Presidential Greatness-Fdr

Presidential Greatness: An Analysis of FDR’s Presidency Presidential greatness has many aspects, but it primarily means demonstrating effective, inspiring, visionary, and transformational leadership in times of great challenge and crisis. There have been many effective presidents, but there have only been a few great presidents because simply being effective and successful does not make one a great president.

The distinction between presidential effectiveness and presidential greatness is that presidential greatness can only be attained when the exceptional leadership, visionary, and transformational accomplishments of a president have a long-term positive impact and change the course of American history. Franklin D. Roosevelt achieved presidential greatness because he led the United States out of the Great Depression and to victory in the Second World War.

His transformational accomplishments during his four terms as president changed the course of American history because his comprehensive reform of the economic and banking systems revived the shattered economy and generated decades of prosperity. Also, his visionary leadership during the Second World War transformed the United States from an isolationist nation into a global superpower. FDR was also one of the nation’s great presidents for a number of other reasons.

He was the first and only president to be elected to an unprecedented four terms in office, (Some believe he might have even reached a fifth term if he hadn’t died in office) handing over the presidency to Harry Truman, He reacted bravely to the national emergency of Pearl Harbor, which entered the country into World War II, As mentioned before, he resurrected the country from the Great Depression, and he was the nation’s only disabled president. His presidency accomplished a great deal, and many of the programs he implemented while in office are still in place today.

Franklin Roosevelt was born in Hyde Park, New York on January 30, 1882, his parents were James Roosevelt and Sara Delanor Roosevelt, and he was an only child (of his father’s second marriage. He did have a much older brother who died in 1927). He did not attend traditional elementary schools or other schools because he had tutors and his parents taught him until he entered preparatory school. His parents were extremely wealthy; some considered them the “aristocracy” of American society. One iographer writes about his very privileged youth and notes, “His first trip to Europe, at the age of two, years, was followed by annum voyages between his eighth and fourteenth birthdays. At fourteen he was enrolled in the fashionable Groton School, and four years later he entered Harvard College” (Abbott 1990). He attended Groton from 1896 to 1900, and received a BA in history from Harvard in only three years, from 1900 to 1903. He studied law at Columbia University in New York where he never received a degree, but still passed the bar in 1907.

He practiced law in New York City for three years, and entered politics in 1910, when he ran for the New York State Senate and was elected. From then on, most of his life was spent in politics and public service (Biography 2007). In 1905, he married his distant cousin, Anna Eleanor Roosevelt (the niece of former president Teddy Roosevelt), and they had six children; unfortunately, one died in infancy. The survivors included Anna, born in 1906, James in 1907, Elliott in 1910, Franklin, Jr. in 1914, and John in 1916.

His wife, known as Eleanor, would become one of the most famous first ladies in her own right, and is given much of the credit for Roosevelt re-entering politics after he contracted polio in 1921 Abbott 1990). Roosevelt was re-elected to the New York Senate in 1912, and began to receive national attention from the Democratic Party during this time. He supported Woodrow Wilson in the presidential election of 1912 and as a reward, Wilson named Roosevelt the Assistant Secretary of the Navy in 1913, a position he held until 1920 (Abbott 1990).

This experience, which occurred during World War I, helped prepare him for dealing with World War II when he was president. In 1920, the Democratic Party offered him the position of Vice-President on the Democratic ticket, but Wilson’s foreign policies were unpopular, and Warren G. Harding was elected to office. As a result, for the first time since his Senate election, Roosevelt went back into private life (Biography 2007). This was perhaps the most influential and demanding time in Roosevelt’s life. Up until 1921, he had been a vigorous and healthy young man, enjoying sports as well as intellectual pursuits.

However, during a vacation at Campobello Island in New Brunswick, Roosevelt fell ill. He had contracted polio, and the disease paralyzed his legs. While he could sometimes struggle to his feet with the aid of canes or crutches, he spent the majority of the rest of his life in a wheelchair. He was only thirty-nine when he was stricken with the disease, but with encouragement from his wife and friends, he convalesced and then re-entered the political arena (Abbott 1990). In 1924, he nominated New York Governor Alfred E. Smith for the presidency.

Smith lost the nomination, but ran again in 1928; when he suggested Roosevelt replace him as governor. Roosevelt won the election for New York Governor in 1928, and was re-elected in 1930. In 1932, he was nominated as the Democratic candidate for the Presidency, which he won, defeating Herbert Hoover (Abbott 1990). One of the reasons Roosevelt was elected was his no-nonsense approach to the Great Depression that was gripping the country after the stock market crash in 1929. His solutions were unique, but they are lasting legacies to the man, his vision, and his approach to problems (Walker 2003).

Roosevelt knew the American people wanted a solution from the terrible days of the Great Depression. His first act as president was to create a special session of Congress that he called “The First Hundred Days. ” During these first one hundred days in office, he was determined to make sweeping changes that would help end the depression and get Americans back to work (Biography 2007). These first hundred days in office accomplished a wide variety of goals and objectives, and created many new government agencies set to deal with the economy, employment, and agriculture.

Some of the agencies he created in these first hundred days include the AAA which is the Agricultural Adjustment Administration to support farm prices and get people back to farming and agriculture, the CCC which is the Civilian Conservation Corps that employed young men across the country in forests and other natural areas, the FDIC which is the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation to ensure funds in banks were ensured and the banks would not fail again, and the NRA which is the National Recovery Act that encouraged industry to voluntarily raise wages, regulate hours, and create employment (Biography 2007.

Roosevelt approached the Great Depression head on, creating a variety of measures set to get people back to work while shoring up the economy. One of the greatest problems of the Great Depression was severe unemployment, so Roosevelt created government agencies to put people back to work. However, another problem had been widespread bank failure because people rushed to the banks to take out their money all at once, and the banks could not cover all the deposits. When Roosevelt was inaugurated on March 4, 1933, the first thing he did was close all the banks n America on March 6 (Abbott 1990. They remained closed for one month to help them regain their equilibrium and funding. In an address to the nation in July 1933, he said, “One month later ninety per cent of the deposits in the national banks had been made available to the depositors. Today only about five per cent of the deposits in national banks are still tied up” (Roosevelt 1946). He also implemented the FDIC (still in existence today) to ensure the deposits in all banks are ensured in case of a disaster or panic; he knew this was a major priority of the first hundred days.

In his inaugural address to the nation he said, “In our progress toward a resumption of work, we require two safeguards against a return of the evils of the old order: there must be a strict supervision of all banking and credits and investments, so that there will be an end to speculation with other people’s money; and there must be provision for an adequate but sound currency” (Roosevelt 1946). Banking was at the forefront of his policies in the first hundred days, but there were many other priorities, as well.

In addition to closing the banks and implementing many new federal agencies during the first hundred days, he and Congress drafted legislation regarding mortgages and loans. They created the Home Loan Act, the Farm Loan Act, and the Bankruptcy Act, which all helped safeguard property owners and workers who were out of work. There were also stricter regulations for the stock market, which had essentially created the Great Depression when it crashed in October 1929. He also created the Federal Emergency Relief Administration (FERA), which Congress allocated millions of dollars to help those in the most need around the country Biography 2007).

However, Roosevelt did not sit back after the first one hundred days in office. The Great Depression essentially continued throughout the 30s until the advent of World War II, and because of this, Roosevelt continued to create programs and agencies that would help the country get back on its feet throughout his administrations. Roosevelt knew one hundred days would not be enough to cure the ills of the country, and so, he created new policies throughout his first administration. Many of these policies are referred to as the New Deal, which continued through 1936 and the next presidential election.

Some of the most meaningful legislation that occurred during the New Deal was the Works Projects Administration (WPA), which was a far-reaching program to put Americans back to work. The WPA implemented a huge building program including dams and other public works projects that employed Americans all over the country; it was a time of massive exploration and building, from highways to public buildings and monuments. The project was meant to put blue-collar workers back to work, but it also designated programs for artists, photographers, writers, and other creative white-collar workers who were also desperate for work (Abbott 1990).

The New Deal also created various social programs aimed at helping people get back to work, but also to ensure all those in society were taken care of. Roosevelt created the Social Security Act in 1935 that would provide monthly payments to everyone over the age of 65, and would provide benefits to surviving spouses and disabled people as well; The Social Security Act is still in existence today and still provides income and assistance for millions of Americans. One writer calls Social Security one of Roosevelt’s most enduring legacies.

He writes, “Roosevelt’s other profound legacy, the transformation of the federal government into an instrument of income redistribution through Social Security, which established the responsibility of the state for the welfare of its elderly citizens” (Walker 2003). It was relatively unheard of at the time, and it is one of Roosevelt’s enduring legacies. Many of these programs were initiated by Roosevelt and his advisors and then sent to Congress, while Congress passed and modified several acts on their own.

Much of this depended on Roosevelt closely working with Congress and selling his policies to the American people, which he did with weekly radio broadcasts that he called “Fireside Chats. ” Many of these “chats” have been preserved on tape and in print, and they show a man who was determined to end the depression and put Americans back to work, no matter the cost or difficulties involved. Many critics of Roosevelt and his policies felt his policies were too liberal or socialistic, and that he put the country in deficit spending.

As the country began to slowly emerge from the Great Depression, production and jobs did begin to increase, but it was the war in Europe that really brought the country out of the depression. Because of events in Europe and Asia, Roosevelt also had to deal with foreign policies and increasing world tensions on the eve of World War II (Abbott 1990). Presenting an informed analysis of the main controversial issues surrounding the Office of the presidency requires examining how a president deals with controversies nd frames issues in order to generate public support for him and diminish public support for his political opponents. For example, the expansion of direct government intervention in the economy was controversial, but FDR framed it as an absolute necessity and a course of action that would have long-term positive effects (Landy and Milkis 2001). FDR achieved presidential greatness through effective, visionary, and inspiring leadership during the Great Depression of the 1930’s, when an unprecedented economic crisis destroyed the confidence of the American people in their government and economic system.

Through fireside chats, speeches to the nation, and direct interaction with Americans during his travels throughout the United States, he inspired Americans to believe in themselves, restored their confidence in government, and demonstrated the self-confidence, courage and determination required of presidents when crisis threatens and the survival of the nation is at stake (Neustadt 1991).

During the Great Depression, FDR faced specific challenges such as massive unemployment, the collapse of the banking system, loss of public confidence in the government, and the threat that fascism or communism would emerge in the United States (Rothbard 2000). He was trying to achieve a restoration of economic stability, but in a broader economic context, he was trying to reform the banking and economic systems because greed and corruption had been the primary causes of the stock market crash in 1929 which had triggered the Great Depression.

Critically examining the aspects of leadership and the ways in which to evaluate the success or failure of presidents requires analyzing whether they achieved their goals and whether their achievements had a long-term positive impact. FDR’s transformational accomplishments in his first two terms demonstrate that the distinction between presidential greatness and presidential effectiveness is based upon the scale and historical impact of a president’s effectiveness.

For example, FDR’s comprehensive economic and banking reforms not only had a short-term positive impact on the entire nation, but a long-term one as well (Landy and Milkis 2001). If FDR’s actions as president had only had a short-term positive impact, he would have been seen as an effective president but not as a great president. His transformational impact on American government demonstrates that aspects of leadership such as a visionary approach to governing play a vital role in determining whether a president achieves reatness or is merely effective over the short-term. In terms of historical and political context, FDR governed during the worst depression in American history, when one out of every three Americans was out of work and the danger of complete economic collapse was very real. When conditions are so bad for so many people, frustration and anger can intensify to such an extent that violence and chaos spread throughout society. Economic collapse can and often does lead to the collapse of the political system and results in revolution or dictatorship.

Fortunately, this dire outcome was avoided because FDR was very effective during his first one-hundred days as president (Neustadt 1991). Critically important legislation was passed in Congress and his leadership convinced millions of Americans that the ideals of courage, determination, and hard work would get America through the Great Depression. His effectiveness continued throughout the rest of his first term because he brought the American economy back from the brink of complete collapse and generated jobs Through programs such as the Civilian Conservation Corps and the Works Progress Administration.

In discussing the relevant scholarly literature on presidential greatness, it is evident that historians and political scientists are in general agreement that FDR was a great president because his leadership style was inspirational and was characterized by charismatic, transformational, and situational elements of leadership. Furthermore, as Erwin Hargrove notes in his book The Effective Presidency, “political leadership must contain a moral element and must be in accord with the ideals embedded in American culture if it is to be fully effective” (Hargrove 2008).

These elements were reflected in FDR’s New Deal policies, which were based upon the traditional American ideals of fairness and equality. His New Deal agenda was transformational in a political and economic context, and many of his economic and political policy responses to the Great Depression reflected his rejection of Hoover’s failed policies and determination to restore fairness and equality to America’s economic system (Rothbard 2000). As the discussion on Chapter 12 of Debating the Presidency notes, “great leadership requires being an agent of democratic change” (Ellis and Nelson 2009).

FDR was an agent of democratic change during the Great Depression and achieved this change through communicating effectively in order to generate and maintain public support for his transformational New Deal policies. His fireside chats and public speeches restored the faith of American citizens in their government and his New Deal Programs were exactly what were needed for economic recovery. During the New Deal, Roosevelt again ran for the presidency and was overwhelmingly re-elected in 1936. He continued his work domestically, but began to broaden his foreign outlook as well.

He was again re-elected in 1940, after Germany invaded Poland, which marked the beginning of World War II in Europe. In 1940, Roosevelt ran as a peace candidate who promised to keep the country out of the war (Biography 2007); That would all change of course, at the end of 1941. Roosevelt’s foreign policies were complex and vastly important to the nation. In 1933, as a reaction to trade difficulties with Central and South America, Roosevelt created the Good Neighbor Policy, which “emphasized cooperation and trade rather than military force to maintain stability in the hemisphere” (Good Neighbor Policy 2003).

Throughout the early 1930s, Roosevelt continued to work for foreign peace and against intervention by one country into another. Roosevelt first spoke of his good neighbor policy during his inaugural address, so it was not a new idea that came into being as the situation in Europe deteriorated. He says, “In the field of world policy I would dedicate this Nation to the policy of the good neighbor–the neighbor who resolutely respects himself and, because he does so, respects the rights of others” (Roosevelt 1946). In a 1935 speech, he continued this theme.

He states, “The primary purpose of the United States of America is to avoid being drawn into war. We seek also in every practicable way to promote peace and to discourage war” (Roosevelt 1946). Many critics of Roosevelt felt the policy was isolationist and kept the United States from interacting with European nations during a time of crisis, but at the time, most people supported the policy and hoped to keep out of the war in Europe. While America remained a neutral ally in the first years of World War II, Roosevelt recognized the threat Adolph Hitler and the Nazi Party represented to Europe and democracy.

In May, 1941 he says of Hitler, “Adolf Hitler never considered the domination of Europe as an end in itself. European conquest was but a step toward ultimate goals in all the other continents. It is unmistakably apparent to all of us that, unless the advance of Hitlerism is forcibly checked now, the Western Hemisphere will be in range of the Nazi weapons of destruction” (Abbott 1990); He recognized Hitler was a great threat, but still felt Europe could combat him on their own and without American intervention.

In his attempt to keep Hitler from world domination, he gave aid to Great Britain with sea escorts to help ensure supplies arrived safely, and provided them with weapons and ammunition (Abbott 1990). In another address in October 1941, he notes, “For example, I have in my possession a secret map made in Germany by Hitler’s government by the planners of the new world order. It is a map of South America and a part of Central America, as Hitler proposes to reorganize it” (Roosevelt 1946).

Roosevelt recognized Hitler’s menace, but it was the Japanese who would force him to actually put the United States in jeopardy in Europe and Asia. On December 7, 1941, at approximately 8am (Hawaii Time), the Japanese attacked the naval base at Pearl Harbor, Hawaii, and the United States was sucked into World War II. Roosevelt’s speech to Congress called the attack “a day which will live in infamy” (Roosevelt 1946), and it is still recognized as one of the darkest days in American history, outdone only by the terrorist attacks of September 11, 2001.

Immediately after hearing about the attack, Roosevelt drafted a speech he would deliver to Congress the next day on December 8. In it, he asked Congress to declare war on Japan, and because Japan was an ally of Germany, Germany as well. This brought the U. S. directly into World War II. In the speech, he noted Japan had launched several simultaneous attacks against other Pacific nations such as Hong Kong and Midway Island. He says, “Japan has, therefore, undertaken a surprise offensive extending throughout the Pacific area. The facts of yesterday speak for themselves.

The people of the United States have already formed their opinions and well understand the implications to the very life and safety of our nation” (Roosevelt 1946); However, Roosevelt did not simply ask Congress to declare war and then did nothing to support it. As expected, Roosevelt quickly had a broad plan that would help ensure American superiority in machinery and manpower. In a December 9 address to the nation, he noted he was asking any industry involved in warfare machinery or production to work seven days a week at increased production.

He also urged companies to build more new plants quickly, so they could add to the production of wartime necessities, such as planes, ships, ammunition, and transportation. At first, rationing did not take place, but later during the war, Roosevelt would implant food and some material rationing, such as gas and rubber, to ensure there were enough raw materials to service the armed forces first (Abbott 1990). By early 1942, however, rationing was in place, and the American people were getting used to doing without everything from sugar to butter and nylon stockings.

Roosevelt went into action immediately after the attacks on Pearl Harbor and showed the nation a strong and determined man who was resolute in righting the wrong against the American people. He brought the country into the war as a safety measure, and then ensured the American production industry was up to the challenge. He also met with allied leaders many times in an attempt to forge peace, but he would not live to see it. Of course, the United States went on to dominate the war, winning the European war on “V-E Day;” After that, Eventually, Germany did finally sign a surrender in Berlin.

Victory in the Pacific came on August 15, 1945, (V-J Day) when Japanese Emperor Hirohito signed the articles of surrender on board a U. S. ship anchored off the coast of Japan; But Roosevelt did not live to see peace; he died in April 1945. FDR was a very effective president during the Second World War because he inspired unity, projected determination, and generated nationwide public confidence in victory by demonstrating his own confidence in victory.

This projection of presidential determination and confidence was particularly important early in the war when Allied defeats in Europe and the Pacific were all too common; He provided reassurance to the American people that the war would be won. All of these elements of greatness were evident during FDR’s first two terms as president, and his inspirational leadership during these years was the foundation for his effectiveness and success as president during the Second World War.

Through his leadership and actions during the Great Depression, he had forged a bond of trust with the American people, and their trust in him and confidence in his leadership motivated them to make the great sacrifices necessary to win the global war against fascism and Nazism. The United States had never suffered a defeat as shocking as Pearl Harbor, and had never faced such powerful enemies, so it was extremely important for FDR to demonstrate determination and confidence (Schoenberg 2009).

He understood how critical the psychological aspects of leadership are, and this is one of the significant distinctions that separate effective presidents from great presidents. In that context, implementing good policies and making good decisions are not enough because achieving presidential greatness requires combining good policies and good decisions with visionary leadership and a deep understanding of history (Gergen 2001).

FDR understood the importance of these elements, as well as the foundational importance of instilling public trust and confidence in the government and in the president as the chief executive. Great presidents achieve this while focusing on assuring the public that even the toughest of challenges can be met and overcome. Connections are evident between the development of the presidency and the history of democracy in the United States because weak and ineffective presidents have undermined public faith and confidence in democracy, while great presidents have generated it.

As the presidency developed, democracy developed along with it in accordance with how well presidents performed in their constitutional role as chief executives. Strong, decisive, and assertive presidents like Andrew Jackson, Abraham Lincoln, FDR, and Lyndon Johnson expanded the powers of the presidency and rendered Congress secondary in political influence and importance, while weaker presidents diminished them, which resulted in Congressional dominance over the federal government and policy making.

Historians and political scientists have debated the effectiveness of FDR’s presidency, and one of their most important assessments has been that the courage and determination he had to summon in order to overcome polio were the foundation of his effectiveness and success as president (Schoenberg 2009). These character strengths were ultimately the most important sources of FDR’s success as president because he relied upon them to overcome great political and economic challenges. In conclusion, Franklin Delanor Roosevelt is one of the great American presidents; He accomplished so much during his twelve years in office.

He campaigned for the presidency and was elected despite the crippling physical impact of polio, a debilitating disease which would have prevented most people from even considering running for local or state public office, much less for the Presidency of the United States, He helped bring the country out of the Great Depression, led the country into war after the attack on Pearl Harbor, and created some of the most far reaching and memorable legislation and government agencies in the history of the presidency.

There is another legacy that can never be taken away from Roosevelt. After he died, Congress passed legislation that no president could serve more than two terms in office. Roosevelt was the only man elected to four terms, and unless Congress modifies the legislation, he will remain the only man to ever do so (Walker 2003. FDR’s courage and determination, which were forged during his struggle to overcome the physical limitations polio imposed, enabled him to be very effective throughout his presidency.

During his first two terms as president, FDR was an agent of democratic change and provided the inspiring, confidence-building, and transformational leadership necessary for the United States to overcome the ravages of the Great Depression (Ellis and Nelson 2009). During his second two terms as president he provided the inspiring, confidence-building, and transformational leadership necessary to transform the United States from an isolationist nation into a global superpower capable of defeating the Axis powers during the Second World War.

He will always be remembered for proclaiming, “We have nothing to fear, but fear itself” during his first Inaugural Address in 1933 (Roosevelt 1946). These words epitomized how Americans must respond to great challenges, especially in times of crisis. These dramatic words inspired the entire nation and clarified the importance of courage and determination in overcoming great challenges. The great president who proclaimed them provided not only a positive example for every American during his first months in office, he provided an inspiring example for them to emulate throughout his entire presidency.

Works Cited Abbott, Philip. “Franklin D. Roosevelt and the American Political Tradition. ” Amherst: University of Massachusetts Press, 1990. Retrieved on 7 Dec. 2009. Gergen, David. “Eyewitness to Power: The Essence of Leadership Nixon to Clinton. ” New York: Simon and Schuster, 2001. Retrieved on 10 Dec. 2009. Editors. “Good Neighbor Policy: 1933. ” U. S. Department of State. 2007. Retrieved on 7 Dec. 2009.

Problems and Prospects of Marketing

International Journal of Business and Management September, 2009 Problems and Prospects of Marketing in Developing Economies: The Nigerian Experience Sunday O. E. Ewah & Alex B. Ekeng Department of Business Administration, Cross River University of Technology Ogoja Campus, Nigeria Tel: 80-5901-4300 Abstract The study takes a holistic view of some of the problems facing marketing in developing economies, such as low marketing education, preferences for foreign products and low patronage for non-essential products, high cost of production, inadequate infrastructures.

Others are few competitive opportunities, excessive government regulations and interference, political instability and civil unrest. Despite these problems, there are prospects for improvement in the nearest future based on the high growing population of most developing countries such as Nigeria large unexplored markets, attractive government incentives, growing affluence, to mention but a few. Therefore, it is concluded that developing countries such as Nigeria must put their arts together and overcome these few difficulties in order to exploit the marketing opportunities that are abound in their various domains.

Keywords: Marketing, Developing economies, Problems, Prospects and developed economies 1. Introduction Marketing is an evolving and dynamic discipline that cuts across every spectrum of life. This explains why contemporary societies are now involved in one form of marketing activity or the other. The recent advancement in technology, has aided the free flow of goods and services as well as information amongst businesses and institutions, thereby turning the marketing environment into a global village (Ewah, 2007).

For the purpose of this article, marketing is defined as the performance of both business and non business activities for the satisfaction of humanity and society’s well being through judicious exchange processes. On a general perspective Kotler and Armstrong (2001) described marketing as a social and managerial process whereby individuals and groups obtain what they need and want through creating and exchanging products and value with others. Marketing is intricately linked with the economy of virtually all nations of the world.

It is the major factor, especially in developed economies responsible for the wealth of nations and the means of resuscitation during economic depression. For the developed countries as a whole, marketing experience has occurred as part of the evolutionary cultural process and also progress of these nations. Therefore practical problems are profoundly handled as they had arisen, with available resource means at the material time. But the developing countries are evidently operating in an entirely different context today.

Time has changed many things. Many circumstances in the business world now appear to be affected by standardized but chimerical factors, so that operating in these situations amount to operating under conditions of fait accompli. Countries like U. S. A, Japan, UK, Germany, France, Switzerland and Belgium have tremendously benefited from the performance of their marketing activities, which have really helped to boost their economies and contribute to the GNP.

But for most developing countries, (including Nigeria) the scenario and the business climate have not been too favourable, due to some attendant problems, such as poverty, fragmented markets, weak investment culture, prevalence of sub-standard local products, and the unwillingness of the majority of manufacturers and businesses to imbibe ethical marketing practices. These problems make it difficult for marketing to grow and prosper in developing economies.

Consequently the economy of most developing countries has not been better off because of the poor development of marketing as the bedrock for improving the economic prospect of contemporary economies. However, the economy of developing countries to a large extent dictates the direction and tempo of marketing activities in these countries. Though, they remain ready markets for the developed countries’ products, yet little or nothing is done to equate their height, if not completely but partially. 87 E-mail: [email protected] com Vol. 4, No. 9 International Journal of Business and Management Developing countries are characterized by high birth and death rates, poor sanitation and health practices, poor housing, a high percentage of the population in agriculture, low per capita income, high rate of illiteracy, weak and uneven feelings of national cohesion, low status rating for women, poor technology, limited communication and transport facilities, predominantly exports of raw materials.

Others include political instability, low savings and low net investment, military or feudal domination of state machinery, wealth in the hands of a very few, poor credit facilities, prevalence of non-monetized production, wealth sometimes exported to save in developed countries, civil unrests such as in the Niger Delta in Nigeria, and a host of others (Onah, 1979). Therefore countries with these kinds of peculiarities find it difficult to develop their marketing potentials.

There are equally conditions in an economy that favour and compel the full application of marketing activities to achieve the objective of growth and profit, while there are conditions which do not favour, or make nonsense of it (Alatise, 1979). Therefore the essence of this study is to critically look at those immediate problems that inhibit marketing and also visualize those factors that give hope for improvement in the near future.

The other sections of this paper include the following: theoretical conceptualization, importance of marketing to an economy, problems of marketing in developing economies, prospects of marketing in developing economies, conclusion and references. In seeking to ensure that every country designs and implements the best method of achieving socio-economic transformation, marketing can be a veritable vehicle (Aigbiremolen and Aigbiremolen, 2004). Marketing can ensure that the values and environmental opportunities of an economy are taken into consideration with a view to achieving an integrated approach to development (Kinsey, 1988).

The new marketing concept is a philosophy of business that states that the customer’s want satisfaction is the economic and social justification for the existence of any company or organization. Therefore all companies activities and effort must be devoted towards achieving this objective, while still making a profit. The changing social and economic conditions in the technologically advanced countries were fundamental in the development and evolution of the marketing concept. In spite of the fact that the concept evolved in the advance countries, the boundaries of marketing have extended remarkably to different frontiers.

Generally, marketing strives to serve and satisfy human insatiable needs and wants. Therefore, marketing can be considered as a strategic factor in the economic structure of any society (either developed or developing). This is because it directly allocates resources and has a great impact on other aspects of economic and social life. Thus the link between marketing and growth and development of contemporary economies is quite obvious (Ogunsanya, 1999). It is pertinent to note that the power of marketing is the same, but there exist qualitative and quantitative differences, depending on the particular situation at hand in a given country.

For instance if there is severe inflation in a country and if left uncheck it will reduce the standard of living of the people as a result of the fall in their purchasing power. This situation could have a multiplier effect, because sales may drop, workers may equally be laid off, etc. Globally, the major role of marketing is to ensure the continuance in growth of economies and individual’s standard of living (Baker, 1985). In developing economies marketing can act as a catalyst to institutionalize and propel economic growth and commercial life of the people.

It can also lag behind it, depending on whether marketing is practice and used actively, or whether it is allowed to evolve in a passive fashion (Onwuchuruba, 1996). During the oil boom period, the totality of the Nigeria economy expanded rapidly. However, one of the activities that lagged behind was marketing and its auxiliary branches. (This encompasses advertising and distributive trade). The trends and patterns of distributive trade in Nigeria reveal that, some indigenous firms embark on sales promotion, but had not been able to control the channels of distribution because of the chaos in the distributive structure.

This lacks of control manifest itself in multiple pricing of products. A report on the survey of management training needs in Nigeria carried out by the centre for management development in 1975 revealed that marketing was one of the problem areas where remedial management effort should be intensified. Poor marketing generally is reflected in poor quality of products, inadequacy and shortages of essential products that would have improved the standard of living of the people (CBN, 2000). This ugly scenario helped to compound the problems of marketing in Nigeria before now. 2.

Theoretical Conceptualization Alatise as enunciated in Onah (1979) suggested when marketing is most necessary in an economy to include: 1) Free Supply of Goods: When there are enough goods for consumers to buy. In other words when supply exceeds demand, warehouses for finished products as well as raw materials are near bursting at the seams. 2) Competitive Conditions: The consumer has many choices almost equally well-matched brands. These are equal satisfaction in an economy, such that they do not have cause to complain about scarcity of products as a result of non availability of competing brands. ) Competition at Distribution Points: There is no bottleneck in the distribution chain, and all brands are well represented at all relevant distribution outlets in the entire market. 188 International Journal of Business and Management September, 2009 4) High Margins for Marketing and Profits: There are prospects for generating profit and marketing potentials from every business venture. Therefore the more you sell the more profit you make. 5) Rapid Change in Technology and Consumer Taste: This keeps marketing managers/executives as well as production managers on their toes to be innovative and creative.

There is always the pressing need to sell off what you have today to avoid the obsolescence of tomorrow, and also try to beat your competitors in the game of being the first to offer the product of tomorrow, or at least a better product. 6) Frequent Purchases by Consumer: Marketing is most effective in mass consumable goods with quick and continual repeat purchases. It does not function well in an economy where the purchasing power of the people/consumers’ is not reasonably appreciable because their demand pattern will be downwardly skewed. ) Good Opportunities for Product Differentiation: This enables producers and sellers to woo and appeal to consumers and buyers in different ways that will give them satisfaction. 3. Importance of Marketing to an Economy Olakunori and Ejionueme (1997) identified the importance of marketing to any economy, which was later up dated by Olakunori (2002) to include the following; 1) Marketing Impact on People: There is no doubt all over the world that marketing activities are affected by people’s beliefs, attitudes, life styles, consumption pattern, purchase behaviour, income, etc.

Marketers help organizations and businesses to develop products, promote, price and distribute them. Consumers’ satisfaction or dissatisfaction with these products and activities will go a long way in determining their consumption behaviour. The importance of marketing can therefore be felt by the extent to which it affects the earlier mentioned demographic variables. 2) Improved Quality of Life: The activities performed by marketers and others in the economy of most countries, especially developed ones, help to identify and satisfy consumers’ needs.

This is because most consumers can always trace their knowledge and persuasion to patronize the products they feel much dependent on such marketing dominated stimuli as advertising, personal selling, E-commerce, sales promotion, etc, by presenting consumers with new, better and different brands and options of products which can meet their needs and helping them to easily obtain and safely enjoy these products. Marketers principally and functionally help to improve consumers’ awareness and quality of life (Stapleton, 1984). ) Improved Quality of Product: The importance of marketing is not being over emphased, because contemporary firms and multinationals have now seen the need to produce quality products. The business climate is quite different from what it used to be in the past. Competition has become more intense, such that only fast moving companies and multinationals are surviving the heat. This is because they have really capitalized on quality improvement in products to enhance the dynamic consumers’ quest for goods and services.

The advertising of own brands which began some years back is fast becoming vogue and compels manufacturers to improve on the quality of their products or be prepared to be extinct (Stapleton, 1984). 4) Contribute to Gross National Product: The strength of any economy is measured in terms of its ability to generate the required income within a given fiscal year or period. Thus such a country’s GNP must appreciate overtime. Marketing is the pivot and life wire of any economy, because all other activities of an organization generate costs and only marketing activities bring in the much needed revenues (Ani, 1993).

Available data showed that advanced countries accounted for 69. 1% of world output while developing countries accounted 30. 9%. Nigeria’s trade was estimated at U. S. $47,346 million representing 0. 8% of the emerging market share (CBN, 2005). Table 1 indicates that the annual average growth rate of real GDP for Nigeria appreciated from 1. 6% to 2. 4% during the period 1980 to 1990 and 1990 to 1999. However, this performance falls short of Malaysia, Ghana and Egypt.

Further breakdown of the sectoral growth shows that Nigeria still perform less than Egypt, Malaysia, and Kenya in Manufacturing; Malaysia and Ghana in agriculture; Malaysia, Egypt and Kenya in the services sub-sector. These are all indices that determine the performance of marketing activities in any economy. Therefore any economy especially, developing that pays lip service to marketing is doing that at its peril. Table 2 provides detailed analysis of the performance of world trade with particular attention to the marketing of goods and its contributing activities between 1990 and 2000 in the aforementioned regions.

Findings clearly show that North America had 15. 4% (1990) and 17. 1% (2000) in export while its figure for import was 18. 4% (1990) and 23. 2% (2000). Western Europe had 48. 7% (1990) and 39. 6% (2000), its share of import was 48. 7% (1990) and 39. 6% (2000). Asia’s figure for trade dealings in export was 21. 8% (1990) and 26. 7% (2000), while its import was 20. 3% (1990) and 22. 8% (2000). Latin America had 4. 3% (1990) and 5. 8% (2000) in export and its import involvement was 3. 7% (1990) and 6% (2000). Developing Africa had the least in export and import for both years under review with the following percentages, 3. % (1990), 2. 3% (2000) all in export and 2. 7% (1990) and 2. 1% (2000) all in import. From the 189 Vol. 4, No. 9 International Journal of Business and Management performance of these economies, it can be concluded that advanced industrialized countries of North America, Western Europe and emerging economies of Latin America and Asia have impacted more on the marketing horizon. This is noticed in the trading dealings of each region. But for developing Africa it has not been a fair tale based on it’ s decline between 1990 and 2000.

This result is not far from the problems limiting marketing in developing economies. 5) Acceleration of Economic Growth: Marketing encourages consumption by motivating people in a country to patronize goods produced to meet their identified needs. When people buy goods that are produced in a country, there is the tendency that producers will equally increase production to meet up with future demands. In so doing, marketing increases the tempo of economic activities, creates wealth for serious minded entrepreneurs and accelerates the economic growth of a nation.

Thus, the more marketing philosophy is institutionalized in a country, the more developed and wealthy the country becomes, all things being equal. 6) Economic Resuscitation and Business Turn- Around: The economy of most developing countries have suffered a lot, passing through one economic hardship to the next business upheaval, told and untold stories of business distress or economic recession to mention a few. Marketing is the most meaningful means for achieving economic resuscitation and business turn-around strategy when such occur.

By practically adopting the modern marketing philosophy (consumer satisfaction through integrative effort), fine-tuning its offerings to meet consumer’s changing taste or counter competition, developing new and better products and exploiting new markets at home or abroad, industries and organization can achieve economic resuscitation and a more viable open widows for business prosperity. The recent financial crisis in USA and spreading to other parts of the world calls for proactive marketing techniques to bail the situation. 7) Provide Job Opportunities: Marketing provides job opportunities to millions of people the world over.

This is mostly experienced in well industrialized countries and emerging markets. Most people in these economies are engaged in private endeavours as investors and entrepreneurs. Some of these marketing opportunities are abound in areas like, advertising, retailing, wholesaling, transportation, communication, public relations, services, manufacturing, agents and brokers, to mention a few. It is gratifying to note that the number of jobs being created by marketing has been increasing just as the development process of modern technology is a contributing factor.

In Nigeria most of the school leavers (graduates precisely) are self employed, in one area of marketing or the other. The idea of working for the government only is now a thing of the past, though the jobs are equally scanty to meet the needs of the teeming unemployed. 4. Problems of Marketing in Developing Economies There are series of constraints that hinder the performance of marketing in most developing countries. The experience of Nigeria and other Africa countries is worthy of note. These problems include the following; 1) Low Marketing Education: A well informed and educated people tend to be prosperous investors and consumers.

This is because they will imbibe the culture and tenets of marketing. But marketing education is still generally low in developing countries. Many policy makers and managers of large organizations still do not know what marketing is all about. Even when some people acquire higher degrees in the field of marketing and business administration, they come out doing the contrary, instead of practicing the true marketing concept or relationship marketing for the benefit of the society as a whole. In situations like that, marketing cannot contribute meaningfully to the development of these economies.

Nigeria is an example of one of those countries suffering this fate. Most of the people, though educated, yet often compromise ethical marketing practices for worst alternatives such as sharp practices, unwholesome behaviour and smuggling that contribute less to gross total earnings of any country. For example a report on the survey of management training needs in Nigeria carried out in 1975 revealed that marketing was one of the problem areas where remedial management development effort should be intensified (CBN, 2000). ) Preferences for Foreign Products: Because of the development process of most African countries and their inability to produce most goods (especially technologically sophisticated products), they tend to prefer buying from the more industrialized countries. This makes the development process of local industries and commercial life of the people more impoverished. Developing countries constitute 71% of the world’s population, but only contribute about 12% of the world’s industrial production that often boost marketing in these economies.

Why should this be the case, and who is to be blamed for the structural discrepancy and imbalance? What actions could these countries adopt to accelerate the pace of industrialization and development in order to boost the tempo of marketing (Mkpakan, 2004). It is generally felt that locally-made goods are only for the poor, uneducated, and those who are not fashionable, while the consumption of imported goods and services is taken as a status symbol for the elite and affluent in developing countries. Even when some countries products are of less quality when compared to similar local brands.

This situation makes the growth of marketing and satisfaction of consumers locally difficult (Olakunori, 2002). 3) Low Patronage for Non-essential Products and Services: The majority of the people in developing countries are poor, and their per capita income is below average. This makes it imperatively difficult for them to buy much of luxury 190 International Journal of Business and Management September, 2009 goods. Rather their purchases and expenditure are directed towards satisfying the basic needs for food, clothing, and accommodation.

Non essential goods and services receive low patronage. Therefore low patronage for certain category of goods do not present attractive marketing opportunities that will ginger investment overture. 4) High cost of production: Marketing has suffered dearly in most developing countries because virtually all production techniques are imported from the developed world. The cost of acquiring equipment and other inputs used for production locally to boost marketing is sometimes extremely exhaubitant for the poor developing countries to buy and finance.

To worsen matters, the bulk of African’s production is mainly in agricultural products that contribute less to GNP or Net National income of their various economies. This is because these products are sold at lesser prices in the world market. The income generated from them can only buy little from all that is needed to encourage domestic production, in order to enhance marketing. Where it is possible to import the equipment, the production techniques and skillful manpower requirement is sometimes too expensive to bear, hence the high cost of some local products when compared to the same foreign brands.

This reason strengthens consumer’s preference for imported products and results to low demand for locally made goods. This affects the marketing potentials of the home industries and equally has an adverse effect on macro- marketing of developing countries. 5) Inadequate Infrastructures: Most developing countries are very poor, such that some of them depend on aids from abroad. There are cases of debt accrual and debt burden hugging on some of the African countries that are yet to be paid.

It invariable becomes difficult for some of them to provide the necessary infrastructures that would engender and propel smooth marketing scenario. Ethiopia, Somalia, Rwanda and a few other third world countries rely on aids from abroad to revamp their economies. The present situation where Power Holdings or National Electricity Power Authority (NEPA) is fond of giving epileptic and erratic power supply has made it difficult for businesses to function in Nigeria. Coupled with the poor road network and transport facilities, poor communication, distressed banks, malfunctioning ports and trade zones, among others.

Apart from the deliberate embezzlement by some top government officials, the government is yet to provide these infrastructures, and this has made it difficult for marketing activities to be performed effectively and efficiently. Moreover, the inadequacy and poor state of these infrastructures contribute to high cost of doing business in developing countries. From table 3, it can be observed that amongst the six developing countries (Nigeria, Ghana, South Africa, Kenya, Egypt and Malaysia) described, Nigeria is the most starved in terms of availability of infrastructural facilities and usage.

The electricity consumption per capita is 85; telephone per 1000 persons is 4 and internet users (‘000) to 100 persons. South Africa tops the list in terms of provisions of these facilities. With such poor level of infrastructural facilities the cost of marketing is always too high in developing countries, especially in Nigeria. Foreign investors will also not be attracted to do business or invest in Nigeria and thus they will be more interested in countries where the state of low cost infrastructure generates competitive advantages.

The inability or unwillingness of some developing countries to provide these necessary infrastructural facilities that will facilitate the performance of marketing in these economies is in itself a major problem worthy of note. 6) Few Competitive Opportunities: Lucrative competitive businesses are not much in developing countries. What are commonly found within African continent are peasant farmers, petty traders and negligible number of investors that are not engaged in multimillion dollars businesses.

In Nigeria one can find competitive businesses mostly in the service industry, which contribute less than two percent of GDP (CBN, 2002). But in the manufacturing sector nothing can be said of it, because there is no competition. In most developed societies economic policies have long assumed that competition among businesses is the most efficient method of producing and marketing goods and services. Proponents of this philosophy contend that it results in maximum productivity and forces inefficient organizations and businesses to erminate their operations. It gives the consumer or buyer an opportunity to choose from several competing companies rather than buy from a monopolist, and stimulates creativity in seeking solutions to marketing problems especially in developing countries where such problems are more (CBN, 2000). But marketing in the true sense is usually at its best where and when there is real competition. Unfortunately, competition is at the lower ebb in developing countries, this might not be unconnected with the level of poverty and underdevelopment in the continent.

But developed countries like USA, UK, Japan and emerging economies in Asia are competing amongst themselves in the manufacturing and supply of different types of products to newly found markets in sub-Saharan Africa. This is because they have the technology and financial backing. 7) Over- Regulation of Business by Government: Another major problem that has be-deviled the performance of marketing especially in Nigeria has been the issue of government regulations and interferences in the activities of businesses and corporate firms.

For instance, the over regulation of the Nigeria economy especially between 1970-1985, including the enactment of the indigenization decree, which excludes foreign interest from certain investment activities as well as the existence of a complex bureaucratic requirements for direct and portfolio investment were among the major constraints that hindered the development of marketing climate and foreign investment inflow (Balogun, 2003). Sometimes in 2004 the then administration of Olusegun Obasanjo banned the importation of certain items into Nigeria, 191

Vol. 4, No. 9 International Journal of Business and Management but this is contrary to the tenets of free enterprises. Locally, state governors reserve special areas where businesses are not supposed to operate and if structures, housing corporate firms are erected there, they are bound to be demolished. In developing countries, it is usual to find governments promulgating laws to regulate the prices of consumables, fuel (as in the case of Nigeria), transport fares, exchange values of national currencies, accommodation etc.

Nigeria is one of those countries that have passed through one form of regulation or deregulation to another depending on the political class that is in power. Instead of allowing the market forces of demand and supply to operate and determine how much consumers are to pay for the consumption of the goods and services. The haste to get their economies developed and quickly catch up with advanced Nations often lead developing countries to over- regulate business activities and restrict the activities of free enterprise.

This makes marketing difficult, since decisions cannot be taken from a purely economic perspective. 8) Political Instability and Civil Unrest: Rapid economic growth and development of marketing techniques cannot be achieved or attained in an environment of political and social instability or political hostility. Political stability implies an orderly system for a positive change in governance and peaceful co- existence amongst the citizenry that, poses a great challenge to marketing. Therefore, marketing does not thrive where there is political instability and insecurity or civil disturbances.

The experience of most African countries like Liberia, Sudan, Rwanda, and Nigeria are typical examples of where the political climate and business environment had been in perpetual turbulence over the seat of power and who controls the resources (petroleum product) in the Niger Delta region. For Nigeria the issue in the Niger Delta gives cause to worry because most of the foreign investors and multi-nationals are thinking of relocating based on the continuous molestation and threat by militants, if nothing is done to salvage the situation. Table 4 shows the conflict rating of Nigeria, Ghana, South Africa, Kenya and Egypt.

Amongst the five countries Nigeria has the highest figures especially after 1998. The above Situation reinforces uncertainty, instability, and increases the risk of doing business in Nigeria. Thus investment overtures become difficult in such localities or geographical areas and this undermines the performance of marketing. 5. Prospects of Marketing in Developing Economies Despite the numerous problems confronting marketing in developing countries, there exists prospects and opportunities for future growth and development of marketing as the pivot of developing economies.

These prospects are explained as follows; 1) Growing Population: Before multinational companies establish their hold in any country they expect to have a ready market for their products and services. No business flourishes where people are not living or where it is not habitable by people. Developed countries with their small population and saturated domestic markets prefer marketing their products and services to emerging markets in developing countries. Nigeria being one of the most populous nations (about 120 million people) in Africa is a ready market for both domestic products and foreign brands.

This is because marketing does not operate in a vacuum but requires a large population of people with the willingness to do business and patronize businesses. Therefore the high and growing population of developing countries is an attractive incentive, as they represent large potential markets. 2) Absence of Competition and Large Unexplored Markets: By virtue of their large populations and underdevelopment, developing countries have large markets that are not yet served or are partially served.

Thus they are not as saturated as those of developed countries. Hence, there is hardly any form of intensive competition especially amongst serious manufacturers like “ANAMCO” a motor manufacturing assembly in Nigeria. The economies of these nations hold great opportunities for innovators, investors and marketers to enjoy booms in their markets with much challenge from competitors within and outside. Attractive Government Incentives: Trade policies in most developing countries are becoming quite favourable 3) to both local and foreign investors.

These incentives include profit tax holidays, reduced or even free customs and excise duties, liberalization of immigration and profit repatriation laws for foreign investors. There are also improvements in infrastructural facilities that will ginger the performance of marketing in these economies. According to Pearce (1998) liberalization encourages the adoption of policies that promote the greatest possible use of market forces and competition to coordinate both marketing and economic activities. ) Growing Affluence: Quite a large number of the consumers in developing countries are becoming affluent. This will enable them to have reasonable discretionary income and purchasing power. This means that a growing number of the consumers in many developing countries can now afford luxuries and other products they could not purchase in the time past. In Nigeria the business climate is expected to improve tremendously with the President Musa Yar Adua’s seven points agenda, the people will become more empowered and their purchasing power will be enhanced for both consumption and investment purposes.

The government has equally taken the issue of workers/staff remuneration seriously, such that salaries now come as at when due and the take home package of most developing countries these days is quite commendable when compared to what it was few years back. Available data from the Nigeria living Standard survey conducted in 2003/2004 indicated that the incidence of poverty exhibited a downward trend. It declined 192 International Journal of Business and Management September, 2009 from 70% in 2000 to 54. % in 2004 and it is expected to decline more in the years ahead (CBN, 2005). This of course presents brighter prospects for marketing. 5) Availability of Cheap Production Inputs: Most developing countries are endowed with abundant human and material resources that are yet untapped. For example, according to CBN (2000) Nigeria remains endowed with abundant natural resources, good weather conditions and a large population. These will be readily handy for companies and businesses to exploit.

Despite the high level of poverty and low exchange values of the national currencies of developing countries, labour and raw materials or inputs are often found to be cheap and it is envisaged that in the nearest future it will be cheaper because of better opportunities and more goods will be produced for consumption. The absence of serious competition also makes it easy to source these production inputs and reach different market segments. This is why most multinationals are more marketable and profitable in developing countries than their industrialized coutries. ) Rapid Economic Development: Quoting Olakunori (2002), the economies of developing nations are growing rapidly as a result of the efforts being made by their various governments and the developmental agencies of the United Nations towards this direction. This results to income re-distribution and increased purchasing power and discretionary income are also enhanced. Thus, it is expected that the demand for products to satisfy higher order needs will increase and the general atmosphere of business in the continent will become more conducive and all these mean well for marketing in sub-Saharan Africa and Nigeria in particular. . Conclusion Despite the numerous problems facing marketing in developing countries, there are good prospects for the future, hence marketing is the answer to the underdevelopment of developing countries. When adopted and practiced, marketing will help to develop appropriate technologies as developing nations provide for the needs of the people and enhance their standard of living, create job opportunities for the unemployed, wealth for entrepreneurs, a means towards affording education and enjoyment of leisure.

Therefore the government and individuals are encouraged to join hands and see to the development and appreciation of marketing in all the economies of developing countries. References Aigbiremolen, M. O. and Aigbiremolen, C. E. (2004). Marketing Banking Services in Nigeria. The CIBN Press Ltd Lagos, Nigeria. Alatise, S. O. (1979). in Onah, Marketing in Nigeria: Experience in a Developing Ani, O. E. (1993). Marketing: The Life Blood of Business and Index of Economic and Baker M. J. (1985). Marketing: An Introductory Text. Macmillan Publishers Ltd. London.

Balogun, E. D. (2003). In CBN. Foreign Private Investment in Nigeria. Proceedings of Cassel Ltd. 35 Red Lion Square, London WCIR 4SG Macmillan Publishing Co. Inc. New York. CBN. (2000). The Changing Structure of the Nigerian Economy and Implications for Development. Published by Realm Communications Ltd Lagos. CBN. (2003). Foreign Private Investment in Nigeria. Proceedings of the Twelveth Annual Conference of the Regional Research Unit. Kaduna. CBN. (2005). Annual Report and Statement of Account for the Year Ended 31st December. Economy. Cassel Ltd. 5 Red Lion Square, London WCIR 4SG Macmillan Publishing Co. Inc. New York. Etuk, E. J. (1985). The Nigerian Business Environment. Macmillan International College Edition, Macmillan Publishers Ltd. London. Ewah, S. (2007). Foundation of Marketing Principles and Practice. Pafelly Printers and Publishers Ogoja, Nigeria. Reprint Edition. Kinsey, J. (1988). Marketing in Developing Countries. Macmillan Publishers, London. kotler, P. and Armstrong, G. (2001). Principles of Marketing. Prentice Hall of India, Private Limited New Delhi110001, Ninth Edition.

Mkpakan, E. E. (2004). International Investment: Theory, Analysis and Case Study. Published by University of Lagos Press. Nigeria. Ogunsanya, A. (1999). A Practical Guide to the Marketing of Financial Services. Richmind Books Ltd, Lagos. Okafor, A. I. (1995). Principles of Marketing. Onisha Baset Printing Ltd. Nigeria. 193 Vol. 4, No. 9 International Journal of Business and Management Olakunori, O. K. (2002). Dynamics of Marketing. Providence Press Nigeria Limited, Enugu. Nigeria 2nd Edition. Olakunori, O. K. and Ejionueme, N. G. (1997).

Introduction to Marketing. Amazing Grace publishers, Enugu, Nigeria. Onah, j. O. (1979). Marketing in Nigeria: Experience in a Developing Economy. Onwuchuruba, G. U. (1996). Marketing Financial Services in Nigeria. Servo Marketing and Management Services Lagos. Pearce, M. (1998). Macmillan Dictionary of Modern Economics. Macmillan Press Ltd. London. Social Development. Being the 11th Inaugural Lecture of ESUT Delivered at the Education Hall, Enugu, on 22nd April. Stapleton, J. (1984). Marketing. London: Hodder and Sronghtonal Research. 194

International Journal of Business and Management APPENDIX 1 Table 1. Growth Rate of GDP for selected Countries (%) Country 1980 to 1990 Nigeria Ghana South Africa Kenya Egypt Malaysia Source: CBN, 2003 APPENDIX 2 Table 2. Regional Shares of World Merchandise Trade 1990 -2000 Region North America Western Europe Asia Latin America Africa 1990 Exports (%) 15. 4 48. 3 21. 8 4. 3 3. 1 2000 Exports (%) 17. 1 39. 5 26. 7 5. 8 2. 3 1990 Imports (%) 18. 4 48. 7 20. 3 3. 7 2. 7 1. 6 3. 0 1. 0 4. 2 5. 4 5. 3 GDP 1990 to 1999 2. 4 4. 3 1. 9 2. 2 4. 4 7. 3 Agriculture 1980 to 1990 3. 1. 0 2. 9 3. 3 -1. 1 3. 4 1990 to 1999 2. 9 3. 4 1. 0 1. 4 1. 1 0. 2 Manufacturing 1980 to 1990 0. 7 1. 1 4. 9 -0. 2 9. 3 1990 to 1999 2. 0 -0. 3 1. 1 2. 4 5. 3 9. 7 1980 to 1990 3. 7 2. 9 2. 4 4. 9 0. 7 4. 9 September, 2009 Services 1990 to 1999 2. 8 1. 9 2. 4 3. 5 5. 8 8. 0 2000 Imports (%) 23. 2 39. 6 22. 8 6. 0 2. 1 Source: (1) WTO International Trade Statistics 2001. (2) African Development Bank Report 2004. 195 Vol. 4, No. 9 APPENDIX 3 International Journal of Business and Management Table 3. Infrastructure of Nigeria and other Emerging Markets, 1999.

Infrastructure Country Nigeria Ghana South Africa Kenya Egypt Malaysia Electricity Consumption per Capita 85 289 3,832 129 861 2,554 Telephone per 1000 Persons 4 8 125 10 75 203 APPENDIX 4 Table 4. Conflict Rating of Five Countries in Sub-Saharan Africa. Conflicts Country Nigeria Ghana South Africa Kenya Egypt Source: CBN, 2003. 1998 21. 4 2. 4 29. 8 48. 5 0 2000 44. 0 3. 8 41. 4 0. 0 9. 2 2001 11. 3 0. 3 2. 2 2. 9 3. 4 Users (‘000) 100 20 1,820 35 200 1500 Classification Severely indebted Moderately indebted Less indebted Moderately indebted Les indebted Moderately indebted Source: World Bank 2001, and World Development Indicators, 2001. 196

History of Uk Planning System (Contrast of Speed&Public Participation)

Assignment 1 PLANNING FRAMEWORKS (T0910 – TCP8001) November 09, 2009 Matej Privrel ERASMUS Exchange Student The history of planning system as a policy in the UK dates back to the mid-19th century, when it started to concern mostly health and social problems in urbanising areas. The emergence of the systems in a wider scope, within the world, was in those times taking diverse directions, the result of which is noticeable in the differences among spatial planning cultures nowadays. It could be said that there are always three subjects playing either an active or a passive role in the planning process – government, markets and the public.

The degree of their participation depends mostly on the political regime, the actual government, the economic climate in the country and the ability (but also the will) to get involved. Planning as such might be portrayed as a positive, pro-active and strategic place-making activity on the one hand or as a negative, regulatory and reactive function on the other. Fluctuation between these two characters of planning was observable throughout the history, when planners raised the question: Who should planning be addressed to?

To the business and private sector, which are boosting the economy through taxes, both locally and centrally, but require faster solutions in order to meet actual market demands? Or to a chiefly stagnant and ‘more public’ function where the decision-making is slower and economically not that viable? The answer seems to be ambiguous. The aim of this essay is therefore to discuss how the potential tension between speed and community engagement has been dealt in the main reforms, during developing the planning system in England, since World War II.

The turning period around the end of the war could be characterised not only by the country suffering from the aftermaths of the war but also by weakness of the state machinery. District and county borough councils were generally small and powerless. As a result of this, developers were all too often misusing the system as they believed that no local authority would face pulling down existing buildings (cf. Wood 1949: 45). Obviously, without having a state power above developers, there was no sign of public engagement either.

All the essential apparatus in the post-war period was provided by Town and Country Planning Acts, the Distribution of Industry Acts, the National Parks and Access to the Countryside Act, the New Town Act and the Town Development Acts. As a breath of fresh air after the war came ‘The Town and Country Planning Act, 1947’, that took all the development under control by making it subject to planning permission. Development plans were to be prepared for every area in the country.

Moreover, development rights were nationalised and the Ministry of Town and Country Planning, which became responsible for the coordination of local plans. These changes did not foster the development in any way. Instead, circumstances led to the ‘regulatory era’ where neither public nor private sectors were successful in ‘rebuilding Britain’ (to use one of the popular slogans at the end of the war). Additionally, there was no tension between community engagement and speed (‘slowness’ would be more appropriate) as there was still no reference to public involvement in the plan-making process.

The first post-war economic boom sparked off in 1953 when both the development charge and building licensing from previous years were abolished. This reversal in policy contributed its part to a continuous 20-year period of economic growth and rise of living standards. The position of planners reached a level, where they were regarded as trusted experts transferring scientific progress to solve problems of political and social organisation (Hague 1984). At that time, lack of public participation was not recognised as a problem.

Professionals were perceived as acting in the general public interest. ‘Planning proposals are generally presented to the public as a fait accompli, and only rarely are they given a thorough public discussion’ (Cullingworth 1964: 273). This period of blind faith was in retreat in the late 1960s when political consensus had broken down and there was noticeable dissatisfaction both with the inability to access the decision-making within government and with the way in which benefits were being distributed.

The Skeffington Report (1969) is considered as a turning point in the attitude to public participation in planning. Although its recommendations were rather obvious (keeping people informed throughout the plans and asking them to make comments), it pictured the steps the British government had to take to make the community’s participation real. Another contribution was made by the Seebohm Committee (1968), which was highlighting the contrast between the traditional representative democracy and public participation.

According to the committee, participation can be effective only if it is organised. The publication of these and other works along with the will of the government to divest itself of responsibility to consider ‘the crushing burden of casework’, led to the devolving of powers and ability of other interest groups to participate in the plan making process (The Planning Act in 1968). Although the government was keeping the local communities participating, it was in the same time monitoring if their decisions meet ‘the general public interest’ or other interests which it considered to be important.

Many local authorities therefore even avoided preparing statutory development plans as they believed the ‘costs’ of procedures of consultation and objection outweighed any benefits (Bruton and Nicholson 1983). However, when planning authorities sought public participation, they often adopted a ‘reveal and defend’ or even an ‘attack and response’ strategy (Rydin 1999: 188 and 193). The following period of three successive Margaret Thatcher’s governments (1979 1990) clearly portrays the contrast between speed and public engagement.

The philosophy of her reign pursued the boost of the economy in recession years, seen in deregulation of the market, which was naturally reflected in the planning and community engagement. Numerous amendments were made to the plan-making and developing control procedures during her rule. ‘There was a consistent diminution of the significance accorded to central public participation in policy formulation, as part of an effort to ‘’streamline’’ system and reduce delays’ (Thomas, H. 1996: 177). One result of this was the downgrading of the power of strategic planning and the reduction of opportunities for public participation.

In the 1990s the government was putting an emphasis on strengthening links with citizens and devolving policies and decision making to the local levels (principle of subsidiarity). This was described as a response to ‘the new circumstances of the global age; it is a deepening or democratising of democracy’ (Giddens 1998:72). The Local Government Act 2000 made it statutory to prepare the community strategy. The community strategy should ‘allow the local communities to articulate their aspirations, needs and priorities; coordinate [and focus] the actions of the council and of the public, private, voluntary and community … nd contribute to the achievement of sustainable development both locally and more widely’ (Preparing Community Strategies: Gov. advice to Local Authorities (2001). Communities should also make special efforts to involve those, normally underrepresented in policy-making – faith or ethnic minorities ethnic communities and young people. An evaluation of these efforts by the Community Development Foundation points to some success in the government’s drive for community involvement, but notes difficulties of participation in disadvantaged neighbourhoods.

In general, in terms of speed and public engagement the planning system before the year 2000 was aptly described by The Economist (10 Nov 2001:38) regarding the Heathrow 5 Saga: ‘Few countries have ended with a planning system which manages both to hold projects up for decades and to give people the feeling that they don’t have any say at all. ’ Towards the end of the millennium, planning was marked by the will to change the old, cumbersome and unfashionable policies in order to both improve the quality of planning decisions that affect places and to speed up the planning decisions.

These recurring themes of clarifying the planning machinery were thought to be solved by the Planning & Compulsory Purchase Act, which was approved in June 2004 as a longest running Bill (since December 2002). Although the 2004 Act is appreciated for several contributions (integration with other strategies, community involvement, programme management, etc. ), it is also blamed for being still not clear and responsive enough. Processes dealing with major infrastructure projects were too slow and complicated.

For instance, it took six years to deal with upgrading the power line in North Yorkshire. On the other hand, from the perspective of the communities the system was perceived to be favouring the well-resourced over the less well-off communities and citizens. The current Planning Act was approved in 2008. Main amendments at the national level lead to concentration on infrastructure projects, reducing the volume of guidance and improving their clarity (chiefly distinguishing policy from advice). Changes at the regional level, apart from improving comprehensibility (cross-reference rather than a epetition of the national policy), strive to reflect regional diversity and incorporate other regional strategies into planning. On the local level, the abolition of county-level structure plans was achieved. Instead, the Local Development Framework was introduced. This change should promote streamline and proactive approach to managing development. These amendments in general were made to speed up the plan-making process, without neglecting the effective public participation in various parts of the process.

Whether the recurring task of effective plan making appropriately addressed the requirements of our present age is too soon to judge. In conclusion, the position of the speed and the public engagement in the planningprocess is always formed by the conditions in the society – the political regime, the government, the economic climate, the culture and other factors. Throughout the British history, issues of the speed and the public participation were often standing in the stark contrast to each other. During Thatcherism, there was no place for public involvement and n the contrary, the public participation in the 2000s was considered to be slowing down the decision-making process. The aim of the all Planning Acts in the recent decades has been to harmonise these two issues into the highest possible degree. If is the current Act from 2008 successful, will be noticeable by practise in the following years. Bibliography: – Lecture notes and materials given at the lectures Barry Cullingworth and Vincent Nadin (2006), Town and Country planning in the UK – fourteenth edition, Routledge, Oxon Andrew Blowers and Bob Evans (1997), Town planning into the 21st century – Routledge, London –

Battle of Kamalpur

BATTLE OF KAMALPUR INTRODUCTION 1. 1971 a new country was born in the earth named “ Bangladesh ” through a nine month bloody war . Thousands of golden sons of this soil had to embrace martyrdom . Though this historical event took place in the year of 1971 but this was a long charted dream of all the Bangles since the fall freedom in the “ Battle of Palashi ” in 1957 . Bangles thought that their dream was going to be materialized during the partition in 1947 . But it appeared in more frustrating way for the negligence of the Pakistan government in all aspects.

This latent desire was exposed as a volcanic eruption in 25 march 1971 when Pakistan Army carried a plan genocide all over the country . They attacked the innocent people of the Bangladesh like hungry Hayna and killed thousand of people in one single night . They thought they would be able to smash the dream of freedom of Bangles to the ground . But they were certainly wrong . Instead of bowing down to the evil force people of Bangladesh turn around and stood against it with what so ever they could get as weapon .

Which ultimately force the “ Mukti Bahini ” composed of people from all walks of life . Unlike many countries Bangladesh was not given freedom rather we have earned it through many fighting and many battle against the well equipped regular force of Pakistan . Among those the Battle of Kamalpur occupied a very important place in the history of liberation war of Bangladesh . Till that time liberation forces kept themselves restricted within the limit of defensive role and minor guerilla operation .

After raising , first regular “ Brigade ” the Z Force , it carried out first major offensive morale and confidence of Mukti Bahini , Which ultimately contributed to take on number of offensive action against a regular force and earn the victory . 44. Kamalpur was only a small battle in the war of liberation . But in this small battle Mukti Bahini demonstrated its ability to fight . There was no dearth of brave man to shed their blood for their shonar Bangla .

The young leader of Bangladesh demonstrated that they could stomach the hard realities of war , they had the will to lead their inexperienced , ill-equipped and hurriedly trained people forward into battle . In the final reckoning they had the ultimate courage to show their men how to die for their country . Anx : A. Location of Kamalpur . BIBLIOGRAPHY 1. The Documents of the Liberation War of Bangladesh part 10. 2. AGAROTY SECTOR BIJOY KHAHINI by Major Rafiqul Islam, psc 3. Witness to Surrender by Siddique Salik. 4. Military History precis of BMA.