Hanif Kureishis Inflection Of Postcolonial Identities

This Undertaking will concentrate on the fiction of Hanif Kureishi, viz. ; The Buddha of suburban area, The Black Album, My Son the overzealous and Something to state you. It will research the ways in which Kureishi uses overlapping concepts of race, ethnicity, gender, gender and faith to inflect the postcolonial individualities of his fictional characters. The theoretical intercessions of Homi Bhabha and Stuart Hall amongst others will supply the model of this undertaking. In relation to postcolonial theory, this undertaking will concentrate on Anglo-Asian individualities in metropolitan locations, and their correlativity with ambivalent impressions of diaspora, hybridity, in-betweeness and liminality. Furthermore, with the usage of Kureishi ‘s non-fictional plants, this undertaking will besides look into the affect of racial and cultural clangs on defensive migrator civilizations, and how this frequently drive ‘s them to populate up to their Stereotype-based anticipations.

The termA hybridityA is one of the most revenant theoretical leitmotif in postcolonial surveies. There are several discrepancies of the significance of the term hybridity, but on the simplest degree, hybridity is used to denote a racial mix. Karim, the supporter of The Buddha of Suburbia ( from here onwards Buddha ) , and Jamal the cardinal character of Something to Tell You ( Something ) , are both, ( like Kureishi ) of Anglo-Asian descent. Simultaneously, their hybridity allows them to hold English-Christian and Indian-Muslim roots. The merger of the ( Muslim ) Indian/Pakistani civilization and the English ‘white ‘ civilization existent in these characters besides depicts the hybridity of cultural individualities. Though the construct of hybridity originated in the work of Bhabha, this thesis will concentrate on John McLeod ‘s reading of this impression.

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By definition, Diaspora is a scattering of people from their original fatherland, mentioning to any widespread migrator group. Diaspora communities, in other words, first-generation migrators are said to see a complexness, diverseness, and fluidness of individualities. Therefore, it will be argued that even the characters with a strictly Asiatic heritage ( particularly second-generation migrators ) have a intercrossed ‘British Asian ‘ individuality as they have contact with two differing civilizations. Diasporas are of importance to postcolonial surveies as the descendants of these people frequently construct a civilization that both conserves and physiques on the rules of their original civilization. For Salman Rushdie this leads to the outgrowth of ‘Imaginary Homelands ‘ .

First and second-generation migrators are likely to see a feeling of homelessness ; metaphorically instead than literally. This feeling of homelessness or rootlessness is brooding of supplanting from the dominant civilization of the host state. In add-on, the term In-Betweenness will besides be used to mention to a province of cultural supplanting, stand foring the oblivion associated with liminality. In-betweenness implies a niche on the borders of civilizations, and the infinites between civilizations that are likely to be occupied by migratory communities. Liminality will besides be used to denote the infinite between the viing Anglo-Asian cultural traditions experienced by Kureishi ‘s characters. A individual described as being in a province of liminality is normally non to the full accepted in either of the two ( or more ) cultures they are associated with. Rushdie articulately expresses how ; “ Identity is at one time plural and partial.A A Sometimes we feel that we straddle two civilizations ; at other times, that we fall between two stools. ”[ 2 ]

As already mentioned, this chapter will foreground the ways in which Kureishi dismantles and subverts pre-conceived impressions of cultural individualities. BuddhaA is by and big an history of how racial groupings need to be defied and destabilised by persons like Karim, and Jamal who struggle to suit into one, tidy class. In an interview, Kureishi commented on his experience as a assorted race kid turning up in a white suburb. He explained how the degenerate linguistic communication used to mention to immigrants and their households had helped hole and restrict his individuality. Therefore, it can be argued that through his story-telling, Kureishi endeavours to undo this stasis and craft a more unstable and heavy ego. Kureishi, Jamal and Karim ‘s hybridity, let Kureishi to level these inflexible perceptual experiences of cultural individuality.

Like a newborn kid traditionally takes its male parent ‘s family name ; cultural individuality is besides normally passed down from the male parent. However, despite Karim ‘s male parent ( Haroon ) being Indian ; in the really first page, Karim describes himself as ; “ an Englishman Born and bred, about. ” ( BOS, 3 ) By about, Karim means intercrossed. It is later evident that Karim seeing himself as an ‘Englishman ‘ is instilled in him by Margaret ( his English female parent ) who tells him ; “ [ … ] you ‘re non an Indian. You ‘ve ne’er been to India [ … ] who gave Birth to you? You ‘re an Englishman, I ‘m glad to state. ” ( BOS, 232 ) Is Karim denying his Asiatic roots or is he merely traveling by the civilization he is in touch with on a day-to-day footing? Kureishi in his non-fiction composing admits the battle he had with his cultural individuality while turning up in racialist England ; “ from the start I tried to deny my Pakistani ego. I was ashamed. It was a expletive and I wanted to be rid of it. I wanted to be like everyone else. ” ( RS, pg.9 ) By being ‘like everyone else ‘ Kureishi is likely to be mentioning to both his white equals because they belong to the dominant civilization and because they can non be said to be in a province of liminality. Kureishi ‘s yearning to suit in is something all his characters crave for:

“ The London I liked was the metropolis of expatriates, refugees and immigrants [ … ] people who did n’t hold a topographic point and did n’t cognize who they were. The metropolis from the point of position of my male parent. ” ( STY, 40 )

In this quotation mark Jamal describes the sense of homelessness and rootlessness many first-generation immigrants experienced, and as seen in Kureishi ‘s fiction, this sense of in-betweenness is besides experienced by second-generation migrators. However, unlike Karim, Jamal does non look to fight with a feeling of racial in-betweeness ; which could be down to the age spread as Jamal is likely old plenty to be Karim ‘s male parent. In add-on, Jamal is able to tie in himself with the ‘Indians ‘ which Karim struggles with at first. Despite this, the decease of Jamal ‘s male parent severs ‘the Indian togss ‘ , and like Karim realises ; “ if I wanted the extra personality fillip of an Indian yesteryear, I would hold to make it. ” ( BOS 213 ) Karim and Jamal feel no pure connexion to their ( Asiatic ) cultural and spiritual heritage and so Karim is forced to settle for being a “ amusing sort of Englishman ” . ( BOS, 3 ) Chad, an Asiatic character who was adopted ( by white people ) struggles to come to footings with his disjunction with British society and his Pakistani roots ; “ In England white people looked at him as if he were traveling to steal their auto or their pocketbook [ … ] but in Pakistan they looked at him even more queerly. ” ( BA, 113 )

Like many first-generation characters, Chad experiences a feeling of supplanting and expresses his anxiousness of being “ homeless ” and holding “ no state ” . ( BA, 114 ) Like Jamal ‘s male parent goes back to Pakistan because of feelings of disaffection, Anwar besides grows tired of England. Harmonizing to Wohlsein ; “ [ Anwar ] realises that he is in the really in-between of two civilizations, and has lost touch with both of them.[ 3 ]Shahid ‘s uncle argues that developing a sense of belonging is non every bit simple as migrators might foremost expect ; “ It takes several coevalss to go accustomed to a topographic point. We think we ‘re settled down but we ‘re like brides who ‘ve merely crossed the threshold. ” ( BA, 59 )

“ Most Whites considered Asians to be ‘inferior ‘ , less intelligent, less everything good. Not that we were called Asiatic so. Officially as it were, we were called immigrants, I think. Subsequently for political grounds, we were ‘blacks ‘ . But we ever considered ourselves to be Indians. ” ( STY, 36 )

Society is obsessed with distinct definitions of cultural orA ethnicA individuality. This thought of labelling ourselves and others, and seting them into neat bunchs, which ( in theory ) do non slop over onto each other, is global and ceaseless. Therefore, non being able to pigeon-hole person as either ‘Black ‘ or white ‘ can be debatable for society and the person. Surely this act of distinguishing between races merely propagates racism and feelings of insufficiency? A individual of intercrossed individuality is even more at hazard as they are non easy categorised ; they are frequently referred to in derogatory footings, such as when Miriam ( Jamal ‘s sister ) is called ; “ half Indian, half-idiot [ … ] The bastard Canis familiaris. ” ( STY, 15 )

How society labels persons yet groups them into classs such as race and ethnicity can frequently restrict an person who is brandished as ‘Asian ‘ . Unlike Jamal who “ more or less passed for white ” ( STY, 36 ) and Anwar who was “ so pale that no 1 could perchance name him a darky or black asshole ” ( BOS,79 ) , others a forced to alter their ‘ethnic ‘ name in order to intermix in with British ‘white ‘ society. We are informed by Karim ; “ My brother Amar [ … ] called himself Allie to avoid racial problem. ” ( BOS, 19 ) Similarly, Mustaq ( whom Kureishi compares to Freddie Mercury ) experiences a reincarnation by altering his name to ‘George Cage ‘ . Much to his delectation Mustaq explains ; “ Because of my “ dad ” name and just tegument I have n’t been mistaken for a Paki for old ages. ” ( STY, 161 ) For some, Allie and Mustaq would look to be the paradigm of the wholly assimilated 2nd coevals British Asian, who consciously rejects every nexus and association with their beginning. However, Kureishi would most likely anticipate a hand-full of readers to Judge Allie and Mustaq and impeach them of taking the easy path of assimilation. It would be so easy for the reader to judge these characters ; nevertheless, although the text is preoccupied with Mustaq ‘s ‘incarnation ‘ it does non look to take a place on the affair.

While persons struggle to happen a cultural individuality they can name their ain, they fail to gain that civilization itself is socially defined and everlastingly altering. Kureishi depicts civilization as a remorseless metamorphosing monster, of which many autumn quarry. Culture is a societal concept and a combination of what and how persons are expected to be. Society ‘s cultural over-simplifications and stereotypes will pin down many persons ; and many, by holding a individual apprehension of a civilization, will corner themselves. Anwar for case, fails to see how he and his girl Jamila are able to be many things at one time. On the other manus, characters such as Karim and Haroon manage to interrupt out of these prepossessions and stereotypes by pull stringsing them. Therefore, the fresh suggests there is no such thing as cultural genuineness, as what it ‘authentic ‘ is merely a fictional concept and a series of outlooks. To develop the thought of an reliable cultural individuality, it is deserving looking briefly at the character of Changez. Although, as Adami suggests, Changez does stand for “ the ultimate image of the stereotype of indolence & A ; passiveness associated with the colonised/immigrant. ”[ 4 ]Culturally, Changez is non what the reader ‘expects ‘ him to be. Persons, and so Kureishi ‘s characters have to bring forth an individuality that maps for them at any given clip. The character of Karim as an draw a bead oning histrion develops the thought of a flexible individuality.

Buddha is besides engaged with the perceptual experience of individuality as public presentation and the theater group ‘s Karim is involved with high spot this. Even outside of the theater, all of Kureishi ‘s characters engage in the public presentation of individuality, which is brooding of Bhabha ‘s position of cultural individuality as mask and public presentation. This performed individuality is frequently seen as a response or reaction to the myth of convenient originals. Karim and Haroon respond to how others assume they should be by, allowing their individuality to suite cultural outlooks of them. Haroon ‘s clever selling of civilization and his appropriation of Buddhism permit him to accomplish societal success ; something Karim efforts to make through his moving calling. Karim does this with easiness as many of the individualities he assumes are a public presentation and therefore, he ( every bit good as Haroon ) is able to transform a stereotype from a repressive to a arising one. Kureishi uses the thought of cultural outlooks to do the position of a cultural individuality debatable. In add-on, researching the idea of individuality as public presentation allows Kureishi to disenchantment predetermined impressions of cultural individuality.

“ Everyone looks at you, I ‘m certain, and thinks: an Indian male child, how alien, how interesting [ … ] and you ‘re from Orpington. ” ( BOS, 141 )

Haroon and Karim take full advantage of Western civilization ‘s enthusiasm to devour images of alien others by allowing stereotypes and showcasing their distinctness. This attractive force to otherness is exemplified in characters such as Jamal ‘s female parent, and Eva who verbalises her consciousness of Karim ‘s contrived grandiose gustatory sensation in vesture: “ Karim Amir, you are so alien, so original! ” ( BOS 9 ) Eva and Jamal ‘s female parent ‘s relationships can be seen as an extension to their attractive force to the ‘exotic ‘ , for illustration Jamal ‘s female parent ; “ collected anything ‘Eastern ‘ and held on to it. It was merely the hubby who got off ” . ( STY, 51 ) Gaining “ there ‘s nil more stylish than foreigners ” ( BA, 181 ) , Haroon substitutes his initial efforts of integrating for an averment of cultural difference. In making so ; “ [ Kureishi ] restores Asiatic reminiscences [ … ] in the figure of the urbanized Buddha selling New Age doctrines [ … ] a carnivalesque translator of the Western commercial and secular regard onto the East [ … ] ”[ 5 ]In this instance, the dominant civilization appropriates ( traditionally endangering ) stereotypes so that they are no longer fearful ; therefore, Haroon ‘s ‘Indianness ‘ is commandeered into an agent of opposition.

While Karim, Haroon and Jamal ‘s analyst efficaciously master their ‘exotic other ‘ characters, Anwar, fails to strike the right balance. His extreme and sweeping return to Asiatic traditions renders his cultural individuality unauthentic, as his return to his ‘roots ‘ are used as a defense mechanism mechanism. Even characters, who appear to be themselves, can be said to populate a border district comprising of a mixture of society ‘s outlooks of them and who they truly are. By transporting out and reiterating negative racial stereotypes Anwar performs an act of opposition in relation to the host-culture ‘s outlooks of him. Harmonizing to Adami, originally, “ Anwar ‘s sense of modernness and progressive attitude permitted Jamila ‘s promiscuous and free life. But so Anwar switched into the function of the devout Muslim. ” One will propose nevertheless, that Anwar ‘s unprompted visits to the mosque do non needfully co-occur with a ‘devout Muslim ‘ . Besides, non many will hold that a ‘devout Muslim ‘ and intoxicants go hand-in-hand. Thus, Anwar ‘s renegade Muslim act will be interpreted as a reaction to “ his girl ‘s hybridity [ which ] comes as a daze because he fears the concluding disappearing of his native civilization. ”[ 6 ]Anwar ‘s fright is what leads to his irresistible impulse to set up Jamila ‘s matrimony without her blessing of her spouse. This act of despair should be seen as Anwar ‘s effort to reconnect with his Indian/Pakistani cultural roots instead than a recoil to Muslim values.

Anwar fails to detect Jamila ‘s full-awareness and jubilation of her roots, which she uses as a signifier of opposition against the host-culture ‘s hostility of cultural minorities. Jamila ‘s usage of Black Feminism and her re-enacting of typecasts serve as a signifier of opposition, which enable her to strike fright in the dominant civilization. Jamila ‘s ability to bring on fright & A ; anxiousness in the dominant civilization can be extended to signifiers of religious/cultural fundamentalism which will be discussed in the following chapter. Miriam is depicted as an older and more choleric version of Jamila who is a combatant and strong-willed “ Muslim single-mother [ … ] If anyone ‘s got any expostulation I ‘m here to hear it! ” ( STY, 15 ) Both Buddha and Something confirm Jamila and Miriam ‘s bloody-minded behaviors as a reaction to racism.

It is clear, that non every member of British society epitomizes Western civilization ‘s preparedness to devour images of alien others in the same sense as say Eva and Jamal ‘s female parent. In his true-life Hagiographas, Kureishi explains ;

“ I suffered as a child in Britain from an tremendous sum of racism, [ … ] we were spat on, we were abused, we were called wogs, we were called pakis, we were chased down the street. Our lives as a Pakistani household in England were made a incubus by racism in Britain ”[ 7 ].

As a consequence of Kureishi ‘s experiences, Britain as a xenophobic society is exhaustively depicted across his literature. All of Kureishi ‘s ethnic- minority characters experience racial maltreatment & A ; cultural favoritism. Racists, besides labelled as ‘Paki-busters ‘ made ‘Commonwealth ‘ immigrants and their households feel like “ third-class citizens, even lower than the white on the job category. ” ( BA, 147 ) The “ colored [ characters were ] on a regular basis insulted ” ( STY, 48 ) as they immediately fit the ‘black ‘ sanction, whereas Jamal and Karim were “ more ecru than anything ” . ( BOS, 167 ) Despite the fact that all if the ethnic-minority characters were classed as officially ‘black ‘ , those that that immediately fit the measure, in footings of skin color, are subjected to an even deeper feeling of disaffection and go forthing them experiencing as though there was something lacking in them. Like Mr Moorehouse of East is East ( 1998 ) , ‘Hairy Back ‘ ( Helen ‘s male parent ) , professes his solidarity with the positions of Enoch Powell and prohibits Karim from seeing his girl, and makes clear ; “ However many niggas there are, we do n’t wish it. We ‘re with Enoch. ” ( BOS 40 ) Powell ‘s utmost position encouraged biass and aversion of cultural minorities ingrained in society.

Racism exists in many signifiers ; brazen and implicit. Equally good as uncovering public presentation as being reflective of the demand to build an individuality, Karim ‘s engagement in the theater groups sheds light on racism in its veiled signifier. Karim ‘s exhilaration about being cast in show is undercut when Shadwell reminds him that he has “ been cast for genuineness and non for experience ” . ( BOS, 147 ) While working as an histrion Karim becomes an alien imitation of himself as he cast as Mowgli in Shadwell ‘s production of The Jungle Book and play an ‘authentic ‘ Indian function. As Clement Ball states ; “ Father and boy both become faux-Indians, successfully marketing back to the English warmed-over versions of their ain popular appropriations of Indian civilization. ”[ 8 ]The character of Mowgli becomes divested with all its colonial furnishings and an orientalised creative activity of Mowgli emerges. The blackening of Karim ‘s ‘creamy ‘ tegument with ‘shit brown sludge ‘ ;

“ proves that English racism, in its assorted signifiers, operated a elusive transmutation of the organic structure and the tegument through a demeaning process with the purpose to follow societal manners of know aparting races and civilizations. ”[ 9 ]

Adami explains how, on an optical degree, Karim is obligated to acknowledge a bogus colonial individuality in an allegorical surgery that bisects the anglicised male child from the cliched Indian barbarian. Karim struggles with these two conflicting individualities, as he fails to recognize the ‘Indian ‘ in him. Even Shahid, who unlike Karim, has parents who are both Indian, struggles at times to see the ‘Indian ‘ in him:

“ I wanted to be a racialist [ … ] why ca n’t I be a racialist like everyone else? Why do I have to lose out on that privilege? [ … ] Why ca n’t I swagger around making on others for being inferior? ” ( BA, 15 )

Many of Kureishi ‘s characters struggle with who they are culturally and on assorted other degrees. If they can non separate who they are as an person so it is no surprise that impressions of ‘us, and ‘we ‘ leave them perplexed. This demand to split and group society on racial evidences is straight related to cultural intolerance. Racism and cultural intolerance leads to a outlook of ‘us vs. them ‘ and cultural divide ;

“ [ … ] The races were divided. The Black childs stuck with each other, the Pakistanis went to one another ‘s houses, the Bengalis knew each other from manner back. ” ( BA, 139 )

Furthermore, this divide of ‘us vs. them ‘ besides leads to censorship when persons are read as representative. Jamila and Tracey ( Karim ‘s fellow black actress ) , are both guilty of rehearsing a signifier of censoring. Tracey manages to do “ One old Indian adult male ” representative of “ black and Asiatic people ” . ( BOS, 180 ) Buddha can be seen as a review of Tracey as she groups cultural minorities together by presuming that “ anybody who is non white in a racialist society is black ”[ 10 ]which indicates her sightlessness to disparate British minority civilizations. Kureishi ‘s unfavorable judgment of Tracey, and in peculiar, his mentions to Rushdie can be read as illustrations of his anti-censorship stance ( which will be elaborated on in the following chapter ) and his warning against reading persons as representative ;

“ I ‘m non truly composing approximately Asians as a class [ … ] we are all

people. I do n’t believe because [ a character ] is Asiatic, I have to be

reverential. That would be pathetic. [ … ] It ‘s censoring. ”[ 11 ]

3, 465 words

Conclude chapter

dissolution/ Dismantling of Pre-Conceived

Impressions of Cultural Identity

Chapter Two

Religion & A ; Extremism

A Question of East or West

Religion as the opium of the multitudes

Returning to the subject of labelling and society ‘s arrested development on pigeon-holing persons, Kureishi draws attending to the shifting nature of these labels ;

“ The usage of the word Muslim is a wholly new thing. Before, we were pakis, we were inkinesss, we were Asians. Now we are Muslims. A new sanction, for political grounds. ”[ 12 ]

The stigmatization of persons distinguishes their difference from others ; Muslim, Paki, and Asian are all labels that distinguish the carrier from their British, Christian white opposite numbers. When Kureishi ‘s immature boy realises he is a ‘Muslim ‘ ( in so far that his name is Muslim ) , he is far from pleased ; “ Urgh, but they ‘re atrocious. ”[ 13 ]Chad on the other manus, proclaims ; “ No more Paki. Me a Muslim ” ( BA, 134 ) , and voices his disfavor of the violative label ; ‘Paki ‘ , while besides set uping his penchant for a label on spiritual footings. The displacement of cataloguing people from racial, to religious evidences creates a far larger range as, unlike spiritual groups such as Sikhs, for illustration, Muslims are a multi-ethnic group. Hence, it can be argued, that the feeling of exclusion, for those in the transnational ‘Muslim ‘ class is minimum compared to those in the ‘Asian ‘ bunch. Islam as a cosmopolitan faith is unfastened to people of every race, and Teachs Muslims to avoid distinction on the footing of ethnicity and see all races as equal. British society ‘s inability to see all races as equal gives manner to societal exclusion ; and causes Shahid, and many others to hanker for the feeling of belonging as opposed to invisibleness ;

“ Shahid wanted a new start with new people in a new topographic point. The metropolis would experience like his ; he would n’t be excluded ; there has to be a manner in which he could belong. ” ( BA, 20 )

Compared to the loanblend, mediate and liminal individuality examined in the first chapter, a non-negotiable and totalizing faith like Islam is perfect in supplying stableness and security. Though it does non rather work out for him, Shahid does turn to Islam as a manner of belonging. This is partially down to the initial warm and hospitable nature of Riaz and his posse, and partially down to Shahid ‘s experience of a mosque where “ work forces of so many types and nationalities-Tunisians, Indians, Algerians, Scots, French-gathered [ … ] race a category barriers had been suspended. [ … ] Strangers spoke to one another. ” ( BA, 137-8 ) However idyllic Shahid ‘s description of the mosque may sound, his Muslim associates fall short in go oning Islam ‘s instructions of tolerance of people of all religions. In an interview, Kureishi points out that ;

“ The backgrounds of these immature people ‘s lives include colonialism-being made to experience inferior in your ain state. And so, in Britain, racism ; once more, being made to experience inferior in your ain state. Without a uncertainty this is restraining, restricting, degrading, to be a victim in your ain state. If you feel excluded it might be alluring to except others. ”[ 14 ]

Kureishi proposes that exclusion experienced by those from antecedently colonised states, and those life in a state where they are an cultural minority, can trip their desire to be on the dispatching terminal. This is surely the instance in Album, where there are belligerencies between dominant white society and minority Muslims. Social groups are depicted as being at odd, and we are asked to see ;

“ [ … ] Was n’t the universe interrupting up into political and spiritual folks? The divisions were taken for granted, each to his ain. But where did such divides lead to, if non to different sorts of civil war? [ … ] everyone was so hurriedly adhering to their ain group ” ( BA, 140 )

This ‘us ‘ and ‘them ‘ outlook on racial, cultural and spiritual evidences is something Kureishi uses disassemble preconceived impressions of individuality. “ Us ” in footings of Muslims, non merely excludes white non-Muslims but besides, for illustration, non-Muslims of the same racial ad cultural background. Like many of Kureishi ‘s characters, Parvez was “ non wholly certain who ‘our people ‘ were ” , ( SF, 297 ) but while the other characters fail to gain the racial deductions of “ we ” , Ali encourages him to see “ we ” on a spiritual and cultural degree. Ali ‘s “ We ” , distinguishes them as enemies of the West whose “ instruction cultivates an anti-religious attitude. ” ( SF, 295 ) While some of the Muslim characters use derogative footings such as ‘infidel ‘ to depict non-Muslim ‘s, characters such as Jump, merrily blend Muslims with ‘terrorists ‘ , claiming that they “ will slice the pharynxs of us heathens as we sleep ” . ( BA 201-202 ) The method of labelling people develops from a common manner of recognizing members of a particularA race, ethnicity, gender, gender, faith, every bit good as other groups. When mainstream society holds a certain point of view of a group, that point of view becomes aA stereotype. That typecast will impact the manner people regard the group being considered, ensuing in a label that is symbolically forced on the associates of the group being considered.

This wont of typecasting merely heightens the ‘us ‘ and ‘them ‘ state of affairs and puts characters, like Shahid, in an awkward place. Shahid is continually asked to declare his commitment to Islam, he merely other alternate he is given is “ hellfire [ with the ] nonbelievers. ” ( BA, 87 ) Shahid ‘s naivete about how serious the hawkish posse are about taking sides gets him in problem at the terminal of the novel when he is branded as a treasonist. Shahid is caught between his love-interest Deedee and the feeling of belonging, which his Muslim associates make available to him. The group demonstrate s a wildly passionate signifier of solidarity ; both with one another, and other ‘s who come under the umbrella of ‘our people ‘ ; “ We will contend for our people who are being tortured in Palestine, Afghanistan, Kashmir! War has been declared against us. But we are armed. ” ( BA, 88 ) Anyone demoing any mark of non being willing to contend for ‘their people ‘ is kindly reminded by Chad, of their answering to God and red region. Though hesitant at first, Shahid subsequently begins to consort himself with the wider construct of ‘us ‘ and voices his defeat at Deedee ‘s unfavorable judgments ;

“ But we ‘re the victims here! And when we fight you say we ‘re acquiring worked up about nil! You sit smoking pot all twenty-four hours and maltreatment people who really take action. ” ( BA, 116 )

In this quotation mark, Shahid openly expresses his feeling of exploitation, and his belief in the demand to talk up and contend back. Bing deprived of an individuality they can be proud of, the posse, every bit good as Shahid, intermittently assert their distinctness, which develops into a signifier of opposition. By executing society ‘s archetypical speculations about Muslims, they bulldoze preconceived impressions of individuality. In explicating the fervent Chad ‘s background, Deedee faults white society for being ‘too racialist ‘ ( BA 177 ) , as did Kureishi in his account of the public presentation of Muslim radicalism amongst British Asians. Like Jamila and Miriam, but to a greater grade, Riaz and his followings are able to strike fright in the governing civilization whose racism one time inhibited their freedom of look. Bhabha confirms this guess when he proclaims ;

“ Political groups from different waies, garbage to homogenise their subjugation, but brand of it a common cause, a public image of the individuality of distinctness, [ and the ] important battle between mask and individuality, image and designation, from which comes the permanent tenseness of our freedom and the permanent feeling of ourselves as others. ”[ 15 ]

In the production of Album, Shahid ‘s erosion of the salwar Kameez and a white cap is a important minute and is extremely symbolic of Bhabha ‘s impression of the public presentation of individuality, in this instance spiritual. However, one could reason that a spiritual group ‘s averment of distinctness will merely magnify their disparity from British mainstream civilization. This public presentation of an individuality, this moving out of distinctness, leads to the inquiring of their spiritual genuineness. Religious fundamentalism ‘s ability to arouse trepidation gives them an enriching and habit-forming feeling of power which, because of their antecedently marginalised place, they are likely to hold ne’er experienced. It can be argued so, that for some this seeking of faith may be used to seek retaliation and heighten their sense of individuality. After all, its seems that, the ‘Muslim ‘ characters ( particularly the supporters ) were brought up in households where the pattern of faith was non-existent, this is deserving citing at length ;

“ In Karachi, at the goad of his cousins, Shahid had been to the mosque several times. While their parents would imbibe moonshine whisky and ticker pictures sent from England, Shahid ‘s immature relations and their friends gathered in the house on Fridays before traveling to pray. The spiritual enthusiasm of the younger coevals, and its links to strong political feeling, had surprised him. ” ( BA, 97 )

Parallel to Kureishi ‘s male parent, the first coevals immigrants such as Haroon came from broad middle-class Indian households and had no involvement in faith, good at least non Islam. It seems that for the first coevals immigrants, the precedence was to come to England and do a new life, off from a topographic point where “ faith [ was ] shoved down everyone ‘s pharynx. ” ( BA, 113 ) On the contrary, immature people, brought up in secular Britain by broad households, are turning to faith ; this can be read as a signifier of rebellion. Kureishi argues that despite Islam maintaining the immature spiritual groups out of problem ( as they do non acquire themselves assorted up with drugs and intoxicant ) they are still able to arise. Kureishi suggests that their being more spiritual than their parents is a signifier of mutiny ; therefore, they are at the same time noncompliant and conformist. Deedee informs Shahid ;

“ Riaz was kicked out of his parents ‘ house for denouncing his ain male parent for imbibing intoxicant. He besides reprimanded him for praying in his armchair and non on his articulatio genuss. He told his friends that if one ‘s parents did incorrect they should be thrown into the ramping fire of snake pit. ”

Riaz ‘s advice and patterns are surely non Islamic, and it seems this enticement to ‘exclude others ‘ is even extended to his parents. Contrary to Riaz ‘s disapprobation and flooring intervention of his male parent ; God “ hath decreed that ye [ … ] be sort to parents. [ … ] Say non to them a word of disdain, nor drive them, but address them in footings of honor. And, out of kindness, lower to them the wing of humbleness [ … ] ” ( Holy Qur’an, 17: 23-24 ) This brings us back to the inquiring of spiritual genuineness ; how much of Riaz ‘s spiritual individuality is public presentation, for the benefit of power? Ali illustrates the blooper of his male parents westernised ways ; “ You are excessively implicated in Western civilization. [ … ] The Western materialists hate us, [ … ] how can you love something which hates you? ” ( SF, 293 ) The thought of ‘us ‘ vs. ‘them ‘ can be extended to a affair of East vs. West, Orient vs. Occident. Muslims vs. non-Muslims and atheists.

While it may be argued that rehearsing an utmost version of Islam, may arouse feelings of belonging and significance, as the fringy characters are able to observe their distinctness and liminality. Turning to an utmost version of a faith that has and is still considered as foreign menace to the Western universe, will merely do the state of affairs of an already fringy group worse.

The first-generation migrators ‘ deficiency of belief and contempt of faith goes hand-in-hand with Kureishi ‘s jeer of the truster ‘s blind-adherence and frequently actual reading of the word of God. However, Kureishi does acknowledge ; “ It ‘s much harder to populate without God

than it is to populate with God. There ‘s much more moral dizziness. But I am a secularist and an atheist. ”[ 16 ]There is much argument in Album about believing in a higher divinity and non believing. Kureishi appoints Brownlow as the main interpreter against the belief in God. Even Chili, the most pleasure-seeking of Kureishi ‘s characters tells Zulma ;

“ I do n’t fault those human existences you call [ spiritual ] madmans. [ … ] they ‘ve got something to believe in, to tilt on! It gets them through the dark. If we believed in something, we ‘d be happier! It is us who have the deficiency! ” ( BA, 258 )

Riaz expresses his belief in the demand for faith to keep morality, whereas Brownlow argues that world must make up one’s mind good and bad for themselves. Brownlow besides opposes the act of believeing to free thought. This would so bind in with the characters ‘ word picture of corrupt and censorship Pakistan where journalists are imprisoned for talking out against spiritual policies. Harmonizing to Henry ;

“ All this Irish bull about the struggle between civilizations, Islam and the West, is merely another version of the same struggle between Puritans and progressives, between those who hate the imaginativeness and those who love it. It ‘s the oldest struggle of all, between repression and freedom. ” ( STY, 272 )

The position of Islam as smothering imaginativeness, individuality, free address and even free thought is a repeating subject. Album can be seen as an probe into the grounds behind censoring, peculiarly in relation to Rushdie ‘s The Satanic Verses. In Album Deedee runs a class entitled ‘The History of Censorship ‘ , and in a category treatment points out that history shows that books can non be repressed. She besides argues that censoring does non work as people still want to read the books, particularly if they have been banned as we ever want what we can non hold. Like in the instance of Rushdie, Riaz and his fellow Rebels burn a book for its profane nature and even wish decease upon him ;


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