Government Control Over Waste Collection And Disposal Environmental Sciences Essay

In 1975 the Waste Framework Directive set about a set of policies sing Government control over waste aggregation and disposal. Since this clip several new directives have been established to command the disposal of assorted waste stuffs ( see figure 1 ) , as UK policy moves towards a more environmentally sustainable attack to blow direction, and becomes more to a great extent influenced by EU statute law. Landfill remains the prevailing method of disposal in the UK nevertheless one of the cardinal pieces of EU statute law that influences waste direction policy is the Landfill Directive of 1999, which has been one of the key drivers behind national waste scheme in Scotland since its execution in 2001. This directing sets out marks for cut downing the sum of biodegradable municipal waste ( BMW ) being sent to landfill. Using 1995 as a baseline, the UK has an duty to cut down the sum of BMW being sent to landfill by 75 % of 1995 degrees by 2010, 50 % by 2013 and 35 % by 20201. To accomplish these marks national waste schemes place greater focal point on accomplishing increased family waste recycling and recovery rates2. In footings of municipal waste, the chief classs affected are – nutrient, green and risky wastes.

Year

Waste Framework Directive

2002

Draft Directive on Batteries & A ; Collectors and Spent Batteries & A ; Collectors

2002

RoHS ( Restriction of Hazardous Substances in Electrical & A ; Electronic Equipment )

2002

WEEE ( Waste Electrical & A ; Electronic Equipment ) Directive

2000

End-of-Life Vehicles Directive

1999

Incineration of Waste Directive

1999

Landfill Directive

1996

Disposal of PCBs ( Polychlorinated Biphenyls ) & A ; PCTs ( Polychlorinated Terphenyls ) Directive

1996

IPPC ( Integrated Pollution Prevention & A ; Control ) Directive

1994

Boxing & A ; Packaging Waste Directive

1991

Hazardous Waste Directive

1991

Batteries & A ; Collectors Directive

1975

Waste Framework Directive

1975

Waste Framework Directive

1975

Waste Oils Directive

1: www.wastemanagement.org.uk

2: Burnley, S [ 2001 ] The Impact of the European Landfill Directive on Waste Management in the United Kingdom: Resources, Conservation and Recyling: Vol 32, pp 349

Figure 1: Directives act uponing Waste Disposal in Scotland [ Adapted from www.wasteawarescotland.org.uk ]

Beginnings of Waste:

Food Waste:

Families in Scotland produce around 566,000 metric tons of nutrient waste every twelvemonth composing chiefly of drinks ( 18 % of entire weight ) , fresh veggies ( 16 % of entire weight ) , fresh fruit ( 9 % of entire weight ) , bakery points ( 12 % of entire weight ) , and meat and fish ( 5 % of entire weight ) [ www.wrap.org.uk ] . This station consumer waste is mirrored in the pre consumer production of nutrient, with waste watercourses generated during the production and packaging of nutrient materials including any overrun, packaging wastes, spoiled nutrients, expired nutrients, overcooked, contaminated or dropped points.

Green Waste:

Green waste is waste that can be broken down of course via decomposition ( by bacteriums or other beings ) . It by and large includes garden waste, such as works fixingss, grass film editings, leaves etc. Basically green waste is waste that can be used for compositing, and is by and large waste from garden stuffs.

Household Hazardous Waste:

The National Household Hazardous Waste Forum defines risky family as any stuff discarded by a family which can non be disposed of with easiness, or which may present a hazard to human wellness or the environment because of its chemical or biological nature. This includes points such as pigment merchandises, garden chemicals, driving oils and family cleansing chemicals and contraptions. Obviously usage of all these stuffs has increased over the past decennary and the bulk of this waste is disposed to landfill4.

3. www.wrap.org.uk

4. Slack, R, Gronrow, J and Voulvoluis N [ 2004 ] Hazardous Components of Household Waste: Critical Reappraisals in Environmental Science and Technology: Vol 34, pp 419

Optional Methods for Management:

Anaerobic Digestion:

Figure 2: European States with Facilities Processing Municipal Solid Waste [ Taken from Levis et al 2010, pp 1487 ]

One of the operational methods of waste direction available for execution in Scotland involves the intervention of green and nutrient wastes biologically via anaerobiotic digestion5. Anaerobic digestion is a procedure in which micro-organisms interruption down biodegradable stuff in the absence of O to bring forth a biogas ( preponderantly methane and C dioxide ) and a digeste stuff that has the potency for agricultural use5. To day of the month, AD has non been widely implemented in the UK, with merely a smattering of workss accepting municipally sourced biowaste7 ( see figure 2 ) . This may be because AD can merely handle organic waste, and is reliant on unintegrated feedstock with separate beginning aggregations ( i.e. individually collected nutrient and garden waste. Widely used across Europe AD provides an wholly executable option for Scotland ‘s hereafter nutrient waste direction schemes – and is a proved engineering in intervention of this waste. The major factors that limit its execution are the capital cost and the ability to obtain a pure feedstock, nevertheless ) the manner we collect waste is, nevertheless, altering and new segregated waste aggregations are leting AD installations to use a cleaner feedstock and achieve the optimum C to nitrogen ratio5,7.

Public Engagement:

5. Levis, J.W, Barlaz, M.A, Themelis, N.J and Ulloa, P [ 2010 ] Assessment of the State of Food Waste Treatment in the United States and Canada: Waste Management ; Vol 36, pp 1486, 1478 and 1494

6. hypertext transfer protocol: //www.defra.gov.uk/environment/waste/about/index.htm

7. Breton, T [ 2009 ] Source Seperation Trends in the United kingdom: Biocycle ; Vol 50, pp 38

Particularly utile in placing and understating beginnings of risky waste, promoting increased degrees of public engagement is an of import operational direction technique for municipal waste direction. A scheme used in some European Countries and parts of North America has been to microchip the wheelie bins of occupants in order to supervise the sum of non-recyclable waste they generate and are charged a fee for aggregation dependant on this sum. Evidence has shown that this kind of differential charging can be successful in cut downing waste6, and the Local Government Association has requested the freedom to follow strategies in the UK. This kind of direct charging has produced dramatic consequences in parts where it has been adopted, ensuing in increased degrees of recycling and waste minimization. Pay-as-you-throw ( PAYT ) schemes place duty on the homeowner to pull off their waste in a more sustainable mode, with economic sciences being the incentive, and could be an of import hereafter option for effectual waste direction across nutrient, green and peculiarly household risky wastes4.

Waste Minimisation Techniques:

Families in Scotland produce 566,000 metric tons of nutrient waste every twelvemonth, 62 % of which is collected via council run waste direction enterprises ( either as assorted waste, or nutrient waste merely schemes ) 3. This means that 38 % of the waste is disposed of within the family. Greater instruction programmes about efficaciously nutrient planning, storage and general waste direction could assist to promote more effectual family waste direction, and can be encouraged across multiple waste watercourses. This requires an addition in the handiness of alternate options such as recycling and composting installations which will promote more families to react positively to recycling programmes8. Success has already been seen in some countries, such as the Compositing at Home run launched in 2008, which has distributed over 160,000 compost bins to Scottish Households. Initiatives like this, spread over multiple waste watercourses could promote a more effectual attack to blow direction techniques.

3. www.wrap.org.uk

4. Slack, R, Gronrow, J and Voulvoluis N [ 2004 ] Hazardous Components of Household Waste: Critical Reappraisals in Environmental Science and Technology: Vol 34, pp 419

6. hypertext transfer protocol: //www.defra.gov.uk/environment/waste/about/index.htm

8. Monetary value, J.L [ 2001 ] The Landfill Directive and the Challenge Ahead – Demands and Pressures on the UK Householder: Resources, Conservation and Recyling: Vol 32, pp 333

Challenges and Decisions:

One of the cardinal challenges in following effectual waste direction enterprises is encouraging and keeping public engagement and sing the organizational constructions of waste direction as the populace ‘s recycling behavior does non merely depend on proficient and organizational facets, but besides on its institutions9. 94 % of families in the UK receive a kerbside or doorstep aggregation from their local council for reclaimable stuffs, with a 50 % enlargement since 20106. This figure of 94 % suggests that local authoritiess should be the regulative mechanism for the direction of waste in Scotland, by promoting more effectual public engagement with more instruction on the issues and benefits, every bit good as integrating economic inducements to guarantee that landfill remains an expensive option for waste direction. What seems to be clear is that there is no stand-out individual solution to efficaciously pull off the broad scope of waste watercourses produced in Scotland. What is required is an incorporate direction scheme that is centrally controlled but publicly led.

6. hypertext transfer protocol: //www.defra.gov.uk/environment/waste/about/index.htm

9. Refsgaard, K and Magnussen, K [ 2008 ] Household Behaviour and Attitudes with Respect to Recycling Food Waste – Experience from Focus Groups: Journal of Environmental Management ; vol 90, pp 760