Analyze How Should Mcthai Maintain Its Market Competitiveness During the Global Recession with Specific References to the “Porter’s Five Forces Analysis”

{draw:frame} {draw:frame} World’s largest carmaker Toyota has announced that it will reduce its worker’s working hour and wages in the UK by 10% (BBC Business). The aim of this strategy is to reduce its high labour turnover which is caused by the global recession. Toyota announced from its annual report that during the year of 2008 the company has experienced difficulties in its sales, production and marketing, which lead to the loss of $ 1. billion (see Toyota Announces Results for January 2009 for latest update). “This would be Toyota’s first operating loss since 1950”, Toyota spokesman Steve Curtis said (CNNMoney. com). This announcement will take effect on the 1st of April 2009 and has been described as a “positive move” by the Unite union as they were the representative for the workers who negotiated this plan. This plan will provide stability to the Toyota workers as they will not be made redundant and a steady income will still made.

On the other hand, Toyota can still maintain a high-level skilled work force ready when the upturn comes. Toyota tries to maximize its profitability by reducing costs and even downsizing as a measure to counter the global recession. In the UK, Toyota has already suspended a night shift production line for a total of four weeks in order to reduce operating costs. Toyota is also considering downsizing in the UK, it has already cut 200 temporary jobs and opened a voluntary redundancy scheme.

A voluntary redundancy scheme is a financial incentive offered by an organization to its employees with the purpose of attracting volunteers to leave the organization, due to downsizing or restructuring situations. The purpose is to circumvent union employee regulation laws. {draw:frame} {draw:a} The advantages of this plan would be that it has provided a motivation towards its workers as they only lose 10% of their wages rather than being made redundant which fits the Taylor’s motivation (Wikipedia, Scientific management) as money is the basic motivator of all workers.

This plan can be seen as a paternalistic style of management as Toyota has put its workers into a greater deal by only making a small decrease in wages rather than making them redundant. Also this plan can help Toyota to maintain its good reputation compare to its competitors as many other carmakers have already made many workers redundant due to profit loss. The disadvantages of this plan would be if the global recession continues to decrease Toyota will have to eventually make most of its workers redundant and continues the process of downsizing, in order to void further profit losses. Also workers could become de-motivated as they are unsure of their own future, and workers are not achieving their full potential which does not match the basics of Maslow’s hierarchy of needs, physiological and safety needs. Therefore worker feels insecure and becoming de-motivated. In evaluation, I think Toyotas plan to reduce the working hour and wages of its workers by 10% is a reasonable cut which will provide some decrease in costs and profitability will increase.

But in order for Toyota to stop losing profits and avoiding downsizing cutting jobs it’s not the best option. Toyota must find an alternative solution which will give customers the confidents to purchase their cars. In order to do this Toyota must transform its existing products into new products which will provide them with a unique selling point or a competitive edge. Therefore Toyota must carry out a deep market research for their product development, examples could be eco-cars, or ultra-cheap cars such as the TATA Nano.

Tokyo — TOYOTA MOTOR CORPORATION (TMC) announces today its production, domestic sales and export results, including those for subsidiaries Daihatsu Motor Co. , Ltd. and Hino Motors, Ltd. , for January 2009. Bibliography http://money. cnn. com/2008/12/22/news/companies/toyota/index. htm BBC Business, last updated at 13:41 GMT, Wednesday, 11 March 2009 http://news. bbc. co. uk/2/hi/business/7936397. stm Wikipedia, Scientific management, http://en. wikipedia. org/wiki/Scientific_management Toyota Announces Results for January 2009 http://www. toyota. co. jp/en/news/09/0225. html

Computers in 2020

Thinking about the future is the thing that takes a lot of our time and efforts being computer oriented. We have to imagine, try to figure out what the future will bring us. We are supposed to lead our generation in looking for new and life enhancing technologies to make man’s life easier and more enjoyable. How will it look like? [pic]THIS IS THE MOST IMPORTANT QUESTION THAT CAME TO OUR MINDS. • Will we be able to talk to our computers in the future? • Will they respond freely? Can they understand us and do what we need before we ask for them? • Will screens be always touch sensitive? • Can computers of the future read our minds and maybe face expressions? Although we are not sure, but we will have to wait to see Environmental Friendly? WILL COMPUTERS IN THE FUTURE HELP PRESERVE THE ENVIRONMENT AND MAKE OUR LIFE BETTER OR WILL THEY DESTROY OUR NATURE? Will the rapidly advancing technology make our life easier and more enjoyable and help us live a better life, or will they lead to the destruction of mankind?

A lot of controversy arises when this topic is discussed in any community, so what do you think? 2020 – Future of Computing [pic] In this focus: Current research | Links | Archive | Sponsor In the last two decades advances in computing technology, from processing speed to network capacity and the internet, have revolutionized the way scientists work. From sequencing genomes to monitoring the Earth’s climate, many recent scientific advances would not have been possible without a parallel increase in computing power – and with revolutionary technologies uch as the quantum computer edging towards reality, what will the relationship between computing and science bring us over the next 15 years? This Nature web focus combines commentaries from leading scientists and news features analysis from journalists assessing how computing science concepts and techniques may transform mainstream science by 2020. Visit [email protected] com’s newsblog to read and post comments on the future of computing. Image: Joe Magee http://www. futureforall. org/computers/computers. htm Future Computers |Computers of Tomorrow | |[pic] |Today’s computers operate using transistors, wires and electricity. Future | |  |computers might use atoms, fibers and light. Personally, I don’t give a | |The Personal Computer Assistant |byte what makes it tick, as long as it does the job.

If I could | |[pic] |accidentally spill my coffee and not have it cost $848, that would be a | | |cool feature. | |I must admit that in some ways I envy Donald Trump. Not because of all the real |But let us assume that you are not still bitter from a recent laptop | |estate he owns or even for his cool private helicopter. No, what I envy most about |replacement.

You might stop to consider what the world might be like, if | |”The Donald” is his apprentice. Who wouldn’t appreciate giving any chore that comes |computers the size of molecules become a reality. These are the types of | |to mind, to an eager and competent assistant? After time, a good apprentice might |computers that could be everywhere, but never seen. Nano sized | |even anticipate your needs. “Pink tie today, Mr. Trump? “. Now apply this same kind |bio-computers that could target specific areas inside your body.

Giant | |of relationship model to the future of computing. |networks of computers, in your clothing, your house, your car. Entrenched | |Future of Computing |in almost every aspect of our lives and yet you may never give them a | |In the future, the number of tiny but powerful computers you encounter every day |single thought. | |will number in the thousands, perhaps millions. You won’t see them, but they will be|Complete understanding of the theories behind these future computer | |all around you.

Your personal interface to this powerful network of computers could |technologies is not for the meek. For example, my research into quantum | |come from a single computing device that is worn on or in the body. |computers was made all the more difficult, after I learned that in light of| |Aside from providing one 24/7 interface to the myriad of computers and sensors that |her constant interference, it is theoretically possible my mother-in-law | |you will have access to, like a good apprentice, this computing device would come to|could be in two places at once. |know your personal preferences and sometimes make decisions on your behalf. |If you have the heart, take a gander at this collection of articles and | |The above article is my own vision of the future of computing. Here are views from |links on the most promising new computer technologies. If not, dare to | |more knowledgeable sources |imagine the ways that billions of tiny, powerful computers will change our | |Future of Computing Articles |society. |Essential Computing – Intel |Quantum Computers | |2020 – Future of Computing |Optical Computers | |The super-fast future of computing |DNA Computers | |Microsoft Research Offers Behind-the-Scenes Look at Future of Computing |[pic] | |Computers to be ‘oxygen of the future’ Moore’s law | |The Future of Computing |Visit any site on the web writing about the future of computers and you | |The Computer Of The Future |will most likely find mention of Moore’s Law. Moore’s Law is not a strictly| |[pic] |adhered to mathematical formula, but a prediction made by Intel’s founder | |Future Computer: Atoms Packed in an “Egg Carton” of Light? |co-founder Gordon Moore in 1965. | |Scientists at Ohio State University have taken a step toward the development of |Moore predicted that computing technology would increase in value at the | |powerful new computers — by making tiny holes that contain nothing at all. The |same time it would decrease in cost.

More specifically, that innovations in| |holes — dark spots in an egg carton-shaped surface of laser light — could one day |technology would allow a doubling of the number of transistors in a given | |cradle atoms for quantum computing. [pic] |space every year, the speed of those transistors would increase and | |[pic] |manufacturing costs would drop. | |A Computer Like Your Brain |A computer transistor acts like a small electronic switch. Just like the | |A new NASA-developed computing device allows machines to work much like the brain. |light switch on your wall, a transistor has only two states, On or Off.

A | |This technology may allow fast-thinking machines to make decisions based on what |computer interprets this on/off state as a 1 or a 0. Put a whole bunch of | |they see. A planetary rover might use this technology to avoid obstacles, select |these transistors together and you have a computer chip. Intel’s newest | |scientifically interesting spots to explore just by what it sees and navigate |processor has nearly 1 billion transistors. | |through terrain on its own without review from ground controllers. A spacecraft |Shrinking transistor size not only makes chips smaller, but faster. One | |might use the technology to avoid azards and identify a pre-selected landing site |benefit of packing transistors closer together is that the electronic | |with very high precision. |pulses take less time to travel between transistors. This can increase the | |“This may well be recognized as a quantum leap in the pursuit of intelligent vision,|overall speed of the chip. | |allowing machines to be significantly more autonomous,” said Dr. Anil Thakoor, |Not everyone agrees that Moore’s Law has been accurate throughout the | |supervisor of the Bio-Inspired Technology and Systems Group at NASA’s Jet Propulsion|years, (the prediction has changed since its original version), or that it | |Laboratory in Pasadena, California. |will hold true in the future. But does it really matter?

The pace at which | |The device works much like the brain, whose power comes from the complex networks of|computers are doubling their smarts is happening fast enough for me. | |interconnections called “synapses” between brain cells. Networks of these brain |Thanks to the innovation and drive of Gordon Moore and others like him, | |cells, called neurons, allow humans to make instant decisions based on an observed |computers will continue to get smaller, faster and more affordable. [pic] | |image or scene. The new processor captures the same capability to process images in |[pic] | |real time as a scene unfolds. IBM moves Moore’s Law into the third-dimension | |A Computer Like Your Brain |IBM announced a breakthrough chip-stacking technology in a manufacturing | |[pic] |environment that paves the way for three-dimensional chips that will extend| |Nano chip |Moore’s Law beyond its expected limits. The technology – called | |The blueprint for a tiny, ultra-robust mechanical computer has been outlined by US |”through-silicon vias” — allows different chip components to be packaged | |researchers. much closer together for faster, smaller, and lower-power systems. [pic] | |Antique engines inspire nano chip |[pic] | |[pic] |Researchers now able to stop, restart light | |Phase-change memory |”Two years ago we slowed it down to 38 miles an hour; now we’ve been able | |Phase-change memory (also known as PCM  Memory), is a type of non-volatile computer |to park it then bring it back up to full speed. ” | |memory. Researchers now able to stop | |Phase-change memory |[pic] | | |youTube video of touch screen software  [pic] | | |Video of wall size interactive touch screen  [pic] | | |World’s TOP500 supercomputers | | |Cloud-computing platforms | http://www. futureforall. org/computers/quantumcomputers. htm Quantum Computers |The Potential and Power of Quantum Computing | |[pic] |This rather difficult concept is perhaps best explained through an | |What are Quantum Computers? |experiment. Read more at CalTech  [pic] | |A quantum computer is a computer that makes direct use of distinctively quantum |[pic] | |mechanical phenomena to perform operations on data. |Quantum Computers: What Do They Mean to Us? | |In a lassical (or conventional) computer, the amount of data is measured by bits; in a |This white paper discusses an overview of the quantum computing world, | |quantum computer, the data is measured by qubits. |and what it means to the computing industry. [pic] | |[pic] |[pic] | |The Bloch sphere is a representation of a qubit, the fundamental building block of |Today’s Quantum Computers | |quantum computers. |Here’s a look at a few of the quantum computers that have been | |Source: Wikipedia |developed.

Easy to read article found at How Stuff Works  [pic] | |The basic principle of quantum computation is that the quantum properties of particles |[pic] | |can be used to represent and structure data, and that quantum mechanisms can be devised |Quantum Computer Links | |and built to perform operations with these data. |Vibrating ions get entangled | |[pic] |Introduction to Quantum Theory | |Why Quantum Computers? Quantum computing: Entanglement may not be necessary | |Researchers have discovered that several classes of computational problems can be solved|Questions for David Deutsch | |in ways that take advantage of quantum parallelism. WhipTech. com  [pic] |A quantum leap in computing | | |IBM’s Test-Tube Quantum Computer Makes History | | http://www. futureforall. org/computers/opticalcomputers. htm |What is a Quantum Computer? | | |Instant Expert: Quantum World | | |World’s smallest storage device lies in he nucleus of an atom | | |Computer chips give new spin on saving energy | | |Quantum Memory Leap | |Optical Computers |Photonic Crystals | |[pic] |Researchers at the University of Alberta are developing photonic | |What are Optical Computers? |crystals designed to replace transistors in computers of the future. | |The computers we use today use transistors and semiconductors to control electricity. |All-Optical Computers Could Soon be a Part of Our Life | |Computers of the future may utilize crystals and metamaterials to control light. Optical|[pic] | |computers make use of light particles called photons. Optical Computer Made from Frozen Light | |[pic] |NASA-funded research at Harvard University, Cambridge, Mass. , that | |NASA scientists are working to solve the need for computer speed using light |literally stops light in its tracks, may someday lead to | |Light travels at 186,000 miles per second. That’s 982,080,000 feet per second — or |breakneck-speed computers that shelter enormous amounts of data from | |11,784,960,000 inches. In a billionth of a second, one nanosecond, photons of light |hackers. pic] | |travel just a bit less than a foot, not considering resistance in air or of an optical |[pic] | |fiber strand or thin film. Just right for doing things very quickly in microminiaturized|IBM milestone demonstrates optical device to advance computer | |computer chips. |performance | |[pic] |IBM announced that its researchers have built a device capable of | |Dr. Donald Frazier monitors a blue laser light |delaying the flow of light on a silicon chip, a equirement to one day | |used with electro-optical materials |allow computers to utilize optical communications to achieve better | |”Entirely optical computers are still some time in the future,” says Dr. Frazier, “but |performance. | |electro-optical hybrids have been possible since 1978, when it was learned that photons | | |can respond to electrons through media such as lithium niobate. Newer advances have |Researchers have known that the use of optical instead of electrical | |produced a variety of thin films and optical fibers that make optical interconnections |signals for transferring data within a computer chip might result in | |and devices practical.

We are focusing on thin films made of organic molecules, which |significant performance enhancements since light signals can carry more| |are more light sensitive than inorganics. |information faster. Yet, “buffering” or temporarily holding data on the| |Organics can perform functions such as switching, signal processing and frequency |chip is critical in controlling the flow of information, so a means for| |doubling using less power than inorganics. Inorganics such as silicon used with organic |doing so with light signals is necessary. The work announced today | |materials let us use both photons and electrons in current hybrid systems, which will |outlines just such a means for buffering optical signals on a chip. | |eventually lead to all-optical computer systems. |[pic] | | |[pic] | |”What we are accomplishing in the lab today will result in development of super-fast, |Era of High-Speed Optical Computing is Approaching | |super-miniaturized, super-lightweight and lower cost optical computing and optical |Physicists at Oregon State University have discovered a way to | |communication devices and systems,” Frazier explained. |manipulate the transmission of optical signals in tiny wires, | |Article and image from: [email protected] |dramatically slowing, stopping or even speeding them up to velocities | | |faster than the speed of light – a major advance that could open the | | |door to a new era of computing and information processing based on | | |optics. pic] | | |[pic] | | |Optical Computer Links | | |Scientists Move Optical Computing Closer to Reality | | |Optical Computers | | |Optical Components and Storage Systems | | |How They Work and Why We Will See Them | | |Light shines in quantum-computing arena – optical device produces | | |quantum computing | |http://www. futureforall. org/computers/dnacomputers. tm |Using ‘Nature’s Toolbox,’ a DNA Computer Solves a Complex Problem | |DNA Computers |A DNA-based computer has solved a logic problem that no person could | |[pic] |complete by hand, setting a new milestone for this infant technology | |What are DNA Computers? |that could someday surpass the electronic digital computer in certain | |DNA computers use DNA to store information and perform complex calculations. DNA has a |areas. | |vast amount of storage capacity computers might tap the vast storage capacity that |The new experiment was carried out by USC computer science professor | |enables DNA to hold the complex blueprints of living organisms. The storage capacity of |Dr.

Leonard Adleman, who made headlines in 1994 by demonstrating that | |a single gram of DNA can hold as much information as one trillion compact discs. |DNA — the spiraling molecule that holds life’s genetic code — could | |[pic] |be used to carry out computations. | |DNA Computing |DNA Computer | |Is there a computer in your genes? A team led by Dr. Leonard Adleman has shown that DNA |[pic] | |can be used to solve complex mathematical problems.

In Adleman’s lab at USC, |Purdue researchers stretch DNA on chip, lay track for future computers | |one-fiftieth of a teaspoon of deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) has solved two modestly |Researchers at Purdue University are making it easier to read life’s | |difficult problems—the “Hamilton Path,” or “Traveling Salesman,” problem and the |genetic blueprint. They have precisely placed strands of DNA on a | |”Customer Satisfaction” or “NP-complete 3-SAT” problem. His experiment has been heralded|silicon chip and then stretched out the strands so that their encoded | |as the “start of a new era,” forging an unprecedented link between computational science|information might be read more clearly, two steps critical to possibly | |and life science. [pic] |using DNA for future electronic devices and computers. |[pic] |DNA on chip | |‘DNA computer’ cracks code |[pic] | |A ‘DNA computer’ has been used to find the only correct answer from over a million |DNA Computer Links | |possible solutions to a computational problem. [pic] |A Glimpse at the Future of DNA: | |[pic] |M.

D. ‘s Inside the Body | |Living computers |DNA basis for new generation of computers | |Researchers genetically engineered the bacterium E. coli to coax its DNA into computing |DNA computers to fight diseases | |a classic mathematical puzzle known as the burned pancake problem. [pic] |Computer Made from DNA and Enzymes | | |Will Future Computers Be Made of DNA |

Mary Crow Dog, and Religion

Katy Teasdale Mrs. MacDonald World Religions; Per 3 9/20/09 A Search for Belonging The story of Mary Crow Dog can be interpreted two ways, as an autobiography about her struggle to gain racial equality and religious freedom, or as an autobiography where we can learn where Mary finds herself in her place. Mary first introduces herself as an ignorant child, content only because she didn’t know how bad things were. As a child, she wasn’t very religious; the only true religious figures in her life were her uncle Bill and her grandparents, who still lived in the Sioux way.

She was still very young when the “do-good” white people took her away from her family to the Catholic school. Catholicism was forced upon her often in abusive ways. Abusive priests and nuns distorted the meaning Catholicism, an impression like that is very hard to reverse. Conditions not much better than the reservation and racial prejudice everywhere caused young Mary to realize that Catholicism is not where she belonged. She knew she had to leave the school, and one day, after a particularly bad incident, she simply dropped out.

From here, Mary returned to the reservation, as a troubled teen, not unlike most other adolescents on the reservation. Drinking excessively, smoking cigarettes and marijuana, speeding around the reservation in unsafe vehicles; their lifestyle said, “I don’t care if I die; I have no reason to live anyway. ” Mary feels aimlessness, a roaming sensation that then turns into restlessness. She had to do something – go somewhere – but she didn’t know what or where. She didn’t share her mother’s values, and she certainly was not returning to the Catholic school.

I think it was the internal confliction that caused her to go in the criminal direction that she did for a while. She shoplifted and attempted to justify it by stating it reenacted her people’s history. She found her moral slipping, and that she didn’t feel guilty. Her eyes were opened the second time she was caught shoplifting, when the store manager released her for fear of her friends. She realized “it’s no wonder these white hate Indians so much if this is how they perceive us. ” her aimlessness ended, when she encountered AIM, (American Indian Movement. )

She first saw Leonard Crow dog with his novelty long hair at an AIM meeting. She felt AIM working inside of her, changing her from the inside out. She found a sense of belonging in the old ways. When she went on the tour with AIM, which included protesting on the lawn of the White House, she first tried Peyote. Mary experienced many peyote-induced visions. She was seeing meaning in life that hadn’t been there before. She looked upon different ancient Indian religions as different aspects of one great overall power. She saw that all Indians prayed for visions or “crying for a dream. Most Indians used peyote; also she saw it as a “hot-line” to the Great Spirit. Even as a small girl she took a lot of peyote, not considering it a drug, but a key to dreaming, or visions. Mary had her first Peyote experience at Wounded Knee; also her son was born there. Mary sort of saw having the baby the Indian way within the perimeters of Wounded Knee as a type of religious pilgrimage. After Wounded Knee when Mary Crow dog became Leonard’s wife she became first woman, meaning a medicine’s man wife. She has a peyote experience where she watched her formal self die, and finally she felt release from the rough past she has suffered.

She could escape from the unbearable memories she had dealt with, from the catholic school, the suffering and poverty she’d trudged through at the reservation and the horrible unfair treatment of Leonard in his different trials at jail. “Look at reality beneath the sham realities of things and gadgets,” Leonard always said to Mary. “Look through the eye in your heart, that’s the meaning of an Indian religion. ” Even after marrying Leonard, Mary still felt like the eye of her heart was blind, probably because she was not very knowledgeable in the traditional way.

To Mary it seemed that Leonard was a little uncomfortable to tea his own wife the old ways, but they became most religiously strong through the issue of Leonard’s arrest. It was shocking to learn that at the start of Mary and Leonard’s marriage, Mary did want part of that. She said yes, she was in awe of him, but he was twelve years older, an entire generation. It was her parent’s objection to their marriage that drove Mary closer to her husband. Her grandparents had been significantly aged apart, and they lived in the traditional way.

If the old ways approved of it, so did she. It was the closeness to Leonard that made the separation so hard for Mary. “I watched the marshals dragging him off in handcuffs and leg irons. We just kept looking at each other until the iron bars snapped shut, and he disappeared from my view. ” Leonard Crow dog was sentenced to twenty-three years for breaking the jaw of a member of the swat team. Mary found comfort in prayer. “I’ll go on praying for with the pipes, making tobacco ties. Mary turned to tradition appealing to the Great Spirit to help Leonard.

Although he was released eventually, the time separate from Leonard, made her lonely, leaving her to survive through her spiritual power. Mary mentions she knows she couldn’t have made it through the trials, and prejudice, without her knowledge of the old ways. Lakota Woman is a journey, not so much about fighting racial prejudice, more of a personal story about a young woman finding herself, finding her place in life, after a childhood of confusion and being lost. Following Mary Crow dog through the first twenty years of her life, it was interesting to see how much she changed.

Watching her relief in learning the traditional ways, and the way she yearned for a place in society. Learning about a woman’s role in Lakota, which was actually important. Her joy at her young son’s early interest already with learning traditional ways. Mary never would’ve reconciled the unfairness and poor treatment that she dealt with were it not for her Lakota religion. Works Cited Brodd, Jeffrey. World Religions: A Voyage of Discovery. Second Edition. United States: St. Mary’s Press, 2002. Print. Crow Dog, Mary. Lakota Woman. New York: Harper Perennial, 1990. Print.

Buying Center

James Sass BPA-125 Marketing Principles Stephan Berry What is a buying center? Describe the roles assumed by people in a buying center and what useful questions should be raised to guide any analysis of the structure and behavior of a buying center. A buying center is a group of people in a organization howe participate in the buying process. They share the same risks, goals, and knowledge about the product in which there going to buy. Members of the group usually include the president of the company and the the vice president.

Usually if there is a product that a certain department within the business is going to purchase, people skilled in that department that know the equipment well will be in the buying center. There are ? ve main roles in the buying center that people take during the process. These groups are the users, in? uencers, buyers, deciders, and gatekeepers. Each play a key role in the buying center. The users role are the people in the company that use the product. They will be the ones who will judge the product when it comes to the company.

The in? uencers help de? ne the speci? cations for what is bought. An example from the text would be “The information systems manager would be a key in? uencer in the purchase of a new mainframe computer. ” The deciders are the guys who actually decide wether to accept the contract from the supplier. The people in this role are usually from the R&D, engineering, or quality control departments. The gatekeepers manage to ? ow of information. The gatekeepers include secretaries, technical experts,and purchasing personnel.

Gatekeepers block information from getting to the other four roles in the buying center. There are four main questions in which analysts can use to analyze a buying center. The questions are Which individuals are in the buying center for the product or service? What is the relative in? uence of each member of the group? What are the buying criteria of each member? How does each member of the group perceive our ? rm, our products and services, and our salespeople? With these questions anylist can get a much better understanding of the groups.

System Software

System software is computer software designed to operate the computer hardware and to provide and maintain a platform for running application software. The most important types of system software are: • The computer BIOS and device firmware, which provide basic functionality to operate and control the hardware connected to or built into the computer. • The operating system (prominent examples being Microsoft Windows, Mac OS X and Linux), which allows the parts of a computer to work together by performing tasks like transferring data between memory and disks or rendering output onto a display device.

It also provides a platform to run high-level system software and application software. • Utility software, which helps to analyze, configure, optimize and maintain the computer. System software is usually not what a user would buy a computer for – instead, it can be seen as the basics of a computer which come built-in or pre-installed. In contrast to system software, software that allows users to do things like create text documents, play games, listen to music, or surf the web is called application software. Types of system software

System software helps use the operating system and computer system. It includes diagnostic tools, compilers, servers, windowing systems, utilities, language translator, data communication programs, data management programs and more. The purpose of system software is to insulate the applications programmer as much as possible from the details of the particular computer complex being used, especially memory and other hardware features, and such accessory devices as communications, printers, readers, displays, keyboards, etc.

Specific kinds of system software include: Loaders, Linkers, Utility software, Desktop, environment / Graphical user interface, Shells, BIOS, Hypervisors, Boot loaders If system software is stored on non-volatile memory such as integrated circuits, it is usually termed firmware. References 1. ^ http://depts. alverno. edu/cil/mod1/software/system. html 2. ^ http://searchsoa. techtarget. com/sDefinition/0,,sid26_gci213024,00. html 3. ^ http://www. webopedia. com/TERM/S/systems_software. html 4. ^ W. W. Milner, Ann Montgomery-Smith (2000). Information and Communication Technology for Intermediate Gnvq. p. 126

Rumi the Problem Solver

Rumi the Problem Solver The poems and parables of the great Persian Sufi poet, Moulana Jalaluddin Rumi, have given people consolation, insight and joy and can aid in solving many modern problems. In “The Guest House,” Rumi writes, “Be grateful for whoever comes because each has been sent as a guide from beyond,” (ll. 16-17). To begin with, Rumi expresses, through this poem, the importance of our emotions. Emotions, both good and bad, are integral components for developing wisdom and living life.

Good emotions do enhance your life but negative emotions also aid in the betterment of life. If you had never felt sad, how would you know what being happy felt like? The truth is that negative emotions make us appreciate and cherish the “happy days” even more. Negative experiences and emotions build character. Emotions are our defining characteristic and make life more interesting. Emotions are like a splash of color on a white canvas, without them, the canvas would be bland and absolutely boring. Emotions are important for solving delicate global issues such as human trafficking.

Rumi’s wisdom can solve this problem because the victims of this modern day slave trade need emotional support from society, loved ones, and even strangers to recover. We need to give them that support. Rumi also promoted the concept of equality. In his poem entitled “Only Breath,” Rumi writes, “ I belong to the beloved, have seen the two worlds as one and that one all to and know,” (ll. 11-12). Rumi sums up, in two simple lines, a concept that human beings have been unable to comprehend ever since the dawn of their existence.

Equality is an essential part of solving many modern conflicts. Most conflicts are born because of inequality. Since the very beginning of time, we’ve always been taught that this is my toy and that is yours or this is my country and that is yours. Things have always been divided, rights have been snatched away for superficial reasons, and people have been victims of discrimination because of inequality. In times like these, in times of global crisis, the world needs to pull together and work as a team.

Every year, thousands of people in third world countries die because of land disputes and families are torn apart. The practice of Rumi’s idea of equality can cure this problem and other issues like terrorism and poverty. Poverty is a direct result of the uneven distribution of wealth practiced in many third world countries. More equality could fix this problem and save countless lives. Rumi’s poems give us peace of mind, compassion, timeless wisdom, healing words, inspiration, and friendship, which are key components of life.

It is for all this reason that I believe Rumi is the answer to all our problems our personal, interpersonal, social, and international problems. In “Ghazal 1101” Rumi writes, “You live for God and yourself, not for riches” (ll. 1). Modern society is plagued with greed; there is evidence everywhere. People like Bernie Madoff have stripped thousands of their wealth and families are torn apart because of greed. Embracing Rumi’s message about greed could solve the economical crises like ours.

If money hadn’t been lost in financial scams, the economy would be in a much better place. Families would be saved and elder abuse would stop. The more we read and enjoy Rumi’s poems, the more compassionate and the less selfish and less greedy we become. The more Rumi’s poetry spreads around the world and enlightens people’s mind, there will be more peace and happiness in the world. If our political leaders read and understand Rumi’s poetry and live up to that understanding, the less violent and the more friendly nations will be.

If you think that religious fanatics are destroying human life and freedom, Rumi is the answer because he calls for understanding, tolerance and friendship, and views love and compassion as rays of the Divine light shining upon our inner being. The fact that Rumi’s sweet poems are on our lips seven centuries after his death testify to the truth of Rumi’s vision and the beauty of his poetry. Rumi is badly needed in our increasingly interdependent world because Rumi’s constituency is not a particular creed or community but the human heart.

Mass Wasting

Mass Wasting (also Mass Movement): – is the down slope movement of earth materials under the influence of gravity. The detachment and movement of earth materials occurs if the stress imposed is greater than the strength of the material to hold it in place. – Mass movement is a naturally occurring process that contributes to the cycle of tectonic uplift, erosion, transportation, and deposition of sediments. They are responsible for the topography of mountain ranges and river canyons that has developed over geologic time. Types of mass wasting: A. Slide involves movement of coherent blocks of material along a well-defined surface 1.

Rockslide • Also called debris slides or “landslides”. Occurs when blocks of rock, or masses of unconsolidated material slide down a slope. These are among the most destructive of mass movements. May be triggered by rain or melting snow, or earthquakes. 2. Slump • Slumps involve a mass of soil or other material sliding along a curved, rotational surface. (Shaped like a spoon. ) Slumps are sometimes seen along interstate highways where the graded soil on the sides of the road is a little too steep. 3. Creep • A SLOW downhill movement of soil and regolith.

Creep results in tree trunks that are curved at the base, tilted utility poles, fence posts, and tombstones, and causes retaining walls to be broken or overturned. B. Fall involves free fall of material (no contact with any surface except to bounce) Rock fall -The free fall of detached pieces of material of any size; may fall directly downward or bounce and roll. May occur as result of freeze-thaw, or the loosening action of plant roots. Causes the formation of talus slopes. Signs along highways warn of rolling rock in mountainous areas where the road has been cut into the hillside.

C. Flow involves continuous movement of material as a viscous fluid 1. Debris flow or mudflow • Commonly occur in volcanic areas, where they are called lahars. Mudflows generally follow established drainage patterns (valleys). 2. Earthflow • Form in humid areas on hillsides following heavy rain or melting snow, in fine-grained materials (clay and silt). Also occurs at the toe of slumps. Rate of movement varies (less than 1 mm per day to several meters per day), but may be long-lived (days to years). Includes the liquefaction associated with earthquakes. 3. Solifluction also known as soil fluction or soil creep, where waterlogged sediment slowly moves downslope over impermeable material. It can occur in any climate where the ground is saturated by water, though it is most often found in periglacial environments where the ground is permanently frozen (permafrost) Forces involved in mass wasting are: 1. gravity, a vertical force that can be split into vectors parallel to (tangential) and perpendicular to a surface(normal) 2. friction on the surface or between grains 3. shear strength, a measure of material strength and cohesion Kinds of Material Moved 1. Bedrock. . Soil (Regolith) 3. Water Mass movements are caused by various conditions: • Volcanic activity many times causes huge mudflows when the icy cover of a volcano melts and mixes with the soil to form mud as the magma in the volcano stirs preceding an eruption. • During heavy rainfall or rapid snow melt, water rapidly accumulates in the ground, changing the earth into a flowing river of mud. • Earthquake shocks cause sections of mountains and hills to break off and slide down. • Human modification of the land or weathering and erosion help loosen large chunks of earth and start them sliding downhill. Vibrations from machinery, traffic, weight loading from accumulation of snow; stockpiling of rock or ore; from waste piles and from buildings and other structures. • Gravitational pull of the earth on soil, rocks, and mud is the force behind mass movements. Factors Affecting Mass Wasting Several factors that determine the extent of mass wasting are: 1. Slope stability. The steeper the slope, the less stable it is. If the angle on the slope is great than the angle of repose, the slope will fail, resulting in mass wasting. Angle of Repose -maximum angle at which unconsolidated material on slope is stable • Slope stability depends on the nature of material • Slope stability also depends on the driving and resisting forces that act on the slope • 2. The degree of chemical weathering. In regions where there is more chemical weathering, there is a greater chance for mass wasting. • 3. The water content. Water adds weight to the slope, increase pore spaces in between grains, makes it easier for material to slide down the slope. • . Vegetation. The amount of vegetation can help reduce the rate of mass wasting. The roots help absorb water and help keep the soil in place. Removal of vegetation will speed up mass wasting. • 5. Overloading. Adding too much weight on a slope can increase water pressure. • 6. Geological features. When bedding is dipping in the same direction of the slope, there is a greater chance for mass wasting. Joints in the rocks also allow more water to seep into the ground. The type of rocks and their composition also affects mass wasting. Rate of Movement Slow movements primarily affect unconsolidated material at depths less than 1 meter, where movement rates average from 1 mm/yr to 1 mm/day: • Moderate velocity movements have movement rates that average from 1 cm/day to 1 cm/s. Mass movements of this type include: • Rapid movements, which have movement rates ranging from meters/second to 100 km/hr, occur on steep slopes. Social and Economical Impact of Mass Movements Mass movements produce a variety of effects. 1. loss of life 2. floods, damming up bodies of water 3. destruction to habitable land 4. Damages to structures or property . loss of tax revenues on devalued properties 6. reduced real estate values in landslide prone areas 7. loss of productivity of agricultural lands affected by landslides 8. loss of industrial productivity because of interruption of transportation systems by landslides 9. damage to railroads, building structure and underground pipes Preventive Measures 1. Bridge 2. Slope reduction and weight reduction 3. Retention Structures – walls or ground covers 4. Fluid removal – bore holes, subsurface drainage 5. Vertical piles driven into slide 6. Rock bolts 7. Flood control channels

The Girl Who Loved Tom Gordon

This Is Why You Should Just Pee Right On the Trail In the story “The girl who loved Tom Gordon” it works with the theme man vs. nature. It demonstrates the unimportance of a single human life, while at the same time shows the limits of a person’s strength and motivation to exist. Trisha’s experience shows her struggle against the strength of nature and her potential to live pleasantly with nature by her will to keep on moving forward, using what she had around her, going delusional, and the wasp god/ beast following her. Trisha wasn’t sure if moving every day was a good and bad thing.

The bad part about her moving was the fact that if she hadn’t moved on the first day and just stayed in the area she might have been found and rescued by the search group that was sent out a while later. The good thing about Trisha staying on the move was that is kept the beast at a fair amount of distance away from her. She couldn’t just sit and wait to be found, she had to go off and try and find civilization herself because for all she knew, no one would ever find her. Trisha had used her surroundings exceptionally well.

After she ran out of food from her lunch she had to find another source of food. She was able to find certain leaves, nuts, and berries that are edible. As another source of food, she had done some fishing, because she got really hungry. She swore to never talk about it with anyone once she was out of the woods because she was so disgusted by it. She would use the streams and rivers she was near as her drinking and cleaning water, even though the water got her really sick. She was also able to use her surroundings to make small shelters as she traveled.

Trisha used twigs and branches to either put on top of her as she slept or made a fort out of it. This was to try and keep her partially warm, block off the wind and rain, and to keep animals out. She also used her rain poncho as a blanket to try and keep herself warm on cold nights. During most of the time while Trisha was lost in the wood she began talking to the voice in her head, Tom Gordon, or her best friend, Pepsi. Too bad neither of them are actually there. Tom Gordon and Pepsi are part of Trisha going delusional so she’s not alone.

Tom Gordon is Trisha’s favorite baseball player on the Red Sox’s team and the person she has a crush on. He is there for most of the time while she’s in the woods. An example of a place that he is seen by Trisha is when it’s night time and their in the open clearing where she was about to go to sleep for the night. Pepsi is seen when Trisha is getting closer to finding the road. The voice in her head that she talks to is her own conscience telling her the truth of what she was really thinking. By her seeing and talking to these people makes her delusional.

While in the woods she met three cloaked people; two with white cloaks and one with black. The one in black was known as the wasp god and he was coming from the beast within the woods warning her that she was being followed by “it”. Toward the end of the story, this so called wasp god had turned out to be a black bear following her. The bear made Trisha scared, cautious, and even a little crazy throughout the story. In the very end, Trisha showed her bravery by standing up to the bear, staring it straight in the eyes, pitching her walkman, and startling it.

She was saved by the hunter scaring the bear off with a gun shot and getting Trisha out of there and to safety. In conclusions, the story “The girl who loved Tom Gordon” worked with the theme man vs. nature. It showed her struggle against the force of nature and her capability to live melodiously with nature by her motivation to keep on moving forward, using what she had around her, going delusional, and the wasp god/ beast following her. Work Cited King, Stephen. The Girl Who Loved Tom Gordon. Pocket Books: New York, 1999.

Why Rosie the Riveter?

Why Rosie the Riveter? Answers for the Future of Women History is often taken for granted in today’s society. Without certain events in our nations past, the America we live in today would be vastly different. More specifically, women in the 21st century would live dramatically different lives if it were not for the women who changed the image of women in America forever. The New Women of the Progressive Era resisted domesticity and the Flapper allowed women to have fun. Rosie the Riveter told women that “We can do it! while the “Happy Housewife” brought on political and economic changes during the post war era. Though not all of these groups put women in the best light; they all helped form the path for future women of America. During the Progressive Era, a new wave of women was emerging; quite literally, these women were referred to as New Women. These women were college-educated, frequently unmarried, and self-supporting. Their rise surfaced after the Civil War, and by 1870 there were eleven thousand women enrolled in higher education.

The New Women moved into growing female careers, like teaching and nursing, and they began to find new ways of living outside of the family. However, they were also being accused of unnaturally refusing motherhood, and people claimed that research proved too much education could harm the reproductive system. Women thus began to turn to solidarity and reformation just as the generation of their mothers did before them. They formed clubs, such as missionary societies, and women’s clubs like the WCTU (Woman’s Christian Temperance Union) and made a new claim to domesticity.

Their policies stated that those who chose careers over marriage would reveal maternal skills when needed. Teaching the young, tending to the poor, and improving the heath of women and children were their goals. This claim rested on the success of new, female-dominated institutions, which allowed women to support one another in creating new ideas, publicizing them and beginning political battles to defend them. Settlement houses and reform associations, like the National Consumers’ League, wished to shape a public policy for the next generations of women.

Jane Addams and Ellen Gates Starr began the Hull House in 1889, which was equipped with a nursery and kindergarten for children, gave cooking and sewing lesson, and held lectures and cultural events celebrating immigrants’ cultures. All women were welcome in to this institution as it was the center for labor activism by middle and working class women. The work that Addams and Starr started became the foundation for social work as a profession, just as New Women created the foundation for the next generations of women.

After the suffrage movement won women the vote, the birth of a new youth culture came about in the post World War I America, a period of relaxation and fun. The Flapper was born, a woman that sought out new experiences, like dancing and smoking and flaunting her sexuality, such activities that were once uncharacteristic of women to do. The Flapper Era was a result of the boredom women faced in politics; “they wanted to have fun”. Women were able to experience more freedom in what they wore, in what they did, and in being public.

There was a consumer increase as women began spending more money to fit the Flapper ideal. The new found freedom was quite literally elating for most women, as it became a sex positive time period. Marriage was no longer for the economical benefit of the family, but was out of true love. However, the Flapper lifestyle was not as free living as it made itself seem. Relationships were defined as being heterosexual, and lesbian relationships became deviant. So, women competed with one another for male attention, in hopes of finding marriage, replacing the “female friendship”.

Purchasing power proved to be too great of a power for some women, as the industrial economy shifted from products to the consumer economy. Eating disorders also emerged from the Flapper Era, as women tried to fit into the flapper body. It was not until the Second World War, that women began having a greater role in society, one that was not long lived. With World War II at large and many men leaving to go fight for our country, women were asked to take the place of men in various establishments. Women began to cater to the needs of society during the war and felt it was their civic duty to contribute to the war in this way.

In actuality, it was simply a convenient way for factories to keep their business up and running, and by turning to the housewives for employees they were able to do just that. An astonishing level of legislative intrusion in the economy, and in the forming principals and position accomplished during the war demonstrated the recruitment of women for industrial work. A great shift in how women in the workforce were viewed occurred as the all famous “Rise the Riveter” became and increasingly popular mascot for their “We can do it! ” mindset.

Most propaganda ads displayed women dressed nicely at work to attract women to the job and advertised the simplicity of some jobs by comparing them to stereotypical household tasks. During the war, women would work making gun bayonets, building ships, working in factories usually making bombs and aircraft parts, air raid wardens, plumbers, ambulance drivers, WRVS volunteers and nurses. As a result of pressing demands that women be allowed to serve their country by women’s organizations, the WAC, WAVES, SPARS, MCWR and WASP were formed as well as the army and nursing corps.

However, even in these various military positions women were faced with the traditional labor force segregation, and each branch avoided placing women in positions where they may be able to have authority over a man, and also prohibited women to fly over seas. Moreover, women who had children, were lesbian, or black, were not permitted to enlist in any military group. Employers had no interest in training the women for skilled work for they saw the women as temporary employees. They refused to hire the black women and even went as fat as to lower the wages of women who were working “male jobs”.

Because the shortage of housing and transportation was affecting them, it limited their options a great deal. Mothers of small children found it difficult to find childcare; while the mothers were away at work the infants and children were often left at home or in the car. Men would harass women continuously and women were even subject to sexual harassment. Even the media was playing out on this discrimination; they would assure Americans that women would return to their traditional roles, as the Happy Housewife once the war was over. What it meant to be a wife took on an entire new meaning in the 20s.

She must remain attractive and interesting, and with the new cave of products, the woman was more capable of caring for her family. It was still commonly thought that the woman was in charge of the caring of her family, so naturally, advertisements for such products revolved around the housewife. Although women were encouraged to be independent, they were still sought after for reproduction and childcare. Mothers were expected to stay at the core of the family, and thus were the symbol of safety and security for both the family and the world.

On the outside, these women were presented as being the community provider, the wife, mother, and cook, while in reality these women were depressed, unfulfilled and isolated. Again, these women were not always put in the best circumstances; they faced unrealistic molds, and discrimination. Yet it is these molds that allow the women of today to have the freedom they deserve. Though it is important to remember there is still a lot to be dealt with to meet the goal of equality all women should strive to accomplish. These women took some of the first steps towards that direction, and have passed the torch onto the generation of women today.

I Heard the Owl Call My Name

The Messiah of Quee In the novel, I Heard The Owl Call My Name, Mark Brian is suffering a severe illness and is sent to a village in British Columbia. Here, he will learn about life from the villagers and teach them too. Jesus taught everybody, including his disciples, how to live their life in the presence of God. Christ died on the cross for our sins we committed. Mark dies not from his illness but from an anomalous land slide.

Margret Craven, the author, characterizes Father Mark Brian as a Christ-like figure through Mark sacrifices his life and his customs of life, Mark answering the village’s problems, and the town acting like disciples of Jesus. Mark was first sent to the village of Kingcome, in Indian its Quee, which means inside place, by the Bishop. At first when Mark arrives, the tribe doesn’t accept him but later on, they like him. Mark spends about a year and a half at the village which is how many more years he will live. Also, he gives up his lavish life style to life in a shack.

He has no electricity, no running water, and a slight amount of food to last him a day. To get his food he has to use the traditional method of getting food which is hunting for animal. Jesus went through the same characteristics as Mark. Jesus lived in a time of no electricity, no running water, and especially no type of market to get food. “To keep fed, to keep warm, to keep alive. One woman said, “I am sorry. I have only enough fuel for my own family,” and one man said, “I cannot share with you, friend” (Craven131).

This quote refers to a man who said he could not provide enough food for Mark and he only had enough for him and his family. Jesus and Mark are willing to help everyone in a time of need. Mark sacrifices the rest of his life to help the poor village. Mark helps rebuild the neglected church which means a lot to the village of Quee, which has not been repaired in a long time. He puts a lot of blood, sweat, and tears into the reconstruction of the church. Another characteristic is the town coming to Mark for answers. People are always coming to Jesus for answers.

The village is also encountering problems with the younger generation because they are not caring about the old traditions and focusing more on the white mans ideas. Another problem that the village faces is why a white man wanted to buy the giant mask. Marks tell them that people want to buy it so they can sell it and make lots of money. One of the villagers said, “What has the white man done to our young “( 73) and Mark tells them why he treated the young girl cajole so he could steal the giant mask along with getting Gordon’s uncle drunk.

Jesus is always telling his followers that there isn’t always good in life. Jesus wants people to do the right thing in life but they don’t all ways do. The villagers always came to Mark looking for an answer which they could not solve by themselves. This all adds up to the village acting as Mark’s disciples. The disciples of Jesus came to him and would asked questions or Jesus would come to them and ask, why are your doing this or that. Jesus wanted his disciples to not be afraid but have faith in him. Mark is the samel, too.

When he needs a question answered, the village responds and when the village comes to him, Mark responds. Jesus loved everybody and so did Mark. Jesus and Mark end up dying for a cause in their life. The village becomes melancholy with Mark’s death because he put so much effort into helping everyone in the village In conclusion, Mark soon understands that no matter how simple it may be geese flying over a river, trees swaying in the wind, or ordinands leading a tribe of people, everything has a purpose in life.

Mark’s purpose was to help the village of Quee and Jesus’ purpose to spread the word of God. Mark was not able to answer all the towns’ problems, but did help them in a formal way. Jesus dies for us and Mark dies for the village. Mark is a perfect example of resembling a Christ-like figure through him solving just about every problem in the village and willing to help others in a time of crisis. Work Cited Craven, Margaret. I Heard The Owl Call My Name. New York: Dell Publishing, 1973.