Petroleum in the United Arab Emirates
The United Arab Emirates has a strong stable macroeconomic environment, as comparatively free trade along with fiscal policies and easy entree to skilled labour and merchandise markets. Furthermore, the UAE benefited from executive direction of big oil grosss, although the coincident accretion of foreign debt indicates the challenges for pull offing pecuniary policy. Consequently, this survey is to exemplify the chief challenge for the UAE is the proper crude oil policy, which it consist of opening more oil refinery, which is another valuable tool aligned with grosss over clip. This is besides, using the petroleum oil direction attack into more thrifty resources to the state.
The intent of this survey was to stress on the UAE crude oil resources variables that affect the growing of UAE economic system in general. This account serves as an of import addendum to the popular and predictable thought that oil gross direction public presentation brought about UAE economic system environment. This is besides the effect of such variables on these alterations that might go on into economic behaviour of UAE resources as they progress in the economic system environment. Furthermore, we will see in this record the fortunes oil militias is managed can impact positively on the public presentation of the UAE economic system. This is in add-on that the paper so develops options for economic system grosss conceptual scheme to turn to the above subject.
The estimated population for United Arab Emirates is about 4,950,000 people at the terminal of twelvemonth 2010. However, the age group distribution is harmonizing to the followers:
i‚§ First group for coevals of merely born kids to 14 old ages old, which is estimated around 20.4 % . This includes 518,838 male and 495,409 female.
i‚§ Second Group for a period from 15 old ages old to 64 old ages old, which is estimated around 78.7 % . This includes 2,870,826 male and 1,045,463 female.
i‚§ Third Group is for age above 65 old ages old, which is estimated around 0.9 % , which includes 28,993 male and 16,064 female.
Besides we have to taking under consideration that 73.9 % of the UAE population in the age group of 15 to 64 is non-local. Therefore, this can gave the alibi for the spread between the male and female in this peculiar age group.
About the cultural group, we do non observe any important difference in the cultural group for the bulk of the UAE citizen as more than 90 % of the UAE citizen are holding an Arab roots. However, the others with less than 10 % are originally coming from Iran with Persian roots and other Asiatic roots.
On the other manus, the UAE population distribution for the cultural groups can be illustrated as UAE national who are originally from Arab roots is estimated around 19 % , nevertheless, other Arabs who are chiefly from Egypt or Jordon ( Palestinian ) are stand foring 23 % , This is besides from South Asiatic 50 % ( Pakistani, Indian, and Bangladesh ) , other exiles which includes Westerners ( Europe and North America ) and East Asians ( chiefly from Philippine represents 8 % of the entire UAE population.
As we can state with the intent of the UAE is the second-largest Arab economic system farther, the universe ‘s fifth-biggest oil exporter. However, from its beginning, UAE has worked towards shape their success of external fiscal assets, through Abu Dhabi taking the mark on running the UAE ‘s oil militias every bit good, Dubai ‘s push for economic variegation.
UAE GDP for Year 2010 was Dhs. 736.263 billion and the non-oil sector contributed Dhs. 541 billion. Its rich and attractive investing quality distinguishes UAE. Although crude oil dominates the economic system of the UAE, Trade, Industry and Agriculture continue to show.
( Beginning: UAE Ministry of Economics and Planning )
Additionally, UAE is one of the largely unfastened economic systems within the Middle East besides, has been a member of the World Trade Organization since 1995. Therefore, UAE GDP intended for 2010 is at 2.3 % lifting within 3.4 % from last twelvemonth ‘s figures. Conversely, it has been approximated to ease the non-oil sectors of the economic system that have supplied towards 71.1 % of the whole UAE GDP for 2010. Still, it has been estimated that the UAE GDP will turn through 3.7 % for the extent of 2011.
About the Petroleum:
Within the UAE, oil and related industries account for two tierces of all economic activities. In the Emirate of Abu Dhabi, the oil and gas sector histories for approximately 80 % of the entire economic system.
While the history of oil and gas in the country dates back to the 1930s, the first oil find in Abu Dhabi was at the Bab onshore field in 1958. In 1959 oil was discovered offshore at the Umm Shaif field. Dubai discovered oil in 1966 at the offshore Fateh field, followed by the find of the South-West Fateh field in 1970. In Sharjah, the Mubarak oil field was discovered in 1972 and, in Ras Al Khaima, the Gulf Oil company discovered the seaward Saleh field in 1983. The first petroleum oil export was from Das Island to Great Britain on July 4, 1962.
Why it is of import:
Conversely, for the oil sector accounted for refering 29.1 per centum of the UAE GDP in 2010. Yet, local newspaper Gulf News projected that the oil gross of Emirate Abu Dhabi whose production histories in favour of about 94 per centum of the UAE petroleum oil mass produced, would carry through 100 billion USA dollars if the monetary value continued on high degree. However, the form seems impossible now.
Section 1 – Petroleum production, ingestion:
A member of the Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries ( OPEC ) , the UAE plays a decisive function in the planetary energy demand. The UAE ‘s militias of rough oil are estimated at 98 billion barrels. This accounts for the 4th largest ( 9.7 % ) militias in the universe after Saudi Arabia, Iraq and Iran. The oil sedimentations are located both onshore and offshore.
Production of rough oil in the UAE is limited by OPEC ‘s quota, which is now limited to 2.798 million bbl/day ( 2010 est. ) , of which 1.5 million bbl/day onshore Fieldss and 1.298 million bbl/day offshore Fieldss. On the other manus, 96 % of the full production is exported as rough oil at a assortment of 2.7 million bbl/day. However, the staying 4 % is refined. Furthermore, the Oil ingestion in UAE is about 435,000 bbl/day ( 2009 est. ) . Therefore, UAE is importing 192,900 bbl/day ( 2007 est. ) . Furthermore, the proven militias oil is 97.8 billion barrels ( 1 January 2010 est. ) . On the other manus, the Natural gas production is 50.24 billion coppers m ( 2008 est. ) . However, the natural gas ingestion in UAE is 59.42 billion coppers m ( 2008 est. ) . Further, the UAE exports Natural gas with the field of 7.567 billion coppers m ( 2008 est. ) . On the other manus, UAE imports Natural gas with the scope of 16.75 billion coppers m ( 2008 est. ) . Finally the proven militias of UAE Natural gas are estimated at the field of 6.071 trillion coppers m ( 1 January 2010 est. ) .
Section 2 – UAE Refineries:
At UAE, downstream enlargement of refineries, every bit good petrochemical workss, along with other allied industries has formed an integrated oil every bit good as gas sector. Indeed, the UAE has about five refineries among a corporate capableness of in surplus of 0.64 million barrels per twenty-four hours. Therefore, UAE can be counted as the 8th biggest manufacturer amongst the organisation of OPEC states. Taking such fact into consideration, the progressive accretion of polishing installation from the clip of 1980s has created the UAE a important staying exporter of such refined merchandises ; even though their contributes in the whole oil exports leftovers inhibited at refering 10 % , furthermore, it is on an increasing inclination. Additionally, the UAE has tactics to make an advanced refinery at Emirate of Fujairah in the thick of an ability to transport 300,000 barrels per twenty-four hours of rough oil.
Another facet to be taken into consideration besides, that four refineries out of the five UAE refineries are owned through the several emirates ; out of that, two refineries are a map through Abu Dhabi Oil Refining Company ( abbreviated as Takreer ) , owned via ADNOC: the Ruwais refinery, has a capableness of 145,000 million barrels per twenty-four hours of petroleum oil, plus 280,000 million barrels per twenty-four hours of condensate. Furthermore, Ruwais composite contains one of the Earth ‘s biggest crude oil industry composites, besides lodging every bit good oil and gas, in add-on to petrochemicals operations, along with measures of companies, which are serving both onshore every bit good as seaward oil and gas Fieldss ; the other, Abu Dhabi Refinery, has a capacity of 88,000 million barrels per twenty-four hours. Takreer ‘s refinement capacity more than doubled over 2000-04 to over 500,000 million barrels per twenty-four hours, doing it a important regional contractor. Further to that, The Emirates National Oil Company condensate refinery ( ENOC ) , which is owned by the Emirate of Dubai authorities, along with a map of 120,000 million barrels per twenty-four hours, started operations at Dubai within May 1999. Furthermore, Metro Oil, which is owned via the Government of Fujairah Emirate, has a capacity of a 90,000 million barrels per twenty-four hours refinery. A 71,250 million barrels per twenty-four hours in private owned derivative unit was built in Sharjah Emirate through the private Sharjah Oil Refining Company at the twelvemonth of 2001.
Section 3 – Analysis of UAE Refining Capacity:
It is being known widely that merchandises refined through Takreer are sold into widespread buyers, but at territory market monetary values through ADNOC ; local gross revenues are executed through ADNOC Distribution, an independent legal house in the ADNOC group of companies. A part of extra public companies advancing oil merchandises every bit good: merely like ENOC ( Dubai ) , every bit good Emirates ( federal authorities owned corporation ) , in add-on to Emirates Petroleum Products Company ( EPCO, which is owned via the Government of Dubai Emirate ) . Furthermore, Gasoline monetary values are controlled through the federal Government of the UAE and are the indistinguishable all the manner through the UAE state. This is as apart from 95 every bit good as 98 octane gasolene, which are promoted on Dh 1.84 and Dh 2.15 a liter, correspondingly, all locally refined oil merchandises ( merely like ; Diesel, naphtha, jet oil, bunkering oil, etc ) are promoted at market monetary values. On the other manus, Diesel is soon sold at Dh 2.8 per liter. Furthermore, about 6 million metric tons of refined oil merchandises per annum are sold locally, half of the sum of exports.
Furthermore, refineries in UAE are enduring from many jobs such like:
1 ) Although UAE is a major universe manufacturer of oil and gas, but their refineries are acquiring their demands of petroleum oil from external beginnings. Therefore it is extremely required to seek this job and happening an appropriate solution for it by a adept attack.
2 ) The transit of both the petroleum oil every bit good as the refined merchandises has to be organized in a proper mode such like increasing the installations of grapevines more than trucks on the roads.
3 ) Since the monetary values are so fluctuated, as the refineries buy the petroleum oil at the international monetary values. However, they sell it at a authorities fix monetary value. Therefore the authorities should back up the refined merchandise monetary values such like all the vicinity Gulf states.
Harmonizing to the UAE which, refering the beginning yearss of oil finds, has illustrated its consideration of the necessities for go oning development within the oil industry in the state in order to maintain gait within the people at criterion over and above the necessitate to execute hard for an adding utile in add-on to economic production, is ideally suited to serving as a accelerator for the research required to develop oil merchandises to the rigorous environmental ordinances of the 21st century. This is beside the given that the UAE ‘s finding to keep its topographic point among those states that are able to place the necessity of oil manufacturers to accommodate to altering fortunes and client demands, furthermore, it may look frontward to several extra decennaries in which its oil every bit good as gas industries will offer a secure and magnetic foundation for economic growing.