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CONFIDENTIAL LG/APR 2010/BEL260/250 UNIVERSITI TEKNOLOGI MARA FINAL EXAMINATION COURSE COURSE CODE EXAMINATION TIME : INTERMEDIATE ENGLISH / MAINSTREAM ENGLISH II BEL260/250 APRIL 2010 3 HOURS INSTRUCTIONS TO CANDIDATES 1. This question paper consists of two (2) parts : PART A : Section 1 (5 Questions) Section 2 (6 Questions) Section 3 (5 Questions) PART B : (1 Question) 2. 3. Answer ALL questions from both parts in the Answer Booklet. Do not bring any material into the examination room unless permission is given by the invigilator.

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Please check to make sure that this examination pack consists of: i) ii) the Question Paper the Answer Booklet – provided by the Faculty 4. DO NOT TURN THIS PAGE UNTIL YOU ARE TOLD TO DO SO This examination paper consists of 10 printed pages © Hak Cipta Universiti Teknologi MARA CONFIDENTIAL CONFIDENTIAL 2 LG/APR 2010/BEL260/250 PART A: READING COMPREHENSION (20 MARKS) Section 1: Passage I (5 Marks) Study the table below and answer the questions that follow. SLEEP PROBLEMS AND DISORDERS TYPES • Insomnia – Almost everyone will be affected by insomnia at some point.

It is a short-term chronic inability to get high quality sleep. It can be caused by a variety of reasons including stress, a change in time zones, an altered sleep schedule and poor bedtime habits. • Sleep apnoea is a very serious, and even lifethreatening sleep disorder. Breathing stops or gets very shallow while sleeping. Each pause in breathing lasts about 10 to 20 seconds. The pauses can occur around 20 to 30 times an hour. During the episodes, the sleeper suffer$ from a brief lack of oxygen. He wakes up to breathe again and this disrupts his sleep. Narcolepsy, though not chronic, causes extreme sleepiness and may even make a person fall asleep suddenly and without warning. Specific causes of narcolepsy are not known but people with narcolepsy lack hypocretin, a brain chemical which regulates sleep and wakefulness. SYMPTOMS • Lack of sleep • Tossing and turning • Not feeling refreshed after a night’s sleep and excessive daytime tiredness TREATMENTS • Self help techniques, including improved sleep hygiene, relaxation and cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT), can ease the problem. • Medications should be a last resort – they do not provide lasting treatment and have numerous side effects. The Continuous Positive Airway Pressure Device (CPAP) is a device worn while sleeping. It is the most recommended treatment for sleep apnoea. CPAP can take some getting used to, but provides effective relief when used correctly. • Self-help treatments, like losing weight, using pillows to elevate your head or sleeping on your side, can also be effective remedies for mild to moderate sleep apnoea. • Narcolepsy may be genetic but it also appears to be influenced by environmental triggers. Treatment requires a combination of medication, behavioural treatments, and counselling. Frequent gaps in breathing during sleep • Gasping or choking for air to restart breathing • Loud snoring • Not feeling refreshed after a night’s sleep and excessive daytime tiredness • Intermittent, uncontrollable episodes of falling asleep during the daytime • Excessive daytime sleepiness • Sudden loss of muscle control during emotional situations Adapted from: http://www. helpquide. org/life/sleep disorders. htm CONFIDENTIAL © Hak Cipta Universiti Teknologi MARA CONFIDENTIAL 3 LG/APR 2010/BEL260/250 1) Someone who has just arrived in the United States of America by plane from Malaysia may suffer from insomnia. ) b) c) TRUE FALSE NOT STATED (1 mark) 2) Taking medication is the best way of dealing with the problem of insomnia. a) b) c) TRUE FALSE NOT STATED (1 mark) 3) All three types of sleep problems and disorders, if not treated properly, could lead to death. a) b) c) TRUE FALSE NOT STATED (1 mark) 4) Using a CPAP is an effective but uncomfortable and expensive way to deal with sleep apnoea. a) b) c) TRUE FALSE NOT STATED (1 mark) 5) Medication, behavioural treatments or counselling can be used to deal with the problem of narcolepsy. a) b) c) TRUE FALSE NOT STATED (1 mark) © Hak Cipta Universiti Teknologi MARA

CONFIDENTIAL CONFIDENTIAL 4 LG/APR 2010/BEL260/250 Section 2: Passage II (8 Marks) Read the passage below and answer the following questions. I The influence of the English language in Peninsular Malaysia can be traced to as far back as the nineteenth- century. The British, in the hope of expanding their empire, travelled to and colonized various parts of the world, including Malaya. In the beginning, they communicated with the locals using sign language and English. Gradually, they started to assert control and 5 intervene in the local affairs of the traditional Malay states.

The increase in government services and the introduction of the Resident System in the 1870’s further established the presence of the British and facilitated the Spread of English among the local people. British officers were employed to head the various departments involved in the collection of revenues, road construction and the supervision of mines. These officers recruited a small number of Malays who were able to understand and, to a certain level, speak some simple everyday English to assist them in dealing with the locals. 10 II

Later, with the expansion of commerce especially in the urban areas, the English language began to be more widely used among the people. For instance, early traders from different places, and of different races, came to the port cities of Singapore, Malacca and Penang to conduct business. In the sixteenth century, Malay was the lingua franca of trade in the Malay Peninsula. However, with the growing influence of the British in the region, this soon changed to the English language. In time, the British began formulating various rules and regulations pertaining to trade and commercial ctivities in this language as well. 20 15 III There was a marked increase in educational facilities during the British rule. By the 1950’s, there were many types of schools opened for the local people. As part of their strategy to “divide and rule”, the British established vernacular schools to meet the educational needs of the various races: Malay medium schools for the Malays, Chinese medium schools for the Chinese and Tamil medium schools for the Indians. 25 © Hak Cipta Universiti Teknologi MARA CONFIDENTIAL CONFIDENTIAL 5 LG/APR 2010/BEL260/250

IV Another factor which helped the spread of the English language in Malaya was the introduction of English medium schools by the British. The medium of instruction in these schools was, of course, English. Reference books for these schools were brought in from the United Kingdom. These English medium schools resulted in the emergence of an elite group of educated English-speaking locals. The members of this elite group were highly regarded in society and were given the chance to hold important civil service posts in the government.

However, not many Malay students enrolled in these schools. Those who did were mainly from aristocratic and upper-class families. 35 30 V After independence, the spread of English in Malaysia was facilitated by the mass media. National radio and television networks produced and broadcast both Malay and English programmes. There were also English newspapers like the New Straits Times which contributed to the wider use of English among Malaysians. Many believe that the influx of English films was also an instrumental factor in spreading the use of the language in Malaysia.

At a time when going to the cinema was the norm, people from different walks of 45 life and racial backgrounds thronged the theatres to watch English films. Many picked up the language just by watching these films. 40 VI Language is the most traditional medium of communication that man has maintained over the centuries and will continue to use. There are thousands of languages spoken by the 6. 9 billion people throughout the world. However, the English language has emerged as the major international language.

Today, the importance of the English language in Malaysia can no longer be disputed. The influence of English has reached almost every house in Malaysia. 50 Adapted from “English language and the language of development of Malaysian perspective” by Faisal Hanapiah, UPM International Conference © Hak Cipta Universiti Teknologi MARA CONFIDENTIAL CONFIDENTIAL 6 LG/APR 2010/BEL260/250 1) Give the meanings of the words as used in the passage. a) assist (line 13) b) commerce (line 14) C) established (line 25) d) instrumental (line 44) (2 marks) ) The following statements are true EXCEPT a) Sign language was one of the earliest forms of communication used by the British colonists to interact with the locals in Malaya. b) In the sixteenth century, Malay was the language of commerce in Malaya. C) In the 1950’s, most of the students attending English medium schools were from aristocratic and upper-class families, d) Commerce was an important factor that encouraged the use of English among the locals in Malaya. (1 mark) 3) What is the main idea of paragraph V? (1 mark) 4)

Infer why the establishment of vernacular schools was part of the British strategy to “divide and rule”, (line 25) (2 marks) 5) All the statements below are facts EXCEPT a) Many believe that the influx of English films was also an instrumental factor in spreading the use of the language in Malaysia. b) By the 1950’s, there were many types of schools opened for the local people. c) The medium of instruction in these schools was, of course, English. d) There are thousands of languages spoken by the 6. 9 billion people throughout the world. (1 mark) 6)

Explain in your own words what the writer means when he says, “Today, the importance of English in Malaysia can no longer be disputed. ” (lines 52-53) (1 mark) © Hak Cipta Universiti Teknologi MARA CONFIDENTIAL CONFIDENTIAL 7 LG/APR 2010/BEL260/250 Section 3: Passage III (7 Marks) Read the passage and answer the questions that follow. I Which would you pick if you were given the choice – a glass of water from your own kitchen or a bottle of water from a manufacturing company? If you choose the glass of water from your own kitchen, you may be saving yourself a lot of money and also protecting your body from contaminants.

On the other hand, if you pick the bottled water, both the contents and the container may cost you 5 your money and your health, and harm the environment as well. II There is no doubt bottled water is convenient, trendy, and may well be cleaner than what comes out of your tap. However, it is hardly a smart decision for your financial state, your body or the environment. A healthy-lifestyle group known as Eat This, Not That! conducted a research into what is behind the pristine images and elegant-sounding names printed on bottled water containers in the market.

According to this group, people who buy bottled water may actually be drinking tap water and not water from a natural source as claimed. Surprisingly, even well-known companies are simply bottling and selling purified tap water that has had minerals added to it. For example, if 15 10 the water is bottled at a manufacturing company in California, you may actually be drinking plain Californian tap water. The group also claimed that about 25 percent of all bottled water is taken from municipal water sources. III Bottled water is also not always pure.

If you scan the labels of leading brands, you will see variations of the words “pure”, “natural” and “pristine” over and over again. According to a research done by a marketing class in Cornell University on consumers’ perceptions of bottled water, people generally think it is cleaner and has less bacteria. However, that may not actually be true. A 4-year review that included the testing of 1,000 bottles of water was conducted by the Natural Resources Defense Council, one of America’s most ardent environmental crusaders. The council found that about 22 percent of the brands tested contained chemicals at levels above approved health limits. 5 20 © Hak Cipta Universiti Teknologi MARA CONFIDENTIAL CONFIDENTIAL 8 LG/APR 2010/BEL260/250 IV Another concern is the use of the plastic container itself. It is not clear where the plastic container of bottled water ends and the drink begins. This is because, when certain plastics are heated at a high temperature, chemicals from the plastics may leak into the contents of the bottled water. Thus, there has been much speculation recently as to whether the amounts of these chemicals are actually harmful to the human body.

This concern even extends to water bottles which are not likely to be placed in boiling water or even a microwave. While the jury is still out on realistic health consequences, some 35 studies have indicated that small amounts of chemicals from water bottles such as antimony — a semi-metal that is thought to be toxic in large doses — can accumulate in bottled water when stored in a hot environment. 30 V Most water bottles are made of a plastic called polyethylene terephthalate. This fact has given rise to a major environmental concern as well. In order to 40 make polyethylene terephthalate, you need crude oil.

Seventeen million barrels of oil are used in the production of polyethylene terephthalate water bottles every year. It is no wonder that the cost of bottled water rivals that of petrol. Moreover, 86 percent of the 30 billion polyethylene terephthalate water bottles sold annually are tossed in the trash instead of being recycled, according to 45 data from the Container Recycling Institute. That is a lot of waste — waste that will outlast generations to come. This is because polyethylene terephthalate bottles take 400 to 1000 years to biodegrade.

If our current rate of consumption continues, where will we put all of these discarded bottles? VI So the next time you reach out for a bottle of clear pristine water stacked on 50 the shelves of a supermarket, think of the consequences of that decision. Opt instead for water brought from home in your own water bottle. Adapted from http://eatthis. womenshealthmag. com/index. php7cm mmc=Yahoo Blog- ETNT- -Truth About Bottle Water- -ETNT HP EL © Hak Gipta Universiti Teknologi MARA CONFIDENTIAL CONFIDENTIAL 9 LG/APR 2010/BEL260/250 1) What do the following words refer to? ) it (line 15) b) speculation (line 32) c) This (line 47) (11/2 marks) 2) Why is bottled water perceived to be a healthier choice compared to tap water? (1 mark) 3) Explain in your own words what the writer means when he says, “It is not clear where the plastic container of bottled water ends and the drink begins. ” (lines 28-29) (1 mark) 4) Write T if the statement is true and F if the statement is false. a) Most bottled water from well-known brands comes from natural resources. b) Chemicals that leak from water bottles into the water have been proven to be harmful to human health. ) The cost of bottled water is affected by its production process. d) If you recycle plastic bottles, they will biodegrade faster. (2 marks) 5) What is the main idea of the passage? {VA marks) © Hak Cipta Universiti Teknologi MARA CONFIDENTIAL CONFIDENTIAL 10 LG/APR 2010/BEL260/250 PART B: WRITING (20 MARKS) QUESTION 1 Reading is the best way for university students to improve their proficiency in the English language. words. Do you agree with this statement? State your opinion in not less than 350 END OF QUESTION PAPER © Hak Cipta Universiti Teknologi MARA CONFIDENTIAL