Ngos Poverty Alleviation Sub Saharan Africa Roles Challenges Economics Essay

NGOs are active histrions since the Second World War. Their functions are diversified and limitless. They penetrate in all sectors of human development, and that of poorness relief. Due to their diversified functions they play toward relieving poorness among rural hapless, they besides do through the usage of techniques and accomplishments.

NGOs have been involved in open uping new attacks to run intoing the demands and work outing jobs in society. In recent old ages, they have been at the Centre of renewed searched for sustainable procedures of societal, environmental and economic development and action in issues such as democracy, human rights, gender equity and poorness. NGOs hence play an of import and alone function in poorness relief in Sub Saharan Africa.

In a command to put to death their poorness relief programme in Sub-Saharan Africa, different schemes are adopted in other to implement their programmes. They played two distinguishable functions at macro and micro degrees. These two functions are seen as important attacks toward poorness relief.

3.1- NGOs ‘ ROLES IN POVERTY ALLEVIATION

With regard to relieving poorness among the hapless, different attacks, schemes and methods are adopted and used by NGOs. These techniques to some extent have yielded good consequences in the extenuation of hungriness, famishment and want in Sub-saharan African.

In assisting the hapless to mount out of poorness, NGOs use two attacks: supply-side and demand-side ( Clark, 1995 ) . In a parallel sense, Fowler ( 1997 ) identifies two types of NGO undertakings: micro-tasks and macro-tasks. From the supply-side ; NGOs offer different sorts of basic public services to the hapless. It is argued that particularly in states where authorities lack public services, NGOs play a momentous function in the direct proviso of societal and economic services. In general, NGOs emerge and play the functions as service suppliers.

Unlike the supply-side attack where NGOs straight supply services to the people, the demand-side NGOs drama indirect functions. The demand-side function of NGOs can be seen as being an articulator of the people ‘s ‘voice ‘ . NGOs mobilize and clear up the demand for services, from both the authorities and the community, so that the people are able to accomplish its development ends.

In the context of service bringing, by and large, NGOs seek to better the entree of the people to the services provided by the province. NGOs besides engage in policy protagonism to act upon public policies refering the hapless people. Policy protagonism is one important facet of society that has produced some negative consequence in many African states.

In line with this attack, NGO ‘s have developed assorted schemes to act upon the procedure of public policy devising and to command the execution of development plans or undertakings. This is besides an country into which NGOs have been traveling during the 1990s when they revised and re-strategized to travel off from direct service bringing and prioritized policy protagonism and lobbying ( Hulme, 2001: 136-142 ) . Prior to the inflow of NGOs, many policies that have been agreed upon yielded no good fruit as it lead to the devastation of many provinces. It has been argued that most policies merely catered for the halves go forthing bulk of the population uncatered for, and has led to much civil agitation. In order to turn to the issue of policy, NGOs are now seeing at the bow forepart of dialogue tabular arraies for proper policy devising and are besides seeing in forepart as chief implementers of these policies.

Clark ( 1995 ) identifies some possible NGO parts by using the demand-side attack as follows: “ Such NGOs assisted citizens in happening out about their development and poorness related activities of the authorities and others which might impact them ; they use advocacy and political influence to keep local functionaries accountable for activities ( or inaction ) which are damaging to the hapless ; they help communities mobilise and organize societies to show their concerns, and assist guard against reprisals ; they constructed a euphory in which functionaries can confer with people about development programs and listen to options presented by the people ; and they help guarantee that persons disadvantaged by authorities determinations have merely compensation, negotiates with affected parties ” ( Clark, 1995: 345 ) .

These two attacks are non reciprocally sole. Of recent, NGO ‘s incorporated these two attacks for increasing their effectivity to cut down poorness.

In pattern, NGOs can work on either of the sides, supply and the demand sides and even hammer the linkages between the two sides.

The latter is emphasized by Fowler ( 1997 ) by reasoning that it is necessary for NGOs to do a linkage between micro-tasks consisting of proviso of goods, of societal and of fiscal services, capacity edifice, procedure facilitation, and furthering linkages, and macro-tasks dwelling of policy protagonism, lobbying, public instruction and mobilisation, supervising conformity, and rapprochement and mediation ( Fowler, 1997: 12-16 ) .

It should be concluded hence, that NGOs play several functions. Their function as service suppliers, implementers, proctors, judges for effectual poorness relief still remain unquestionable. Hence, the intent of this research is to do an analysis on NGO and their function. In the Chapter four of this research work, will analyse NGOs function in production.

3.2. Analysis OF NGOs ‘ ROLE IN POVERTY ALLEVIATION IN SUB-SAHARAN AFRICA ( CASE STUDIES OF CARITAS SIERRA LEONE )

3.2.1 AGRICULTURAL SECTOR

The study highlights the agricultural plan, implemented by Caritas Sierra Leone, in Sierra Leone in the Eastern Region in three Districts.

In the 2003-2004 Cropping Season supported by Caritas Germany Donor, The Caritas Germany plan supported 1110 farm households through Caritas Sierra Leone in the Kenema District.

TABLE3. 1.CARITAS SIERRA LEONE PROGRAM SUPPORTED 1110 FARM FAMILIES -2003

Donor

DISTRICT

CHIEFDOMS

NUM. OF FARM FAMILIES

Caritas

Germany

Kenema

Nongowa

Dama

Small Bo

Dodo

400

400

100

200

Grand sum

1110

Beginning -Caritas Sierra Leone

So far four major activities have been undertaken to implement agribusiness programme. These are:

Base line Survey

Input Distribution

Monitoring

Field Extension

The program of activities was prepared by the Field Supervisor and the Agricultural supervisor and presented to the Administrative Officer for blessing. The base line study was done by the Field Extension Workers ( FEW ) . Besides, the bringing of Extension Service ( which is ongoing ) is being undertaken by the FEW.

The Monitoring exercising is being undertaken by the targeted communities in January/February 2004.

3.2.2 BASELINE SURVEY

The Baseline Survey/ Farms Registration were done in all the targeted communities in January/ February2004.

The husbandmans targeted were chiefly farm household caputs shacking in either relocated communities of IDP cantonments in the targeted chiefdoms. Certain standards were use 500 to select/register the husbandmans including the followers:

That merely the Farm Family Head is listed down

That precedence is given to the most vulnerable, such as those who are husbandmans but have no entree to basic production inputs such as seeds/planting stuffs and tools.

That the Farm Family Head has a minimal household labour force to cultivate at least two estates of land.

That the Farm Family Heads have entree to free piece of land to cultivate in the vicinity.

Precedence was besides given to adult females and widow Headed Farm Families.

The donees in Nongowa and Dama Chiefdom in the Kenema District were registered and served in the internally displaced locations i.e. in relocated village/town communities.

Table3.2. Base Line Survey for Farm Families Heads: 2004

DISTRICT

Kenema

CHIEFDOM

# OF COMMUNITIES/

TOWN/VILLAGE/CAMPS

# OF FARM FAMILIES

Nongowa

7

2 Camps

200

200

Dama

12

2 Camps

200

200

Dodo

11

200

Small Bo

1 Camp

100

GRAND TOTAL

1100

Source-caritas, Sierra Leone

A fixed Farm Family instance burden of 200 was allocated for all relocated communities and 100 farm household from each cantonment in every mark Chiefdom.

However, the figure of communities per Chiefdom was hot fixed. Few communities were selected from Chiefdoms with big towns/villages e.g. Nongowa, and more from little Chiefdoms with smaller towns/ small towns e.g. Dodo.

3.2.3 INPUT DISTRIBUTION

THE Caritas programme provided assorted types of Agriculture inputs for the 1100 targeted farm households. These were seed rice, tools and seting stuffs ( sweet murphy vine and cassava film editings )

Table 3.3. THE RATION SIZE PER FARM FAMILY-2002

No

Input signal

Unit of measurement

RATION SIZE

1

Seed rice

Bag + 1.5 bushels

1 ”

2

Straight cutlass

Piece

1 ”

3

Curved cutlass

Piece

1 ”

4

Large hoe

Piece

1 ”

5

Small hoe

Piece

1 ”

6

Felling Axe

Piece

1 ”

7

Sweet murphy vines

Bags

1 ”

8

Cassava film editings

Packages

1 ”

Source- Caritas Sierra Leone

The day of the month of the input distribution started in the 13th June 2001 and ended on the 29th July 2001.an analysis of the input distribution is given in the tabular array below.

Table 3.4- INPUT DISTRIBUTION AND LOCATION-2002

District

Chiefdom

Location

INPUTS DISTRIBUTED

( # of communities )

Kenema.

Nongowa

7 Towns/

Villages

Targeted donees

( # of farm households )

Seed rice ( bags+1.5 bushels )

Potato vines ( bags )

Cassava

Film editings ( packages )

Curved cutlass

Straight

cutlass

Large hole

Small hole

Felling Axs

Nongowa

2 Camps

200

200

200

200

200

200

200

200

200

Dama

12 Towns/

Villages

200

200

200

200

200

200

200

200

200

Dama

200

200

200

200

200

200

200

200

200

Dodo

11 Towns/

Villages

200

200

200

200

200

200

200

200

200

Small- Bo

1Camp

100

100

100

100

100

100

100

100

100

GRAND TOTAL

1100

1100

1100

1100

1100

1100

1100

1100

1100

Source- Caritas Sierra Leone

3.2.4 Monitoring AND Extension

The monitoring exercising started since 30th July2001. The targeted communities ( including displaced cantonments ) the Nongowa, Dodo and Small Bo Chiefdoms are being visited.

The motivation fundamentally is to happen out

How far the FEW were able to successfully present the inputs to the donees.

The Extent of extended services being delivered to the husbandmans.

How far the donees have been able to properly grip and use the inputs received services render them by FEW.

Reasonable histories can now be given to the undermentioned activities.

Timely conductivity of Base line study.

Successful bringing and distribution of all inputs provided for the donees.

The husbandman s accepted and described the inputs as good.

Cultivation of the seeds and seting stuffs provided for the husbandmans now in advancement. Transplant of seeds rice had been completed in most of the farms. The cassava film editings and murphy vines had besides been planted. All three ( 3 ) harvests were shooting good.

3.2.5 CROP PRODUCTION

The harvests cultivated by the targeted donees included highland and IVS rice, maize, manioc, and miscellaneous veggies. Entire land area cultivated for each of the harvest by farm households and by all the donees combined is shown below:

TABLE3. 5- THE TOTAL ACREAGE CULTIVATED FOR EACH OF THE CROP BY FARM FAMILIES-2004

TYPES OF CROP

No. OF BENEFICIARIES

No, OF ACRES PLANTED FOR F/F

Entire No. OF ACRES PLANTED

Upland rice

2775

1.0

2775

Inland vale swamp IVS ( sees bank )

1400

1.5

2100

Inland Valley Swamp IVS ( Procured )

1375

1.0

1375

Maize

2775

1.0

2775

Cassava

2775

0.5

1387.5

Sum

5.0

10412.5

Beginning: Ministry of Sierra Leone Country ‘s profile.www.sierra.sl.com

Through archives examination of Caritas certification and cross-examination of Ministry of Agriculture Forestry and Food Security desk and archives, were used to find output for each of the harvests on norm, and from research worker ‘s findings, the followers was observed.

Table3. 6-TOTAL Output PER CROP-2003

TYPES OF CROPS

Entire AVERAGE

PLANTED

Average YIELDEDPER ACRE

Entire Output

Highland

2775

12.7 bushels

35242.5 bushels

Four

3475

17.4 bushels

60465 bushels

Cassava

1387.5

13.1 bushels

18176.25 bags

Maize

2775

160 hazelnut

444000 hazelnut

Beginning -Caritas Sierra Leone

TABLE3. 7- SEED LOAN RECOVERY-2004

CHIEFDOM

QTY OF SEED RICE ON LOAN

QTY OF SEED RICE RECOVERY

% Recovery

LOWER Bambara

760

686

98

Dama

288

2790

97

Dodo

320

294

98

Nongowa

240

216

90

Average

95 %

Beginning: Caritas- Sierra Leone

The undertaking end product was used in several ways by the husbandmans. The crop from the seed rice was used for place ingestion, refund of seed loans, proviso of seed stock for subsequent planting season and gross revenues. The harvest signifier manioc, maize, and veggies were used for gross revenues, place ingestion and seed seting stock.

The sale of some of the crop allowed the husbandmans obtained money to run into other family demands to better on their societal economic position.

The grain shops are soon being used for hive awaying agricultural inputs and seeds. In 2004/05, some constituent was formed under the agricultural sector. For this constituent, 25 Liberian refugees ‘ farm households were identified and registered. Shown in the tabular array below, the demographic profile of the donees ( household caputs ) .

3.2.6 SEED LOAN RECOVERY

Farmers were provided with seed rice on the status that after harvest the same measure that was received will be paid. An estimation of 95 % of seed burden recovery was achieved. The seed tonss were collected in all communities covered. The loans collected were deposited into seed bank established in the several communities. These loans allow communities have stock of seeds from which seed loans could be obtained by interested community members for future planting season. See full detailed analysis on the seed loan below.

Table 3.8 – THE LIBERIAN REFUGEE FARM FAMILIES REGISTERED-2004-2005

Sexual activity

15-25 year

25-35 year

36-59 year

60 +

Sum

Percentage

Male

0

4

10

5

19

76.0

Female

1

2

3

0

6

24.0

Entire

1

6

13

5

25

per centum

4.0

24.0

52.0

20.0

100.0

Beginning: caritas, Sierra Leone

The 25 Farm Family Heads have a sum of 142 family household members/ dependants.

Table 3.9 – AGRICULTURAL INPUTS WERE GIVEN TO EACH FARM FAMILY HEAD-2004/05

No.

Tool

Measure

No.

SEED/PLANTING Materials

Measure

1

curved cutlass

1

1

IVS rice

1 Bushel

2

Straight cutlass

1

2

Maize

A? kg

3

Small hoes

1

3

Assorted veggies

1 kit

4

Large hoes

1

4

Cassava film editings

1 package

5

Watering tins

1

5

Potato vines

1 bag

6

Shovels

2

0

7

Wheel barrows

1

Beginning: Caritas, Sierra Leone

Table 3.10 -TOTALLAND CULTIVATED ( M2 ) CROP-2000-06.

No

Crop

Measure

SUPPLIED

Area

CULTIVATED

( M2 )

Output

PER FAMILY

Entire Output

1

IVS Rice

625 kilogram

10,200 M2

37.5 kilogram

9,375 kilogram

( 625 Bushels )

2

12.5 Kg

5,000 M2

250 kilogram

3

25 Packages

3,000 M2

1.5 ( 50 kilogram ) bags

4

25 Bags

3.036 M2

25 ( 50 kilogram ) bags

5

Assorted Vegetable

25 Kits

2,024 M2

50,000 ( 1 kits )

1,250

( 25kits ) at cost of Le 50,000 per kit

Source- Caritas Sierra Leone

3.3 EDUCATIONAL SECTOR

3.3.1. Skills Training

This sub-project was initiated with the purpose of authorising Refugee Youths between 17-35 old ages to go an plus to their communities and doing pregnant parts to the development of their several communities whether they return. Trainees were identified among the Liberian Refugees population in coaction with the Liberian Executive and developing garb was rented at No. 18 Sesay Street, Sierra Leone, where the undermentioned accomplishments options were conducted: Tailoring, Gara Tie Dyeing, Soap production, Hair Dressing, Carpentry and Small Engine care. Quality preparation stuffs were produced and made available to the Centre for the different accomplishments through the Liberian Executive.

110 TRAINEES WERE REGISTERED FOR THE SKILLS

Table 3.11 – A Sum OF Training 2001-2003

Component

EXPECTED TARGET

REGISTERED TARGET

Meter

F

Entire

Meter

F

Entire

1.

Tailoring

15

15

30

3

27

30

2.

Gara-Tie-Dyeing

10

10

20

20

20

3.

Soap production

10

10

20

20

20

4.

Hair Dressing

5

15

20

20

20

5.

Small Engine Maintenance

7

3

10

10

10

6.

Carpentry

5

5

10

10

10

Entire

52

58

110

23

87

110

SOURCE-CARITAS SIERA LEONE

Table 3.12 – DEMOGRAPHIC BREAKDOWN OF THE REGISTERED TRAINEES 2001-2003

Sexual activity

15-24yrs

29-39yrs

40-59yrs

60+ year

Entire

Percentage

Male

18

5

23

20.9

Female

55

30

2

87

79.1

Entire

73

35

2

110

Percentage

66.4

31.8

1.8

100

Beginning: Caritas Sierra Leone

Caritas Sierra Leone engaged two field supervisors and one Social Worker to supervise the activities. Specialized trainers were besides engaged in the assorted preparation option.

Table 3.13 – Number OF TRAINERS BY SKILL 2001-2003

NO

Skill

NUMBER OF TRAINEEE

NUMBER OF TRAINERS

1.

Soap production

30

2

2.

Gara-Tie-Dyeing

20

2

3.

Tailoring

30

3

4.

Hair Dressing

20

2

5.

Carpentry

10

1

6.

Small Engine care

10

1

Entire

110

11Source-Caritas Sierra Leone

Educational Officer

In coaction with the Liberian Executives, Caritas Sierra Leone pointed Educational Officer registered 820 Liberian Refugee pupils for support in 2004/05 academic twelvemonth. 481 of these were supported in the primary schools out of which 245 were male childs and 236 were misss. 339 secondary school pupils were supported out of which 231 were male childs and 108 misss.

Table 3.14 – THE DISTRIBUTION OF THE STUDENTS ACCORDING TO GRADES AND AGES-2004/05

Age

GRADES

1

2

3

4

5

6

Entire

%

6-11yrs

29

71

83

46

56

17

302

63

12+ year

5

17

35

66

56

179

37

Entire

29

76

100

81

122

73

481

Percentage

6

16

21

17

25

15

100

Beginning: Caritas Sierra Leone.

As seen in the tabular array, above 63 % of the primary school pupils supported are between the ages 6-11yrs while 37 % are above 12 old ages. Of the 302 pupils under 12 old ages, 153 ( 51 % ) are boys and 149 ( 49 % ) are girls. Of the 179 pupils over 11 old ages, 90 ( 50 % ) are boys and 89 ( 50 % ) are misss.

An estimation of 58 % of the secondary school pupils supported is between the ages 12-17 old ages and 42 % are above 17 old ages. Below is the distribution of the pupils harmonizing to age and class:

Table 3.15 – THE DISTRIBUTION OF THE STUDENTS ACCORDING TO GRADES AND AGES-2004/05

AGE GROUP

GRADES

7

8

9

10

11

12

Entire

%

12-17yrs.

78

75

38

4

3

198

58

17+ year.

11

31

31

26

21

21

141

42

Entire

89

106

69

26

24

24

339

Percentage

26

31

20

8

7

7

100

Beginning: Caritas Sierra Leone

Among the 339 refugee pupils supported and between 12-17 old ages, 126 ( 63 % ) are boys and 40 ( 28 % ) are misss.

A sum of 110 refugee ( grownups ) registered for the Adult Literacy Program ( 52 males and 58 females ) and were all distributed to the assorted degree of the plan harmonizing to their output/progress.

Out of this sum ( 110 ) , 70 ( 64 % ) are between 15-24 old ages and 40 ( 36 % ) are 25+ old ages. The library continued to supply utile services to refugee school kids, largely those in secondary who could non buy the prescribed reading stuffs in their schools. A sum of 1,829 pupils visited the library during the twelvemonth.

3.4. HEALTH SECTOR

3.4.1. PRIMARY HEALTH CARE SERVICES- HIV/AIDS PREVENTION 2002-2008

The Caritas Sierra Leone Health undertook the Primary Health Care programme, uses the undermentioned attacks in the HIV/AIDS bar Education Strategy:

Sponsoring immature instrumentalists to compose vocals turn toing HIV/AIDS prevention/ attention and stigma ;

Working through adult females ‘s groups such as Hunbgtateh Women ‘s Association in Kenema Town which conduct preparation in assorted accomplishment aiming dropouts, commercial sex workers, miss female parent, and female supported family ;

Preventing HIV/AIDS bar through Audio-Visual shows, talk and function drama to establishments TBA ‘s, mothers a clinics yearss, young persons and grownup in the communities etc ; and utilizing the platform of World Aids Day for HIV/AIDS sensitisation activities.

3.4.2. CLINIC ACTIVITIES

A entire figure of 172,145 Liberian refugees patient received intervention between March 2001 and May 2003 at Caritas supported clinics in the Kenema District. The reported clinical mortality rate was 0.14 % that is, 155 under five and 123 grownups. Malaria leads with 30 % of Acute Respiratory Infection ( ARI ) and pneumonia, 10 % of adult females infestation, 80 % skin infection, 17 % diarrhoea and dysentery, 6 % anaemia, and 5 % of Sexually Transmitted Infection ( STI ) .

Maternal and Child Health Aids assigned by the Ministry of Health and Sanitation to the 30 clinics constructed and supported by Caritas in the Kenema District assisted in 2,683 bringings 22 were maternal deceases and five 100s and 20 unnatural bringing were reported from the clinics.

The Traditional Birth Attendants ( TBAs ) reported 2,476 normal were trained in the Kenema District and given obstetrics supplied by UNICEF.

3.4.3. WATER AND SANITATION PROJECT

Thirty new Wellss were constructed at assorted clinics location in the Kenema District. A sum of 26 old Wellss were rehabilitated profiting an norm of three 100 people per good.

In add-on, four new gravitation H2O systems were complemented two at the Dodo and Nongowa Chiefdoms in the Kenema District. As mentioned in above, NGOs functions are diverse in nature.

3.5. SUMMARY OF ANALYSES

From the above analysis, it clearly shows that Caritas Sierra Leone, has been working in the state during its extremum of war, and has contributed vastly to the state ‘s poverty obliteration thrust. Sierra Leone is unusually known for her profusion in natural resources, and fertile land, but this glorification has been abandoned for long because of the war. The analysis in the agricultural sector and the result consequence shows how agribusiness is of importance to the people of Sierra Leone. The distribution of agricultural stuffs for planting and the proviso of agricultural merchandises to husbandmans, demonstrated how Caritas Sierra Leone, prioritizes nutrient security as an betterment in this sector will assist fight hungriness.

Sierra Leone instruction system is one that has contributed to its low ranking on the development index, as 3rd to last on poorness line. The state ‘s educational degeneration as non merely left the immature coevals with no hereafter, but instead, has made the state ‘s lost her academic place from being the “ Anthems of Africa ” , to merely an ordinary position as any other African state.

Caritas Sierra Leone, from the above analysis, has proved that betterment in the educational sector ; is another method that will be utile in the obliteration of poorness. Since the state experiences a traumatic phase that saw the inflow of Liberian refugees, and left the state with 90 % of the entire population as internally displaced individuals, there was every demand for such intercession into the educational field. The above mentioned analysis shows the degree and class of people that needed educational attending. Young persons are frequently referred to as the hereafter of every state ; therefore, if the majority of them are left uncatered for, there is a inclination that the hereafter of that state will be bleak in a mere hereafter. Therefore Caritas recognizing this, saw the demand of directing and concentrating on the sector particularly at the clip when the state was sing and traveling through a tough clip ; and when the economic system was non plenty to see the sector. However, Caritas was able to do a 90 % accomplishment in that sector.

Another sector from looking at the analysis saw Caritas engagement was the wellness sector. As this sector frequently considered as an of import sector to every development, as wellness, they say is life, needed equal attending. The influx of refugees in the state, coupled with state ‘s really ain war, left a great catastrophe and increased the figure of HIV/AIDS patients in the state. Therefore, Caritas Sierra Leone thought it suit to hold some intercession. Thus is clearly seen their methods and schemes combat with the proviso of free medical services for the refugees and internally displaced individuals became donees of the undertaking.

Therefore, it is deserving stating that Caritas so complemented the authorities attempts toward poorness relief in the state.

However, though the above analyses have shown how Caritas Sierra Leone contributed to the state ‘s battle against poorness, yet many has reserve on their functions.

First, Sierra Leone is non merely Eastern Province, but the analysis shows that Caritas Sierra Leone was seen runing merely in the E. The ground is that every NGO has got its authorization and focal point, Caritas Sierra Leone, is non an exclusion. It has been noted that Caritas should farther beef up their operational zones and non merely restricting their plants in the Kenema territory.

Second, it has been observed that Caritas Sierra Leone, entire figure of donees is excessively little and that it needed to better on the figure of their mark group. If this is done, so the emancipation of human agony will be felt.

In decision, I think Caritas Sierra Leone, still necessitate a great trade of betterment in the three identified sectors which they have operated though with scarce resources. Caritas Sierra Leone is merely but a local NGO that is fight had to run into the demand of eliminating poorness in the state. Hence they need to happen a more funding beginning. This of class could merely be achieved through the type and sort of undertaking the intend project that ids giver funded driven.