, 75 and 100 mg/kg ( i.p. ) against compound 48/80 induced paw hydrops in rats. These consequences prove the traditional claim of the drug in the intervention of wheezing upsets. There is besides a study that a triterpene bryonolic acid an anti-allergic compound was isolated from callus civilization of the roots of Lagenaria siceraria 26,28.

7.3. Antihyperglycemic activity:

The antihyperglycemic activity of methanol infusion of aerial parts of Lagenaria siceraria ( MELS ) was evaluated in hyperglycemic rats. For the initiation of hyperglycaemia, streptozotocin at the dosage of 50 mg/kg i.p. was used in rats. MELS was given at doses of 200 and 400 mg/kg p.o. for a period of 14 yearss. The standard drug used in this survey was glibenclamide at the dosage of 500 ?g/kg. Fasting blood glucose ( FBG ) was measured on 0th, 4th, 8th and 15th twenty-four hours after giving MELS intervention. There occurred important decrease ( P & A ; lt ; 0.001 ) in FBG degrees. The research showed the powerful antihyperglycemic activity of MELS, which is likely attributable to its rich flavonoid content29.

7.4. Antiulcer activity:

Methanol infusion of fruits of Lagenaria siceraria at the doses of 100 and 200 mg/kg p.o. was evaluated for antiulcer activity. Four different theoretical accounts viz. pylorus ligation induced ulcer theoretical account, ethanol induced induced ulcer theoretical account, acetylsalicylic acid ( NSAIDs ) induced ulcer theoretical account, and cold restraint emphasis ( CRS ) induced ulcer theoretical account were used for the appraisal of the survey. Ranitidine ( H2 receptor adversary ) at the dosage of 50 mg/kg command p.o. was used as a standard drug. Methanol infusion exhibited important antiulcer activity in a dose dependent mode by supplying important per centum protection against ulcers in all four models30.

7.5. Anthelmintic, antibacterial and fungicidal activity:

The hydroalcoholic and aqueous infusions of the foliages of Lagenaria siceraria were evaluated for anthelminthic activity against Hymenolepis nana ( cestode ) and pheritima Posthuma ( angleworm ) by utilizing the method of Mali. Piperazine citrate ( 25, 50,100 mg/ml ) was used as a mention substance. The hydroalcoholic infusion ( 25, 50,100 mg/ml ) and aqueous infusion ( 25, 50,100 mg/ml ) of Lagenaria siceraria exhibited powerful activity against cestodes and angleworms. This was comparable to the effects of piperazine citrate. The infusions besides exhibited moderate bactericide and fungicidal activity against E.coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Klebsiella aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus and Aspergillus ‘s Niger and Candida albicans. The standard drugs used for comparing were ciprofloxacillin for bacterial strains and Fulvicin for fungous strains31.

7.6. Antioxidant activity:

Natural antioxidants have been widely obtained from the fruits of Lagenaria siceraria. Presently the involvement is being taken in the commercial development of workss as beginnings of antioxidants to heighten wellness. It is reported that the incidence of human disease has an opposite relationship with dietetic consumption of antioxidant rich nutrients. It is a good established fact that reactive O species ( ROS ) are implicated in more than hundred ( 100 ) diseases, such as bosom disease, shot, arterial sclerosis, malaria, acquired immunodeficiency syndrome ( AIDS ) , diabetes, and malignant neoplastic disease. It is, hence, really of import for the research workers go in hunt of the natural antioxidant beginnings. Such effects are credited to antioxidant constituents for case works phenoplasts, such as phenylpropanoids and flavonoids32. The DPPH extremist scavenging activity of ethyl ethanoate ( EA ) and n-butanol ( Bt ) extracts of fresh and dried fruits of Lagenaria siceraria was assessed33. Gallic acid was used as a mention antioxidant compound. The samples showed appreciably high DPPH extremist scavenging consequence at all concentrations. However, the ethyl acetate infusion of fresh fruits ( EA fresh fruits ) was more active than the remainder of the samples. The ethanol infusion of fruits of Lagenaria siceraria was besides evaluated for antioxidant activity. The consequences obtained in this survey besides indicated that the fruits of Lagenaria siceraria are a possible beginning of natural antioxidants34.

7.7. Cytotoxic and free groups scavenging activity:

The fruiting organic structures of Lagenaria siceraria contain a water-soluble polyose, which is composed of 3-O-acetyl methyl- & A ; aacute ; -d-galacturonate, methyl- & A ; aacute ; -d-galacturonate, and & A ; acirc ; -d-galactose in a ratio of 1:1:1. The polyose possesses cytotoxic activity in vitro against human chest glandular cancer cell line ( MCF-7 ) 35. It is the antioxidant potency of Lagenaria siceraria which accounts for cytotoxic activity. Maximal antioxidant activity against in vitro theoretical account was shown by propanone infusion of Lagenaria siceraria fruit exocarp. In this theoretical account 1, 1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl ( DPPH ) check was used36-37. The fresh fruit juice of Lagenaria siceraria has besides shown extremist scavenging activity34,38. Literature shows that cardiovascular upsets ( CVD ) are besides associated with coevals of free groups and oxidative stress39-41. By and large, it is a believed that the happening of CVD can be prevented by scavenging inordinate free groups. Surveies have shown that the ethyl alcohol infusion and fresh juice of the fruit of Lagenaria siceraria are responsible for the bar of CVD.

7.8. Antihyperlipidemic activity:

Traditionally the fruits of Lagenaria siceraria had been used, in the direction of lipemia and coronary artery disease. The fruits had been thought to possess cardioprotective and cardiotonic potency. The effects of methanol infusion of Lagenaria siceraria were investigated in by experimentation induced lipemia in rats. Methanol infusion of Lagenaria siceraria fruits ( LSFE ) at the dosage of 100, 200 and 300 mg/kg p.o. was given to the high fat-diet-induced hyperlipidemic rats for continuance of one month to measure its antihyperlipidemic potential42. The standard drug used was atorvastatin at the dosage of 10mg/kg p.o. The consequences of the survey exhibited that the methyl alcohol infusion from the fruits of Lagenaria siceraria has a definite antihyperlipidemic potency. In the survey crude oil quintessence, trichloromethane, alcoholic and aqueous infusions of Lagenaria siceraria were evaluated for antihyperlipidemic activity. Out of the four different infusions merely petroleum ether extract did non demo antihyperlipidemic activity while the other infusions showed good antihyperlipidemic activity43. Isolated components from Lagenaria siceraria fruit juice infusion besides demonstrated antihyperlipidemic activity44.

7.9. Immunomodulatory activity:

The immunomodulatory effects of n-butanol soluble and ethyl ethanoate soluble fraction of the consecutive methyl alcohol infusion of Lagenaria siceraria have been evaluated and the promising immunomodulatory effects were reported in the consequences of the experiments. The fractions were administered through unwritten path at the doses of 100, 200 and 500 mg/kg. There occurred important suppression in the delayed type hypersensitivity reaction in rats. The method of Doherty was used to bring on delayed type hypersensitivity response in rats45.

7.10. Cardioprotective activity:

Lagenaria siceraria fruit is traditionally used for its cardioprotective effect19,46. Cardiovascular upset is claimed to be relieved following regular consumption of bottle calabash juice for about 4-6 months47. The cardioprotective activity of Lagenaria siceraria fruit was investigated. The research workers used doxorubicin induced cardio toxicity theoretical account in rats. The animate beings, male Wister rats weighing 250-300 g, were divided into three groups. The group I was a control group and it received gum acacia 2 % , Group II was doxorubicin group and it received doxorubicin 10 mg/kg, and Group III was doxorubicin with Lagenaria siceraria and it received Lagenaria siceraria fruit powder 200 mg/kg for a period of 18 yearss. The consequences of the survey showed that after disposal of Lagenaria siceraria at that place occurred important lessening in QT ( P & A ; lt ; 0.01 ) and in ST ( P & A ; lt ; 0.05 ) whereas there was a non-significant addition in bosom rate, important lessening in serum creatinekinase-MB isoenzyme, aspartate transaminase ( p & A ; lt ; 0.001 ) and lactate dehydrogenase ( p & A ; lt ; 0.05 ) as compared to doxorubicin group48. The cardioprotective efficaciousness of Lagenaria siceraria fruit in isoproterenol-induced myocardial infarction was besides investigated in albino rat theoretical accounts. The consequences of this survey showed that Lagenaria siceraria fruits possess cardioprotective activity on by experimentation induced cardio toxic myocardial infracted rats49.

7.11. Central nervous system ( CNS ) sedative and analgetic activity.

Three infusions of foliages of Lagenaria siceraria viz. rough crude oil quintessence infusion, trichloromethane infusion and methyl alcohol were evaluated for cardinal nervous system ( CNS ) sedative activity and analgetic activity. Assorted experimental theoretical accounts were used for measuring of the analgetic activity. Acetic acid induced wrestling theoretical account was used for chemically induced hurting, while hot home base, tail flick trial were used for thermally induced hurting. The consequences of the survey suggest that all three infusions, crude oil quintessence, methyl alcohol and trichloromethane infusion possess important analgetic activities but crude oil quintessence infusion has maximum analgetic potency out of the three infusions. The findings of the survey indicated that CNS active ingredients are present in the foliages of Lagenaria siceraria. Nociception induced by acetic acid was significantly reduced in a dose dependent mode by crude oil quintessence and methyl alcohol infusions. There was a more important action exerted by methyl alcohol and crude oil quintessence extracts in the hot home base and the tail flick trial than trichloromethane infusion. Equally far as the survey of the CNS-depressant consequence is concerned, it was observed that the methyl alcohol infusion, in comparing to petroleum ether infusion, significantly reduced self-generated motor activity at higher doses. Motor coordination, the autumn off clip, was besides decreased. Methanol infusion exerted a ataractic consequence due to which pentobarbitone-induced slumber was potentiated. Analgesic and CNS-depressant activity shown by crude oil quintessence infusion and methanol infusion may be due to the presence of different chemical compounds50. Percept of hurting is centrally modulated. The transition involves assorted complex procedures such as dopaminergic, opiate, serotonergic and falling noradrenergic pathways51-52. Centrally mediated antinociception can be studied via tail flick and hot home base trials. These trials selectively focus on the alterations taking topographic point above the degree of the spinal cord53-54. Both trials are used to analyze the ligands moving via opoid receptors. Out of three, two infusions of Lagenaria siceraria viz. crude oil ether infusion and methyl alcohol infusion caused an addition in average basal latency. This was an indicant that the infusions act through a cardinal mechanism of action. It is good known that the analgetic activity of narcotic anodynes is due to suppression of both peripheral and cardinal mechanisms of hurting perceptual experiences. Unlike narcotic anodynes, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs ( NSAIDs ) exert suppression merely at the peripheral level55. The observations of Lagenaria siceraria are implicative of the fact that the infusions can be placed in narcotic anodynes category because they exerted suppression at both peripheral and cardinal degrees. There are studies that the double suppression of hurting exerted by the infusions could non merely be due to presence of opioids and/or opiodiomimetic agents instead it may be due to steroidal components and/or phenol components of the plant56. Peripherally mediated antinociception can be studied via acetic acid induced abdominal bottleneck method. This method selectively focuses on alterations taking topographic point below the degree of the spinal cord57. It is reported that the writhing induced by acetic acid is due to degrees of PGF2? and PGE258. Consequently, analgetic activity of methyl alcohol infusion and crude oil ether infusion may be due to suppression of synthesis or action of prostaglandins ( PG ‘s ) . However, the exact mechanism of this activity is yet to be investigated in the hereafter. The ataractic actions of drugs in animate beings may be studied via mensurating pentobarbital kiping time59-60. Prolongation of pentobarbital sleep initiation by infusions is a good index of cardinal nervous system depressant effect61. There are the findings that the intraperitoneal injections of methyl alcohol infusion given to mice produce ataractic effects in the animate beings. On the other manus, it is good known that some of the compounds that interfere with the biotransformation of Nembutal, as Cytochrome P450 composite, could bring on CNS depression ; as a consequence, this trial could give false results62. Consequently, the self-generated motive power trial was performed to corroborate the depressive consequence of the infusions. In this trial, self-generated motor activity was significantly reduced by methyl alcohol infusion. Decrease in motive power is declarative of a depressive activity of CNS drugs63. Decrease in motor activity might be associated with sedation resulting depression of the CNS. Whatsoever, it is a hint about the degree of irritability of the CNS64-65. Phytochemical showing of the works has shown that it contains a figure of of import chemical compounds such as steroids, tannic acids, flavonoids, saponins and alkaloids in the infusion of the works. It may be that one and/or more of these components are responsible for the CNS depressant consequence of the infusions of the works. In another survey, the fruit juice infusion of Lagenaria siceraria was evaluated for the analgetic activity and anti-inflammatory activity. Survey consequences showed that the infusion possesses both activities66.

8. Decision:

Herbal drugs are deriving world-wide popularity as complementary medical specialties. A figure of drugs have been obtained straight from herbs, while the others have been obtained as chemically modified natural merchandises. Pharmacological and toxicological research carried on Lagenaria siceraria has confirmed the pharmacotherapeutic potency and safety profile of this fantastic natural herb.