Modern Perspectives on Job Satisfaction

Table of Contents {text:bookmark-start} ABSTRACT {text:bookmark-end} “Happy employees are productive employees; happy employees are not productive employees” (Saari 2004). These statements clearly explain the predicament and debate found among practitioners concerning employee attitudes and the determination of level of job satisfaction. This report is based on recent research on job satisfaction and its findings that will appear significant in present modern organisations.

As the branches of job satisfaction are numerous, for the sake of better insight, this report has main focus on the relation and effects of organisational diversity, ethical climate, and employee attitudes with job satisfaction. In the latter part of the report, there are recommendations based on latest literature review for managers to enhance organisational practices and environment that lead to increased level of employee satisfaction. {text:bookmark-start} INTRODUCTION {text:bookmark-end} Job satisfaction of employees is defined as “their positive or pleasurable emotional state based on their job experiences” (Elci 2009).

Several important behavioural factors in an organisation have relationship with job satisfaction, such as propensity to leave, turnover intention, absenteeism, productivity and performance (Saari 2004 & Wood 2006, pp. 58). Studies on the relationship between these various factors and job satisfaction date back to ages and have a very controversial history. For example, initially researchers found a trivial relationship between job satisfaction and performance but later on with recent empirical studies researchers found out that this relationship is significant and it is even stronger for professional jobs (Saari 2004; Mohr 2008 & Pitts 2009).

Building on past finding, report centres on new topics of discussion such as diversity management, ethical climate, and employee attitudes, and highlights latest findings based on latest and modern tools of research. {text:bookmark-start} FACTORS AFFECTING JOB SATISFACTION {text:bookmark-end} {draw:frame} {draw:frame} {text:bookmark-start} Diversity management {text:bookmark-end} Some organisations may experience diverse racial and ethical constitution in their employees.

When people of varied culture work together, it becomes very important to manage the environment so that employees are satisfied and contribute effectively to the organisational objectives. However going beyond the basic constituents of diversity, other categories such as gender have also been seen to come under the umbrella of diversity. (Pitts 2009) In a recent research of Pitts (2009), done in United States to determine factors that affect job satisfaction, it was observed that among racial groups white colored employees are often more satisfied with their jobs than non-white employees.

Further women have a disposition to be more satisfied with their jobs than men. A very important finding from the study revealed that in places, where practice of diversity management was the strongest, projected an overall higher job satisfaction from all racial backgrounds, than in places where it was absent or non-existent (Pitts 2009). This clearly signifies the importance of diversity management and its effects on employees in terms of race and gender. {text:bookmark-start} Ethical Climate {text:bookmark-end} {draw:frame} _ {draw:frame} {text:bookmark-start} Employee Attitudes and Nature of Work {text:bookmark-end} Concerning nature of work which includes challenges in job, autonomy, variety and scope, have also been seen to have a great positive influence on job satisfaction (Saari 2004). Moreover Mohr (2008) observed that on learning from the work environment, inter group cooperation and doing a good job itself improves job satisfaction level. {text:bookmark-start} EFFECTS OF JOB SATISFACTION {text:bookmark-end} {draw:frame}

Employee satisfaction on the job influences many organisational variables. The direct consequences of low job satisfaction can result into different withdrawal behaviours like absenteeism, turnover, lateness, grievances and unionization (Saari 2004). This may also result into significant financial implications in terms of higher labour cost and lower productivity (Wood 2006, pp. 59 & Mohr 2008). On the other hand, high levels of job satisfaction correlates with improved job performance and organisational commitment (Jaramillo et al. 2006). {draw:frame} {draw:frame} text:bookmark-start} RECOMMENDATION FOR MANAGERS {text:bookmark-end} Managers should create and encourage appropriate ethical climates for enhanced job satisfaction by making sure that universal principles, professional codes and codes of ethics are strictly adhered to. Further, an attempt can be made at creating a climate of care within the organisation, thereby promoting team interest, and caring beyond the organisation through social responsibility. Managers possess influential role, so they can significantly influence the job satisfaction level of their employees (Elci 2009).

Moreover, with improved job design, recruitment and placement practices, employees can be placed to most suitable jobs which will result into higher level of job satisfaction (Pitts 2009). {text:bookmark-start} CONCLUSION {text:bookmark-end} For many organisations employee satisfaction remains a daunting task, as it can place huge financial impacts on organisations. Research is helping practitioners to determine and control influential factors on job satisfaction, as these factors can lead to overall organisational success which otherwise could actually lead to failure.

Organisations and researchers should continue to explore and identify new factors that could lead to enhanced job satisfaction for better outputs and results. {text:bookmark-start} REFERENCES {text:bookmark-end} Elci, M & Alpkan, L 2009, ‘The Impact of Perceived Organisational Ethical Climate on Work Satisfaction’, Journal of Business Ethics, vol. 84, pp. 297-311 Jaramillo, F, Mulki, JP, & Solomon, P 2006, ‘The Role of Ethical Climate on Salesperson’s Role Stress, Job Attitudes, Turnover Intention, and Job Performance’, Journal of Personal Selling & Sales Management, vol. XXVI, no. 3, pp. 71–282 Mohr, RD & Zoghi, C 2008, ‘High-Involvement Work Design and Job Satisfaction’, Industrial and Labour Relations Review, vol. 61, no. 3, pp. 275-296 Pitts, D 2009, ‘Diversity management, job satisfaction and performance evidence from U. S. federal Agencies’, Public Administration Review, vol. 69, no. 2, pp. 328- 338 Saari, LM & Judge, TA 2004, ‘Employee attitudes and job satisfaction’, Human Resource Management, vol. 43, no. 4, pp. 395-407 Victor, B & Cullen, JB 1987, ‘A Theory and Measure of Ethical Climate in Organisations’, in W. C. Frederick (ed. ), ‘Research in Corporate Social Performance and Policy’, JAI Press, pp. 51–71