Research Paper Proposal

Burnout among Nurses in Intensive Care Units and Emergency Departments: An empirical study of Pakistani Government Hospitals 1. Introduction Burnout is a pattern of emotional, physical, and mental exhaustion in response to chronic job stressors. It is a disorder characterized by emotional exhaustion, depersonalization and a low level of personal accomplishments, which primarily affects people who are dealing with other people in their work (Maslach, 1982). Burnout develops due to the persistent emotional strain, which is the result of dealing with other people who cope with serious problems.

Thus, burnout could be considered as a type of professional stress, which results from the social interaction between the person who provides help and the person who receives that help. Nurses are more susceptible to the development of burnout, mainly because of the nature and the emotional demands of their profession. Burnout is a serious problem. It directly affects the worker and it presents with various symptoms, both somatic and psychological. It is related to the weakening of relationships between the nurse and the patients, the coworkers, the family and the social environment.

Burnout is also closely related to the absenteeism of nurses from work, abandoning nursing profession and results in poor patient work overload. 1. 1. Problem Statement. There is high degree of burnout amongst nurses working in ICUs and Emergency Departments of government hospitals in Pakistan. No research has ever been conducted in Pakistan to find out the factors leading to high rate of burnout in nurses. A research study was conducted in Greece for investigating burnout of nurses working in Intensive Care Units, Internal Medicine Wards and Emergency Departments.

The researcher intends to conduct a similar study in Pakistani government hospitals. 1. 2. Significance of the Study 1. 2. 1 Theoretical Contribution: This research will add to the body of knowledge as no research on the subject has ever been conducted in Pakistan. 1. 2. 2 Applied Aspects Involved: This research will help to identify the reasons of burnout of ICUs / Emergency Departments nurses working in Pakistani government hospitals and will recommend remedial measures. The study can also be helpful to private hospitals/ clinics. 1. 3. Objectives of Study To study emotional exhaustion, depersonalization and personal accomplishment among nurses working in ICUs& Emergency Departments. • To study the degree of burnout experienced by the nurses working in ICUs and Emergency Departments of government hospitals in twin cities of Islamabad and Rawalpindi, Pakistan. • To identify job related factors and personal characteristics that contribute to the development of burnout. 2. Literature Review The main reasons which contribute to the development of burnout are the time that nurses spend for the patients care (Cronin-Stubbs.

D, 1985), the contact with patients having a poor diagnosis (Hare. J,1988), the contact with patients having increased emotional demands(Lewenson,1981),workload(Landsbergis. P. A,1988)ambiguity and role conflict(Pines A. M,1982), lack of support by the supervisors and colleagues(Firth H, McIntree J, 1982), lack of job satisfaction (Dolan N,1987) and fear of death (Mallett K,1991). Personality characteristics are also responsible for burnout those are the motivations for choosing humanistic profession (Vachon M. L. S, 1978), expectations from himself / herself and the others (Wessells D.

T, 1989), his / her values, self-esteem, ability to express feelings, the control over the events and personal style. All these factors influence the way of handling an emotional strain (Maslach C, 1982). It is said, that some people are more stress resistant, and thus less vulnerable to the development of burnout. The nurses working in different fields experience varying degree of burnout. This may be due to the staff conflicts, the decreased expertise of the workers and the work overload (Leiter M. P, & Maslach C, 1988).

Earlier researches indicate that nursing personnel working in emergency departments experienced significantly higher levels of emotional exhaustion and depersonalization in comparison to nurses of Intensive Care Units (ICUs) and other wards. 3. Theoretical Framework / Conceptual Model and Hypotheses 3. 1. Hypothesis. The hypothesis of this study are as follows:- H1. High level of Emotional Exhaustion leads to high degree of burnout. H2. High level of Depersonalization leads to high degree of burnout. H3. Low level of Personal Accomplishment leads to high degree of burnout.

H4. Job related factors and Personality Characteristics have moderating effect on the degree of burnout. 4. Research Design / Methodology 4. 1. Universe. Government hospitals located at Islamabad and Rawalpindi cities. 4. 2. Sample Size. 200 nurses having minimum one year nursing experience and presently working in ICUs and Emergency Departmwnts. 4. 3. Data Collection Method. Qustionnaire. 4. 4. Tools. For the collection of data the following tools will be used: 4. 4. 1. The Maslach Burnout Inventory. Developed by Maslach and Jackson.

It consists of 22 questions and records 3 dimensions of burnout: the emotional exhaustion, the depersonalization and the low personal accomplishments. 4. 4. 2 The Work Environment Scale. Developed by Moos and Insel, which consists of 90 questions of true-false type. This scale assesses the worker involvement, the coworker cohesion, the supervisor’s support, the autonomy, the task orientation, the work pressure, the clarity, the managerial control, the innovation, and finally the physical comfort. 4. 4. 3 General Information Questionnaire.

For recording the demographic and professional features of the sample of the study, formulated by the investigators according to similar questionnaires found in Pakistani and international literature. 4. 5 Data Analysis Plan. The possible relationship of burnout with the different independent variables (age, number of children, work experience and the work environment subscales etc. ), will be evaluated by using SPSS (Statistical Package for Social Sciences). 5. Report Writing Plan The proposed research will be developed in to a MBA thesis paper. Bibliography

Cronin-Stubbs D, Brophy E. G. Burnout: can social support save the psych nurse? Journal of Psychosocial Nursing Mental Health Services 1985, 23: 8-13. Dolan N. The relationship between burnout and job satisfaction in nurses. Journal of Advance Nursing 1987, 12, 3-12. E. Adali, Priami M RN PhD, Clinical Professor, Nursing Depart, T. E. I of Athens, Greece, Burnout among Nurses in Intensive Care Units, Internal Medicine Wards and Emergency Departments in Greek Hospitals, ICUs and Nursing Web Journal, Issue 11th (July-September 2002)

Firth H, McIntree J, McKeown P, Britten P. Burnout and professional depression: related concepts. Journal Advance Nursing 1986a, 11: 663-641. Hare J, Pratt CC, Andrews D. Predictors of burnout in professional and paraprofessional. Nurses working in hospitals and nursing homes. Intl J Nurse Study 1988, 25 (2): 105-115 Landsbergis P. A. Occupational stress among health care workers: A test of the job demands-control model. Journal Organization Behavior, 1988, 9: 217-239. Lewenson N.

J, Conley, & Blessing-Moore J. Relationships of hypothetical burnout cystic fibrosis caregivers. Acta Pediatrics 1981, 70:935-939. Mallett K, Price J, Jurs S. G, Slenker S. Relationships among burnout, Death Anxiety and social support in hospital and critical care nurses. Psychological Rep 1991, 68: 1347-1359. Maslach C. Burnout. The cost of caring. Prentice-Hall, Inc, New Jersey, 1982. Moos R. H, Insel P. N. Work Environment Scale. Consulting Psychologists Press 1974, Palo Alto, California

Marie Cecile Poncet, Philippe Toullic, Laurent Papazian, Nancy Kentish-Barnes, Jean- Franccois Timsit, Frederic Pochard, Sylvie Chevret, Benoit Schlemmer and Elie Azoulay, Burnout Syndrome in Critical Care Nursing Staff,American Journal of Resperatotry and Critical Care Medicine, Vol 175, 2007,698-704 Pines A. M, Kanner A. D. Nurses burnout: Lack of positive conditions and presence of negative conditions as two independent sources of stress. Journal of Psychiatric Nursing 1982, 20 (8): 30-35. Vachon M. L. S.

Motivation and stress experienced by staff working with terminally ill. Death Education 1978, 2:113-122. [pic] [pic] ———————– Moderating Variable Personality Characteristics Low Pesonal Accomplishment Depersonalization Emotional Exhaustion Dependent Variable Independent Variables Burnout Low Coworker Cohesion Contributing Factors Low Managerial Control Age Low Task Orientation Low Involvement Source: Variables is taken from study of Adali, Priami whereas conceptual model prepared by researcher. Low Managerial Control

Fpl’s Dividend Decision

Major issues of FPL in 1994: – Negotiation between FPL and FERC (Federal Energy Regulatory Commission) to settle the lawsuit against FPL for changing excessive rates and denying fair access to its transmission system. – Lower investment rate due to the fact that FPL probably does not raise dividends as discussed – Suggestion of dividend cuts by FPL’s managers – FPL’s stock price has fallen by 19. 6% while the S&P index has decreased by 22. 1% – Rising interest rate and increasing competition in electric industry From investors’ perspective, the current payout ratio is appropriate to some extent: – FPL’s current payout ration =? ash dividend/net income = 461693/248749 = 107. 7%. According to the exhibit 9, FPL has the highest payout ratio in comparison to other electric utilities in the same industry. – For institutional investors who hold 36. 9% of FPL’s total common stocks, this payout ratio may be appropriate because they likely prefers high payout ratio in seeking for high earnings from their investment. If FPL tries to maintain this ratio, it can satisfy those small investors but it has to increase this ration over time to satisfy these investors’ expectation. – For individual investors who hold 51. % of FPL’s total common stocks, the payout ration has little meaning because they can use homemade dividend strategy to obtain capital gains rather than receive cash dividends due to higher taxes imposed on dividends. Furthermore, they do not need dividends to convert shares to cash. FPL’s decision to cut payout ration does not really affect the value of these individual investors. – In my opinion, FPL currently maintains an inappropriate payout ration. Given the situation that the new regulation will be soon implemented, FPL will face strong competition not only from Florida but also from all other possible states.

FPL can not protect itself by restricting access to its transmission system since it was sued for doing so. To prepare for competition and sustainable growth in near future, the best way FPL can do is to use its excess cash to invest in new positive NPV projects. Therefore, FPL should not maintain the high payout ration at 107. 7%. Instead, it should lower this ratio to or below the average ratio of the industry (82. 9%) since the dividend cut does not lower the firm’s value. Recommendations on FPL’s stocks: – First, FPL should declare to cut dividends.

The company should not worry about a lawsuit against its lower dividend policy as the dividend cut does not affect the majority of its investors (individual investors). Upon the announcement of dividend cut, the stock price can decrease so FPL should use its excess cash to buy back its stock to increase the stock price whenever it falls down. – Then, FPL should use Buy and Hold strategy to repurchase its stocks and hold them regardless of market fluctuations. This solution as a long term investment can help FPL increase its stock price which has fallen in early 1994.

By doing so, FPL can get rid of its excess cash of $150 million per year. FPL also can use this strategy to increase incentive compensation by granting stock options to employees and thus, increase employment commitment and recruiting attractiveness to have competent personnel for future growth. – FPL should use its excess cash to invest more in new profitable projects, acquire new companies and profitable assets, and reinvest in financial assets. Bibliography: http://amedemic-case-studies. blogspot. com/search? updated-min=2006-01-01T00:00:00-08:00&updated-max=2007-01-01T00:00:00-08:00&max-results=29

In-House Review of East West in Cdk

The huge number of student population this school year 2008-2009 at COLEGIO de KIDAPAWAN is one of the proofs that the people trust the institution for having the capacity to produce quality graduates by means of its standard and systematic way of teaching, most especially in the field of Nursing, wherein modernized equipment and convenient facilities have been experienced by many students.

These helped them enhance their competitiveness and skills in the said course. Last year, it was proven that CdK nurses really compete academically for passing the December 2007 Nursing Licensure Examination, 35% of them made it to get their licenses, by the help of their Review Centers like that of EAST WEST Educational Specialist who made an in-house review at CdK to cater the needs of students as well as some students from other schools.

COLEGIO de KIDAPAWAN and EAST WEST Educational Specialist signed a Memorandum of Agreement (MOA), that they will only conduct a review provided that the number of participants to warrant the opening of the requested In-house Review for the particular programs will not be less than 100. EAST WEST as described was known to be the leading review specialist in the country. It is owned and governed by Prof. Ma. Estela M. Layug who is currently the Vice President of the Association of Deans of Colleges of Nursing Schools in the Philippines and Dean Leonora N.

Reyes. They provide the most comprehensive and quality nursing review for local nurses examination and national nurses exams like CGFNS and NCLEX. They are producing topnotchers and 100% passing rates in some schools. In fact, they already produced more than 450 topnotchers for many years of continuous service to the nursing profession. There are five (5) programs of EAST WEST for NLE Review program (Local Boards) offered, namely: • COMPETENCY APPRAISAL REVIEW PROGRAM composed of three (3) study programs. PLATINUM ELITE REVIEW PROGRAM composed of nine (9) study programs. • GOLD ELITE REVIEW PROGRAM composed of seven (7) study programs. • FAST TRACK LOCAL REVIEW PROGRAM composed of six (6) study programs. • FAST TRACK LOCAL-NCLEX REVIEW PROGRAM composed of thirteen (13) study programs. For this year’s in-house review, PLATINUM ELITE REVIEW PROGRAM was introduced by EAST WEST to 106 participants (76 coming from CdK and 30 from the outside) taking the review.

This PLATINUM ELITE REVIEW PROGRAM is composed of nine (9) study programs which include: • General and Specific Study Habits with Survival Test Taking Strategies • Didactics (lectures) on Professional Nursing Subjects • Diagnostics and Final Exams • Lateral Integration of the (11) Key Areas of Responsibility (CAR) • Test Bank on Nursing Professional Subjects • Simulated Pre-Board Examination • Curricular Enhancement Week-long Final Preparation Utilizing the NLE Test Framework • Last Minute Preparation These study programs are the bases to make the participants prepared and be more knowledgeable about the NLEX which they will take after. Moreover, as what have been researched, their course includes an instructive system and facilitated classroom instruction performing an audio-video presentation, therefore enhancing the participants competitiveness in relation to their preparation for the NLEX.

They also perform an Interactive Question and Answer (IQA) to the questions contained in their Diagnostic Test Bank, Course Book, Final and Pre-Board Examinations. In their rationalized Pre-Board Exam, if the participants will pass the exam given to them, they will have 95% chance to pass the NLE proper. According to Mrs. Lourdes Fernandez, RN (CdK Department Head of Nursing), they have chosen EAST WEST because of their reliability. The curriculum-based review that they are offering is anchored to nursing Board Exams, the content are really complete as explained.

Swot Inner City Paint Corp

V. ANALYSIS OF STRATEGIC FACTORS (SWOT) A. Situational Analysis External Opportunities: 1. Domestic expansion 2. Quality favor 3. Cost leadership 4. Product expansion 5. International expansion External Threats: 1. Strong competition from Glidden and DuPont 2. Decreasing market 3. Shipping costs 4. customers lack of confidence 5. Poor economy Internal Strengths: 1. Competitive pricing 2. Consistent growth of the company 3. Low cost of raw materials 4. Fast service 5. Consistent quality Internal Weaknesses: 1. Low financial resources 2. Lack of domestic & international presence 3. Lack of management & financial controls . Unskilled employees 5. Difficult financial straits B. Review of Mission and Objectives Inner-City Paint Corporation’s current mission and objectives aren’t appropriate in light of the key strategic factors and problems. The mission and objectives are to general and can be expanded. With the companies strengths and opportunities, they should be able to overcome the threats and weaknesses. The company could expand the mission and objectives to supplying a quality paint at a competitive price to Chicago or even the county. The company has grown considerably over the past years, but have focused on the immediate area.

But now that the housing economy is low in that area the company is suffering. If it was able to expand to a number of areas where the market isn’t as bad the company could continue to grow. VI. STRATEGIC ALTERNATIVES AND RECOMMENDED STRATEGY A. Strategic Alternatives A. Growth Inner-City Paint should position itself to sell larger quantities & varieties of paint to better compete within the market they serve. Pro: ICP already has a quality, lost price product that customers like which should be leveraged towards fulfilling the needs for large quantity orders.

They could gain more confidence from their customer base by increasing their capacity to meet this need. Con: To increase capacity will no doubt require additional financial investments. ICP does not currently have the ability to make the investment themselves due to its poor financial situation. They would have no choice but to seek funding in the form of a loan from a bank. B. Retrenchment Inner-City Paint is having difficulty in meeting its financial commitments because their current ratio is below 1. 00 (liabilities exceed assets).

It already operates at relatively low cost therefore curtailing expenses would not be easy to accomplish. Instead ICP should consider a captive company strategy whereby they could partner with one of the giant competitors (e. g. : DuPont or Glidden) in exchange for long term viability. Pro: This would make sense because the giant competitors do not compete in this specialized market due to the high cost of shipping. ICP would provide the market & delivery mechanism and the giant would supply the financial & management resources.

Con: ICP would lose much of its independence and may eventually be forced to reorganize the company after the giant sees how disorganized they are. C. Stability Inner-City Paint needs to improve its management structure and it’s financial & control procedures. Pro: The Company’s all around well being would improve significantly if it had a better handle on its operations and resources. It would be able to react quicker to financial challenges within Accounts Receivable and Accounts Payable. Con: These improvements could take time to implement and might come at a cost. Walsh is…

Incorporating Feedback

Resources: Revising, Peer Reviewing, and Proofreading and Constructive Feedback Turorial. Read Ch. 5, Finalization for Writing in the University of Phoenix Essay Guidelines. To download the entire document, go to the Center for Writing Excellence. Click Writing Wizards. Click Guidelines for Writing Academic Papers. Address the following: What feedback did you receive from your instructor? From the peer reviewer? From the Center for Writing Excellence? Explain how you will incorporate the feedback into your paper. How does this feedback improve your expository essay?

What feedback did you choose not to include? Explain your answers. My essay is on: Fast foods can lead to obesity. Here’s my feedback from my peer. Peer Review of Your Essay Posted: Thu 01/07/2010 08:02 AM , by: Cheryl D. Slusher ( [email protected] phoenix. edu ) Previous | Next Red(High) Yellow(Medium) Blue(Low) No Flag Reply View/Print Flag Message Mark as unread Axia College Material Appendix G Peer Review Checklist* What is the main point of this essay? I think the main point of this essay is that obesity is a major problem in the US and that eating healthy and exercise is a way to combat the issue.

What is the greatest strength of this essay? The detailed facts, examples and the definitions are what I found to be strong in this essay. Defining carbs, proteins, and vitamins as they are in the food we eat is essential for this type of essay I think. Does the introduction grab your interest and make you want to read on? Explain your answer. I was not grabbed by the introduction. It read informal I think. I came to it and it was labeled and then two bulleted statements. I was left with a want for the author to have given me some form of personal insight on the subject.

What material does not seem to fit the main point of the essay or does not seem to be appropriate for the audience? As I read the essay and came to the end there were definitions of what the introduction and conclusion should be in essays. I am not sure if this should be there. It seemed odd. Where should the author add more details or examples? Explain your answer. The thesis statement states fast food can lead to obesity yet I see no direct example within the essay linking any fact with fast food. I saw no comparison on explanation of how fast food is just plain unhealthy.

I believe that is a well known fact but I felt as if that would have been useful. Where is the writing unclear or vague? I think the writing of this essay was very precise. The facts seemed well stated and clear. The definitions were clear. The examples of food and what they contain were very useful and well written. If I were too seemed lost anywhere in this essay I would say it was structure issues. What is your favorite part of this piece of writing? My favorite part of this essay is definitely the definitions and explanations.

Protiens, saturated fats, sugar, alcohol the pros and cons definitely made this learning piece for me. I enjoy learning so this was my favorite part. What other comments might you provide for the author? I read this essay and was grateful for the definitions, facts, and examples that were used. They were very clear and precise. I liked that immensely. I did not understand the definitions at the end on introductions and conclusions. If it were me I would work on my structure. I am not a teacher these are just my opinions. Hope they

Economic Value Added of Acc(Cement Company)

MCS Assignment on Calculation of EVA for ACC Company {draw:frame} Group members: *Company Profile*: The corporate and registered offices are at Cement House, Mumbai. The company has two subsidiaries namely Bulk Cement Corporation India which caters to bulk cement requirements and ACC Machinery Company which manufactures machinery and equipment for use in chemicals and cement industries. It has associations with Yanbu Cement Company, Saudi Arabia for operating and managing their cement plant and Dangote Industries for engineering consultancy for setting up new cement plants for them.

The company has rich experience in mining, being the largest user of limestone. As the largest cement producer in India, it is one of the biggest customers of the domestic coal industry, of Indian Railways, and a considerable user of the country’s road transport network services for inward and outward movement of materials and products. ACC has won several prizes and accolades for environment friendly measures taken at its plants and mines.

It is amongst the first companies in India to include commitment to environmental protection as one of its corporate objectives, the company installed sophisticated pollution control equipment as far back as 1966, long before pollution control laws came into existence. Today each of its cement plants has state-of-the art pollution control equipment and devices. Financials: Share Holding pattern: Promoters own 46% stake in the company followed by FIs, banks and mutual funds which own 23% stake. Individuals, FIIs and Others own 17%, 9% and 5% stake in company respectively.

The company disclosed a steady growth in standalone net profit for the quarter ended September 2009. The Company has posted a net profit of Rs 4356. 339 million for the quarter ended September 30, 2009 whereas the same was at Rs 2834. 349 million for the quarter ended September 30, 2008. Total Income is Rs 20202. 463 million for the quarter ended September 30, 2009 whereas the same was at Rs 18489. 919 million for the quarter ended September 30, 2008. The EPS was Rs 23. 18. {text:bookmark-start} 02-APR-09 The Company reported a rise of 5. 85% for the month of March 2009.

During the month, the company produced 1. 99 million tons of cement as against 1. 88 million tons produced in March 2008. 09-OCT-08 The Company has acquired 40% stake in Goa-based Alcon Cement Company, having a capacity of 500 tons a day, for Rs 222. 5 million, reports Business Standard. 17-SEP-08 The company has proposed to delist its global depository receipts (GDRs) from the London Stock Exchange (LSE). 11-MAR-08 ACC divested its wholly owned subsidiary ACC Machinery (AMCL) to HNG Group for a consideration of Rs 450 million on Mar. 11, 2008. 09-OCT-07

ACC started its first wind energy farm located in Udayathoor in Tirunelveli district, Tamil Nadu. This initiative is part of the company`s efforts to adopt clean and green technologies to reduce dependence on conventional fossil fuel based energy sources. The wind power plant comprises six modern wind turbines of capacity 1. 5 MW each made by Suzlon Energy. The project was executed in a record time of three months from start to finish 22-AUG-07 ACC is planning to import cement from the operations of Holcim Bangladesh, its associate company, to keep pace with the rise in demand.

Beta Calculation: Beta (? ) is a measure of systematic risk and it is the ratio of variance between market return and security’s return to market return variable where, j = stock and m = market Procedure for calculating ? is: Calculate average return on market and average return on stock. Calculate deviation of returns on market from average returns Calculate deviation of returns on stock from average returns Multiply deviation of market return and deviation of stock return. Take the sum and divide by number of observations.

Divide covariance of market and stock by market variance to get ? Following are the ? calculations for ACC: *For detailed calculation please refer to annexures. Cost of Capital Calculation: Cost of Equity Shareholders supply capital to a firm, and in return expect to receive dividends. They can also realise cash by selling these shares. If dividends distributed, shareholders have an opportunity to invest cash so receive in securities in capital market and earn a return. When firm retains profits, there is loss of opportunity for which shareholders need to be compensated.

The firms needs to at least earn this rate on capital invested in project. This from firm’s point of view is Cost of Equity. Rj=ke=Rf+(Rm-Rf) ? j Where, Rf = Risk free rate Rm = Market premium ?j = Beta of firm’s share Cost of Equity for ACC: Cost of debt The COD is the rate of return required by lenders. Debt can be issued at premium, par or discount. Cost of debt for ACC is as follows: Cost of Capital is the weighted average of cost of equity and cost of debt. Cost of capital for ACC is as calculated below: NOPAT & ROI Calculations. Calculation for* NOPAT* (Net* Operating Profit *After* Tax) Calculation for ROI (Return on Investment) EVA calculation In some business units, profit compared to assets employed in earning it, known as investment centres. Investment centre is a special type of profit centre. Two methods of relating profit to investment base:1)ROI 2)EVA EVA is also known as ‘residual income’. EVA is trademark of Stern Stewart & Company. EVA is a dollar amount, rather than a ratio. Found by subtracting a capital charge from net operating profit.

This capital charge is found by multiplying amount of assets employed by a rate which is 10%. Advantages of EVA With EVA, all business units have same profit objective for comparable investments. Decisions that increase centres ROI may decrease its overall profits. Different interest rates may be used for different types of assets. EVA has strong positive correlation with changes in a company’s market value. Significance of EVA: Strategic Direction Acquisitions Operational improvements Product Line Discontinuation Working Capital Focus Incentive Compensation

Calculation of EVA for ACC is done by both the methods. A positive EVA means that the company is operating efficiently. The reasons of increase in EVA are:- Improvement in operating performance Profitable Investment Withdrawal of unproductive Capital Reduction in cost of capital. ACC has a positive EVA of approximately 600 crore Rs. It means that the cost of capital is less than the revenue it generates. In other words the company earns more revenue than the cost of capital. This indicates that ACC is utilizing its capital resources well to earn revenues in excess of the capital employed.

Sixth Sense Technology

SSSSSABOUTS[pic] ‘SixthSense’ is a wearable gestural interface that augments the physical world around us with digital information and lets us use natural hand gestures to interact with that information. We’ve evolved over millions of years to sense the world around us. When we encounter something, someone or some place, we use our five natural senses to perceive information about it; that information helps us make decisions and chose the right actions to take.

But arguably the most useful information that can help us make the right decision is not naturally perceivable with our five senses, namely the data, information and knowledge that mankind has accumulated about everything and which is increasingly all available online. Although the miniaturization of computing devices allows us to carry computers in our pockets, keeping us continually connected to the digital world, there is no link between our digital devices and our interactions with the physical world. Information is confined traditionally on paper or digitally on a screen.

SixthSense bridges this gap, bringing intangible, digital information out into the tangible world, and allowing us to interact with this information via natural hand gestures. ‘SixthSense’ frees information from its confines by seamlessly integrating it with reality, and thus making the entire world your computer. The SixthSense prototype is comprised of a pocket projector, a mirror and a camera. The hardware components are coupled in a pendant like mobile wearable device. Both the projector and the camera are connected to the mobile computing device in the user’s pocket.

The projector projects visual information enabling surfaces, walls and physical objects around us to be used as interfaces; while the camera recognizes and tracks user’s hand gestures and physical objects using computer-vision based techniques. The software program processes the video stream data captured by the camera and tracks the locations of the colored markers (visual tracking fiducials) at the tip of the user’s fingers using simple computer-vision techniques. The movements and arrangements of these fiducials are interpreted into gestures that act as interaction instructions for the projected application interfaces.

The maximum number of tracked fingers is only constrained by the number of unique fiducials, thus SixthSense also supports multi-touch and multi-user interaction. The SixthSense prototype implements several applications that demonstrate the usefulness, viability and flexibility of the system. The map application lets the user navigate a map displayed on a nearby surface using hand gestures, similar to gestures supported by Multi-Touch based systems, letting the user zoom in, zoom out or pan using intuitive hand movements.

The drawing application lets the user draw on any surface by tracking the fingertip movements of the user’s index finger. SixthSense also recognizes user’s freehand gestures (postures). For example, the SixthSense system implements a gestural camera that takes photos of the scene the user is looking at by detecting the ‘framing’ gesture. The user can stop by any surface or wall and flick through the photos he/she has taken. SixthSense also lets the user draw icons or symbols in the air using the movement of the index finger and recognizes those symbols as interaction instructions.

For example, drawing a magnifying glass symbol takes the user to the map application or drawing an ‘@’ symbol lets the user check his mail. The SixthSense system also augments physical objects the user is interacting with by projecting more information about these objects projected on them. For example, a newspaper can show live video news or dynamic information can be provided on a regular piece of paper. The gesture of drawing a circle on the user’s wrist projects an analog watch. The current prototype system costs approximate $350 to build.

Financial Management Activities

Module: Financial Management Financial Management Broad Aim The aim of this module is to give participants an overview of the role of managers in controlling financial resources. Training outcomes By the end of this module, participants will be able to: •Identify the main elements of financial management and assess whether the financial management in their station is adequate •Identify the financial policies needed in a radio station •Develop a budget •Do a cash flow projection •Develop and interpret a variance report Activity 1. Problems with managing finances What are the main problems that your station has with managing money? What do you want to learn about managing money? What is financial management? Financial management is about planning income and expenditure, and making decisions that will enable you to survive financially. Financial management includes •financial planning and budgeting, •financial accounting •financial analysis, •financial decision-making and •action Financial planning is about: •Making sure that the organisation can survive Making sure the money is being spent in the most efficient way •Making sure that the money is being spent to fulfil the objectives of the organisation •Being able to plan for the future of the organisation in a realistic way. Financial Accountability In non-profit organisations, the money that you are using is held in trust – on behalf of the community that you serve. The money is not the personal possession of the individual staff members. They have to account for how they used the money, to show that it was used to benefit the community. In a profit-making organisation, it is easy to hold management accountable.

We simply ask: did they make a profit? In a non-profit making organisation we ask: did they use the money to benefit the community in the best possible way? Financial accountability can be broken down into two components: Financial Accountability Being able to account for the way the money is spent to: •donors •boards and committees •members, and •the people whom the money is meant to benefit Financial Responsibility: •Not taking on obligations the organisation cannot meet •Paying staff and accounts on time •Keeping proper records of the money that comes into the organisation and goes out of the organisation

Activity 2. : Financial Policy Game Use this space to make notes from the game: Activity 3. : Financial policies Individual work (10 min) To ensure that finances are properly controlled, all organisations must have policies. Look at the table below and give your organisation a tick if it has got a policy on these things. Give yourself a tick if you know the policy. Policy Organisation has policyI know policy Banks accounts – who can open it, what bank to use, etc, operating and signing cheques, withdrawing money Budgeting Who develops the budget How it is developed

Who authorises it Non-budget expenditure Who can give permission to spend money on items not budgeted for Petty cash Who can spend it For what Receipts and deposits When to deposit Acquisition and disposal of fixed assets Payments and cheque requisition Staff loans Who can get loans Limits How often Use of private motor vehicles Rate of repayment Car hire What class of car For what purposes Long distance travel When you can fly (instead of using taxis, or private transport) Class of flights Travel allowances What the organisation will and won’t pay for Group Work (45 minutes)

What policies do most of the stations represented in your group have and which do they not have? Identify one or two policies that your group wants to discuss what issues would the policy cover? What rules or guidelines would you set for radio stations? Activity 4. : Budget Role Play What went wrong in the role-play? What should they have done to avoid these problems? What have you learnt from this role-play? What Is A Budget? An organisation must have set policy about the budget process: •Who is responsible for the process? •Who will draft the budget? •Who will be consulted in drawing up the budget? When should the budget process start? •Who will approve the budget? •How will the budget be monitored and controlled? Activity 5. : A basic budget In pairs (15 minutes) Think about your home. What are the main items that you have to pay for? Think about items that you know you need to pay for regularly, and those that you pay once a year. Develop a budget that shows the income and expenditure in your home. ItemAmount Income items Many people only think about budgeting for expenditure. A budget must also show what income you anticipate getting and from whom. A budget is a planning tool.

You need to know what your income will be, before you can plan what to spend. Examples of possible income items: •Donations promised •Donations likely •Interest •Sales e. g. of promotional material, or other goods •Sale of advertising time •Fundraising events •Sales of services (e. g. DJ at a function) •Sales of programmes Expenditure items Your budget must cover all the expected expenditure. There are two kinds of expenditure items: 1Capital costs: include the cost of the actual building, your equipment and furniture, cars etc. These are usually once off costs.

You should budget for the replacement of items such as cars over a number of years. When you work out your budget, you will need to work out what new capital items you will be buying and which you will continue to pay off. 2Running costs: include all the costs of keeping the station running on a day to day basis. Examples include rent, electricity, stationery, maintenance, petrol and service costs for cars, etc. Salaries and allowances are part of running costs. Running costs are recurring expenses – they recur every month or once a year (e. g. television licence, car licence, tax etc. •Fixed costs– these are items that have the same cost every month. Fixed costs do not depend on how much work you do. Examples are: rent of premises, insurance, salaries, etc • •, •Variable costs – change, depending on the amount of work you do e. g. electricity, stationery, etc. Activity 6. : Developing a budget for an event Group work on developing a budget (45 – 60 minutes) Assume you are planning a special event on AIDS awareness. You want the day to target youth in particular, and to raise awareness about AIDS. At the same time, you want the day to promote your radio station.

You want people to go home at the end of the day deciding that they will always listen to your station in future. Step 1: Plan the events of the day. Step 2: For each activity, work out what resources you will need to use. Step 3: Develop a budget for the day. If you don’t know what an item will cost, tell us what you will do to find out the costs. Step 4 Write up your budget on flip charts. Other groups will look at it in detail and give you feedback on your work. Examples of typical expenditure items Capital costs Equipment Building Computers Desks Car replacement fund Running costs General running costs

Rent Electricity and water Telephone and water Photocopying and printing Maintenance Licence NCRF membership Insurance Bank charges Audit fees Staff costs Staff salaries Staff benefits (e. g. pension, medical aid etc. ) Staff and volunteer training and development Volunteer Stipends Programming costs Transport Batteries Tapes Buying of programmes, news etc Promotion costs Hire of venue Hire of sound equipment Entertainers Promotional media: cards, pamphlets, posters, newsletters etc Printing costs Distribution costs Advertising /sales costs Transport Costs of running the car: Petrol Maintenance Activity 7. finding our what items cost Items Method of determining costs Capital items: e. g. car, computer, new equipment Rent Telephone Stipends Example of a radio station budget Useful tips when preparing a budget Compare Always compare your new budget against your statement of income and expenditure for the previous year Check against aims and objectives Does the budget allow you to put them into practice? Income Does your station generate income? Has this been properly calculated? Is it realistic? Costing? Are item cosseted in enough detail? Are the figures reasonable? Are they set under the right headings?

Has anything been forgotten? Salaries Have you anticipated new staff members and included their salaries at the correct time? Have you budgeted for tax and other payments such as UIF etc? Consultation Have all the people in the organisation who are responsible for managing resources, reviewed the budget? Do they understand its contents and what is expected of them? Funding Have you considered carefully how the budget is to be funded? Is it realistic? Have you minimised the risks? What are the timing implications? Monitor / Control How do you plan to monitor and control your budget during the period?

Have you considered what to do if anything goes wrong? I. e. if a source of funding falls through? Sustainability Have you considered the long-term existence of your organisation? How will it sustain itself? Is it reflected in your budget? Budgeting for different circumstances. Some organisations prepare different versions of their budgets. •A survival budget – the bare minimum that you need in order to keep functioning •A working budget – which reflects the money that you confidently expect to get (based on firm promises and contracts) •An ideal budget – this includes projects or expansion based on what you hope to be able to raise

Activity 8. : Financial planning Case Study A literacy project was set up in Mbekweni Township to service the rural areas around Paarl in the Western Cape. The project went through all the correct procedures of strategic planning, setting objectives and drawing up a realistic budget based on these objectives. They identified office space which could be used for admin and training, determined their staffing requirements based on the number of learners they planned to work with, and carefully calculated all the other costs involved: training materials, transport, food, office expenses, etc.

They received all the funding required according to their budget, enough to carry the project through for two years. The project seemed to be going extremely well. They managed to get two very experienced literacy teachers and had increased the number of learners due to demand. The staff produced information material that they distributed to the community, through local church groups, free of charge. Their work was having a positive impact and everybody was talking about the project. More and more people wanted to enrol in their classes.

They were just 10 months into the project when they suddenly realised that the funds they had were not going to last them for the two year period. In fact, they had barely enough money to pay the salaries and rent for the next two-months, never mind the cost of training itself. They went back to their funder to ask for immediate additional funding to keep the project going. While the funder was pleased with the success of the project, they were concerned that they had only been approached when the organisation was in a crisis. What went wrong? What could have been done to prevent this situation?

Cash flow planning Having an annual budget by itself is not enough. We need to break the budget down into income and expenditure on a monthly basis, and then link it to the cash available at the start of each period. This is called cash flow planning. Look at the cash flow budget on the next page. In this plan, the budgeted amount is spread out over the year. If you know when actual income or expenditure will be made, then you allocate it to the correct month. The cash flow plan, sometimes also called a cash flow projection, is a useful planning tool. However, on its own it is still not enough.

Place cash flow plan here Activity 9. : Variance reporting The variance report is the most powerful control instrument you can use to keep control over your finances. The variance report helps you to keep track of the differences between the actual income and expenditure and the budgeted amounts. Variance = Budget – actual If you overspend, you are in trouble: either you have to ‘borrow’ money from another part of your budget, or you will end up owing somebody money. Under spending can sometimes be a good thing – it saves us money. But sometimes, spending too little can be a problem.

Can you think of examples when under-spending could be a problem in your organisation? Task for pairs (20 minutes) Look at the variance report on the next page. Identify problem areas. Discuss what the problems could be, and the implications for the project. What questions would you ask if you were a board member reviewing this report? Place variance report here. Item: Variance: Reason: Action to be taken: Item: Variance: Reason: Action to be taken: Item: Variance: Reason: Action to be taken: Item: Variance: Reason: Action to be taken: Item: Variance: Reason: Action to be taken: Item:

Variance: Reason: Action to be taken: Strategies when you are short of money There are two ways of looking at your finance strategy Increasing your income Earn more money – Set targets for income to be earned each month •Make sure you cost your programmes and advertising time realistically. •Consider membership fees •Are there things you could sell (e. g. T-shirts at events? services? ) •Make sure that any money not being used is in interest baring events. Raise funds locally •Fund-raising events •Sponsorships Diversify your funding (make sure you don’t rely on only one or two funders) Decreasing your expenditure Save on everything: •Use less paper, do less printing, make fewer phone calls, etc. •Cut down on the use of vehicles •Cut down on the use of public transport •Cut services – offer cheaper services Use outside services to do things like bookkeeping, instead of hiring a full-time bookkeeper. Find cheaper suppliers for things like stationery and printing Look for cheaper premises, use less space Activity 10. : What have you learned? When you go home after this course, what advice would you give board members about monitoring your finances?

Second Treatise on Government V the Leviathan

One of the most apparent differences in the two authors’ (John Locke and Thomas Hobbes) point-of-views is their interpretations of what ungoverned societies, or humans in general, are like in their natural state. John Locke describes the natural state of people as “a state of perfect freedom of acting and disposing of their own possessions and persons as they think fit within the bounds of the law of nature” and that all persons in this state are created equally, with no man having more power than another.

In his belief, the only possible way any one man can ever have more power than the rest is if God unambiguously places him higher than them and endows him with the authority to rule. Thomas Hobbes’s perspective is the opposite extreme of what John Locke stood for. He characterized the natural state of people as that of a state of, “war of every man against every man. ” He also portrays all men as being equal, but equal in the sense that anyone can kill anyone else, and as a result of this, they live in constant fear and anxiety.

He argues that man uses logic to deduce that the only reasonable way to protect one’s life is to gain enough power to control a state and to protect those who live under that particular state, gaining allies (which eliminates enemies in the process). The next big difference in their beliefs is what constitutes a permissible governing body, it’s extent of power, and how that power is divided (if it even is). Again, their convictions are at two opposite extremes from each other.

Locke saw a truly constitutional government as a representative government. In this particular form of rule, individuals are elected by the people, but rather than ruling by what that individual feels virtuous or morally just, they are charged with the responsibility of acting in the people’s interest. This is not, however, to be mistaken for a democracy; it was a system where a sanctioned contract could exist between citizens and monarchies or oligarchies.

Hobbes, on the other hand, believed that the only government capable of protecting its people was that of one under the rule of an autocratic monarch (a state he describes as ‘Leviathan’). He was convinced that any other type of government’s sovereign power could not properly defend itself from invaders. He maintained that a citizen’s duty to the monarch was total, and to act against it was simply detrimental because the government’s sole purpose of establishment was the protection, not oppression, of its people.

Although the two do not blatantly agree upon any subject, they do allude to possibilities that exist in their opposing beliefs. For instance, Locke writes in the ninth chapter of the Second Treatise of Government (Of the Ends of Political Society and Government) that a man will not abandon the security of the state because the state of nature, “however free, is full of fears and continual danger . . . Likewise, Hobbes also appears to make such a compromise in chapter thirty two of The Leviathan (Of the Principles of Christian Politics) when stating that the foundation of his belief includes the, “. . . natural word of God, as well as the prophetical,” and that, “. . . we are not to renounce our senses . . . nor that which is the undoubted word of God. ” Bibliography Hobbes, Thomas. “The Leviathan by Thomas Hobbes. ” Oregon State University. Web. 08 June 2009. . Locke, John. “Locke’s Second Treatise – Table of Contents. ” Oregon State University. Web. 08 June 2009.

Current Issues

ONE MALAYSIA Thesis statement: As Malaysia is slowly growing to be a worldwide well known country, there many ways that the concept of `One Malaysia` can be introduced to the world. Topic Sentence 1: The first way we can do is in terms politics and leadership. • Responsibility of our Prime Minister to make a diplomatic relation with other countries. • Government has a right to do organization to promote One Malaysia. • Worldwide conference; so that Malaysia would be known as a successful and independent country which can be an example to other countries which unites many religion, races, and community. Ex: The Ambassador of Malaysia can be sent to other countries to promote the concept of One Malaysia from the activities from the organization done by the government. Exchange student from Malaysia can apply this concept. Topic Sentence 2: Besides that, Malaysians can also promote the concept of’ One Malaysia’ through their culture. • The community of Malaysia comes from urbanize races, religion and culture. • Organize festival which comes from all culture of Malaysia. Ex: Warna –Warna Malaysia has been done in Malaysia which involves different races to show their traditional dance, from here we know that different races of Malaysia which include Indian, Chinese, Malay and Bumiputra show their tolerance and cooperation by taking part in this activity and make it a success. (Attract tourism and their can promote it to their friends) Topic Sentence 3: The media also plays a big role to make ‘One Malaysia’ known to the world, as this would make Malaysia a worldwide well-known country. The song One Malaysia English version. • Create a blog so other people would recognize the concept of One Malaysia. • Organizing a worldwide activity for example visit Malaysia through advertisement in television and other forms of media. Conclusion: As can be seen, all the ways stated recently once again can help our beloved country’s reputation become more consolidate and our One Malaysia concept would be known as a role model to the countries who try to unite their different races. BY MEIMEI && NADIA