The Motherboard Form Factor Computer Science Essay
A motherboard signifier factor merely describes the dimensions or size of the motherboard and what the layout of the motherboard constituents are. It is of import to understand the different motherboard signifier factors, because you can non take any motherboard and topographic point it in a computing machine instance. You must set an ATX board in an ATX instance.
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In 1995, Intel wanted a system board that would be used to back up the Pentium II processor and the new AGP slot, so the ATX signifier factor was built. The ATX board is 7.5 inches broad and 12 inches long and has all the IO ports integrated straight into the board, including USB ports. The ATX board introduced a 100 MHz system coach, whereas older Pentium boards ran at 60/66 MHz and had one AGP slot for picture cards. The ATX board besides had soft power support, which meant that the system could be shut down by the operating system. The ATX signifier factor rotated the babe AT constituents by 90 grades so that any cards inserted into the coach architectures would non cover the processor and prevent proper chilling.
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Most motherboards are a fluctuation of the ATX manner, including the smaller microATX version of the design. Other motherboard manners do be, nevertheless, including the BTX design, which was released by Intel in 2004. The BTX motherboard was designed to offer improved chilling and airflow indoors computing machine instances, offering all the characteristics of the ATX manner but having a different layout. While BTX motherboards ne’er reached the degree of popularity that was predicted when they were released, some computing machine interior decorators prefer the different layout and improved air-cooling characteristics they offer.
i‚· The BTX motherboard was originally suggested by Intel in 2003, with production get downing in 2004. Many of the alterations Intel incorporated into the BTX design were an effort to integrate low-power processor compatibility into motherboard designs. Gateway, Dell and MPC began utilizing BTX in 2004 and 2005 to assist the design win in the place computing machine market. Unfortunately, enthusiasm for the BTX motherboard shortly began to melt as the location of the processor on the motherboard made it incompatible with some processor types that characteristic specific location demands. As a consequence, Intel has discontinued support for the BTX motherboard in its merchandises.
i‚· A BTX motherboard portions many characteristics in common with other motherboard signifier factors but is designed to let for greater air flow and easiness of chilling. The location of the enlargement slots is intended to assist maintain heat from artworks cards and other enlargement cards from lifting across RAM and the CPU, and the motherboard itself is mounted with a greater spread between it and the human body of the computing machine instance so that more air flow can happen underneath the motherboard.
i‚· There are three sizes of BTX motherboards available. The standard BTX motherboard is 12.7 by 10.4 inches, on par with full-sized computing machine towers and the standard ATX motherboard. The microBTX motherboard is 10.3 by 10.4 inches, leting for its usage in midtower computing machine instances. The picoBTX is 7.9 by 10.4 inches, leting it to be used in significantly smaller instances.
motherboard trade name names
IntelA® Corea„? i7 Processor Extreme Edition
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IntelA® Corea„? i7-980X processor Extreme Edition
3.33 GHz nucleus velocity
Up to 3.6 GHz with IntelA® Turbo Boost Technology
6 nucleuss and 12 processing togss with IntelA® Hyper-Threading Technology
12 MB IntelA® Smart Cache
3 Channels DDR3 1066 MHz memory
32nm fabrication procedure engineering
IntelA® Corea„? i7-975 processor Extreme Edition
3.33 GHz nucleus velocity
Up to 3.6 GHz with IntelA® Turbo Boost Technology
4 nucleuss and 8 processing togss with IntelA® Hyper-Threading Technology
8 MB IntelA® Smart Cache
3 Channels DDR3 1066 MHz memory
45nm fabrication procedure engineering
IntelA® Corea„? i5 Processor
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IntelA® Corea„? i5-700 and i5-600 processor series with IntelA® Turbo Boost Technology
4 processing togss
Up to 8 MB of IntelA® Smart Cache
IntelA® HD Graphics on IntelA® Corea„? i5-600 processor series
2 channels of DDR3 1333 MHz memory
AMD Phenoma„? II ProcessorsA
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New AMD Turbo CORE Technology
Both the AMD Phenoma„? II X6 1055T and 1090T semen equipped with AMD ‘s new Turbo CORE engineering. AMD Turbo CORE engineering is a public presentation hiking engineering that automatically switches from six nucleuss to three turbocharged nucleus for applications that merely need natural velocity over multiple nucleuss. While in Turbo CORE manner, the AMD Phenoma„? II X6 1090T displacements frequency velocity from 3.2GHz on six nucleuss, to 3.6GHz on three nucleuss, doing it the fastest processor AMD has of all time created.
There have been many different types ofA RAMA memory in usage since it foremost was used in computing machines. TheA RAMA memory used in current Personal computers comes in the signifier ofDDRA andA DDR2A andA DDR3A memory faculties. The right type that the computing machine ‘s motherboardA supports has to be used. Some motherboards can back up two types, such asA DDRA andA DRR2, but most motherboards merely back up one type. A kit consisting of two 1GB faculties ofA DDR2A memory, for usage in aA desktop Personal computer, made byCrucial, is shown below. The upper side with the notch and the metallic border is keyed to suit into the appropriate memory ( DIMM ) slot, therefore it can non be installed in the incorrect type of slot unless the installer uses the sort of force that will likely destruct the faculty.
Unless all of the memory slots on a computing machine ‘s motherboard are already fitted with memory faculties, theA RAMA memory in most desktop and laptops computing machines can be increased by put ining more memory ( upgrading the memory ) . Installing one or more extra memory faculties in a desktop or aA laptop computerA is a simple procedure that is dealt with at the top ofA Page 2A of this article.
USB Flash Memory
This is my favourite signifier of brassy memory since it is little, convenient and plugs right into any computing machine with a USB port. Merely about every computing machine has a USB port these yearss, so you should be all right.
What is besides great about USB brassy memory storage units are their ability to be unafraid if you want them to, and the cost of them are really low for such a good sum of storage capacity.
Secure Digital ( SD Card )
A unafraid digital card ( SD ) is, in my experience, the best brassy memory type avaible on the market today. It was ab initio created to keep, and prevent duplicate, of copyright music files.
But these cards have grown vastly and are really popular with digital camera users due to their low power ingestion and little size. There are now a few types of SD cards for purchase, offering transportation rates of changing grades. SD cards are easy forcing CompactFlash out of the brassy memory concern because other cards are merely to large compared to SD cards.
SmartMedia Card games
The SmartMedia format ( solid province floppy disc card ( SSFDC ) was developed by Toshiba. This memory-only card has no accountant onboard, but it is required on the device to be used.
SmartMedia cards are used with digital devices before 2001 and can non transcend 128MB ( BAD! ) . This type of brassy memory is available out there still, but is decidedly the least popular brassy memory type.
Much bigger than other types of brassy memory, it is about the size of a matchbook. CompactFlash cards are one of the first to go standard in the digital camera market. With its storage capacities runing from 8MB to 8GB ( Whoa! ) .
One major benefit of a CompactFlash card is that it contains both memory french friess and a accountant. This brassy memory type has made rather an impact and has become a really popular digital mass-storage device.
The Memory Stick was developed by Sony in 1999, and was created to do trade name trueness for their digital cameras and camcorders.
Sometimes they are included with the camera or digital device that requires it. Sony computing machine notebooks besides include a Memory Stick reader, so the user will cognize that the merchandise will work seamlessly without failing.A
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HP Deskjet D1660
Despite bing the same as a generous unit of ammunition of drinks, the bantam, no-frills Deskjet D1660 coloring material inkjet pressman produces first-class text consequences and handles simple artworks good. Its exposure prints are n’t up to the quality of its text end product, but they ‘re non bad either, and you ca n’t anticipate excessively much at this monetary value.
The Brother MFC-3360C may look like it belongs in a Michael J Fox movie from the ’80s, and it ‘s non the fastest pressman you can acquire your custodies on, but it produces decent-quality prints. Besides bearing an low-cost monetary value ticket, it ‘s besides reasonably compact and does n’t do much noise
Canon Pixma MX330
The Pixma MX330 is a great pick for those seeking an all-in-one inkjet pressman that wo n’t interrupt the bank. It does n’t bring forth the best-quality prints we ‘ve of all time seen, but the MX330 still represents great value for money, presenting a robust characteristic set and nice public presentation
Epson Stylus D120
Although multifunction devices seem to be all the fury these yearss, there ‘s still room for low-priced single-function pressmans designed to make one thing good — print. The Epson Stylus D120 falls into this class, presenting above norm, lasting prints and paperss
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Monochrome Laser Printers
Oki Printing Solutions B4350 Mono LED Printer, 23ppm, 1200×600, 16MB, PCL6, PS3 Option
Fast printing and first-class text end product
Two line LCD helps with easiness of usage
Ethernet arranger option is expensive
The B4350 delivers ace public presentation and prints the first page rapidly but ethernet support remains an expensive supernumerary.
Modest end product quality
Light artworks is the lone weak topographic point in this solid performing artist, which delivers nice velocity and text quality at a low monetary value.
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NIC is an acronym for Network Interface Card or Network Interface Controller. However, a NIC is really referred to as a web arranger by most of the population. A NIC is an enlargement card, a hardware device attached to a non-portable computing machine ( like a desktop ) leting that computing machine some new ability. As an enlargement card, the NIC specifically allows a computing machine the ability to link to a web ( such as Ethernet or Wi-FI ) .
NIC cards serve as conduits between a computing machine and a web ( like Internet ) . They translate the information on the computing machine into a signifier that is movable via a web overseas telegram and command the informations as it is sent to other devices on the web.
There are three different types of NIC agreements, or constellations: jumper, package and the newest engineering, Plug-and-Play ( PnP ) .
Jumper Configurable NIC Card games
Jumper configurable NIC cards are efficient and easy to utilize for older equipment. They have physical jumpers ( little devices that control computing machine hardware without the demand for package ) that determine scenes for the interrupt petition line, input/output reference, upper memory block and type of transceiver.
Software Configurable NIC Card games
Software configurable NIC must be manually configured when installed, but contain a proprietary package plan that allows the operator to configure the NIC via a bill of fare, or take the car constellation manner that determines what constellation is most suited.
Plug-and-Play Configurable NIC Card games
Most NICs today use the PnP engineering as it does non hold to be manually configured, though it can be. PnP NICs will auto-configure upon installing during the system boot-up sequence, but can do struggles with the difficult thrust.
PCI Wireless Adapter Card for DesktopA Computers
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AA PCI radio arranger cardA connects to a desktop computing machine ‘s PCI coach. Because the PCI coach is contained inside the computing machine, the unit must be opened and the radio web arranger installed indoors.
An illustration of a PCI radio adapter card, the Linksys WMP54G ( compare monetary values ) is shown supra. This unit is more than 8 inches ( 200 millimeter ) long in order to suit the standard connexion strip required to electrically fall in to the coach. The unit attaches and tantrums snugly inside the PCI, although the radio adapter card aerial protrudes out the dorsum of the computing machine.
Apple AirPort Extreme Base Station ( Fall 2009 )
THE Good: A Fast throughput ; easy to utilize ; true dual-band ; guest networking ; pressman and web storage support ; aesthetically delighting design.
THE BAD: A Limited networking characteristics ; finical support for USB external difficult thrust ; merely three Ethernet ports ; no Web interface ; no distant entree for Windows users ; supports merely 50 clients ; merely OS X 10.4 or subsequently can entree storage characteristic.
THE BOTTOM LINE: A The AirPort Extreme Base Station is a great radio router for Mac or novice users who need something that ‘s simple, nice-looking, and works good for their places. Savvy Windows users will happen many other options that offer a batch more characteristics for their vaulting horses.
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Netgear WG302 entree point
The Good: A WEP and WPA security ; span and repeater capablenesss ; AutoCell engineering helps hedge rival signals.
The Bad: A Expensive ; AutoCell wo n’t work while utilizing the device as a span or a repeater.
The Bottom Line: A This entree point ‘s high monetary value will look just to those with a batch of wireless equipment.
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Features of Windows XP
Enhanced device driver voucher
Dramatically reduced reboot scenarios
Improved codification protection
Side-by-side DLL support
Windows File Protection
Enhanced package limitation policies
Preemptive multitasking architecture
Scalable memory and processor support
Coding File System ( EFS ) with multi-user support
IP Security ( IPSec )
Smart card support
Internet Explorer Add-on Manager
Windows Security Center
Data Execution Prevention
Windows Firewall Exception List
Windows Firewall Application and Port Restrictions
Fresh ocular design
Fresh ocular design
Vista Features hypertext transfer protocol: //uis.georgetown.edu/software/documentation/winvista/winvista.features.html
New Graphical Interface
Windows Vista has a different ocular expression and experience than all old versions of Windows. The new interface, A called “ Aero ” , A has a ‘glass-like’A translucent consequence.
If you ‘ve seen or used the Mac OS X runing system, you ‘ll acknowledge the similarities betweenA the two.
New Start Menu
The Start Menu has been overhauled in Vista.
In the Start Menu ‘s Search box, type in a keyword or phrase, and Vista will demo you applications, files, e-mail messages, or web site favourites. It updates the list as you type.
Vista comes with an improved hunt map that is integrated into the operating system, A significance thatA Vista willA hunt throughout the operating systemA every bit good as through all your programs.A This hunt map is faster has more thoroughA hunt capabilities.A
TheA hunt map is available from most topographic points in Vista. To carry on a hunt, merely expression for the looking glass icon. You can polish your hunt standards, salvage your hunts, and even get down up a plan, or web page from the hunt at the underside of the Start bill of fare. The new hunt besides incorporates “ search-as-you-type ” , so that you ‘ll see consequences immediately as you ‘re typing.
Live Thumbnail Icons
In old versions of Windows, you would see a generic application icon Microsoft Word, Thunderbird, etc. ) for any unfastened paperss. Vista has replaced them with Live Icons ( scalable thumbnails ) , which are used throughout Vista ( e.g. , in the taskbar ) . So you can now see the first page of a papers, the existent image of a exposure, for illustration, to see instantly what you ‘re looking for.
Windows Explorer has besides been overhauled in Vista, and includes new options for sing, A grouping, and roll uping files and booklets. Among the changes/improvements in Vista: a breadcrumb saloon for easier pilotage, a inside informations window glass that displays information on the file or booklet that ‘s presently selected, “ unrecorded icons ” that display a thumbnail of the existent contents of a file, an instant hunt map available for happening files, e-mail messages, web browser favourites, etc. , and a prevue window glass thatA providesA detailed information about files you select every bit good as extra options for sing file information. A
Aces are helpers ( really, computing machine plans ) built into Windows to assist you put in and put upA applicationsA and hardware devices ( e.g. , pressmans ) . Vista comes withA impovementsA in the expression of aces, every bit good as alterations to text messages so that they ‘re clearer and more helpful.
The Sidebar is a bran-new characteristic in Windows. The Sidebar is a panel on the desktop that enables you to expose different “ appliances ” ( little applications called applets ) that are designed for specific intents ( e.g. , clip, conditions, reckoner, currency convertor, clock, notes, stocks ) .
Microsoft made security a primary end for Vista. As a consequence, Vista comes withA legion security-related betterments and sweetenings in response to changeless security menaces.
User Account Control
This characteristic is, by default, A aA reduced privileges manner to forestall anyone on your computing machine ( whether you or anyone elseA with whom you’reA sharing your computing machine ) from working as an Administrator.A To do any alteration that would affectA the system, an Administrator watchword is required.
Gives you the ability toA encrypt all filesA on your computing machine, thereby protecting from viruses, hackers, and other menaces. Besides offers the option toA require a watchword to entree the information.
Built intoA Vista, Windows Defender provides protection against spyware. ( Spyware is a computing machine plan that collects personal information about people without their informed consent. ) It besides watches plans as they install, and can assist indicate out such malware before it hits you in the first topographic point.
Windows Backup and Restore Center
Vista comes with a backup and reconstruct plan that enables you to schedule backups, every bit good as restore files from old backups. Another characteristic of this plan is CompletePC, which enables you to endorse up the contents of your full computing machine onto another difficult disc or DVD.
Similar to those found on overseas telegram telecasting servicesA and picture games that enables parents to supervise and restrict what a kid can see or make on their computing machine ( e.g. , barricading certain Internet sites ) .
Vista has added and improved the ability to maximise computing machine public presentation. Below are a few of the performance-enhancing characteristics in Vista.
Technology that enables files to be opened faster byA lading them into the computing machine ‘s memory.
This characteristic enables you to temporarily hike your computing machine ‘s public presentation utilizing a compatible USB flash memory device.
Enables Vista Personal computers to boot up faster from hibernation to continue battery power.
Windows 7 characteristics
The Windows 7 operating system portions many characteristics and maps with Windows Vista. It besides improves on Vista. Here is a list of characteristics and maps that are alone to Windows 7:
Action CenterA – allows users to see what alerts Windows 7 shows ; a ready to hand manner to command those raging UAC messages while non holding to disenable it.
Aero Shake – chink and agitate one unfastened window and all others on the desktop will minimize.A
Aero Snap – retarding force a window to any border of the show and it will automatically re-size.A
Aero PeekA – point to the right border of the taskbar to watch unfastened Windowss turn crystalline, uncovering all your hidden icons and appliances
Aero Templates, ThemesA – new backgrounds and subjects alone and created for Windows 7 ( including free extra subjects downloadable from Microsoft ) .A
Device Stage – helps users interact with any compatible device connected to a Windows 7 computing machine ; position device position and run common undertakings from a individual window. The cardinal words here are “ compatible devices. ”
Domain Join – helps concern users rapidly connect to different office webs.
Appliances ( Improved ) – the Sidebar has been eliminated ; Appliances can be placed anyplace ; New Gadgets have more functionality.A
Home GroupA – enables users to rapidly and easy make place webs between computing machines utilizing Windows 7.A
Jump ListsA – right-click a plan icon and see a list of late used files that use that plan.
LibrariesA – do it easier to happen, work with, and organize paperss, music, images, and pictures scattered across your Personal computer or network.A
Location-Aware Printing – if you travel between offices or place and office, this characteristic is ready to hand: Windows 7 remembers which web and pressman you ‘re utilizing and automatically switches the default pressman to fit the one you last used.A
Multiplayer GamesA – Microsoft has revived 3 XP multiplayer games: Internet Checkers, Internet Spades, and Internet Backgammon.A
Networking ( Improved ) – improved undertaking saloon doodad that allows for speedy web connexion and constellation.
Play to work – right-click the music tracks you ‘d wish to hear and choose Play To. Play To plants with other Personal computers running Windows 7 and devices compliant with the Digital Living Network Alliance ( DLNA ) media standard.A
Performance ( Improved ) – For Sleep manner to reconnect with Wireless Networks, limited background procedures to those needed for presently used devices, faster desktop searching, and easier apparatus for external devices.A
Undertaking BarA ( Improved ) – “ pin ” favourite plans anyplace on the taskbar ; rearrange plans in any manner you like by snaping and dragging. Point to a taskbar icon to see a thumbnail prevue of unfastened files or plans. Then, travel your mouse over a thumbnail to preview the window full-screen.A
Windows Media Center ( Improved ) – a few new characteristics and integrates with Home Group.A
Windows Media Player 12 – An ascent from version 11 that plays the most popular sound and video formats-including new support for 3GP, AAC, AVCHD, DivX, MOV, and Xvid ; besides available by download, no doubt.A
Windows Touch – support for computing machine touch screens.
Windows XP Mode – Allows an XP session of Windows to run so that Business applications will work within Windows 7 – nevertheless, will non work with most current Intel and some AMD-based computers.A
hypertext transfer protocol: //windows.about.com/od/windowsosversions/a/windows_7_features_functions.htm
Networking softwares- hypertext transfer protocol: //www.windowsnetworking.com/software/Administration-tools — -Ping- & A ; -trace-utils/