The Commonwealth Games and India
India, frequently erroneously thought of as a backward land of serpent smoothies, where tiger roll freely and people fall quarry to awful diseases like malaria and cholera, is in fact one of the largest economic systems in the universe. As of 2010, it is the tenth industrialised state in the universe and its GDP has risen to figure 4 on a planetary degree ( merely behind USA, China and Japan ) .
Culturally, this state is a blend of linguistic communications, faiths and even culinary arts and garbs that vary about every bit much as the geographics. Bound to the North by the monolithic Himalayas and to the South by the Indian Ocean and the Bay of Bengal, India has a broad scope of clime and flora.
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India, since its independency in 1947, has established itself as a democracy and now has 28 provinces and 7 Union districts to its name. Demographically, India, comprising of 2.4 % of the universe ‘s entire surface country, supports more than 16.7 % of the universe ‘s population! It is estimated that in 2010, the Indian population would be around 1.2 billion ( Census of 2001 reported a population of 1,028 million. ) While literacy degrees are still below norm, ( Census of 2001 reported a literacy degree of 64.84 % ) initiatives like Teach India and the attempts of legion NGOs over the old ages has drastically reduced illiteracy. Besides, the Indian authorities has listed primary instruction as a compulsory right for all. ( Ministry of Information and Broadcasting, Govt. of India, 2010 )
While the Indian economic system is chiefly agro-based, it is quickly shifting towards service industry. Approximately 17-18 % of India ‘s GDP comes from agribusiness.
Foreign trade is besides an built-in portion of the Indian economic system. In 1991, the liberalisation and globalisation procedure started and the Indian economic system opened its doors to foreign concerns. India is a major exporter of treasures and jewelry, technology goods, chemicals, crude oil merchandises, fabrics, electronic goods, etc and we import legion natural stuffs for the fabrication sector.
Over the old ages, India has become an active participant in planetary trade, with USA being the most outstanding export finish ( 12 % ) , followed by UAE ( 10.8 % ) , China ( 5.1 % ) , Singapore, Netherlands, Hong Kong, UK, Germany, Saudi Arabia, Belgium, Italy, and Africa. Most of India ‘s imports come from Asia and the ASEAN states, followed by Europe ( 18.7 % ) , America ( 10.1 % ) and China ( 10.7 % ) . Most of the sectors of Indian industry are linked, straight or indirectly to the planetary market.
As of 2008-09, India ‘s external trade was valued at Rs. 20,72,438 crore ( tantamount to US $ 415 billion ) . Of this, exports were deserving US $ 168.7 billion. While the first half of 2008 saw the exports grow by about 31 % over that of the old twelvemonth, the 2nd half saw negative growing of over 19 % as exports in about all trade good groups fell. 2008-09 besides saw a important addition in trade shortage ( from Rs. ( – ) 356449 crore to Rs. ( – ) 538568 crore ) which can perchance by attributed to the planetary lag.
Relevance of Indian Economy in Global Scenario
A authorization was passed during the WTO ‘s Hong Kong Ministerial Meeting in 2005 that the developed and developing states who considered themselves able, would supply development aid to LDCs ( Least Developed Countries ) by supplying them Duty Free Quota Free market entree for all merchandises. In 2008, India announced the Duty Free Tariff Preference Scheme for 49 LDCs.
The Indian industry has besides felt the positive impact of SEZs ( Particular Economic Zones ) that are meant for export publicity, through the proviso of quality substructure, revenue enhancement vacations, duty discounts, license free imports, and many other benefits. This has non merely led to increased employment and proper use of land and resources in India, but has besides brought about a radical alteration in import-export.
India has besides signed legion discriminatory trade understandings with African states and is in negotiations about one with Mauritius. Cooperation and strategic partnership understandings have besides been signed with the European Union. These understandings aim to hike bilateral trade, investing and economic cooperation.
India is one of the laminitis members of the World Monetary Fund with a current portion retention of 1.95 % . India has besides been borrowing from the World Bank for assorted development undertakings in the field of substructure development, rural development and poorness relief.
Foreign Direct Investment is besides being encouraged in India through the Foreign Investment Promotion Board. While up to 100 % FDI is allowed in most sectors, some sectors like Retail trading, atomic energy, lottery concerns, etc are non yet unfastened for foreign investing. As of 200910, India saw an FDI influx of about US $ 25888 million of which about 22 % was invested in the services sector, 11 % in substructure ( building and power ) and 9 % in the telecommunications industry. Of the entire FDI influx in the past 10 old ages, about 21 % has been meant for Delhi and parts of UP and Haryana.
The communicating system in India is besides coming of age. This is vastly of import as communicating is the anchor of concern. Currently, India boasts of the universe ‘s 2nd largest radio telecommunications web in the universe with 494 million connexions. It is the universe ‘s fastest turning telecom market. Internet connectivity is widespread and the postal and courier systems are going more and more efficient.
All in all, today, India is an of import participant in the planetary economic system and it holds a topographic point of great distinction in the universe scenario.
The Commonwealth Games, held every 4 old ages, like the Olympics, are multi-sport events which see engagement from all over the universe. It was a affair of great pride for India when the 2010 CWG were scheduled to be held in Delhi, as it is the first clip these games are to be held in India and the 2nd clip they are being held in Asia ( the last clip was in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia in 1998. )
The bequest of the CWG began in 1930 under the name of British Empire Games, and the event was renamed British Empire and Commonwealth Games in 1954, the British Commonwealth Games in 1970 and later the Commonwealth Games in 1978.
The Commonwealth of Nations has 54 members and the CWG sees the engagement of 71 squads as Great Britain ‘s place states and Crown dependences send single squads. The Commonwealth Games Federations oversees and controls the event and has the power to choose the host states.
The 2010 Commonwealth Games, scheduled to be held in Delhi, have come under the scanner after holding faced fiscal abnormalities and corruptness charges.
The Indian Government has faced monolithic unfavorable judgment for non taking a base against the parties involved. There have besides been studies that the substructure development, that had been speeded up maintaining in head the CWG, is cheapjack and non up to the safety criterions prescribed by the Commonwealth Games Federation. It is likely that the locales will non be ready by October and the games might non happen.
With the CWG slated for October this twelvemonth, the dirt is a ramping hot subject in India. Most of the information is collected from Indian newspapers and the staying comes from web sites and on-line articles.
After roll uping informations from assorted beginnings, I have tried to analyse from this data the jobs faced by India, particularly related to pervert patterns by curates who have more or less a free reign in traffics and of the deficiency of cheques placed upon people in high official places. I have besides discussed the jobs confronting the games that are to be held this twelvemonth and the chance that the games may non be a success.
The study so goes on to reason that the cancellation of games or even India ‘s failure to host the CWG decently would impair India ‘s repute and would without uncertainty March its position amongst its planetary opposite numbers.
With under 50 yearss left for the Games to get down, I have eventually recommended some points that could still do the Games a comparative success.
FACT GATHERING AND RESEARCH
India – The location for 2010 CWG
The vote for host state was done in 2003 at the General Assembly of the Commonwealth Federation where the two chief commands for host state were from Delhi, India and Ontario, Canada. Delhi won by a border of 46 ballots as opposed to Canada ‘s 22 when it promised to supply the take parting squads US $ 100,000 along with air tickets, embarkation, lodging and conveyance. In add-on to that, India assured the commission that it would develop the needed substructure ( hotels, roads, conveyance, power excess ) and conform to the safety and wellness demands set by the CW Federation.
The Organizing Committee
The Indian stretch was to be organized by a separate games commission, which had been revamped in 2009, after concerns that the readying would non be completed in clip. In 2005, the vice-chairman of Indian Olympic Association, Raja Randhir Singh had voiced his concern that Delhi was non rushing up its readying for the 2010 games. In 2009, studies by the Indian Government and Commonwealth Games Federation president Mike Fennell stated that work at about two-thirds of the locales was behind agenda and this slow advancement could halter the event.
Jarnail Singh, a former Secretary of Indian Government, was made the CEO for the games, while Indian Olympic Association president, Suresh Kalmadi, was appointed as the caput of the commission.
The Business Club of India ( BCI ) was so formed through the partnership of the forming commission, the Confederation of Indian Industry ( CII ) and the Federation of Indian Chambers of Commerce and Industry ( FICCI ) . The BCI ‘s purpose was to both market the games and promote Indian concern involvements internationally.
The estimated budget merely for hosting the Games is US $ 1.6 billion, excepting the substructure development costs for the non-sports related things like roads, airdromes, etc. It has been said that this twelvemonth ‘s CWG will be the most expensive Commonwealth Games of all time held.
Approximately Rs. 26,000 crore ( US $ 5.2 billion ) is being invested by Delhi on substructure development and an extra Rs. 7,000 crore ( US $ 1.6 billion ) is being spent on revamp of bowls and roads straight linked to the athleticss locales. The thought was to animate Delhi into a futuristic metropolis that would non merely stand with its caput high for the Commonwealth Games, but would besides supply added comfortss for the citizens after the games.
The Jawaharlal Nehru Stadium, which is to host the gap and shutting ceremonials, the lawn bowls and the weightlifting competitions, is being renovated to suit 75,000 witnesss for the CWG. The Indira Gandhi Arena is besides being renovated and will be connected to other locales via dedicated lanes for coachs and other agencies of conveyance. All in all, 26 new bowls are traveling to be used for the Commonwealth Games of 2010 of which some are still under building.
Apart from the straight sports-related substructure, legion rudimentss besides need to be fortified, particularly in the field of conveyance. A 4-lane belowground roadway was to be built to link the Games Village straight to Jawaharlal Nehru Stadium, which would cut down going clip between these two countries to about 6 proceedingss.
Many overpasss and Bridgess had been planned to associate the metropolis better for the Games and better traffic flow. High capacity coach systems have besides been constructed in 6 ( 9 have been planned ) strategic locations in Delhi that would do mass transit easier and more comfy. In add-on, the Delhi Metro ‘s service has been expanded to include new countries and the line has been extended to do it one of the universe ‘s longest webs.
The Indira Gandhi International Airport has been modernized and the much talked about Terminal 3 has been completed and was late inaugurated. This terminus in itself has cost US $ 1.95 billion and will better airdrome rider capacity to more than 37 million riders a twelvemonth. Plans are besides in grapevine for the building of Asia ‘s longest track, which would let for over 75 flights an hr.
To suit the immense expected inflow of visitants and tourers for the Games, new hotels sprouted and suites were added to bing 1s. Of these, 30,000 suites had been finished by November 2009, and an extra 40,000 were due for completion good before the Games began.
The Games Village will supply free adjustment to all jocks, and they will besides be provided free conveyance, reserved lanes on selected main roads, and even free trips to Taj Mahal.
To determine that our foreign invitees receive adequate and warm service, several cardinal workers such as servers, porters, security staff, etc are being taught to interact in English. Apparently, this English preparation plan has been running since 2 old ages prior to the Games and it aims to learn the linguistic communication to 1000 people every month. This plan has now expanded from Delhi to other tourer countries in India.
To guarantee that there is no power deficit during the Games, and to fix for the increased expected use, the Government is increasing the power production to 7000MW ( from 4500MW ) . This is being done by building of new power workss, doing power distribution more efficient and directing extra energy towards Delhi.
The metropolis is besides being beautified for which 100s of places have been demolished and the homeless have been displaced. Slums have been removed from sight by raising bamboo screens around them. This action has received much unfavorable judgment and many agitated human rights candidates have raised their voice against such dishonorable behaviour. Active attempts are besides being made to free the streets from mendicants.
Corruptness and Criticism
In September 2009, Mike Fennell reported that the readying in India was falling behind agenda and this would present a serious hazard for the 2010 Games. Before that, the Indian Government had reported that of the 19 sporting locales, 13 were dawdling behind and may non be completed in clip. The forming commissions were reformed to resuscitate the readying and Indian functionaries, though upset about the hold ridden readyings, seemed confident that everything would be ready in clip and the Games would get down unhindered.
While critics claim that all CWG undertakings should ideally hold been completed by May 2009 and 2010 should hold been used for trail tallies. Ironically, the locales for the 2010 Summer Olympics in London are already ready and the relevant commissions say they are in a place to host the event right now.
Besides work holds, the Central Vigilance Commission ( CVC ) , unearthed legion other issues in the readyings as good. Some of the findings included presenting contracts at higher than sensible pricing, hapless quality criterions, and even presenting of work to bureaus that were non eligible for the stamps at all!
There have been allegations of corruptness in procurance and awarding of contracts for building. Already the Commonwealth Games Organizing Committee has suspended T.S. Darbari ( joint manager of forming commission ) and Sanjay Mahendroo ( deputy manager general in the organizing commission ) . The Treasurer, Anil Khurana, resigned when accused that his boy ‘s house had secured a contract utilizing his influential station in the Organizing Committee.
The organisers have besides been accused of great misdemeanors of labour Torahs and studies have come in of more than 70 workers deceasing on building sites. Workers are being paid every bit low as 50 % of the existent lower limit pay stipulated for Delhi. Most workers are being made to work for 12 hours directly without any overtime. Even more unfavorable judgment was garnered for the forming commission ‘s determination to house the labour off from public homes and traveling every bit far as censoring the populace from sing the cantonments where labourers live. This has made it impossible for human rights candidates to judge the existent state of affairs of labour conditions and the intervention they are having in footings of wellness criterions, etc. Safety norms are non followed, as the labourers have reportedly been issued safety helmets, but have ne’er been seen have oning them. While the building of the Games Village was in advancement, many studies floated in about profiteering by the Delhi Development Authority and private Real Estate companies, and about awful on the job conditions for workers.
The CWG undertakings have come at a cost higher than the existent money invested in them. Over 100,00 households have been evicted and their places flatted to the land to do manner for CWG undertakings. In add-on, many of these stateless people have been caught and put into prison to conform to the Bombay Prevention of Begging Act 1959!
In July 2010, Deputy High Commissioner of India in London, Rajesh N Prasas, wrote to the Sports Ministry about unaccounted sums upto 25,000 lbs that have reportedly been sent monthly from CWG, India, to AM Films, a company in UK. These charges were denied by Lalit Bhanot, Secretary General of the CWG Organizing Committee, who stated that no money has been paid improperly to UK houses and all minutess were made after clearance with the RBI. However, CWG Organizing Committee Chairman, Suresh Kalmadi, admitted that no contract had been signed with the UK organisation, which had seemingly been roped in at the last minute upon the recommendation of Indian High Commission ( which statement was negated by the High Commission ) . AM Films UK Ltd. had reportedly been hired by the Organizing Committee to supply substructure for the launch of the Queen ‘s Baton Relay at Buckingham Palace in London and they had been paid Rs. 3.28 crore ab initio and were being given Rs. 18 lakh every month for costume designing. At allegations that this money was unaccounted, Suresh Kalmadi was appalled and stated that he would originate legal action against those who had spread this rumour.
More research by governments into the background of AM Films led to its proprietor, Mr. Ashish Patel, who seems to hold repute for get downing and closing down concerns. He had received a notice for settlement of his company in July 2010 and he is on the ban list for enrollment of companies in UK. The house had been selected without any contract or stamp, and the account given for this is that the choice had to be made really fast to run into the demands for Queen ‘s Baton ceremonial.
The Central Vigilance Commission ( CVC ) claimed that there were large-scale procedural misdemeanors and corruptness in undertakings worth about Rs. 2000 crore ( US $ 400 million ) . About 16 undertakings have been studied exhaustively by the CVC including the CWG Village swimming pool, developing hall, athletic path which are under the duty of DDA, upgradation of Talkatora Stadium under the New Delhi Municipal Council, and legion plants under the Public Works Department and Municipal Corporation of Delhi ( MCD ) . The CVC has asked the CBI to register a corruptness instance against the concerned members of the MCD. Apparently, the command for street lighting was awarded to the contractor who quoted the lowest sum for the undertaking, but he was subsequently allowed to boost his rates to increase net incomes. The net incomes raked in by the contractor are assumed to be around Rs. 20 crores. This was merely one of the suspected instances and legion disagreements have been found like presenting of contracts to bidders at higher rates and granting of stamps to ineligible bureaus for building.
The Chief Minister of Delhi, Sheila Dikshit, nevertheless, claimed that the Games were on path and they Indian Government will be able to salvage money alternatively of overspending the manner they were continuing.
The locales for the clean events were meant to hold basic medical installations and equipment like stretchers, ultrasound machines, wheelchairs, etc. , to guarantee that the 10,000 participants and functionaries housed in them would have at least minimum attention before being rushed to a infirmary in instance of exigency. Commands received from world-renowned houses providing medical equipment were turned down on baseless charges and the victors of the stamps and the monetary values quoted by them were ne’er declared. The ground for such secrecy became known when allegations came to visible radiation that the authorities was buying merchandises and passing out stamps at about seven times their normal monetary value! Entirely in the medical equipment stamps, the Government has overpaid every bit much as Rs. 3.5 nucleuss ( US $ 700,000 ) .
Soap dispensers have been bought for Rs. 10,000 each, while market cost for the same is barely over Rs. 100. Toilet paper axial rotations have been purchased for Rs. 4000 each, alternatively of the Rs. 35 they are really deserving. The entire outgo for movanle adjustments and fixtures is estimated at over Rs. 600 crore while their existent worth is much less. The commands came from 4 foreign houses of which one seller, Nussli of Switzerland, was bear downing Rs. 187 for leasing out each soap dispenser, while a British pool house ESAJV, charged Rs. 9379 for the same. Similarly, while Hong Kong based Pico Deepali Overlays Consortium quoted Rs. 2 for each disposable glass, the ESAJV charged India Rs. 37 per glass. The 60 locales of games have been divided into “ bunchs ” which are being covered by these 4 selected bidders, despite the fact that their commands vary greatly. Members of the forming commissions reported that these 4 had been chosen as their commands were overall the lowest. Besides, they claimed that there may be difference of quality in the merchandises or some merchandises may be new while others would be refurbished or 2nd manus.
These affairs clearly show that corruptness was prevailing non simply in the Indian Organizing Committee, but besides amongst the foreign sellers who had no uncertainty paid immense “ committees ” in order to girth contracts and supply merchandises at sky high monetary values and play a portion in robbing the already hapless revenue enhancement remunerators of India.
The cost estimations for hosting the Commonwealth Games had been set at Rs. 1050 crores in 2003, and already the investing has crossed Rs. 10,000 crores. Clearly, it can non be simply misreckoning that could hold led to such grossly high disbursals. While in most instances, the Government bought the merchandises through a middle-man who made caches of money, attention must be taken to examine into the inquiry of why the authorities or forming commission accepted these stamps without looking at the other more suited and realistic 1s? It becomes clear that in most instances such “ errors ” or “ mistakes of judgement ” were knowing and the middle-man frequently paid committees to the procurement staff to guarantee that his command was selected.
The money, of class, comes from the revenue enhancement remunerators ‘ pockets and goes on to make full those of corrupt curates and astute business communities.
The CM ‘s promise of finishing CWG readyings by August has besides been unfulfilled. Important athleticss locales like the Yamuna Sports Complex, Talkatora Stadium and Karni Singh Shooting Range are still being renovated and building activities on roads linking the Jawaharlal Nehru bowl and the Games Village have already missed many deadlines. In add-on, the beautification of the metropolis by seting trees is besides dawdling behind agenda. Equally far as the metropolis Centre, Connaught Place is concerned, the topographic point has been dug up for redevelopment since last twelvemonth and is still in a cheapjack province. The DDA has categorically stated that the flats being renovated for the proficient staff of the games will non be completed before the games start. This is true for legion other undertakings that have seen major investings and are of strategic importance. Whether what could non hold been achieved in the four old ages since proclamation of India as locale for the Games can be completed in two months is yet to be seen.
As for Mr. Kalmadi, despite the legion allegations against him, he refuses to vacate and is non even being sacked for his money cabbaging strategies. Finally, the Prime Minister, Mr. Manmohan Singh has curtailed his powers and ensured that there is transparence in all his minutess.
CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS
It seems rather likely that the Commonwealth Games of 2010 will be unsuccessful, if they take topographic point at all, given the province of most of the featuring event bowl. Even if the Games do take topographic point, the image of Delhi, capital metropolis of India and the state ‘s pride is rather likely to be marred in the heads of visitants and squads everlastingly due to incomplete building work on roads, cheapjack substructure and installings even in the bowls itself and for the deficiency of sanitation installations in life quarters for jocks.
Given that the CWG 2010 was India ‘s opportunity to deliver itself in the eyes of the universe and to reinvent itself, it appears that the condemnable purpose of a few shrewd heads and the corrupt activities of those with power will guarantee that India remains, in the heads of many, a backward under-developed state that should non be risked upon as a prospective host state for anything even remotely of import.
It is recommended that Mr. Suresh Kalmadi be relieved of his responsibilities at the earliest and be punished, so as to put a good illustration for other corrupt curates. Besides alternatively of faulting each other and shouting over spilt milk, the Government can seek to be more careful making background cheques about those they do concern with, while presenting stamps and even while bordering timelines.
It would be a smart move to drop the work on undertakings that are hopelessly behind agenda and relocate the events to bowls that are in better form or nearing completion. The workers can besides be allocated to the undertakings that can be completed by the beginning of the CWG so that at least some of the marks are achieved. It is besides imperative that the CM gets realistic and hands over reins to more sure curates like Rahul Gandhi who are much more believable and have earned the regard of citizens. Not merely will this supply the people a true image of the CWG but will besides reconstruct the peoples ‘ religion in the authorities.
With morale running low both in India and in the participating states, the games need to be endorsed by outstanding personalities who are celebrated all over the universe. It is besides high clip for India to reconstitute its political scenario if it is to go a sure state in footings of patterns and policies.