Effective Long-Term Cost Reduction

Introduction: ‘Effective Long-Term Cost Reduction: a Strategic Perspective’ is a study by Michael D. Shields, and S. Mark Young, that deals with the Cost Reduction Programs that were employed in the late 1970s, and throughout 1980s. The study further sets forth a more viable basis for effective long-term cost reduction. The study concludes with the findings that the long-term controllable costs are caused by employees, individually and in groupings that matter to the entire organization.

The study suggests that the key to a successful long-term cost reduction is to make cost reduction a part of the organizational culture. Analysis: The study firstly deals with the traditional cost reduction programs which primarily suggest that a cost reduction program is a distress tactic study targeted at all employees, which starts with an immediate threat such as poor performance, loss of contracts, or price reductions etc. There are five historical approaches which deal with different aspects of cost reduction in an organization:

APPROACHSTRENGTHSWEAKNESSES 1. Technology Approach: To replace employees with new technology for increased output. 1. Decrease in the influence of Unions, 2. Instant cost cut. 1. Increase in the requirement of highly skilled labor; 2. Increased autonomy to these highly skilled employees; 3. Increase in variable cost, as these employees are paid more; 4. Innovation never stops. 2. Lean and Mean: Tougher policies, including lay-offs, and reduced benefits. 1. Most popular since 1980s; 2. Highest autonomy with the management. 1.

Not applied in good economic times, hence increases inefficiency; 2. Rise of discontentment amongst the employees; 3. Loyalty remains on hold. 3. Offshore Retreat: Escaping to new places for low cost labor1. Reduced labor cost; 2. Reduced cost of production; 3. Sustains competitive prices1. New cost of initial set up; 2. Cultural issues; 3. Regulations of the new Govt. ; 4. Fluctuations in exchange rates; 5. Distant communication with top management. 4. Mergers: Amalgamation of two or more entities. 1. New build up on old goodwills and businesses; 2.

Saves cost of labor etc. 3. Saves cost of new setup1. Clash of Management Styles; 2. Clash of Organizational Cultures; 3. Clash of Product Cultures; 4. Distribution Issues. 5. Diversification: Venturing into new areas, in search of cheaper operating environments. 1. Cheaper Operating costs; 2. Reduced input; 3. Competitive price level. 1. Development of new products; 2. Development of new technology; 3. Development of new cost cultures; 4. Development of new distribution system. Strategic Cost Reduction:

It provides companies with better sustainability for an effective long term cost reduction aspect. It occurs continuously and is clubbed with variety of factors that vary with each firm. These factors are discussed below: (a)Focus denotes planning for cost reduction in production of an output. (b)Set of Methods denotes implementation of cost reduction strategy like Just in Time (JIM), Activity Based Management (ABM) and other coordinated ways. (c)Trade Offs denotes strategically increasing cost to achieve other competitive gains in a comparative manner. d)Refining Employees behaviors denotes valuing the skills, and to nurture their potentials, besides other things in order to develop an all round organizational culture. (e)Top Management must take initiative to adapt to new changes for a better result: i. It should motivate the employees by setting up appropriate examples; ii. It should develop a cost culture where employees are taught the value of all costs being incurred. iii. It should keep in mind that employees are human resources or organizational cost drivers whose productive capacities can be altered with alteration in their motivation. f)Organization Structure denotes the distribution of responsibilities within an organization: i. Vertical Structure is the historical or organic structure that denotes top-to-bottom flow of authority, and Bottom-to-Top flow of responsibility; ii. Horizontal Structure denotes the setup where authority and responsibility flow on the same levels of hierarchy within an organization. (g)Long Term Employment is significant in the development of loyalty of an employee, which results in better motivation, and increased productivity of the organization. h)Organizational Learning is the comprehensive manner in which all the above strategies can be used for the over all benefit of the organization as a whole. It signifies the study, observation and analysis of all the factors of Strategic Cost Reduction as discussed above. Conclusion: In my opinion, the traditional approaches to long term cost reduction have their own drawbacks. Hence, in order to have an edge over the fast changing environment, a business must change with the changing times.

For that purpose, a business must concentrate on the factors such as Focusing on objectives, Trade-offs in order to achieve competitive edge, Initiatives by the top management in decision making and developing a Cost Culture. Further it may also be suggested to have a long term relationship with the employees, as they hold key positions in developing a business. The management must have an understanding of Organizational learning, which can be achieved through the initiative by the management for attaining a competitive advantage through its Organizational process. *************************

Against Dualism

Can one reasonably be a dualist in this day and age? Thomas Nagel is correct to argue that, ‘dualism…. is usually adopted on the grounds that it must be true, and rejected on the grounds that it can’t be. ’ Such a seemingly paradoxical statement, which exists within what I will call the ontological common-senseness of the human experience, represents my position with regard to dualism, as will be argued within this essay.

Acknowledging but notwithstanding the natural attraction to some sort of dualism, I will i) state that my case rests on two suppositions, ii) argue that the problem of causal interaction deals a fatal blow to Cartesian dualism, iii) argue that other types of dualism have inherent difficulties and iv), briefly, bring attention to an argument contending that the mind-body problem might actually be beyond solution due to the ontological apparatus borne by the human being. There are two important contextual considerations which are pertinent to my argument.

The first inescapable condition is that of what I will call the problem of arguing from within. The verb ‘to be’ appears within the very title of this essay, and it is the case, as Searle might argue, that any position on the mind/body problem cannot help but be advanced from within that very mind/body ontological perspective. Whilst Churchland is anxious to dismiss such introspective judgement from having ‘any special status’, it is difficult to ascertain what privileged external position he has been able to find from where to make such a statement.

Thus it is that I have some sympathy with the Cartesian project which posits the internal as being the only place within which knowledge is certain. However, it is precisely because of the limitations of the way in which this internal field just ‘is’, that critique of substance dualism has to be given on scientific grounds, as arguing only from within the complex mind/body seems precisely to beg the question about the complex mind/body problem.

Thus, the second necessary consideration is that the critique I will make of Cartesian dualism rests on scientific and not philosophical ground. I would argue that the scientific explanation of a closed physical world is valid, and, under a Kuhnian-type move, contend that there are enough anomalies within the Cartesian position for it to be replaced, which allows a move towards attempting a better, as in more explanatory, model or models. I am prepared to accept that this is a scientific and not necessarily philosophical shift.

This is a case where the knowledge gained within physics has provided useful ground for a movement within metaphysical understandings, but I contend that philosophical statements wishing to affirm any more than that are beyond reach. And thus to Cartesian dualism. In a radical shift away from both the Aristotelian tradition of the soul as de anima, and from the view of religious authority as the source of truth, Descartes, through the process of hyperbolic doubt, concludes that the only knowledge of which he can be certain is the fact that he is a thinking thing.

He cannot doubt that he is thinking as such doubts actually cannot be in place if he were not in the process of thinking; he can, however, doubt he has a body as this is not necessary to the thinking process and thus exists separately to the mind. Accordingly, Descartes posits the mind and body as ‘substances’, which have very different properties. The mind, the indubitable seat of certain knowledge is immaterial, indivisible, eternal, non-extended; the body is that which is corruptible, material, sensory, divisible and extended in nature.

Descartes argues that these two substances interact with one another and in doing so the mind controls the body, but the body can influence the mind, through such things as the passions. I want to stress here that the juxtaposition yet interaction of the substances as the sine qua non of the entire argument, and thus criticism of substance dualism has to be concerned with this essential element. And it is at this point that the project fails.

As Descartes has been so very careful to emphasise the differences between the substances, interaction between the two modes, under his own terms, becomes impossible. To outline this problem thus: p1) Mental substances are outside the physical domain. P2) ‘No physical event has a cause outside the physical domain. ’ c)Mental substances cannot cause physical events. c2)Substance dualism is invalid as a paradigmatic solution to any interaction and causal relation between mind and body. I contend that other dualist positions also suffer under this fatal stress.

As the epiphenomalist position still depends on causation for it to succeed, even if that is only physical to mental, why is it any less problematic to accept one-way causality between domains? Substance dualism may circumvent the problem by speaking of emergence of mental states from the physical, but because of the characterisation of supervenience as no mental change without a corresponding physical change, I fail to see how this is anything more than epiphenomalism, which fails for the reason stated.

In fact, property dualism may render mental causation superfluous if all causal laws are subsumed under the physical, and this actually runs the very strong risk of collapsing into physicalism. Having argued against dualist positions, can any theory salvage two-state ontology? Briefly, and with the aid of McGinn, I contend that this question is unanswerable and the mind-body problem unsolvable, because, as I have argued, ‘we are cut off by our very cognitive constitution from achieving a conception of that natural property of the brain (or of consciousness) that accounts for the psychophysical link. I agree with McGinn here that the cognitive closure might well be the cause of the problem being found baffling to us, and we can never hope to escape this ontological position. The best we can do is to accurately critique theories that postulate arguments that cannot work due to empirical (in this case causal) failures, under which program one cannot reasonably be a dualist in this day and age. Quoted unsourced by Phelan, J. , Philosophy Themes and Thinkers, p. 72. This is, of course, along the lines of Paul Churchland’s ‘folk psychology’.

It is not the case that all we are left with when removing this folk psychology is eliminativism, due to McGinn’s position briefly outlined in the conclusion of this essay. Churchland, P. , Eliminative Materialism and the Propositional Attitudes, p. 569, and McGinn, C. , Can We Solve the Mind-Body Problem, pp. 394-405, in Chalmers, D. , ed. Philosophy of Mind. Searle, J. , Beyond Dualism, series of lectures as posted on youtube, year unspecified. Churchland, P. , Eliminative Materialism and the Propositional Attitudes, in Chalmers, D. ed. Philosophy of Mind, p. 569. Of course, in arguing that the Cartesian paradigm is ruled out on scientific grounds, because of the difficulty of mental causation in a closed physical world, I acknowledge that I am arguing to best explanation from inference, as no causal law has yet been found. It is acknowledged that there are difficulties with Cartesian dualism that might be defined as more philosophical in nature, such as the knowledge divide between the certain internal and the potentially false external.

Many scholars have addressed this, most notably, in my view, Heidegger in Being and Time. Further, the difficulty in defining a thing that is thinking with the ‘I’ that Descartes wants to posit is also one not addressed in this essay due to a brevity-enforced careful selection of subject matter. If I am being consistent with what I have stated here, it might be that Popper’s falsification paradigm is useful in being able, on scientific groundings, to dismiss (as false) the pineal gland as the causal link between mind and body.

However, saying no more than this, as to what is the case with regard to the mind/body relation (as opposed to what isn’t) would be true to Popper’s project and to the claim of this essay. Kim, J. , from http://www. iscid. org/encyclopedia/. The problem of causal interaction between the mind and body was raised with Descartes at the time of his Meditations. Descartes’ lack of concern at this difficulty is due to what he thinks is a misunderstanding of the nature of the union between mind and body. ‘A human being, that is, a soul united with a body, would be a whole that is more than the sum of its parts.

Accordingly, the mind or soul is a part with its own capacity for modes of intellect and will; the body is a part with its own capacity for modes of size, shape, motion and quantity; and the union of body and mind or human being, has a capacity for its own set of modes over and above the capacities possessed by the parts alone. On this account, modes of voluntary bodily movement would not be modes of the body alone resulting from its mechanistic causal interaction with a mental substance, but rather they would be modes of the whole human being.

Hence, the human being would be causing itself to move and would have sensations, and, therefore, the problem of causal interaction between mind and body is avoided altogether. ’ http://www. iep. utm. edu/descarte/. See this document further for scholarly response to Descartes’ position noted here. Such scholarly understanding contends that the understanding of the real distinction between mind and body is believed not to be one, whole thing, ‘but two substances that somehow mechanistically interact. ’

It is problematic at such a stage because if new causal powers were to emerge, mental states would, ‘be capable of acting independently of the physical states that had given rise to them’, which is not supervenience as understood. Jackson, R. , et al. , (eds. ), Understanding Philosophy AQA. Further problems are reiterated by McAdoo, who comments that substance dualism ‘fails to explain how non-reducible properties actually form consciousness, or why these properties might be facts that cannot be empirically verified. ’ McAdoo, O. Property Dualism on www. arrod. co. uk McGinn, C. , Can We Solve the Mind-Body Problem, p. 395, in Chalmers, D. , ed. Philosophy of Mind. Bibliography Chalmers, D. , (2002), Philosophy of Mind Classical and Contemporary Readings (New York: Oxford University Press, Inc. ) Jackson, R. , et al (eds. ), (2005), Understanding Philosophy for A2 Level (Cheltenham: Nelson Thornes) Kenny, G. , (2009), The Mind/Body Problem (La Trobe University: Lecture notes) Phelan, JW. , (2005), Philosophy Themes and Thinkers (Cambridge: Cambridge

University Press) University of Oxford, (2009), Philosophy of Mind Online Course notes (Oxford: University of Oxford) Warburton, N. , (2006), Philosophy: The Classics (Routledge: Abingdon, Third Edtn. ) Author and year unspecified, www. iep. utm. edu/descarte/ (10/12/09) Kim, J. , (2009), ‘Substance Dualism’, www. iscid. org/encyclopedia (10/12/09) McAdoo, O. , (2009), ‘Property Dualism’, www. arrod. co. uk (12/12/09) Searle, J. , (year unspecified) ‘Beyond Dualism’, www. youtube. com (July, 2010, content now removed)

Riordan Inventory or Manufacturing Processes Paper

Riordan Inventory or Manufacturing Processes Paper University of Phoenix CIS 319 Computers and Information Processing Introduction The success of any manufacturing company is dependent on its manufacturing system design. The system design concept has been the basic force in manufacturing advancement. Without manufacturing design, all manufacturing would be stuck in the “square wheel” era. The first system design was the invention of the forerunner of the modern factory nearly 200 years ago. New design concepts are continually improving and impacting the worlds manufacturing.

The Information Revolution is said to be a massive change in the way organizations conduct business. In this day and age when time and information means money, information technology is critical to a business’s success. In order for Riordan Manufacturing to become known as a leader of manufacturing and be able to provide added value to customers, it must evaluate the current business processes and discern how technology can correct operations in a cost effective way while at the same time focus on using the technology in the areas that would give immediate results.

By using the service request process, Riordan can evaluate these areas and make educated decisions in the correct areas. In the following paragraphs, Team D will explain Riordan’s business objectives, current business processes, project constraints, the business’s functional requirements, the new business processes, design requirements and cost benefit analysis. Business Objectives What are the business objectives of Riordan Manufacturing? To increase productivity by better tracking methods and of course; increase profits. How does one measure the success of such a project?

By setting up databases with which to track sales, both with and without; the new bar code scanners recommended by Team B. We propose a three month (one fiscal quarter) period of business tracking. We feel that bar code scanners will greatly improve inventory control; both product ordering and product tracking; thereby speeding up the inventory reporting process and accurately collating information to determine cost of sales versus cost of supplies. By speeding up this process, we feel that the company will benefit both in saved time and money and increase the profit margin for Riordan Manufacturing.

Another valid point in this scenario would be, by removing the human element (manual errors) in the old inventory and spreadsheet system, Riordan will have more effective reporting measures with which to track inventory, ordering, employee time management per job; and storage cost. The IT department should establish two databases based on the following factors, with the capability of running side by side analysis and reports. One database should be based on three months of non-bar code scanner data. The second database will be based on the sane three months with bar code scanner information.

By using the a 3 month time frame we are comparing a relatively stable period of manufacturing business, both before and after the holiday season, thus the figures should be accurate for a comparison. Information needed for accurate database comparison: – Number of products ordered. – Cost of each bar code scanner (average price $190. 00 for the handheld scanner). (BarcodeDiscount, 2009). – Time involved in ordering supplies to make product. – Time (days) in which product was stored and time to delivery. – Number of employees required to process orders; times average hourly salary ($13. 5). – Time taken between product being ordered and inventory adjusted accordingly. It is the contention of Team B that by converting Riordan Manufacturing from the manual spreadsheet inventory system to the handheld bar code scanner system, the company should immediately see improved productivity and cost effectiveness in doing business. The cost of purchasing and upgrading the manual systems to the new bar code scanning system should pay for itself within the first three months of usage. Description of Current Business Processes

Riordan Manufacturing Service Request SR-rm-001 Process Evaluation has been requested by COO Hugh McCauley to suggest specific systems changes that would improve the inventory or manufacturing processes. Riordan would like to use computer system utilization to become more efficient. Team B will create a business requirements definition for system upgrades/improvements to be given to the IT department or information systems consultants. Upon review of the Riordan Manufacturing Companies Inventory and manufacturing processes, we determined areas that are in need of improvement.

Discussion follows regarding Riordan’s present processes and how they can be changed to improve the efficiency. (Riordan Manufacturing Inc. ,2006)  The current process for receiving raw materials requires that the Riordan receiving area supervisor compare the shipping documents against the scheduled incoming orders. The receiving supervisor receives the scheduled orders report every week and they are organized by date. When product is delivered, the truck driver provides the shipping documents to the shipping are supervisor.

At the end of each day, the receiving supervisor gives the log of all raw materials received and the shipping documents to the receiving clerk. The inventory clerk then enters the information into the inventory system. The information includes the type of materials received, the vendor, and the quantity. Team B believes that by implementing the use of barcodes and scanners into the receiving process, it will enable a more consistent, accurate and timely process. Handheld mobile computers are efficient, have he ability to scan and allow for accurate, real-time data and inventory control and can be used throughout the supply chain process to enable instant inventory adjustments. Bar-coding is essential for just-in-time systems. Using scanners with a handheld PC will decrease the number of errors that occur from manual entry of data for inventory purposes. (ecampus. phoenix. edu, November 2009) Transitioning to using bar code scanners and hand held PC’s will require that bar codes are created with the correct information and applied to all inventory.

Riordan must determine which of their supplier’s already use a bar code system and which do not. Riordan must then work with the supplier’s that do not use a bar code system. Riordan must also communicate the change to their employees and provide training on the use and application of the new technology. (makebarcode. com, November 2009) Project Constraints The requirements that will be needed to incorporate this system in Riordin will be a database which contains the entire customer information, a barcode scanning system, an online ordering program, and a printer that will print the shipping documents.

Also, before the new system goes live, Team B suggests doing a full inventory to be sure that the inventory is accurate. Since the inventory will be automatically controlled in the system, the integrity of the inventory is necessary. The proposed projected lead time for implementation is scheduled to be approximately 45 days. Projected Time Line – 45 Days ItemStart TimeEnd Time Sign Up01/04/1001/04/10 Data requirements01/05/1001/08/10 Set up system01/11/1001/29/10 Evaluate system02/01/1002/12/10 Convert data02/15/0802/19/10 Training02/22/1002/26/10 Go Live03/01/1003/01/10 Monitor/Correct03/01/1003/05/10

The first step would be to sign up with POSGuys. com and speak with a business analyst and customer support team to determine the data requirements. Next, a team must be established involving key employees to implement POSGuys. com. This would involve setting up the system, evaluating the data and converting the data. Once completed, there will be training for the employees and POSGuys. com will be ready to go live. The estimated costs associated with implementing a bar code scanner system are as follows. Note that POSGuys. com will perform all training and installation at no cost. ITEMCOST • Barcode Scanners 2 for Receiving, 10 for production lines, 2 for Finished Goods)$2,842 • Printronix T4M Barcode Printers (1 for Receiving, 10 for production lines)$15,147 • Redbeam Inventory Tracking Mobile Edition Software$1,795 • Computers/Monitors (existing)No Cost TOTAL COST$19,784 Per the memo dated September 10, 2003 to Maria Trinh from Hugh McCauley, $150,000 has been allocated to fund a project that will include, but not be limited to: • Document current inventory. • Forecast of business technology needs for the next 5 years. • Recommendations on systems integration, acquisitions and consolidations. POSGuys. com, November 2009) Business Functional Requirements Riordan Manufacturing is a plastics injection molding company whose goal is to continue progressing our innovative plastics designs. Due to continued growth and success, Riordin would like to expand their inventory system at all locations in order to increase accuracy and diminish costs associated with incorrect data entry and inventory levels. The business requirement will be to provide instant data regarding receipt of components, inventory levels (including part numbers, quantities, product location within the plants, etc. , and shipments for access to every Riordin facility. Riordin’s requirement is to improve the accuracy and speed of the inventory and manufacturing processes. The company already has a current system implemented for the receipt of raw components, product movement, and finished good shipping. Implementation of the new bar code system will enable a decrease in entry errors, an increase in inventory levels, a decrease in resource time management, and an increase in profit due to these changes. Description of New Business Process

The proposed process for receiving raw materials will be using a hand-held bar-code scanner throughout each process. As product is received, the bar code labels on the containers will be scanned, This will automatically input the part number and quantity into the Receiving Department. After the product has been inspected by Receiving Quality, the product is again scanned to a location in the warehouse and is physically moved to the location. As the product is needed for production, the product is scanned and moved out of stores into WIP (work-in-process).

As product is produced and a full container of finished good product is manufactured, a finished good tote label will be printed and affixed to the containers. When the finished good product is moved to finished good stores, the finished good labels will be scanned and all components associated with the finished product will be back flushed out of inventory for accurate inventory adjustment of the raw components. Implementation of barcode scanners will enable a more consistent, accurate and timely process and will decrease the number of errors that occur from manual entry of data.

Design Requirements Clarity across all areas of business is important to maintain a competitive edge in today’s challenging business environment. Being able to act quickly with increased efficiency and flexibility with minimal cost and optimal performance will provide a leading edge in project development. Development and training of personnel in the most cost efficient manner will not only accelerate the development of employees’ skills, knowledge and behaviors but also impact the successful execution of the Company’s business strategy.

To sustain this competitive edge, closing the gap between business strategy and execution is crucial. To help achieve this goal, Riordan Manufacturing will need to improve its information system to allow easy and secure access to its employees and user representatives. The first step in doing so will be a financial analysis. After which an assessment of the current system and its components should be done to identify any upgrades needed. Working with the IT department, the manufacturing and inventory processes can be improved with a developed system that automates as many processes as possible.

Collection of data is important. Top priority should be to develop a system to collect, process, store, and distribute data accurately. The automated method of data input would be the first choice because of its reduction in time and manpower needed compared to manual data input. In order to process and store this data a system is needed with adequate processing power, volatile memory, and storage. When developing this system, future business growth should be taken into account to make sure there will be enough room for enhancement without having to do a major overhaul of the system.

Last but not least, accuracy of the data collection is essential. Inaccurate collection of data can prove more harmful than having no collection process at all. In order for the users to interact easily with the system, the interface must be user friendly enough as to where lower level employees can input data and generate reports. It would be in the best interest of Riordan Manufacturing to use one standard interface to avoid any network conflicts or security vulnerabilities. In place should also be a learning management system to train employees on new technology and processes.

This learning management system should include web based training, self-study courses, training centers (preferably located at cooperate headquarters) and training and learning counseling. Included in the training should be: system use, manufacturing technology, safety and regulation, and inventory control. Upgrading to a more secure interconnected intranet network interface will allow integration of cooperate, finance and accounting, manufacturing, and R&D personnel to attain efficient asset management, inventory control, and project development.

Using controlled network access via Virtual Private Network (VPN) user representative will be able to stay up to date on the progress of projects and can provide real-time input and feedback. VPN access to the intranet is secure and will help avoid the chance of information being shared with competitors. Cost Benefit Analysis Using the right business information system will allow to “Reduce the cost of doing business by helping your people concentrate more on productive tasks and less on repetitive busywork. ” Microsoft. om(2009) Doing this will allow for less man hours, less non productive time, and more efficient work with less duplication of processes. The initial installation of the system may be time consuming and take extensive man power, but once installed the automation of routine and repeating functions will prove to be a financially smart investment. “Keeping inventory costs down is crucial to competitive advantage. ” (Netsuite. com, 1998-2009) Using automated data input such as bar code scanners will ensure that data is entered accurately.

This will minimize operator error and the amount of time it takes to collect and input data and generate reports. Better inventory control will also help provide better control on hand products. This automated data input will not only benefit the inventory aspect of the company, but will also have positive implications on other departments such as manufacturing and finance and accounting departments. Once the new system is installed and all systems are functioning, incorporating and by limiting the need for many of the travel related expenses to training at the company’s training centers, virtual environments, and self-study courses.

This will minimize the need for employees located in our China based plant to travel to our U. S based plants to obtain the latest advancements in our company’s technology and business processes and vice versa. Conclusion The assimilation of the proposed solutions presented in our paper provided the foundation for the comprehensive and synergistic management of the Finance and Accounting, Internet Site, Sales and Marketing, Human Resources and Legal, and Operations divisions of Riordan Manufacturing. Streamlining the discussed processes will enable Riordan Manufacturing to achieve its goals.

The proposed system will reduce cost by having one central HR department instead of multiple departments conducing HR responsibilities. The Return on Investment will outweigh the cost of implementing this system as the time it takes compile data from multiple systems. As stated by Expert Insights, “However, an integrated system provides greater overall benefit to the organization than a conglomeration of separate systems or manual processes. An integrated system will result in less redundant data entry A single interface for administrators results n less overall job training costs, improved data integrity, improved job efficiency, and ensures that data will not be “lost” due to job changes, absences, turnover, etc. Providing ad-hoc information, or reporting, will be easier if data is contained in single source If processes are non-existent, it is usually easier to create and implement a process when a system already exists to support the new process (chicken versus egg dilemma) The cost of integrating disparate systems, even systems that are “best of breed,” can be significant”.

The system will provide greater throughput, shorter response time, and timely information. The tangible benefits of an integrated HR system will be measured by cost reduction and avoidance; error reduction; and increased flexibility. References Microsoft. com (2009), Benefits of Microsoft Dynamics, Retrieved November 28, 2009 from http://www. microsoft. com/dynamics/en/us/fuels-business-productivity. aspx Netsuite. com (1998-2009), Inventory Management Software, Retrieved November 25, 2009 from http://www. etsuite. com/portal/products/netsuite/inventorymanagement. shtml http://www. makebarcode. com/info/benefit. html, retrieved November 10, 2009. Riordan Manufacturing Inc. (2006) retrieved November 4, 2009 University of Phoenix rEsource web site. https://ecampus. phoenix. edu/secure/aapd/CIST/VOP/Business/Riordan/Ops/Riordan%20Inventory%20Management. pdf http://www. posguys. com/, retrieved November 10, 2009. BarcodeDiscount. (2009). Symbol LS2208 Scanners. Retrieved on November 22, 2009 from

Fashion Supply Chains Are Buyer Driven and Characterised by Tiered Production Networks Involving Countries That Offer a Combination of Low Labour Costs, Relevant Skills and Production Capacity. During the Past 20 Years,

MARKETING ASSIGNMENT Integrated marketing communications is a core strategic activity used to build and sustain profitable relationships with various stakeholders. Customers are a critical target but other audiences such as buyers, designers, retailers, sales assistants, suppliers, etc…. are also important if an organisation is to achieve its sales and marketing objectives. MARKETING COMMUNICATIONS Marketing communications is about the promotion of a company and the product offered to the customer.

This is defined by (Fill, 2002), “This strategy refers to an organisation’s preferred orientation and emphasis of its communications with its customers and stakeholders, in the light of its business and marketing strategies. A marketing communication plan is concerned with the development and a managerial process involved in the articulation of an organisation’s marketing communications strategy”. Marketing communications is the combination of activities centred on the promotional mix, this is made up of the marketing tools such as; – ADVERTISING This helps to inform, remind, persuade, and change attitudes of the consumers.

It can also reposition a brand and help to differentiate a product from the rivalling competitors. This is done through T. V. , radio, newspapers, magazines, billboards, internet, tele-text, pint-of-purchase, packaging, exhibitions and cinemas. SALES PROMOTIONS This seeks to offer buyers additional value to the product or service on induction, so as to generate immediate sales. Theses inductions could be coupons, store/loyalty cards, points for pennies, cut-price offers, buy one get one free (BOGOF), spend over a certain amount and get another free/ half price.

All these offers are to make consumers act now, rather than later. Therefore it is used to accelerate sales immediately and usually for a short period of time. PUBLIC RELATIONS This is communication of a company or brand through the use off media such as newspaper journalist. Companies do not have to pay for this publicity and it can generate interest as the journalist is giving a message good or bad (but all publicity is good publicity)to the readers about the organisation or its product. PERSONAL SELLING This communication is face-to-face dialogue between two people or a group of people.

A sales assistant will attempt to persuade a customer that their product is the best and most reliable. DIRECT MARKETING This type of communications uses one or more advertising media to create and sustain a personal relationship with customers, potential customers and stakeholders. Technology today such as the internet, allows personal and direct communications with the consumer. But also a huge part of the marketing communications strategy involves key decisions concerned with the overall direction of the programme and target audience, the desired position of the brand, the resources to be made available, the overall message and goals.

Also involved is the investigation of buyer’s behaviour with target audiences. All these areas are dealt with separately within a company that is using a marketing communications strategy. This is where Integrated Marketing Communications comes in, this has been created to combine and coordinate all the marketing tools, avenues, and sources within a company. Thus minimising cost and maximising profit. A more in-depth explanation of this definition must start with the explanation of both integration and marketing communications.

INTEGRATION Instead of traditional communication strategies based on mass communication, delivering generalised messages, to one based on personalised customer orientated and technology driven approaches, and this is referred to as integrated. DEFINITION OF INTEGRATED MARKETING COMMUNICATIONS (IMC) Stated by (Fill, 2002) “This is the management process which is associated with the strategic development, delivery and dialogue of consistent messages that stakeholders perceive as reinforcing the core brand image”.

It is the integration of not only the different elements of the promotional mix, but also the marketing mix elements; -Product (Fill, 2002) “A product is more than its physical components. It represents the potential to satisfy a range of conscious and unconscious customer needs. -Price A consumer buying in unfamiliar markets is usually based upon price. Prices can prevent purchase because the buyer may think that it is not a reasonable offer for the product. -Place

Communication activities need to be coordinated in the correct way, at the right location, at the right time, so that the best impact is derived. -Promotion (convenience to buy) The correct advertising avenues must be used, in accordance with the company’s available finance. -People This is internal communications by the employees. They can provide great advertising of the company and products offered by employee satisfaction. This is achieved by the company having a good relationship with the employees and good training. A definition by (Fill, 2002) states the IMC is; IMC are more likely to occur when organisations attempt to enter into a coordinated dialogue with various internal and external audiences. The communication tools used in this dialogue and the messages conveyed should be internally consistent with the organisations objectives and strategies. The target audiences should perceive the communications and associated cues as coordinated, likeable and timely”. MARKETING COMMUNICATIONS Marketing communication is a process through which a company enters into a dialogue with different target audiences.

To do this they must develop, present and evaluate messages to stakeholder groups. This is used to influence the perception and the understanding the target audience has about the company and the product being offered. Effective communications is essential to a company. These companies operate in many different countries and markets, using many different marketing tools to their various target audiences. These audiences are made up buyers, consumers of their product but also people who can support them, for example, labour, finance, legal advice, manufacturers, and distribution outlets.

The different promotional tools used to get their message across to these different audiences are advertising, sales promotions, public relations, personnel selling, direct marketing, added value approach such as sponsorship by another brand etc… Various media types are used to convey the company’s messages such as media, T. V, internet, bill boards, and radio. Marketing communications stimulates consumers to buy the product, and depending on the quality of the good offered and the service provided (personnel selling), resale and customer loyalty to brand may occur.

This is the transmission of persuasive information about a good or service, or an idea targeted at key stakeholders and consumers within the target segment. Marketing communication centre on the promotional mix, this is up of the marketing tools such as – advertising, sales promotions, public relations, personal selling, direct marketing, sponsorship and the internet. Until recently all these areas were dealt with separately within the company. This is where IMC comes in, this has been created to combine and coordinate all the marketing tools, avenues, and sources within a company.

Thus minimising cost and maximising profit. THE CONCEPT OF IMC The overall concept is considered to be a means by which long-term relationships are formed between companies and between companies and their consumers. There are four different types of exchange; 1. Marketing Exchange – This is a one off purchase by a consumer, no long term loyalty. 2. Relational Exchange – This is a long term relationship with a consumer and the brand, the consumer regularly buys the product and goes for brand satisfaction. 3.

Redistributive Exchange – This is where a group of organisations enter into a collective unit and exchange because they wish to share resources with the other members of the group. 4. Reciprocal Exchange – This is the exchange of gifts, an offering of thanks rather than a money making exchange. The concept of IMC is explained by (Mifflin, 2006) as the coordination and integration of all marketing tools, avenues, and sources within a company into a seamless programme of marketing communications activities. The intention of IMC is to maximise the impact on consumers and other target audiences, at minimal cost.

IMC avoids the waste and duplication inherent in some organisations in which each element of the promotional mix is controlled by separate managers and may even be executed through different external agencies. IMC can be seen as strategic choice of the marketing mix elements which effectively influence the transactions between an organisation, its customers and clients. It gives a company the opportunity to link its internal and external communications, therefore understanding the needs of the employees, customers and other important stakeholders.

There is also the opportunity to make links with distribution partners and provide a coordinated and 2 dimensional flow to promotional activities. Also helps in reduced communications expenditures, and also achieving international recognition. IMC also makes it possible to employ one external advertising agency to handle all communications, which brings together sales promotions, PR, and direct marketing. BENEFITS 1. Provides opportunities to out communications costs and reassign budget. 2. Provides more effective communications and more consistent messages with better use of media sources. . Deliveries competitive advantage through clearer positioning. 4. Encourages brand development through internal and external participants. 5. Increases employee motivation and participation. 6. Makes management review their communication strategy. 7. Creates creative integrity. 8. Unbiased marketing recommendations. 9. Easier working relations 10. Greater agency accountability. The barriers that can occur to IMC; 1. Mind set. 2. Language 3. Structure of the organisation. 4. Elitism. 5. Magnitude of the task. 6. Adequacy of the budget. 7. Manager ability. 8. Agency remuneration systems.

ROLE OF COMMUNICATION The role of communications is stated by (Fill, 2002) as “Communication can inform and make potential customers aware of an organisation’s offering. Communication may attempt to persuade current and potential customers of the desirability of entering into an exchange relationship. Marketing communications manages and researches customer’s needs, identifying target audiences. Then the product or service is developed according to these needs and wants. Next the organisation has to make these audiences aware of the product or service through different distribution channels.

A promotional advertisement, using the 4p`s marketing mix, is then developed to communicate to the consumers/target audience. The use of the marketing mix allows the adoption to the uncontrollable external environment, but the internal environment must also be looked into, i. e. employees. This ensures a good image, attitude and perception of the company and brand is projected by word of mouth by employees. Effective communication is obtained with the correct selection and integration of various communication tools. BUYERS BEHAVIOUR

Marketing communications overall is the promotion of the company, its brands, and product or service being offered. Marketing can have a huge impact on consumers buying behaviour. Competition in the market place can create noise, so much so that companies messages may be lost, also consumers can block out messages that they don’t want to hear. Messages must be consistent and targeted accurately at specific stakeholder audiences. Companies must be careful not to send out confusing messages, this may be through sales assistants selling the goods with wrong information or misleading T. V. dverts. CONSUMER BEHAVIOUR AWARENESS | INTEREST | EVALUATION | TRIAL | ADOPTION Consumers have a process of how they become regular buyers of a particular product or brand. They gain awareness of available products through advertising – T. V. , radio, the mass communication sources. They then gain interest in that product, they evaluate, ask question about the product THE DEVELOPMENT OF IMC The interest into IMC and the reasons of the development has resulted from a variety of drivers. The main reason for organisation moving towards IMC is the need to become increasingly efficient.

These are separated into three main categories; Market based drivers; Greater levels of audience communications Media costs inflated Larger amounts of message noise Large amounts of competition and not enough brand differentiation Media messages not consistent, causing fragmentation Movement to another market, different target audience Development of networks and new alliances Drivers that have arisen from changing communications; Advances in technology i. e. internet, new database etc… A more consistent and a less confusing brand image The need to build brand reputation To provide clear identity

Drivers that arise from inside the organisation Provide direction and purpose for employees, i. e. employee motivation Increasing profit as the company is running more effectively More productive time management Brand is highly developed with a more competitive edge The need for changing structures and communication due to an increase in cross-boarder marketing Communication Theory Communication Theory is stated by (Fill, 2002) that “Only by sharing meaning with members of the target audience and reducing the levels of ambiguity can it be hoped to create a dialogue through which marketing goals can be accomplished.

To share meaning successfully may require the support of significant others: those who may be expert, knowledge or have access to appreciate media channels. This is the process of communication; it is the attempt of an organisation or brand to create dialogue with the intended audience. To ensure that dialogue occurs, each participant needs to understand and be able to translate each others communication effectively. [pic] Linear Model Fig. 1 As described by (Fill, 2002), “The Linear model emphasises the transmission of information, ideas, attitudes, or emotions from one person or group to another, primarily through symbols”.

The model and its components are straight forward, but it is the linkage between the various elements in the process that determines whether the communication will be successful”. Linear model is an approach aimed to give a clear message sent by the sender of the message; the message is encoded in the right way, so as the target audience can decode it, as it is intended, through which it must be delivered through noise, or other messages, these are barriers that the message must get through to reach the targeted audience.

Communication theory can help to develop an integrated marketing communication plan by understanding the buyer’s behaviour and also how communication works. To understanding “Communication Theory” will aid a company to make better decisions, give insight into how consumers buy, and what influences their decision in buying. It also helps in choosing the best method and media to use to ensure that the objectives of the company are met. Companies need to know and understand their customers, why they buy and what influences their buying behaviour and the best way to communicate their message to them.

Management Communication In order to all of this a range of communication methods are used, this includes such ways as through media. The media and methods used to their best effect, is to investigate into all of the above areas. The linear model is one of the best examples to how a message is conveyed to a target audience. Linear model is simple and easy to use but must remember that it can not predict consumer behaviour. Also to remember is that it is not always possible to predict how much noise is going to cloud your message.

The Linear model is accepted as the basic model for the mass communication. This model consists of a sequence of components and they are; Source This is who is sending the message, the organisation or company. The source of the message is an important element in communication. If the target audience thinks that the sender is not credible, they will reject or ignore the message. So the company or brand name must be established and speak quality. Encoding This is how the message is represented, whether it is by symbols, music or a icture message. It must be attractive and seducing to the target audience. The overall purpose of the message must be understood and easily translated by the receiver. With lack of research into the target audience, the sender may fail to understand the level of education of the target receivers and therefore the message may be encoded in a way that is beyond the comprehension of the audience. Therefore market research is key and many companies, like, (Reuter, 2008), M&S; spend a lot of time and money to understand their consumers. Signal

Once the message is encoded, it must be sent in a way that is capable of transmission. This may be oral, written or symbol form. What ever way is chosen, it must be the right one, and encoded in words or symbols, so as the message is received and decoded the way it is intended by the source. The message must be sent by a channel whether it is face-to-face, or word-of-mouth. Information received by a personal channel, such as face-to-face is more persuasive, whereas, non-personal messages, mass media like advertising is less persuasive. Decoding

This is the receiver understanding and receiving the message, how the receiver interprets the message is important, there mustn’t be confusion as then the message is wrong for this target audience, this may be due to the lack of research again. Receiver This is the person or group of people (target audience) how is intended to receive the message. Feedback This is how the target audience reacts to the message, are they influenced or persuaded to buy the product. Only through feedback can the source evaluate whether the message was successful.

Feedback can be gained from taking note whether foot-fall or sales have increased, personal selling feedback, has the consumers attitude towards the brand or product changed, has there been a lot of word-of-mouth about advertising, tongue in cheek or suggestive advertising can create buzz, for example Benetton ad campaigns, reference in appendices. Noise This is the final component; this can distort the message, making it difficult for the receiver to decode as it is intended to be read.

Noise can come in the form of other messages, and brands competing with yours. The receiver may also be distracted by uncontrollable factors like the phone ringing or someone talking. The message may also be too detailed or confusing for the receiver; therefore, the message is not received by the target audience as it was intended. Advertising “This is the paid for communication which uses the mass media and comes from identifiable sources”. One source of advertising is media, which is, T. V. , radio, magazines, newspapers, cinemas, outdoor (billboard)…. tc There are two types of press adverts. These are displayed and classified. There are different ranges of publication such as national, regional, daily, weekly, and each of these have a particular audience. This is known as a one dimensional form of media. Magazines have a huge range of publication, and are aimed at either trade or consumers, each with their separate target audiences. These types of publication have a long shelf life, as they are genuinely re-used, in doctor’s waiting rooms and hairdressers etc… T. V. s another form of advertising and it is a 3 dimensional form of media with limited airtime and has a high cost. Radio has a lower cost but tends to be a localised form of coverage and is also one dimensional. Cinema is aimed at younger audience, it is a medium cost, but is multi-dimensional. New media such as the internet and mobile phones have a huge audience. They are varied in ages, so you are target mass audiences and therefore it is a great way to advertise. It is cost effective and increasingly popular. It is also measurable and targeted.

Personal Selling This is a two way communications between the buyer and the seller, based on a personal contact. The different ways of personal selling is; One-to-one selling This is a personal situation in which the sales person can personalise the message for each individual customer. This form involves a number of steps and this is where the sale is progressed at the speed of that particular consumers needs and persuasion is then involved. A presentation or demonstration is another form of personal selling, this may be one-to-one, or a group.

This is more of a formal selling technique, which involves a presentation and then negotiation, to persuade the customer to buy. Telephone sales, or also known as telesales is another form. This can take many different forms which can be initiated by the customer or by the seller. The problem with this form of personal selling is that there is a lack of face-to-face communications, which makes selling harder. The chosen retailer/brand that will be investigated into the promotional activities of M&S, in relation to the following segments;

Chosen retailer Marks and Spencer’s This company was the choice of examination into the promotional activities due to the fact that this company has been through a few ups and downs within the consumers eyes; they have been a stable UK brand and a complete disaster that lost touch with its customers. In the resent economic crisis the company once again is in need of some retail therapy. This is due to the economic down turn; consumers are no longer predictable according to their income status and education. People how can afford to go to the Riviera are flying by Easyjet.

Consumers are becoming more cost aware and price savvy and as a result of increasing fuel, food, and mortgage prices, and reference to this is in the appendices 1. 0. M&S Target Audience Their target audience is very broad, as they have over the years expanded into many other market segments such as; List of M&S available Products and Services Footwear Clothing Kids Tall/Petit Range Underwear Luxury wear Formalwear Food Home wear Electrical Credit Cards/Insurance (car, pet, travel, wedding) Online/ Direct M&S Flower Delivery

Catalogue Tailor made shirts M&S have experienced problems through out the years but have still retained a large market share. Improvements can be made in certain areas that are beginning to threaten M&S, such as the huge supermarket chains like Asda and Tesco. They are starting to threaten their hold over the market and evidence to this can be seen with M&S doing special offers and price cuts such as “Dine in 4 ? 10” and buy one get one half price. They are also looking into being other named brand products onto the shelves bviously to compete with these large chain supermarkets (evidence for this is in the appendices 1. 1). M&S have moved into a more varied market audience and an example of this can be seen (Drew, 2009) here it states that “M&S has seen a demand for a T. V. embellished with Swarovski Crystals. That set me thinking about who exactly best reflects the taste of the middle class these days? ” this was followed by a statement saying “M&S was the shop of choice by the main stream middle class families, but T. V. with Swarovski Crystals was hardly the taste of their tradition customers”.

Although the target audience and the people within the target audience seem to have broadened, the company still sticks to their 5 key values; “Quality, value, service, innovation, and trust” An annual report and financial statement 08 Examining the report “Market Place Trends”, the market continues to grow but a slower rate due to the economic crisis, there is an increase in household bills and debts, which is having an impact on consumption, which is at its lowest since 1993. This has resulted in a growing trend of shopping online (due to paying security and easy).

Also an increase of shopping in retail parks has gone up due to choice, needs and a busy lifestyle. Particularly clothing spending has been affected and an increase in people opting to spend more on key pieces has started to occur and due to M&S high quality and luxury goods, they will be one of the companies to hopefully benefit from this growing trend. Trading in the future is seen to be rough in the near future and consumers will turn to trusted brands like M&S for guaranteed quality. So consumers know that they are spending their money wisely.

Segmentation Marketing is a process of identifying and satisfying customers and marketing communication is where markets develop communication methods to target a specific audience, to gain their attention and produce a desire within them for this particular product. To find out who they are, extensive research is carried out. The media, or promotional activities used by M&S, that is most effective, would depend on variables of segmentation such as; Geographic M&S shoppers tend to live in wealthy suburban areas and metropolitan areas. Psychographic

Tend to be active, with busy lifestyles Demographic Tend to be family focused; main customers are women aged 34 – 54 Socio-Economic Well- educated, successful, open-minded at trying new things and have large incomes Positioning A graph of M&S positioning is in the appendices. They aim to provide high quality goods to a consumer who is willing to pay the price for it. The message, the design and also the positioning depends on the relevant gathered information, or the variables identified by segmentation such as, how much they use and the loyalty of the customer.

MARKETING COMMUNICATIONS OBJECTIVES Communications objectives are to raise awareness levels, to reinforce brand image, to increase market shares, to increase customer base, to increase shop foot fall, to increase penetration levels (more outlets selling products) and get into more stockists, example of this is Patricia Field, this campaign can be seen in the appendices and this campaign was a way to break into a new target market. To do this M&S had to use the correct vehicle and tools to get the message across to the target audience. To do his they use PESTEL analysis to find out the factors that are currently affecting the way in which communication of messages are to be achieved. This includes the political factors like EU legislations. Socio-cultural factors such as consumers demanding high fashion at low prices. Economic factors such as the recent down turn in the economy, resulting in less spending. Technological factors such as increase usage of internet, environmental factors such as the increase in awareness of consumers into the environment, and also legal factors such as the recent job losses.

The message must be sent correctly, to the correct target audience, so as to e cost effective. Communication can be achieved by using the promotional mix of the 7 P`s. The products must be what the consumer wants, high fashion and good quality, and on trend. The price must be reflected in the quality, consumers of M&S products expect to pay more for high quality goods, but in the recent economic crisis people are becoming more price conscious and expect more for their money. Consumers are also work driven and have less time to shop, so shopping in M&S has to be convenient, retail park outlets.

They have also adapted to this by increasing their internet access base of sopping facilities (examples in appendices). Promotion used by M&S consists of a variety of media such as bill boards, news papers (The Independent), T. V. (uktvgold), more information can be found in the appendices. PULL-PUSH-PROFILE The marketing strategy must then be looked into and there are 3 approaches that a company, such as M&S can take, based upon the target audience. These 3 strategies are all relevant to a company, but a high percentage of time and money will be spent on each section depending on the balance between the need to communicate with either the;

Consumer – Distributor – Other Stakeholders PULL PUSH PROFILE PULL This targeted at end users or customer. Branding is what works well for this strategy, as it can give a large amount of information in a small amount of time. To pull consumers in, to entice them and seduce them into buying the product, such as M&S seductive food adverts. This is basically consumer to product, through advertising. -Encourages customers to demand products and pull through distribution network -Creates high level of awareness -Change perceptions and awareness How to achieve; Modify the brand and redesign the product

Branding is a pull strategy, this encourages consumers to associate their attributes with a particular product, through seduction of sponsored advertising, and for example Twiggy campaign for M&S. Consumers who aspire to be like Twiggy would buy the garments she wears. Successful branding separates M&S from competitors by installing into consumers minds that they are superior and more up market. PUSH This is aimed at the members of the marketing channels also known as distributors, business-to-business, B2B, for example, Patricia Field new collection into M&S, reference in appendices.

Push Strategy – B2B -Identifies needs and attempts to satisfy them -Supplies sustainable distribution -Accesses new markets, technology and competition -Relationship marketing which creates trust -Identifies key accounts, this aims to develop relationships between parties KAM – KEY ACCOUNT MANAGEMENT There are phases of KAM and these are; 1. Pre KAM – Identifies the key accounts 2. Early KAM – Tentative agreement 3. Mid KAM – Involves senior management 4. Partnership KAM – Joint problem – solving 5. Synergistic KAM – Shared values 6.

Uncoupling KAM – positive move when relationship offers no further value PROFILE This is the building of a brand image. Sending out a message about the organisation to increase brand image. For example M&S use a predominantly profile strategy. They are currently sending out the message that they are moving with the change in the economy with their PLAN A statement. Information into this can be seen in appendices. A profile strategy corrects and adjusts consumer perceptions and attitudes towards a product. Corporate identity, this is how an organisation presents itself.

Corporate image is how the target audience perceives the company, and corporate reputation accumulates extension of image. M&S reputation and image are one of quality and this is how the target audience perceives them. M&S use a profile strategy. They look at the future and set targets for each month, for example to have all recyclable products by certain date and reference to this can be seen in the appendices. They also use a large amount of a pull strategy through the use of advertisement, such as the long awaited Christmas ads each year, for example Antonio Bandaras in the 2007 ad campaign, ref in appendices to give more information.

PROMOTION TOOLS There is a large amount of promotional tools to choose from but it is getting the right mix that will achieve or fail a company. The promotional objectives and strategy have to be looked into first. The tools include Personnel Selling, PR, direct marketing, sales promotions, and advertising. Using the right combination of tools triggers the desired response from the targeted consumers. TOOLS TABLE One of these processes alone will not influence buyer’s behaviour. The range of tools that M&S use is; Sales Promotions

They use promotional techniques such as price reductions and special offers, or 20% sale days or evening invite only promotional nights. M&S use price reductions and special offers such dine 4 2 4? 10. This creates a push in sales and also advertising of the company. Packaging must be coherent branded packaging and M&S do this well throughout the company and reference to this is in appendices showing web – site and bags that illustrate M&S branding. It all looks the same and sends out the same message. Word of Mouth Every company use this promotional tool, including M&S.

Whether it be good or bad publicity, as long as the company is being talked about and being keep in the consumers minds. An example of this is when a free M&S voucher hoax occurred and the article giving more detail into this is in the appendices. PR This is non-paid advertising such as newspaper articles and press releases. This is important in improving a company’s brand and image. There is an example of such an article in relation to free publicity for M&S in the appendices. ADVERTISING M&S use advertising through a lot of celebrity endorsed marketing with the use of Take That, Lily Cole, Twiggy, Mylene Klass, and Erin O’Connor.

Using advertising is a means of reaching large audiences in a small amount of time. Another example is M&S direct, referenced in appendices. This shows the new web- site with extended product ranges. PERSONNEL SELLING This is customer service, how a product is communicated to the audience. The sales force must be trained properly. The shop merchandised correctly, and sizes found easily. M&S aim to have a high level of customer service by having one information desk centrally located in store and also staffed accordingly.

Through research by mystery shopping the staff were found to be helpful, friendly and knowledgeable about the stock, visible and readily available for any quires shoppers may have. DIRECT MARKETING This is the analysis of consumer behaviour with the aim to retain consumers. M&S use a number of channels like the internet, direct mail. This encourages 2 way communications between consumers and the company. This is done to gain understanding of the customers, their needs and wants, by analysis of gathered customer data. There are 4 frameworks that explain how advertising works and these are; 1. DRIP 2. AIDA . HEIRACHY OF EFFECTS MODEL 4. HALL & O’MALLEY The theory is that advertising can persuade consumers to buy and has been deemed a strong force (Jones, 1991) ATRN MODEL • Awareness • Trial • Reinforcement • Nudge This model gives the view that people can be nudged into repeat buying. Messages can be rational or image based; Rational is factual, slice of life, demonstration, and comparative. Image is fear, humour, animation, sex, music and fantasy. Media planning is complex today due to new technology and audiences are becoming more media aware and being able to block out adverts that they wish to ignore.

Media is the vehicle that carries the message. MESSAGE AND MEDIA The message must be coherent as not to confuse the target consumers. For example the packaging, web-site, brand logo should all look the same and give the same appearance and message. When planning media message and campaign the following should be looked into; M&S will look into; • Target audience characteristics • Product Characteristics • Market information, size, share and trends • Budget, media budget • Media scheduling The message that M&S sends through research is one that is coherent and obvious.

Their overall look and appearance is one of; “Value, quality, service, innovation, and trust” Concept and Benefits of IMC Is the message integrated, sent correctly and coherent? Through research conducted, M&S message is seen to be coherent and sent correctly. They use the same logos, colours, merchandising in store, labelling is the same in all the stores; the message conveys quality, assured satisfaction and luxury goods. This is seen right through the company, from food, clothing, home ware, and electrical department.

They use the correct media devices , for example they advertise in weekend newspapers as they know their customers are educated and like to catch up with news from the week, for example “The Sunday Times”. They are also aware that their consumers mainly are aged 34 – 54 and watch UKTV GOLD, their adverts on T. V. and their adverts are mainly seen on this channel. They are sole sponsors of this channel and the ads are seen in between nearly ever program. All of this information shows that M&S message is integrated and coherent. Part C This case study is about the business “Pure and Simple Fashions”.

They are a company with a good reputation for 10 years, aimed at younger women fashion. They have a competitive positioning which is repeated in their advertising, “Fashion doesn’t cost the earth”, this is a good slogan as it also gives the image that their brand is ethical. This is one of their main messages given to their consumers. The target audience or customers are largely made up of people who are ethically aware, and that is why they are loyal to the brand. The company has grown steadily throughout the years, which has been achieved due to their research and well-established positioning of the brand within the market place. Pure and Simple Fashions” has gained a lot of advertising based on the fact that the appeal to the “natural images from ecosystems around the world”. They have successfully progress the company, by moving into the European market and franchised outlets in many countries. Also they have developed their web-site which makes the company globally available to consumers. Recent investigations have been carried out, to do with unethical practice of multinational corporations. Due to these allegations “Pure and Simple Fashion” has been flagged up as one of the culprits to working conditions in factories abroad in manufacturing facilities. Pure and Simple Fashions” have gained a lot of bad press and their image of being an ethical company, has been deemed a lie. Loyal customers now will not follow the brand; they feel like they have been let down and lied too. “Pure and Simple now need to look into and resolve any issues arisen by theses claims. To do this they will have to reassure, redefine and reposition their brand and their image. The ambition plan to increase the market share by 10 % is necessary to keep the company profitable. Over the next few years a communication strategy will be put into place to reposition the company as ethical and high quality brand.

Contextual Analysis The company produces mid-priced fashion aimed at younger women, they are made from natural fibres that are grown organically and proceed in such a way that supports the environment in its notion of ‘Sustainability’ and working with natural resources without reducing the future availability of these resources. The company is relatively new in the life-cycle. Current target market The current consumers are younger women who have an active interest into the economy and the environment. We assume that because of the age, they are young professionals, who lead an active lifestyle.

Pure and Simple have had the competitive edge that not only does the brand meet the ethical issues that young people are concerned with today but also that the price does not have to unreasonable, as their slogan suggests ‘ Fashion does not have to cost the earth’. This is a competitive advantage over other brands in the same market segment. The attitude and feelings towards the brand is now apparent through the emails and letter that have been sent in there abundance to Pure and Simple Fashion, asking the company to reassure these consumers about their current stand to the allegations and if there is any truth is in them.

It may be true that maybe the company has sat back a bit and become more relaxed and let there procedures of a close eye being keep of ethical fairness or they may have been an easy target due to their ethical views. What ever the case, the consumers need to be reassured. PSF have always insisted that working conditions are in-line with “best practice”, even though this means that wages are obviously still lower than European wages, but as long as the message is reinforced that fair trade and good production practice is being meet then consumers will be happy and reassured and stay loyal to the brand. SWOT Ananlysis

Strengths of the company The fact that the company PSF have anew web-site needs to be used as a selling tool, this is opening into a target audience, internet users are a new huge market place, and this also adds a new order on line service to the company. Also, new distribution channels were defined by extensive customer relationship management software, which PSF hopes will enable the company to build a closer relationship with its individual customer. This will also help to increase growth into international markets and this is a new market place that is unaware of the bad publicity surrounding the company.

The weaknesses of the company These are the allegations surrounding the company; these can be addressed and rectified by reassuring consumers of the policy of the company and by applying stricter routine checks, which will make sure that all ethical practices are being stuck to by the manufacturers. Opportunities for the company People are becoming more ethically aware and will support brands for this reason, especially to the younger generation, as this is the segment that will be most effected by the continual abuse of the environment and planet.

PSF must target this market with new persuasive advertising both on the internet and media forms that the company know that they buy or see everyday. Threats to the company These are the new companies entering the market place, this is the one segment that is growing in a great number and continual research must be done to keep on top of competitors. Promotional objectives and positioning The objectives of the company are derived from the analysis of the communications factors affecting PSF. The corporate objectives are to increase turnover by 10% per annum.

This is achievable due to the increase in demand in ethical and organic clothing ranges, and also to increase expansion into the international market, by the development of the internet based web-site and this will provide on-line ordering service. This will help to increase the sales by 10%. Marketing objectives Is to double market share To increase purchasing To increase penetration levels All of these can be achieved by using a more efficient promotional mix. Marketing Communications Objectives

These are to raise levels of awareness among current consumers, to reposition the brand as ethical and organic product, and to reassure and redefine the brand to the existing customers. Positioning The market share will increase in these areas due to demand of products. In order to compete and achieve objectives, it is necessary to reposition brand, by providing a stronger point of differentiation. Promotion Strategies These 3 strategies are all relevant to a company, but a high percentage of time and money will be spent on each section depending on the balance between the need to communicate with either the;

Consumer – Distributor – Other Stakeholders PULL PUSH PROFILE The two which should be looked into is pull and profile Branding is a pull strategy, this encourages consumers to associate their attributes with a particular product, through seduction of sponsored advertising, PSF have to entice and seduce the consumers that their product is more superior to other brands in the same market place, they can do this by advertising the fact that they are increasing their ethical position by increasing their organic ranges and also increase their ethical manufacturing plants.

The message must strengthen the position of PSF as an ethically, fair priced retail brand that will suit the consumers busy and ethical lifestyle. The advertising must be appropriate to the target audience Profile is the next area which should be looked into; a profile strategy corrects and adjusts consumer perceptions and attitudes towards a product. It is necessary to build understanding of PSF by the stakeholders, employees and the local communities. As PSF are struggling to maintain their customer base, due to recent allegations. The key message should be that PSF are an environmentally aware company and a good investment.

PROMOTIONAL MIX Promotional techniques that must be used are Advertising This is necessary to reposition goals and this is best achieved by using an integrated approach, Television ads may be too expensive, so radio advertising on local stations could be a good idea, also the use of the internet, on the updated web-site can be used as a form of advertising and will give the most impact to a large audience. Posters can be used and leaflets, advertising a special offer or discount of 10% for a limited time, which will create more interest. Personnel selling

This will be very important; the sales team must be retrained to push the ethical policy that the company stands for and also the benefits of the brand itself. This will achieve the sales targets and also reinforce the brand position. Also a review of skill requirements is necessary to build new relationships and penetrate the sector. Public Relations The company PSF must gain free publicity from local and national publications. This form of marketing PR will reiterate and communicate the values of the brand and the company. Control and Evaluation Techniques Control procedures must be adhered to if the plan is to maintain on target.

The company will be overall responsible for control and procedure analysis for the next year. Analysis will be done on s quarterly basis. This will monitor spending and also the effectiveness of the promotional mix that has been set in place. Focus groups will be used to monitor the progress and development of PSF, brand image, and the reputation of the company. The objectives that have been set for the marketing and marketing communications will be assessed regularly and this will be the main form of evaluation of the integrated marketing communications plan.

Conclusion The overall assignment shows that integrated marketing communication is the core activity that is used to sustain relationships with stakeholders, because if the marketing mix tools and promotional mix tools are not co-ordinated then the overall objective and the results gained will not be as intended. The customers are the main target but you must also remember the other target audiences that are equally important and these are the suppliers, the employees, retails and designers.

All must e communicated to by the company; they must all be seduced by the product or service that is being offered to them. This in turn will result in the company achieving its sales and marketing goals. REFERENCING C Fill, 2002, Marketing Communication Context, strategies and applications, Pearson Education Limited, University of Portsmouth, ed 3, chp 12, pg 283 C Fill, 2002, Marketing Communication Context, strategies and applications, Pearson Education Limited, University of Portsmouth, ed 3, chp 1, pg 12 – 13

C Fill, 2002, Marketing Communication Context, strategies and applications, Pearson Education Limited, University of Portsmouth, ed 3, chp 19, pg 460 C Fill, 2002, Marketing Communication Context, strategies and applications, Pearson Education Limited, University of Portsmouth, ed 3, chp 10, pg 253 H Mifflin et al, 2006, Marketing Concepts and strategies, An over view of Marketing Communications, chp 17, pg 509 C Fill, 2002, Marketing Communication Context, strategies and applications, Pearson Education Limited, University of Portsmouth, ed 3, chp 14, pg 338

C Fill, 2002, Marketing Communication Context, strategies and applications, Pearson Education Limited, University of Portsmouth, ed 3, chp 2, pg 30 Linear Model Fig 1, google image C Fill, 2002, Marketing Communication Context, strategies and applications, Pearson Education Limited, University of Portsmouth, ed 3, chp 2, pg 31 www. reuters. com , 2008, Research and Markets: Gain Insight into the UK Consumer Insights 2008: Marks & Spencer Benetton Campaign www. Telegraph. co. uk, 2009, Marks and Spencer’s need retail therapy, pgs 1- 3 m&s special offers Drew, 2009, M&S moves into a more varied market,

Major Prophets Research Paper on Jeremiah

Major Prophets Research Paper on Jeremiah The Man Jeremiah and his Mission: The Prophet Jeremiah, son of Hilkiah, was of the priesthood race, and a native of Anathoth, a village in the tribe of Benjamin, within a few miles of Jerusalem, which had been appointed for the use of the priests, the descendants of Aaron. He was called to the prophetic office when very young; probably when he was fourteen years of age, and in the thirteenth of the reign of Josiah, 629 BC.

He continued to prophesy till after the destruction of Jerusalem by the Chaldeans, and about two years afterwards till he died in Egypt. The name Jeremiah translated from the Hebrew word yirmeyahu, means Jehovah throws. In addition, throughout the times of Jeremiah, Jehovah over threw many enemies of Judah. Jeremiahs’ Style of Writing: Many of the same characteristics may be seen in Jeremiah’s style of writing. He did not possess those gifts, which make the orator.

He did not have any of that strength and vigor, nor of that warmth of imagination, which characterize Isaiah and Micah. His usual method is to set his main thought before the mind in a succession of images. They seldom grow out of one another, but simply form a succession of illustrations, each of which is full of poetry. His simile is constantly dismissed almost before it has been fully presented to the mind in order that he may declare his meaning in plain language. This fullness of illustration is exactly in harmony with Jeremiah’s subject.

No lot could have been more dreary to a man of intense patriotism like Jeremiah than to see the ruin of his country steadily approaching, to mark each step of its advance, to have to point out its causes, and to know the sole remedy, but also to know that none would heed his words. Contemporary Kings in during Jeremiah: The kings under whom Jeremiah prophesied succeeded each other in the following order: Josiah; Jehoahaz; Jehoiachin, or Jeconiah, Jehoiakim, and Zedekiah. Only Josiah was a good king. Jehoahaz and Jehoiachin reigned for only a brief time.

Josiah, Jehoiakim, and Zedekiah are the kings who played a major role in Jeremiah’s career. Jeremiah’s Ministry: The ministry of Jeremiah really belonged to the last 18 years of Josiah’s reign. Judah’s probation was then going on, her salvation still possible; though each year Judah’s guilt became heavier, her condemnation became more certain. However, to the eye of man, her punishment seemed more remote than ever. Jehoiakim was the willing vassal of Egypt, the supreme power. No wonder that, being an irreligious man, he scorned all of Jeremiah’s predictions of utter and early ruin.

It is no wonder that he destroyed Jeremiah’s scroll, as merely the record of the outpourings of mere fanaticism. It was his last chance, his last offer of mercy: and as he threw the torn fragments of the scroll onto the fire, he symbolically threw there his royal house, his doomed city, the Temple, and all the people of the land. It was in this fourth year of Jehoiakim that Jeremiah boldly foretold the greatness of Nebuchadnezzar’s empire, and the wide limits over which it would extend. This prophecy Jer. 25 placed his life in danger, so that “the Lord hid” him and Baruch.

When Jeremiah appears again, Nebuchadnezzar was advancing upon Jerusalem to execute the prophecy contained in. In addition, with the death of Jehoiakim, the first period of Judah’s history was brought to a close. Though Jeremiah remained with Zedekiah, and tried to influence him for good, yet Jeremiah’s mission was over. Jeremiah himself testifies that the people of God had gone with Jehoiachin to Babylon. Zedekiah and those who remained in Jerusalem were only the refuse of a fruit-basket from which everything good had been removed, and their destruction was only a matter of time.

Such was the political state of things in the evil days in which Jeremiah was commissioned to make Jehovah’s last appeal to His covenant-people. Summation: After the destruction of Jerusalem, Nebuchadnezzar having made Gedaliah governor of Judea, the fractious Jews rose up against him, and put him to death; they then escaped to Tahpanhes in Egypt, carrying Jeremiah with them. Jeremiah continued to testify against their wickedness and idolatry. At length Jeremiah fell victim to his faithfulness; they filled up the measure of their iniquity, by stoning the prophet to death.

God marked this murderous outrage by his displeasure, a few years after they were almost all destroyed by the Chaldeans, which had invaded Egypt. They were consumed by the sword and by famine until there was an end of them, a small remnant only escaping. Finally, Jeremiah translated from the Hebrew means Jehovah throws. Moreover, throughout the times of Jeremiah, Jehovah over threw many enemies of Judah. Jensen, Irving L. Jensen’s Survey of the Old Testament. Chicago: Moody Bible Institute, 1978. 336-360. Rice, John R. Rice Reference Bible. Nashville: Nelson, 1981: 781; 1413-1447.

Food Preservation – a Biopreservative Approach

Food ©2007 Global Science Books Food Preservation – A Biopreservative Approach Iraj Rasooli Department of Biology, Shahed University, Opposite Imam Khomeini’s Shrine, Tehran-Qom Express Way, Tehran, Iran Correspondence: * [email protected] ac. ir ABSTRACT Preservative agents are required to ensure that manufactured foods remain safe and unspoiled. Antimicrobial properties of essential oils (EOs) reveal that Gram-positive bacteria are more vulnerable than Gram-negative bacteria. A number of EO components have been identified as effective antibacterials, e. . carvacrol, thymol, eugenol, cinnamaldehyde and cinnamic acid, having minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) at higher dilutions in vitro. EOs comprise a large number of components and it is likely that their mode of action involves several targets in the bacterial cell. The potency of naturally occurring antimicrobial agents or extracts from plants, ranges of microbial susceptibility and factors influencing antimicrobial action and their antioxidative properties, aimed at food preservation, are reviewed in this article.

Methods employed for estimation of inhibitory activity, mode of action and synergistic and antagonistic effects are evaluated. The potential value of these agents as natural and biological preservatives is considered. ____________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________ Keywords: essential oils, food safety, natural antimicrobials, natural flavor complexes, toxicity CONTENTS INTRODUCTION……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 11 INFLUENCE OF CHEMICAL COMPOSITION OF ESSENTIAL OILS ON THEIR ANTIMICROBIAL ACTIVITIES …………………. 113 IN VITRO ANTIMICROBIAL ACTIVITIES OF ESSENTIAL OILS …………………………………………………………………………………………. 114 IN VITRO ANTIMICROBIAL ASSAY METHODS…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 16 AFLATOXIN THREAT AND HERBAL CONTROL……………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 117 ANTIOXIDATIVE PROPERTIES…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 118 ESSENTIAL OILS IN FOOD……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 21 Meat products …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 122 Dairy products ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 123 Vegetables and fruits………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 23 Organoleptic aspects………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 124 Other factors …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 124 ESSENTIAL OILS, SYNERGISTIC, AND ANTAGONISTIC VIEW………………………………………………………………………………………… 24 DAMAGE TO MICROBIAL CELLS…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 125 GENOTOXICITY OF ESSENTIAL OILS AND SAFETY CONCERNS ……………………………………………………………………………………. 128 FUTURE RESEARCH ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 29 ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 130 REFERENCES……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 130 ____________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________ INTRODUCTION Many food products are perishable by nature and require protection from spoilage during their preparation, storage and distribution to give them desired shelf-life. Because food products are now often sold in areas of the world far distant from their production sites, the need for extended safe shelf-life for these products has also expanded. The development of food preservation processes has been driven by the need to extend the shelf-life of foods. Food preservation is a continuous fight against microorganisms spoiling the food or making it unsafe.

Several food preservation systems such as heating, refrigeration and addition of antimicrobial compounds can be used to reduce the risk of outbreaks of food poisoning; however, these techniques frequently have associated adverse changes in organoleptic characteristics and loss of nutrients. Within the disposable arsenal of preservation techniques, the food industry investigates more and more the replacement of traditional food preservation techniques by new preservation techniques due to the increased consumer demand for tasty, Received: 13 June, 2007.

Accepted: 18 July, 2007. nutritious, natural and easy-to-handle food products. Improvements in the cold distribution chain have made international trade of perishable foods possible, but refrigeration alone cannot assure the quality and safety of all perishable foods. The most common classical preservative agents are the weak organic acids, for example acetic, lactic, benzoic and sorbic acid. These molecules inhibit the outgrowth of both bacterial and fungal cells and sorbic acid is also reported to inhibit the germination and outgrowth of bacterial spores.

In the production of food it is crucial that proper measures are taken to ensure the safety and stability of the product during its whole shelf-life. In particular, modern consumer trends and food legislation have made the successful attainment of this objective much more of a challenge to the food industry. Firstly, consumers require more high quality, preservative-free, safe but mildly processed foods with extended shelf-life. For example, this may mean that foods have to be preserved at higher pH values and have to be treated at mild-pasteurization rather than sterilization temperatures.

As acidity and sterilization treatments are two Invited Review Food 1(2), 111-136 ©2007 Global Science Books crucial factors in the control of outgrowth of pathogenic spore-forming bacteria, such as Clostridium botulinum, addressing this consumer need calls for innovative approaches to ensure preservation of products. Secondly, legislation has restricted the use and permitted levels of some currently accepted preservatives in different foods. This has created problems for the industry because the susceptibility of some microorganisms to most currently used preservatives is falling.

An increasing number of consumers prefer minimally processed foods, prepared without chemical preservatives. Many of these ready-to-eat and novel food types represent new food systems with respect to health risks and spoilage association. Against this background, and relying on improved understanding and knowledge of the complexity of microbial interactions, recent approaches are increasingly directed towards possibilities offered by biological presservation.

Throughout the development of both Western and Eastern civilization, plants, plant parts, and derived oils and extracts have functioned as sources of food and medicine, symbolic articles in religious and social ceremonies, and remedies to modify behavior. Taste and aroma not only determine what we eat but often allow us to evaluate the quality of food and, in some cases, identify unwanted contaminants. The principle of self-limitation taken together with the long history of use of natural flavor complexes in food argues that these substances are safe under intended conditions of use.

Originally added to change or improve taste, spices and herbs can also enhance shelf-life because of their antimicrobial nature. Some of these same substances are also known to contribute to the self-defense of plants against infectious organisms (Kim et al. 2001). In spite of modern improvements in food production techniques, food safety is an increasingly important public health issue (WHO 2002a). It has been estimated that as many as 30% of people in industrialized countries suffer from a food borne disease each year and in 2000 at least two million people died from diarrhoeal disease worldwide (WHO 2002a).

There is therefore still a need for new methods of reducing or eliminating food borne pathogens, possibly in combination with existing methods. At the same time, Western society appears to be experiencing a trend of ‘green’ consumerism (Smid and Gorris 1999), desiring fewer synthetic food additives and products with a smaller impact on the environment. Furthermore, the World Health Organization has already called for a worldwide reduction in the consumption of salt in order to reduce the incidence of cardio-vascular disease (WHO 2002b).

If the level of salt in processed foods is reduced, it is possible that other additives will be needed to maintain the safety of foods. There is therefore scope for new methods of making food safe which have a natural or ‘green’ image. One such possibility is the use of essential oils (EOs) as antibacterial additives. Based on rich histories of use of selected plants and plant products that strongly impact the senses, it is not unexpected that society would bestow powers to heal, cure diseases, and spur desirable emotions, in the effort to improve the human condition.

The perception that these products are “natural” and have a long history of use has, in part, mitigated the public’s need to know whether these products work or are safe under conditions of intended use. Until recently, EOs have been studied most from the viewpoint of their flavor and fragrance only for flavoring foods, drinks and other goods. Actually, however, EOs and their components are gaining increasing interest because of their relatively safe status, their wide acceptance by consumers, and their exploitation for potential multi-purpose functional use (Ormancey 2001).

It has long been recognized that some EOs have antimicrobial properties (Boyle 1955) and these have been reviewed in the past (Shelef 1983; Nychas 1995) as have the antimicrobial properties of spices (Shelef 1983) but the relatively recent enhancement of interest in ‘green’ consumerism has lead to a renewal of 112 scientific interest in these substances (Tuley 1996). Besides antibacterial properties (Mourey and Canillac 2002; Rasooli and Razzaghi 2004; Rasooli and Owlia 2005), EOs or their components have been shown to exhibit antiviral (Bishop 1995), antimycotic (Mari et al. 003), anti oxidative (Gachkar et al. 2006; Yadegarinia et al. 2006; Bektas et al. 2007a; Bektas et al. 2007b), antitoxigenic (Akgul et al. 1991; Juglal et al. 2002; Ultee and Smid 2001), antiparasitic (Pandey et al. 2000; Pessoa et al. 2002), and insecticidal (Karpouhtsis et al. 1998) properties. These characteristics are possibly related to the function of these compounds in plants (Mahmoud and Croteau 2002). The antibacterial properties of EOs and their components are exploited in such diverse commercial products as dental root canal sealers (Manabe et al. 987), antiseptics (Cox et al. 2000) and feed supplements for lactating sows and weaned piglets (van Krimpen and Binnendijk 2001; Ilsley et al. 2002). It is therefore scientifically sound to evaluate the impact of EOs on food and food products safety. Natural flavor complexes (NFCs) are mixtures of mainly low molecular weight chemical substances separated from plants by physical means such as distillation, extraction, and cold pressing. The most common NFCs are EOs. The EO is typically obtained by steam distillation of the plant or plant parts.

With few exceptions, plants are dependent on their EO content for their unique aroma and gustatory profile. In other words, the volatile constituents of the plant isolated in the EO are primarily responsible for aroma and taste of the plant. For economic reasons, crude EOs are often produced via distillation at the source of the plant raw material and subsequently further processed at modern flavor facilities. EOs, also called volatile or ethereal oils, are aromatic oily liquids obtained from plant flowers, buds, seeds, leaves, twigs, bark, herbs, wood, fruits and roots.

They can be obtained by expression, fermentation, effleurage or extraction but the method of steam distillation is most commonly used for commercial production of EOs (van de Braak and Leijten 1999). The term ‘essential oil’ is thought to derive from the name coined in the 16th century by the Swiss reformer of medicine, Paracelsus von Hohenheim; he named the effective component of a drug Quinta essentia (Guenther 1948). An estimated 3000 EOs are known, of which about 300 are commercially important – destined chiefly for the flavors and fragrances market (van de Braak and Leijten 1999).

Distillation as a method of producing EOs was first used in the East (Egypt, India and Iran) (Guenther 1948) more than 2000 years ago and was improved in the 9th century by the Arabs. By the 13th century EOs were being made by pharmacies and their pharmacological effects were described in pharmacopoeias (Bauer et al. 2001). The greatest use of EOs in the European Union (EU) is in food (as flavorings), perfumes (fragrances and aftershaves) and pharmaceuticals (for their functional properties) (van de Braak and Leijten 1999). EOs and fractions are also formulated in shampoos, toothpaste, disinfectants, topical ointments and cosmetics.

However, when used in foods, highly volatile plant EOs are sometimes lost during processing operations. Microencapsulation technology is one way these losses of EOs by volatilization can be prevented. This technique is being widely used in the pharmaceutical industry for controlled delivery of drugs. It is also currently used in the food industry for flavor stabilization. By encapsulating antimicrobial EOs, not only can they be protected from heat, but they also can be released in products at a controlled rate to deliver effective inhibitory concentrations over extended periods and thereby extend shelf-life.

This review presents the current understanding of the mode of action of these compounds and their possible applications in food protection. Food biopreservation. Iraj Rasooli INFLUENCE OF CHEMICAL COMPOSITION OF ESSENTIAL OILS ON THEIR ANTIMICROBIAL ACTIVITIES Due to their natural origin, environmental and genetic factors will influence the chemical composition of the plant EOs. Factors such as species and subspecies, geographical location, harvest time, plant part used and method of isolation all affect chemical composition of the crude material separated from the plant.

Steam distillation is the most commonly used method for producing EOs on a commercial basis. Extraction by means of liquid carbon dioxide under low temperature and high pressure produces a more natural organoleptic profile but is much more expensive (Moyler 1998). The difference in organoleptic profile indicates a difference in the composition of oils obtained by solvent extraction as opposed to distillation and this may also influence antimicrobial properties.

This would appear to be confirmed by the fact that herb EOs extracted by hexane have been shown to exhibit greater antimicrobial activity than the corresponding steam distilled EOs (Packiyasothy and Kyle 2002). EOs are volatile and therefore need to be stored in airtight containers in the dark in order to prevent compositional changes. The composition of EOs from a particular species of plant can differ between harvesting seasons and between geographical sources (Juliano et al. 2000; Faleiro et al. 2002).

It was postulated that individual components of EOs exhibit different degrees of activity against gram-positives and gram-negatives (Dorman and Deans 2000) and it is known that the chemical composition of EOs from a particular plant species can vary according to the geographical origin and harvesting period (vide supra). It is therefore possible that variation in composition between batches of EOs is sufficient to cause variability in the degree of susceptibility of Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria.

The inherent activity of oil can be expected to relate to the chemical configuration of the components, the proportions in which they are present and to interactions between them (Dorman and Deans 2000; Marino et al. 2001; Delaquis et al. 2002). An additive effect is observed when the combined effect is equal to the sum of the individual effects. Some studies have concluded that whole EOs have a greater antibacterial activity than the major components mixed (Gill et al. 2002; Mourey and Canillac 2002), which suggests that the minor components are critical to the activity and may have a synergistic effect or potentiating influence.

The two structurally similar major components of oregano EO, carvacrol and thymol, were found to give an additive effect when tested against S. aureus and P. aeruginosa (Lambert et al 2001). A mixture of cinnamaldehyde and eugenol at 250 and 500 ? g/ml, respectively inhibited growth of Staphylococcus sp. , Micrococcus sp. Bacillus sp. and Enterobacter sp. for more than 30 days completely, whereas the substrates applied individually did not inhibit growth (Moleyar and Narasimham 1992). The oils with high levels of eugenol (allspice, clove bud and leaf, bay, and cinnamon leaf), cinnamamic aldehyde (cinnamon bark, assia oil) and citral are usually strong antimicrobials (Davidson and Naidu 2000). Activity of sage and rosemary is due to borneol and other phenolics in the terpene fraction. The volatile terpenes carvacrol, p-cymene and thymol are probably responsible for the antimicrobial activity of oregano, thyme and savory. In sage, the terpene thejone and in rosemary a group of terpenes (borneol, camphor, 1,8 cineole, ? -pinene, camphone, verbenonone and bornyl acetate) is responsible (Davidson and Naidu 2000). Little information is available on interaction among constituents in EOs and the effects they have on antimicrobial activity.

Phenolic components are responsible for antimicrobial action and other constituents are believed to have little activity. Dependability of EOs as antimicrobials could be improved if their content of active agents should be standardized by distillation (Delaquis et al. 2002). As a general 113 observation, spice extracts are less antimicrobial than the whole spice but little quantitative data are available (Shelef 1983). Four studies are relevant. Lachowicz et al. (1998) found crude EO of basil more effective than components linalool and methyl chavicol either separately or together.

Vardar-Unlu et al. (2003) found similar results following fractionation of extracts from thyme. In aqueous extracts from oregano or thyme there was little antimicrobial activity. Thus there appear to be interactive effects among constituents not extractable in the water-soluble phase and these components do not appear to be the phenolics normally considered to show the major antimicrobial activities. In contrast with the above studies, Delaquis et al. (2002) found that individual fractions of cilantro and dill EOs had greater antimicrobial activity than did the whole oil.

In addition, they found cilantro fractions deficient in phenolics but enriched in long chain (C6–C10) alcohol and aldehydes that were particularly active against Gram-positive bacteria including L. monocytogenes. To broaden the antimicrobial spectrum, a fraction from cilantro oil with no activity against Gram-negative bacteria was combined with a eucalyptus fraction having broader activity. Additive or synergistic action was reported against all Gram-positive bacteria plus Yersinia enterocolitica and the mixture was antagonistic to P. fragi, E. coli O157:H7 and Salmonella typhimurium.

Bactericidal effects of cinnamaldehyde and thymol against B. cereus (Demo et al 2001; Kwon et al. 2003), as well as the development of synergistic effects between carvacrol or thymol and nisin have been also reported (Pol and Smid 1999; Periago and Moezelaar 2001; Periago et al. 2001). The effects of various concentrations of borneol, carvacrol, cinnamaldehyde, eugenol, menthol, thymol, and vanillin on the growth kinetics of activated Bacillus cereus INRA L2104 spores inoculated into tyndallized carrot broth were determined. Five microliters of cinnamaldehyde, 15 ? of carvacrol, or 30 mg of thymol per 100 ml of inoculated carrot broth completely inhibited bacterial growth for more than 60 days at 16°C. Lower concentrations of the three antimicrobials prolonged the lag phase and reduced both the exponential growth rate and the final population densities of cultures. The study of the sensory characteristics of the supplemented broths suggested that low concentration of cinnamaldehyde enhanced the taste of carrot broth, and that it did not have any adverse effect on the taste and smell of carrot broth at concentrations less than 6 ? 100 ml? 1 (Valero and Giner 2006). The major constituents of the oils of thyme and oregano species have been reported to be thymol, carvacrol and ? terpinene. Thyme EO and its ingredients have been shown to exhibit a range of biological activities. Since EOs of thyme and oregano possess strong antibacterial and antimicrobial activity they can be used to delay or inhibit the growth of pathogenic microorganisms. These activities are mostly attributable to the presence of phenolic compounds such as thymol and carvacrol, and to hydrocarbons like ? erpinene and p-cymene (Dorman and Deans 2000; Lambert et al. 2001; Aligiannis et al. 2001; Vardar-Unlu et al. 2003; Baydar et al. 2004). Thymol and carvacrol can be used alone or in combination during the treatment of oral infectious diseases because of their inhibitory activity on oral bacteria (Ditry et al. 1994; Kohlert et al. 2002). Thyme and oregano were found to inhibit aflatoxin production (Vaughn et al. 1993). Antispasmodic and antiplatelet aggregation activities were also reported with thyme constituents (Meister et al. 999; Okazaki et al. 2002). Monoterpenes are natural ten-carbon (C10) compounds constructed from two isoprene molecules (C5H8, or hemiterpene), the five-carbon building-block of all terpenes. They are found in edible, medicinal and aromatic plants and are the main chemical constituents of their EOs. Plant volatile oils as well as their monoterpenoid constituents have been widely used as flavorings additives in foods and beverages, as fragrances in cosmetics, and as intermediates in the manufacture of perfume chemicals. They have also been em-

Food 1(2), 111-136 ©2007 Global Science Books ployed as scent in household products (e. g. , detergents, soaps, room air-fresheners and insect repellents) and as active ingredients in some old drugs (Leung and Foster 2003). Pinene, for instance, is one of the main constituents of a mixture of six monoterpenes used to dissolve gallstones (Ellis et al. 1984), and ? -terpinene is one of the putative active ingredients of tea tree (Melaleuca alternifolia) oil, an antibacterial and antifungal remedy employed in both veterinary and human medicine (Dryden et al. 2004).

IN VITRO ANTIMICROBIAL ACTIVITIES OF ESSENTIAL OILS A large number of studies have examined the in vitro antimicrobial activity of spices, herbs and naturally occurring compounds from other sources. Plant EOs have been widely tested against both Gram-positive and -negative bacteria. For example, Farag et al. (1989) examined the antimicrobial activity of the oils of sage, thyme and rosemary leaves, caraway fruits, clove flower buds, and cumin fruits against three Gram-negative bacteria (P. fluorescens, E. coli, and Serratia marcescens) and four Gram-positive bacteria (S. aureus, Micrococcus spp. Sarcina spp. , and B. subtilis). They found that the EOs from sage, cumin, rosemary and their principal components had no or very little effect against Gram-negative bacteria, but oil of caraway was moderately effective against this group. Oils from clove and thyme were highly active at a concentration of 0. 75– 1. 5 mg /ml against S. aureus and Micrococcus spp. , while only small inhibition zones were reported for Gram-negative bacteria. In general, Gram-negative bacteria were more resistant to EOs than Gram-positive bacteria, with the oils being effective even at low concentration (0. 5–12 mg /ml) against the Gram-positive organisms. In similar work it was also found that mint EO was more effective against Grampositive bacteria than against Gram-negative bacteria (Sivropoulou et al. 1995; Iscan et al. 2002). Delaquis et al. (2002) reported that Gram-positive bacteria were more sensitive to the EOs of dill, cilantro, coriander and eucalyptus than Gram-negative bacteria. It is well established that essential or volatile oils from plant sources have wide spectra of antimicrobial action (Alzoreky and Nakahara 2002; Packiyasothy and Kyle 2002).

The composition, structure as well as functional groups of the oils play an important role in determining their antimicrobial activity. Usually compounds with phenolic groups are most effective (Dorman and Deans 2000). Among these, the oils of clove, oregano, rosemary, thyme, sage and vanillin have been found to be most consistently effective against microorganisms. Most studies investigating the action of whole EOs against food spoilage organisms and food borne pathogens agree that, generally, EOs are generally more inhibitory against Grampositive than against Gram-negative bacteria (Marino et al. 001). That gram-negative organisms are less susceptible to the action of antibacterials is perhaps to be expected, since they possess an outer membrane surrounding the cell wall (Ratledge and Wilkinson 1988), which restricts diffusion of hydrophobic compounds through its lipopolysaccharide covering (Vaara 1992). While this is true of many EOs, there are some such as oregano, clove, cinnamon and citral; which are effective against both groups (Skandamis et al. 2002).

However, not all studies on EOs have concluded that gram-positives are more susceptible (Wilkinson et al. 2003). There are also some non-phenolic constituents of oils such as allyl isothiocyanate, AIT; which are more effective (Ward et al. 1998) or quite effective against Gram-negative bacteria as in garlic oil (Yin and Cheng 2003). A study testing 50 commercially available EOs against 25 genera found no evidence for a difference in sensitivity between Gram-negative and Gram-positive organisms (Deans and Ritchie 1987).

However, a later study using the same test method and the same bacterial isolates but apparently using freshly distilled EOs, revealed that Gram-positive bacteria were indeed more susceptible to two of the EOs tested and equally sensitive to four other EOs than were Gram-negative species 114 (Dorman and Deans 2000). Of the Gram-negative bacteria, Pseudomonads, and in particular P. aeruginosa, appear to be least sensitive to the action of EOs (Ruberto et al. 2000; Senatore et al. 2000; Tsigarida et al. 2000; Dorman and Deans 2000; Pintore et al. 2002; Wilkinson et al. 2003).

Pseudomonads consistently show high or often the highest resistance to these antimicrobials such as linalool/chavicol (Smith-Palmer et al. 1998), terpenoids/carvacrol/thymol (Griffin et al. 1999), oregano (Skandamis et al. 2002), Capsicum or bell pepper (Careaga et al. 2003) and annatto, (Galindo-Cuspinera et al. 2003). Nonetheless, since pseudomonads are so frequently responsible for spoilage of food stored at low temperatures they have often been used as targets, and at high concentrations some EO components have been reported to be effective (Careaga et al. 2003).

Infections caused by Campylobacter in humans are considered to be the result of ingestion of contaminated foods of animal origin, mainly poultry products and raw milk, or untreated water (Moore et al. 2002; Park 2002). Successful steps to reduce the occurrence of Campylobacter on poultry could have a major effect on reduction of foodborne illness. In a recent study, a proprietary mixture of herbs (Protecta II) at 2% (w/v) was used in poultry chill water and reduced the numbers of both Campylobacter and E. coli by 2 log cfu/ml in carcass rinses (Dickens et al. 2000). Friedman et al. 2002) evaluated 96 different naturally occurring plant oils and oil compounds against C. jejuni in iron-supplemented brucella agar. The oils of marigold taegetes, ginger root, jasmine, patchouli, and gardenia were most effective with bactericidal activity (BA) assessed as BA50’s (concentration of oil at which a 50% reduction of total cfu was observed) ranging from 0. 003% to 0. 007%. Like plant EOs and oil-derived compounds, garlic-derived organosulphur compounds have also shown antimicrobial activity. When evaluated against C. jejuni in ground beef, diallyl sulphide and diallyl disulphide at 20 ?

M showed a significant reduction with final viable numbers of 1. 63 log cfu /g and 1. 26 log cfu/g, respectively, compared to 7. 54 log cfu/g in untreated controls during 6 d storage at 15°C (Yin and Cheng 2003). Recently there has been significant interest in the development of secondary preservation steps that could reduce L. monocytogenes viability and growth in refrigerated readyto-eat foods (Rocourt et al. 2003). Four recent studies examined the effects of different natural antimicrobials on this organism in broth media. Of the agents tested isoeugenol was most effective, giving a 4. log reduction of L. monocytogenes numbers at 100 ppm in conjunction with use of freeze thaw cycles at ? 20°C (Cressy et al. 2003). Cilantro oil was more effective than hydroxycinnamic acids, with MICs of cilantro against L. monocytogenes of 0. 02– 0. 07% (v/v) in Brain Heart Infusion (BHI) broth at 24°C (Gill et al. 2002) as compared with MICs of 0. 2–0. 27% (w/v) for 4 hydroxycinnamic acids (Wen et al. 2003). A GRAS carotenoid pigment used in butter and cheese, annatto, was least effective (MIC 1. 25% v/v) against this organism (Galindo-Cuspinera et al. 2003).

Differences in strain susceptibility were evident and cilantro oil was inefective against L. monocytogenes when used on the surface of inoculated ham at a concentration of 6% (v/v) of the enrobing gel (Gill et al. 2002). The antibacterial activity of EOs is influenced by the degree to which oxygen is available. This could be due to the fact that when little oxygen is present, fewer oxidative changes can take place in the EOs and/or that cells obtaining energy via anaerobic metabolism are more sensitive to the toxic action of EOs (Paster et al. 1990). The antibacterial activity of oregano and thyme EOs was greatly enhanced against S. yphimurium and S. aureus at low oxygen levels (Paster et al. 1990). The use of vacuum packing in combination with oregano EO may have a synergistic effect on the inhibition of L. monocytogenes and spoilage flora on beef fillets; 0. 8% v/w oregano EO achieved a 2–3 log initial reduction in the microbial flora but was found to be even more effective in samples packed under vacuum in low- Food biopreservation. Iraj Rasooli permeability film when compared to aerobically stored samples and samples packaged under vacuum in highly permeable film (Tsigarida et al. 000). Similarly, the lethal effect of clove and coriander EOs on A. hydrophila on pork loin steak stored at 2 and 10°C was more pronounced in vacuum packed pork than on samples stored in air (Stecchini et al. 1993). Oregano EO was found to delay microbial growth and to suppress final counts of spoilage microorganisms in minced beef under modified atmosphere packaging (MAP, 40% CO2, 30% N2 and 30% O2) when, in contrast, no pronounced inhibition was evident in beef packed under air (Skandamis and Nychas 2001).

Cinnamon oil and clove oil are both natural preservative and flavouring substances that are not harmful when consumed in food products. Soliman and Badeaa (2002) found that ? 500 ppm of cinnamon oil can inhibit A. flavus, A. parasiticus, A. ochraceus and Fusarium moniliforme on potato dextrose agar. Matan et al. (2006) tested mixtures of cinnamon and clove oils for inhibitory activity against important spoilage microorganism of intermediate moisture foods. Four fungal species (Aspergillus flavus, Penicillium roqueforti, Mucor plumbeus and Eurotium sp. , four yeast species (Debaryomyces hansenii, Pichia membranaefaciens, Zygosaccharomyces rouxii and Candida lipolytica), and two bacteria species (Staphylococcus aureus and Pediococcus halophilus) inoculated separately on agar plates were sealed in a barrier pouch and exposed to EO volatiles under a modified atmosphere of low O2 (; 0. 05–10%) and high CO2 (20% or 40%), with the balance being N2. A. flavus and Eurotium sp. proved to be the most resistant microorganisms. Cinnamon and clove oils added between 1000 and 4000 ? L at a ratio of 1:1 were tested for minimum inhibitory volume (MIV) against molds and yeasts.

The gas phase above 1000 ? L of the oil mixture inhibited growth of C. lipolytica and P. membranaefaciens; 2000 ? L inhibited growth of A. flavus, P. roqueforti, M. plumbeus, Eurotium sp. , D. hansenii, and Z. rouxii, while inhibition of A. flavus required the addition of 4000 ? L. Higher ratios of cinnamon oil/clove oil were more effective for inhibiting the growth of A. flavus. Citrus EOs can have very pronounced antimicrobial activity, even if their complexity and variability make difficult to correlate their action to a specific component, also in relation to possible antagonistic and synergistic effects.

For this reason, Caccioni et al. (1998) proposed a holistic approach to explain the antimicrobial capabilities of such EOs, whose performances could be the result of a certain quantitative balance of various components. Citrus oxygenated monoterpenes are among the molecules with the highest antifungal activity (Caccioni and Guizzardi 1994) and citral was the most active compound against Penicillium digitatum and P. italicum (Caccioni et al. 1995). Origanum vulgare L. , Lamiaceae family, is being used in traditional medicine systems in many countries (Sagdic et al. 2002; Sahin et al. 2004).

Origanum vulgare L. has been known as having many therapeutic properties (diaphoretic, carminative, antispasmodic, antiseptic, tonic) and its antimicrobial activity has currently received a renewed interest. It has been widely used in agricultural, pharmaceutical and cosmetic industries as a culinary herb, flavoring substances in food products, alcoholic beverages and perfumery for its spicy fragrance (Dorman and Deans 2000; Novak et al. 2000; Aligianis et al. 2001). Some researchers have found antimicrobial activity in O. vulgare L. (Skandamis et al. 2002; Baydar et al. 2004; Chun et al. 2004; Nostro et al. 004). The oils extracted from plants of the genus Origanum have been shown to have antimicrobial activity in vitro and in food (Aligiannis et al. 2001). Souza et al. (2007) reported the effectiveness of O. vulgare L. EO to inhibit the growth/survival of various food spoiling yeasts. Anti-yeast activity was studied by determining the MIC by solid medium diffusion and microplate bioassay, as well as observing the effect of the EO MIC on the yeast cell viability. O. vulgare EO showed effectiveness to inhibit the growth of all assayed yeasts with MIC values for the most ones of 20 and 0. 6 ?

L/mL when determined, respectively, 115 by solid medium diffusion and microplate bioassay. Solid medium diffusion MIC presented statistically significant inhibitory effects (P ; 0. 05) on yeast cell viability, mainly when interacting with Candida albicans and Candida krusei. On the other hand, the microplate MIC just provided statistically significant inhibitory effects on the cell viability when interacting with C. krusei. It is well established that bacterial biofilms exhibit more resistance to antimicrobial treatments than the individual cells grown in suspension (Knowles and Roller 2001; Chavant et al. 004). Lebert et al. (2007) investigated bactericide solutions effective on spoilage and pathogenic bacteria while preserving technological bacteria. Two compounds of EO (thymol and eugenol), one EO of Satureja thymbra and two industrial biocides (PE 270–30, Brillo) were tested on technological strains (Staphylococcus equorum, Staphylococcus succinus and Lactobacillus sakei) grown in monoculture biofilm and on a mixed biofilm of pathogenic bacteria (Staphylococcus aureus, Listeria monocytogenes) and spoilage bacteria (Pseudomonas fragi, Escherichia coli).

Biofilm cultures were performed in glass fibre filters for 24 h at 20°C before application of biocides. Thymol and eugenol had no effect on the mixed biofilm. S. thymbra (2%) was highly effective on spoilage strains (5 log reduction), and S. equorum (4 log reduction) was moderately effective on pathogens (2. 3 log reduction) and not effective on S. succinus and L. sakei (0. 5 log reduction). PE-270-30 with 10% Na2SO4 decreased spoilage bacteria (5. 1 log reduction), maintained the technological bacteria, but did not reduce the pathogens. The disinfectant Brillo (3%) killed all the strains.

Their results showed the difficulty in obtaining a biocide that is effective in destroying spoilage and pathogenic bacteria while preserving technological bacteria. Lebert et al. (2007) concluded that EOs could be a good alternative for eradicating spoilage bacteria in the food environment where they are often found at high levels. Antimicrobial packaging is a form of active packaging that could extend the shelf-life of product and provides microbial safety for consumers. It acts to reduce, inhibit, or retard the growth of pathogen microorganisms in packed foods and packaging material.

In order to control undesirable microorganisms on food surfaces: (1) volatile and nonvolatile antimicrobial agents can be incorporated into polymers or (2) coating or adsorbing antimicrobial onto polymer surfaces can be applied (Appendini and Hotchkiss 2002). Several compounds have been proposed for antimicrobial activity in food packaging, including organic acids, enzymes such as lysozyme, and fungicides such as benomyl, imazalil and natural antimicrobial compounds such as spices (Tharanathan 2003). These compounds carry mostly antimicrobial and some antioxidant properties.

Natural compounds, such as nisin and lysozyme, have been studied as potential food preservatives added to the edible films that are safe for human consumption (Padget et al. 2000; Hoffman et al. 2001; Dawson et al. 2002; Cagri et al. 2004; Min et al. 2005). Some spice EOs incorporated into packaging materials can control microbial contamination in beef muscle by reducing the growth of Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Pseudomonas spp. (Oussallah et al. 2004). The use of edible films to release antimicrobial constituents in food packaging is a form of active packaging.

Antimicrobial properties of whey protein isolate (WPI) films containing 1. 0– 4. 0% (wt/vol) ratios of oregano, rosemary and garlic EOs were tested against Escherichia coli O157:H7 (ATCC 35218), Staphylococcus aureus (ATCC 43300), Salmonella enteritidis (ATCC 13076), Listeria monocytogenes (NCTC 2167) and Lactobacillus plantarum (DSM 20174). Ten millilitres of molten hard agar was inoculated by 200 ? l of bacterial cultures (colony count of 1 ? 108 CFU/ml) grown overnight in appropriate medium.

Circular discs of WPI films containing spice extracts, prepared by casting method, were placed on a bacterial lawn. Zones of inhibition were measured after an incubation period. The film containing oregano EO was the most effective against these bacteria at 2% level than those containing garlic and rosemary extracts Food 1(2), 111-136 ©2007 Global Science Books (P ME ; WtF ; HxF according to the hydrogen peroxide-induced luminol chemiluminescence assay, and results were the same with the exception of the rank order of HxF and WtF according to the DPPH free radical-scavenging assay.

Eleven EOs, namely, Cananga odorata (Annonaceae), Cupressus sempervirens (Cupressaceae), Curcuma longa (Zingiberaceae), Cymbopogon citratus (Poaceae), Eucalyptus globulus (Myrtaceae), Pinus radiata (Pinaceae), Piper crassinervium (Piperaceae), Psidium guayava (Myrtaceae), Rosmarinus officinalis (Lamiaceae), Thymus ? citriodorus (Lamiaceae) and Zingiber officinale (Zingiberaceae), were evaluated for their food functional ingredient related properties. These properties were compared to those of Thymus vulgaris EO, used as a reference ingredient.

Antioxidant and radical-scavenging properties were tested by means of 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) assay, ? -carotene 120 bleaching test and luminol-photochemiluminescence (PCL) assay. In the DPPH assay, C. odorata, C. citratus, R. officinalis and C. longa showed major effectiveness, with a radical inhibition ranging from 59. 6 ± 0. 42–64. 3 ± 0. 45%. In the ? -carotene bleaching test, C. odorata (75. 5 ± 0. 53%), R. officinalis (81. 1 ± 0. 57%) and C. longa (72. 4 ± 0. 51%) gave the best inhibition results. Similar results were obtained for the same EOs in the PCL assay (Gianni et al. 2005).

Total antioxidant activity of water-soluble components in raw spinach was in the order of BI ? BM ? BPG ; BP, whereas free radical-scavenging activity was in the order of BI ; BPG ; BM ; BP (Amin et al. 2006). Kartal and co workers (2007) examined the in vitro antioxidant properties of the EO and various extracts prepared from the herbal parts of Ferula orientalis A. (Apiaceae). The highest 2,2-diphenyl-l-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical-scavenging activity was found in the polar extract, e. g. methanol–water (1:1), obtained from non-deodorised materials with IC50 values at 99. 1 ? g/ml. In the ? carotene/linoleic acid assay, the deodorised acetone extract exhibited stronger activity than the polar one. The relative antioxidant activities of the extracts ranged from 10. 1% to 76. 1%, respectively. Extraction with methanol–water (1:1) mixture was concluded to be the most appropriate method in terms of higher extract yield, as well as effectiveness, observed in both assays. Although the EO showed antioxidative potential, it was not as strong as that of positive control (BHT). Bektas et al. (2005) compared the antioxidant potentials of two Thymus species on the basis of the chemical compositions of EOs obtained by hydrodistillation.

Using 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), the free radical scavenging activity of the EO of T. sipyleus subsp. sipyleus var. rosulans was superior to var. sipyleus oil (IC50=220 ± 0. 5 and 2670 ± 0. 5 ? g/ml, respectively). In the case of ? -carotene/linoleic acid assays, oxidation of linoleic acid was effectively inhibited by T. sipyleus subsp. sipyleus var. rosulans (92. 0%), while the var. sipyleus oil had no activity. In the latter case, the linoleic acid inhibition rate of var. rosulans oil is close to the synthetic antioxidant BHT (96. 0%).

Orhan and co-workers (2007) examined in vitro anticholinesterase and antioxidant activities of 56 extracts prepared with petroleum ether, chloroform, ethyl acetate and methanol obtained from 14 Salvia species (Salvia albimaculata Hedge and Hub, Salvia aucheri Bentham var. canescens Boiss and Heldr, Salvia candidissima Vahl. ssp. occidentalis, Salvia ceratophylla L. , Salvia cryptantha Montbret and Bentham, Salvia cyanescens Boiss and Bal. , Salvia frigida Boiss, Salvia forskahlei L. , Salvia halophilaHedge, Salvia migrostegia Boiss and Bal. , Salvia multicaulis Vahl. Salvia sclarea L. , Salvia syriaca L. , Salvia verticillata L. ssp. amasiaca) growing in Turkey. The antioxidant activities were assessed by both chemical and enzymatic methods against 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical-scavenging and xanthine/xanthine oxidase (XO) system generated superoxide anion radical inhibition. Their data indicates that nonpolar extracts of Salvia species for anticholinesterase activity and the polar extracts for antioxidant activity are worth further phytochemical evaluation for identifying their active components.

It was reported that oxidative stress is associated with the pathogenesis of Alzheimer’s disease (AD) and cellular characteristics of this disease are either causes or effects of oxidative stress (Vina et al. 2004). These evidences clearly show that oxidative stress, an early event in AD, may play a key pathogenic role in the disease (Zhu et al. 2004). Interestingly, intake of polyphenols through diets rich in fruits, vegetables and beverages such as red wine was stated to reduce incidence of certain age-related neurological disorders including macular degeneration and dementia (Commenges et al. 000; Bastianetto and Quirion 2002). Herbs and spices have been used for many centuries to improve the sensory characteristics and to extend the shelflife of foods. As a result, considerable research has been carried out on the assessment of the antioxidant activity of Food biopreservation. Iraj Rasooli many herbs, spices and their extracts when added in a variety of foods and food model systems. Mate (Ilex paraguariensis) leaves contain many bioactive compounds, such as phenolic acids, which seem to be responsible for the antioxidant activity of green mate infusions, both in vivo and in vitro (Filip et al. 000; Schinella et al. 2000; Bracesco et al. 2003; Markowicz-Bastos et al. 2006). The antioxidative effect of dietary Oregano EO and ? -tocopheryl acetate supplementation on susceptibility of chicken breast and thigh muscle meat to lipid oxidation during frozen storage at ? 20°C for 9 months was examined. Dietary oregano EO supplementation at the level of 100 mg/kg feed was significantly (P ? 0. 05) more effective in reducing lipid oxidation compared with the level of 50 mg oregano EO k/g feed and control, but less effective (P ? 0. 05) compared with ? -tocopheryl acetate supplementation (Botsoglou et al. 003). Oregano, a characteristic spice of the Mediterranean cuisine obtained by drying leaves and flowers of Origanum vulgare subsp. hirtum plants, is well known for its antioxidative activity (Economou et al. 1991). Carvacrol and thymol, the two major phenols that constitute about 78-82% of the EO, are principally responsible for this activity (Adam et al. 1998; Yanishlieva 1999). The antioxidant effect of two plant EOs (sage and rosemary EOs) and one synthetic antioxidant (BHT) on refrigerated stored liver pate (4°C/90 days) was evaluated. Pates with no added antioxidants were used as controls.

Plant EOs inhibited oxidative deterioration of liver pates to a higher extent than BHT did (Estevez et al. 2007). Oxidative reactions in foodstuffs are enhanced after cooking and refrigerated storage through the increase of their oxidative instability due to the degradation of natural antioxidants and the release of free fatty acids and iron from the haeme molecule (Kristensen and Purslow 2001; Estevez and Cava 2004). Sage (Salvia officinalis) and rosemary (Rosmarinus officianalis) are popular Labiatae herbs with a verified potent antioxidant activity (Dorman et al. 2003).

The antioxidant activity of sage and rosemary EOs is mainly related to two phenolic diterpenes: carnosic acid and carnosol which are considered two effective free-radical scavengers (Dorman et al. 2003; Ibanez et al. 2003). The antioxidant activity of these molecules has been compared to that from other recognized antioxidant substances, and Richheimer et al. (1999) indicated that the antioxidant potential of the carnosic acid was approximately seven times higher than that of BHT and BHA. Bektas and co workers (2007a) studied in vitro antioxidant activity of the EO of Clinopodium vulgare by using 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and ? carotene-linoleic acid assays. In the first case, IC50 value of the C. vulgare EO was determined as 63. 0 ± 2. 71 ? g/ml. IC50 value of thymol and ? -terpinene, the major compounds of the oil, was determined as 161 ± 1. 3 ? g/ml and 122 ± 2. 5 ? g/ml, respectively, whereas p-cymene did not show antioxidant activity. In ? -carotene-linoleic acid system, C. vulgare EO exhibited 52. 3 ± 1. 19% inhibition against linoleum acid oxidation. Bektas et al. (2007b) screened the methanolic extracts of Salvia verticillata subsp. verticillata and S. verticillata subsp.

Amasiaca for their possible antioxidant activity by two complementary test systems, namely DPPH free radical-scavenging and ? -carotene/linoleic acid systems. In the first case, S. verticillata subsp. verticillata was superior to the subsp. amasiaca with an IC50 value of 14. 5 ± 1. 21 ? g m/g. In the ? -carotene/linoleic acid test system, inhibition capacity of S. verticillata subsp. verticillata was 74. 4 ± 1. 29%. Activity of rosmarinic acid was also screened for better establishing the relationship between rosmarinic acid level and antioxidant activity for the plant extracts. S. verticillata subsp. erticillata had the highest rosmarinic acid level with a value of 28. 7 ± 0. 89 ? g m/g. There was a strong correlation between the rosmarinic acid level and antioxidant activity potential. Honey has been reported to contain a variety of phenolics and represents a good source of antioxidants, which makes it a good food antioxidant additive and increases its usability potential in ethnomedicine (Al-Mamary et al. 121 2002; Aljadi and Kamaruddin 2004; Beretta et al. 2005; Kucuk et al. 2007). Several methods have been developed, in recent years, to evaluate the antioxidant capacity of biological samples (Rice-Evans et al. 997; Schlesier et al. 2002). The total phenolic content of natural samples, such as plants and honey, reflects, to some extent, the total antioxidant capacity of the sample (Beretta et al. 2005). The most widely used antioxidant methods involve the generation of oxidant species, generally radicals, and their concentration is monitored as the present antioxidants scavenge them. Radical formation and the following scavenging are applied in 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH)- and superoxide radical-scavenging activity measurements (Gulcin et al. 2003).

In radical-scavenging activity, the higher extract concentration required to scavenge the radicals means the lower antioxidant capacity. Ferric-reducing/antioxidant power (FRAP) is another widely used antioxidant activity measurement method, which has been used for the assessment of antioxidant and reducing power of many different samples, including honey (Aljadi and Kamaruddin 2004) and plant exudates (Gulcin et al. 2003). ESSENTIAL OILS IN FOOD Food composition and structure have a significant effect on the dynamic and final outcomes of an interaction.

Naturally present ingredients can favor or inhibit the interactive cultures. Food composition can be manipulated to achieve the desired effect. In food products, the EOs have been used in bakery (Nielsen and Rios 2000), cheese (Vazquez et al. 2001), meat (Quintavalla and Vicini 2002) and fruit (Lanciotti et al. 2004), among others. The advantage of EOs is their bioactivity in the vapor phase, a characteristic that makes them useful as possible fumigants for stored commodity protection. Antimicrobial packaging is a form of active packaging that could extend the shelf-life of product and provides microbial safety for consumers.

It acts to reduce, inhibit, or retard the growth of pathogen microorganisms in packed foods and packaging material. In order to control undesirable microorganisms on food surfaces: (1) volatile and non-volatile antimicrobial agents can be incorporated into polymers or (2) coating or adsorbing antimicrobial onto polymer surfaces can be applied (Appendini and Hotchkiss 2002). The coating can serve as a carrier for antimicrobial compounds and/or antioxidants compounds in order to maintain high concentrations of preservatives on the food surfaces (Siragusa et al. 999; Oussallah et al. 2004). Although a small number of food preservatives containing EOs is commercially available, until the early 1990s very few studies of the activity of EOs in foods had been published (Board and Gould 1991). Since then a fair number of trials have been carried out with EOs in foods. There are reports of studies using diluted foods or food slurries (Pol et al. 2001; Smith-Palmer et al. 2001) and studies using dried herbs or spices or their extracts (Tassou et al. 1996; Hao et al. 1998a, 1998b).

It has generally been found that a greater concentration of EO is needed to achieve the equivalent in-vitro effect in foods (Smid and Gorris 1999). The ratio has been recorded to be approximately twofold in semi-skimmed milk (Karatzas et al. 2001), 10-fold in pork liver sausage (Pandit and Shelef 1994), 50-fold in soup (Ultee and Smid 2001) and 25- to 100-fold in soft cheese (Mendoza-Yepes et al. 1997). An exception to this phenolmenon is Aeromonas hydrophila; no greater proportion of EO was needed to inhibit this species on cooked pork and on lettuce in comparison to tests in vitro (Stecchini et al. 993; Wan et al. 1998). Several studies have recorded the effect of foodstuffs on microbial resistance to EOs but none appears to have quantified it or to have explained the mechanism, although suggestions have been made as to the possible causes. The greater availability of nutrients in foods compared to laboratory media may enable bacteria to repair damaged cells faster (Gill et al. 2002). Generally, the susceptibility of bacteria to the antimicrobial effect of EOs also appears to increase with a decrease in the pH of the Food 1(2), 111-136 ©2007 Global Science Books ood, the storage temperature and the amount of oxygen within the packaging (Skandamis and Nychas 2000; Tsigarida et al. 2000). At low pH the hydrophobicity of an EO increases, enabling it to more easily dissolve in the lipids of the cell membrane of target bacteria (Juven et al. 1994). The physical structure of a food may limit the antibacterial activity of EO. A study of the relative performance of oregano oil against S. typhimurium in broth and in gelatine gel revealed that the gel matrix dramatically reduced the inhibitory effect of the oil.

This was presumed to be due to the limitation of diffusion by the structure of the gel matrix (Skandamis et al. 2000). MICs for a particular EO on a particular bacterial isolate have been shown to be generally slightly lower in broth than in agar (Hammer et al. 1999). Research into the growth characteristics of L. monocytogenes and Yersinia enterocolitica in oil-in-water emulsions has shown that, depending on the mean droplet size of the emulsion, the bacteria can grow in films, in colonies or as planktonic cells (Brocklehurst et al. 1995).

It is known that colonial growth restricts diffusion of oxygen (Wimpenny and Lewis 1977) and cells situated within a colony may be shielded to a certain extent by the outer cells from substrates in the emulsion. If the oil droplets in a food emulsion are of the appropriate size, it could be possible for bacteria growing within colonies to be protected from the action of EOs in this way. Meat products A high fat content appears to markedly reduce the action of EOs in meat products. It is generally supposed that the high levels of fat and/or protein in foodstuffs protect the bacteria from the action of the EO in some way.

For example, if the EO dissolves in the lipid phase of the food there will be relatively less available to act on bacteria present in the aqueous phase (Mejlholm and Dalgaard 2002). Another suggestion is that the lower water content of food compared to laboratory media may hamper the progress of antibacterial agents to the target site in the bacterial cell (Smith-Palmer et al. 2001). Mint oil in the high fat products exhibited little antibacterial effect against L. monocytogenes and S. enteritidis, whereas in low fat food the same EO was much more effective (Tassou et al. 995). Immobilising cilantro EO in a gelatine gel, however, improved the antibacterial activity against L. monocytogenes in ham (Gill et al. 2002). One study found that encapsulated rosemary oil was much more effective than standard rosemary EO against L. monocytogenes in pork liver sausage, although whether the effect was due to the encapsulation or the greater percentage level used was not further elucidated (Pandit and Shelef 1994). Certain oils stand out as better antibacterials than others for meat applications.

Eugenol and coriander, clove, oregano and thyme oils were found to be effective at levels of 5-20 ? l/g in inhibiting L. monocytogenes, A. hydrophila and autochthonous spoilage flora in meat products, sometimes causing a marked initial reduction in the number of recoverable cells (Tsigarida et al. 2000; Skandamis and Nychas 2001) whilst mustard, cilantro, mint and sage oils were less effective or ineffective (Gill et al. 2002; Lemay et al. 2002). In fish, just as in meat products, a high fat content appears to reduce the effectiveness of antibacterial EOs. For example, oregano oil at 0. 5 ? /g is more effective against the spoilage organism Photobacterium phosphoreum on cod fillets than on salmon, which is a fatty fish (Mejlholm and Dalgaard 2002). Oregano oil is more effective in/on fish than mint oil, even in fatty fish dishes; this was confirmed in two experiments with fish roe salad using the two EOs at the same concentration (5-20 ? l/g) (Koutsoumanis et al. 1999; Tassou et al. 1996). The spreading of EO on the surface of whole fish or using EO in a coating for shrimps appears effective in inhibiting the respective natural spoilage flora (Ouattara et al. 2001; Harpaz et al. 2003).

The activity of oregano EO against Clostridium botuli122 num spores has been studied in a vacuum packed and pasteurised minced (ground) pork product. Concentrations of up to 0. 4 ? l/g oregano EO were found not to significantly influence the number of spores or to delay growth. However, in the presence of low levels of sodium nitrite which delayed growth of bacteria and swelling of cans when applied alone, the same concentration of oregano EO enhanced the delay. The delay of growth was dependent on the number of inoculated spores; at 300 spores/g the reduction was greater than at 3000 spores/g (Ismaiel and Pierson 1990).

Active packagings with the packaging materials delivering antimicrobials, can play an important role in satisfying current requirements because inhibitors are more effective when delivered in this manner. When AIT was used as an antimicrobial agent in active packaging of rye bread, it was found that 1 ? l AIT completely inhibited the growth of A. flavus, Penicillium commune, Penicillium corylophilum, Penicillium discolor, Penicillium polonicum, Penicillium roqueforti and Endomyces fibulige (Nielsen and Rios 2000). Smith-Palmer et al. (2001) found hydrophobic plant EOs were more effective against L. onocytogenes in low fat (16%) that in high fat (30%) cheeses. Hasegawa et al. (1999) reported that AIT was more effective against V. parahaemolyticus in high fat (20. 8%) than in low fat (0. 4%) tuna tissue. The potential for intrinsic fat levels in food to moderate the antimicrobial activity of EOs is clear, and results from these two studies showed that interference can be expected at fat levels in food of ;16%. Allyl isothiocyanate (AIT), a major antimicrobial component in mustard and horseradish oil, has been used in a number of foods against a variety of rganisms. It has been found to be generally more effective against Gram-negative bacteria. In a study, Hasegawa et al. (1999) found AIT more effective in fatty (20. 8%) than lean (0. 4%) tuna meat suspension against 4 strains of V. parahaemolyticus. After 24 h of incubation, AIT at 152. 6 ? g /ml was able to inhibit only one strain in the lean suspension, but it reduced all strains below 10 cfu /ml in the fatty suspension. At 101. 7 ? g /ml, AIT inhibited 3 of the strains to the same level in the fatty suspension.

The higher activity of AIT in fatty tuna meat flesh may be related to the high level of unsaturated fat. The main fatty acids of tuna flesh are cis-vaccenic, palmitic and docosahexaenoic acid, which may stabilize AIT in tuna tissue suspensions. AIT possesses strong antimicrobial activity against E. coli O157:H7 as well as V. parahaemolyticus. Nadarajah et al. (2002) killed 3. 6 log cfu/g E. coli O157:H7 in ground beef with AIT (200– 300 ppm) after 21 d at 4°C. The antimicrobial effectiveness of AIT against E. coli O157:H7 varied with storage temperature and inoculation level.

There was very little inhibitory effect on the natural microflora. In subsequent work, Muthukumarasamy et al. (2003) examined the effectiveness of AIT at 1300 ppm in ground beef stored at 4°C under nitrogen with Lactobacillus reuteri against E. coli O157:H7. As an ingredient, AIT by itself eliminated 3 log10 cfu/g E. coli O157:H7 within 15 d and reduced 6 log10 cfu/g by 47 log cfu/g during 25 d storage. AIT did not interact synergistically with Lb. reuteri against E. coli O157:H7. When AIT was used in acidified chicken meat (0. % w/w), it failed to exert a significant effect on the growth of Brochothrix thermosphacta, but it was able to delay growth of some LAB and aerobic mesophilic bacteria for at least 2 days (Lemay et al. 2002). In another similar study, when AIT was evaluated for its effectiveness in precooked roast beef against pathogenic bacteria (E. coli O157:H7, L. monocytogenes, S. typhimurium, and S. aureus) and spoilage bacteria (Serratia grimesii and Lb. sakei), it was found that pathogenic bacteria were inhibited by AIT at a concentration in the head space of 20 ? l/l. E. coli O157:H7, S. ureus and S. typhimurium were most sensitive. Food biopreservation. Iraj Rasooli Dairy products A reaction between carvacrol, a phenolic component of various EOs, and proteins has been put forward as a limiting factor in the antibacterial activity against Bacillus cereus in milk (Pol et al. 2001). Protein content has also been put forward as a factor inhibiting the action of clove oil on Salmonella enteritidis in diluted low-fat cheese (SmithPalmer et al. 2001). Carbohydrates in foods do not appear to protect bacteria from the action of EOs as much as fat and protein do (Shelef et al. 984). A high water and/or salt level facilitates the action of EOs (Skandamis and Nychas 2000). Mint oil at 5-20 ? l/g is effective against S. enteritisdis in low fat yoghurt and cucumber salad (Tassou et al. 1995). Mint oil inhibits the growth of yoghurt starter culture species at 0. 05-5 ? l/g but cinnamon, cardamom and clove oils are much more effective (Bayoumi 1992). SmithPalmer et al. (1998) reported that the oils of clove, cinnamon and thyme were effective against L. monocytogenes and S. enteritidis in tryptone soya broth (TSB). The oils had MICs of 0. 4%, 0. 075% and 0. 03%, respectively, against L. monocytogenes. Similarly, concentrations of 0. 075%, 0. 1%, and 0. 04% were required to inhibit the growth of S. enteritidis in TSB. On the other hand, when Smith-Palmer et al. (2001) evaluated clove, cinnamon, thyme and bay oil for their activity against L. monocytogenes and S. enteritidis in both low (16%) and high fat (30%) cheese it was observed that the oils of clove and cinnamon were highly effective against L. monocytogenes. However, a 1% concentration of the oils was required to inhibit L. onocytogenes and reduce its number to rosemary ; mustard ; cilantro/sage. An approximate general ranking of the EO components is as follows (in order of decreasing antibacterial activity): eugenol ; carvacrol/cinnamic acid ; basil methyl chavicol ; cinnamaldehyde ; citral/geraniol. ESSENTIAL OILS, SYNERGISTIC, AND ANTAGONISTIC VIEW EOs have been used in combination with other antibacterial agents and with a variety of treatments

Blake – Songs of Innocence and Experience: the Chimney Sweeper

William Blake: a man with ideas far ahead of his time, a dreamer, and had true poetic talent. Blake was an engraver, who wrote two groups of corresponding poems, namely The Songs of Experience, and The Songs of Innocence. Songs of Innocence was written originally as poems for children, but was later paired up with The Songs of Experience, which he wrote to highlight what he felt were society’s most prominent problems. This essay will be focusing on ‘The Chimney Sweeper. ’ Firstly, I’ll look at The Chimney Sweeper from Innocence.

The poem uses the ‘A A B B’ rhyming scheme, i. e. young, tongue, weep, sleep. This makes the poem sound good when it’s read aloud. It also flows better. This pattern continues throughout. The poem is about a chimney sweep who’s had a hard time, first having lost his mother, and then was sold by his father. This could have been aimed at the way children were treated in his time, as they were bought and sold like animals. Blake had even seen a young boy chained to a wall. Later in the poem, the chimney sweeps are saved by an angel, who ‘opens the coffins. The reference to coffins meant was linked to the deaths of chimney sweeps, and the death involved in their work. Also, where it says ‘all their bags left behind’ that means the boys leave their worries behind. The fourth and fifth verses are about going to heaven, and was meant to teach the children that at the end of life’s strugles, there’d be safety with God. Although Blake didn’t like The Church, he did believe in God, and taught the belief of God in many of his poems.

In the last verse, Tom (the boy mentioned earlier on) awakes, and it turns out that going to heaven was a dream, however, the poem teaches you that as long as you do your duty, you’ll make it to heaven. The Songs of Experience version of the poem follows the same rhyme scheme, and so is almost an exploration and extention of the last poem. The poem starts in much the same way, with the child crying, and his parents having left to the church. The boy in this poem is ‘clothed in the clothes of death,’ perhaps meaning he’s been made a chimney sweep, and knows his fate.

His parents are at the church to praise God, but the boy believes that God just creates misery for them, and his parents are blind to follow him. This could be a shot at The Church, which at the time was very corrupt, and was in fact ‘unchristian. ’ The first poem is much longer, meaning that Blake had more to say on that particular subject. The poem from experience is much shorter, because he’s only making a small point about the hell of a heaven God had created.

Both poems have the same rhyme scheme, so it’s like one is a continuation of the other, and that they’re both different sides of exactly the same thing, one being for The Church, promising a happy place to go after death, and banishing all worries, and the other saying that there is no hope, and that we’ll be left on our own, with no heaven. The poems focus on a problem which Blake felt was a very important one. Blake believed that children were deprived of their childhood, by being forced into labour early, and were shunned by those with a ‘seen and not heard’ attitude.

These children were little better than slaves, as they were traded and abused. Blake wanted children to enjoy what time they had as kids, and felt it wrong that such an important time in their lives was held back from them. The Chimney Sweeper (experience) supports this by showing that the child was crying in the snow, having been abandoned, and being forced to don the clothes of death (perhaps meaning the attire of a chimney sweep, so being forced into that most horrible of careers. ) The second problem Blake attacks with the poems is the idea that The Church is heavily corrupted.

He highlights this especially in The Chimney Sweeper (experience) by showing that two church-goers just leave their child in the bleak coldness of the snow, and the boy seems to have the idea of heaven ruined for him, and his faith in God completely lost. ‘Who make up a heaven of our misery. ’ This clearly shows that the boy believes that God has created a miserable existance for everyone, and is not to be trusted. In conclusion, The poems were written to get the idea across that the way children were treated was wrong, and that they should be properly cared for, as they are only children. The poems also feature a heavy Christian input.

Case Study Disney

A Case Study on 02/11/08 02/11/08 Agenda > About Disney > Divisions of Disney > A bit of History > About the CASE > SWOT Analysis > Its Current Executive Management > Recommended Organizational structures ? Model 1 ? Model 2 ? Model 3 02/11/08 About Disney > > > > The Walt Disney Company (most commonly known as Disney) (NYSE: DIS) is one of the largest media and entertainment corporations in the world.

Founded on October 16, 1923 by brothers Walt and Roy Disney as a small animation studio Today it is one of the largest Hollywood studios and also owns eleven theme parks, two water parks and several television networks, including the American Broadcasting Company (ABC). Disney’s corporate headquarters and primary production facilities are located at the Walt Disney Studios in Burbank, California, USA. The company is a component of the Dow Jones Industrial Average. It had revenues of $31. 9 billion in 2005 02/11/08 Continued….. > On

June 12, 2006 Disney Mobile phone service is launched > On January 23, Disney announces a deal to purchase Pixar Animation Studios in an all-stock transaction worth $7. 4bn > In July 2006, the Disney film Pirates of the Caribbean 2 is the highest grossing movie in opening weekend history at $135,000,000 USD > Employees: 133,000 (2006) 02/11/08 Divisions of Disney 02/11/08 Divisions of Disney Media and Entertainment ? ? ? ? ? ? American Broadcasting Company Buena Vista Distribution Buena Vista Motion Pictures Group Walt Disney Studio Entertainment Walt Disney Parks and Resorts Disney Consumer Products 2/11/08 A bit of History For more than eight decades, the name Walt Disney has been preeminent in the field of family entertainment. From humble beginnings as a cartoon studio in the 1920s to today’s global corporation, The Walt Disney Company continues to proudly provide quality entertainment for every member of the family, across America and around the world ? Disney Legends The Disney Legends program was established in 1987 to acknowledge and honor the many individuals whose imagination, talents, and dreams have created the Disney magic.

Since its inception, the program has honored many gifted animators, Imagineers, song writers, actors and business leaders as having made a significant impact on the Disney legacy ? The Walt Disney Family Museum The Disney Family Museum Web site is produced and maintained by the Walt Disney Family Foundation, a nonprofit organization. Founded in 1995, the Foundation strives to promote education, writing, and scholarship about Walt Disney To read more on history of Disney you can visit: http://corporate. disney. go. com/corporate/complete_history. html 02/11/08 About the CASE The Walt Disney Company Is heralded as the world’s largest entertainment company > Earned the reputation by tight control > Although control pervades the company, it is not too strong a grip 02/11/08 Strict control but independent > > > > > Employees are aware of their prime objectives Have freedom to think beyond limit and come up with new innovative ideas Company have adopted the phrase “Dream as a team” The concept of independency tempered the control over each department Managers here do the great job of encouraging the imagineers and employees Imagineers have a brainstorming session called “Blue sky” Disney president Frank Wells believes that “If a 02/11/08 good idea is there. You know it, you feel it, you do it, no matter where it comes from” > SWOT Analysis 02/11/08 SWOT Analysis… STRENGHTS • • • • • • Global Standardization Target Customer: Children Creative Process Popular Brand Name Diversification Disruption WEAKNESSES • • • • • High sunk cost Excessive Research & Development Constant Up gradation High Investment High Risk Factor 02/11/08 SWOT Analysis…

OPPORTUNITIES • Merchandise • Global Localization: Think global, Act Local • Characters of national or regional appeal • Cheaper alternatives to soft toys • Disney Music Channel • Disney School of Management/Training Institute • Competitors: National, Regional & Global • Employee Retention • Highly Demanding in terms of Sales, Creativity and Innovation • Unprofitable or hasty acquisition • Brand Consistency 02/11/08 • Product Differentiation THREATS Factors Internal • • • •

Creativity Management Resource Management Task specific work culture Target oriented approach  Buying Behavior Preferences Psychology Marketing Pattern Differentiation Sales Turnover Customer Satisfaction External • • • • • • • 02/11/08 Its Current Executive Management Robert A. Iger – President and Chief Executive Officer, The Walt Disney Company CORPORATE BUSINESS UNIT Walt Disney International : President The Walt Disney Company : Senior Vice President, Senior Executive Vice President, Executive Vice President Disney Media Networks : Co-Chairman The Walt Disney Studios : Chairman

ABC : Co-Chairman and President Disney Consumer Products : Chairman Walt Disney Parks and Resorts : Chairman 02/11/08 Walt Disney Internet Group : President Ways to Structure a Business > By function: arranging the business according to what each section or department does > By product or activity: organising according to the different products made > By area: geographical or regional structure > By customer: where different customer groups have different needs > By process: where products have to go through stages as they are made 02/11/08

Functional Structure Advantages > > > Specialisation – each department focuses on its own work Accountability – someone is responsible for the section Clarity – know your and others’ roles > > > > Disadvantages Closed communication could lead to lack of focus Departments can become resistant to change Coordination may take too long Gap between top and bottom 02/11/08 Organisation by Product/Activity Advantages > > 02/11/08 Clear focus on market segment helps meet customers’ needs Positive competition between divisions Better control as each division can act as separate profit centre > > > Disadvantages Duplication of functions (e. g. different sales force for each division) Negative effects of competition Lack of central control over each separate division Organisation by Area Advantages > Serve Disadvantages > etter > Positive competition > More effective communication between firm and local customers 02/11/08 local needs > Conflict between local and central management Duplication of resources and functions Recommended Organizational structures 02/11/08 Model 1 – SBU Chief Executive President and Board of Directors SBU 1 SBU 2 SBU 3 SBU 4 SBU n Geographical Functional 02/11/08 Model 2 – Matrix structure 02/11/08 Model 3 – Cross Functional 02/11/08 Questions??? 02/11/08 Thank You!!! 02/11/08

S G Cowen

Chip Rae, director of recruiting at SG Cowen, had been involved in a hard time to make a decision. He had only two offers to be given out, but the amount of remaining candidates was four. Meanwhile, not so much time had left for him and his recruiting team members, who were all very tired after a serious of marathon-recruiting processes in the past two days. From my opinion, all the four candidates have a strong background for them to enter whatever well-known investment banking companies.

Natalya Gldlewska, a Poland-born MBA student who can speak four foreign languages at Cornell, had impressed background in finance market and seemed very determined, ambitious, and ready to work hard. Martin Street, a Wharton MBA, had substantial leadership experiences and dynamic personality. Ken Goldstein, a former top employee in PWC, was a Berkeley MBA with ample knowledge and strong understanding of business. Andy Sanchez, a personable and enthusiastic MBA from University of Southern California, was an entrepreneur who owned a company with $2 million revenue.

It was hard to choose as they all had some traits that impressed recruiters. I also had met some situations before that were very similar with which Rae was facing. In fact, no matter for HR recruiters or line managers, it is very common for them to be asked- who is your preference? Facing so many candidates whose knowledge, skills, and abilities (KASs) provide a great fit with clearly defined requirements of specific jobs, what are the bottom-line and rules to choose?

At this time, one of the most important principles of recruiting is that recruiters are hiring people for “organizations”, not just for “jobs”. It is true that the individual behavior is related to individual KASs, however, more and more evidences show that, in the long run, no matter from the point of organizations’ retaining costs, or from the point of individual contributions to organizations and individual returns from organizations, the win-win situation of employees and organizations comes from a close match of individual personality with organization climate.

Employees and organizations should fit and appreciate each other so as to try their best to lift both performances to a higher level. Thus, for recruiters, their first job is not accumulating resumes but assessing the overall work environment and inferring the type of person required. As for SG Cowen, a middle-size investment banking company, there are several attributes that regarding this company and this industry to be taken note. First, investment banking is a service industry that highly relies on capabilities of employees-compensation costs is the biggest expense and averages 50% of revenue.

Then, SG Cowen has been employing a focus business strategy-focusing on emerging growth companies in two areas, health care and technology. Next, SG Cowen believes in the advantages of a boutique firm and do believe this attribute can make its employees move much faster in their careers and allow for more exposure to clients, more responsibilities and more entrepreneurship. Last, SG Cowen likes people who can figure out what they like to do and prefers giving bankers as much autonomy and decision-making power as possible.

As one senior manager had said, “The type of person who does well here does not want to be told what to do”; “we want self-starter. ” From these quotations above, a conclusion could be drawn that SG Cowen is a really unique company that has the attributes of a HIO-High Involvement Organization. Employees in SG Cowen should have the traits of high quality, professional, innovation spirit, self-cognitive control, responsibility-taking and target-oriented. Based on these requirements, if I were Chip Rae, first, I will give up Martin Street.

The reason is obvious: He is energetic, but he does not show any evidences of knowing what he should seek for and what he likes to do, and adding his lack of business experience, he will most likely to be lost in the complicated business world. Next, I will give up Ken Goldstein. His five-year management experiences in PWC have more or less molded him, and the culture of PWC, a top four accounting company with so many business extensions in various areas, could be totally different from that of SG Cowen. I doubt whether he could get used to the climate in SG Cowen.

And his family situation is another consideration. Perhaps his desire of balancing his work and life could be a conflict with other new employees. We cannot ignore the feelings of the other team members. Either Ken or Rae should seriously consider this factor again. I will choose Natalya Godlewska and Andy Sanchez. I like Natalya because her diligence and her past experiences of struggling in various, sometimes difficult, environments. She has the capability of highly adaptive and shows strong implications of self-determination. These are all SG Cowen needs.

Her Eastern European background won’t constitute a culture conflict, because SG Cowen itself is an international and diverse society. As for Andy, I appreciate his entrepreneurship spirit exhibited in his activities in this recruiting process and in his past experiences. He has the capabilities to brave the difficulties and tackle them. The knowledge and skills he has learned as an entrepreneur could have been much more than those who have a higher GPA in the school. He is also the right choice. Apart from the tricky problem of candidate choice, I also have other advices regarding SG Cowen’s recruiting process.

First, except Chip Rae, no other HR people have been involved in the recruiting. I doubt these 30 bankers could have the capabilities or had ever been trained to be a successful and effective school recruiter. They are line businessmen with various backgrounds, and tastes. When facing a candidate, the focus of a HR people and a line manager is different. So, a key point here is to make sure that these bankers, as double-role players, clearly understand the needs and requirements of HR team, and enough tools or skills to accomplish.

Next, the contents of 30-miniutes interviews seem a little bit unstructured. Although Rae has an evaluation form, there are no standard questions or requirements. The topics of discussion can vary dramatically from one candidate to another. Although it provides some kinds of flexibilities, just thinking about another factor- the time-consuming and exhausting one-by-one interview processes, how could guarantee the bankers have an uniform standard and keep energy from the beginning to the end? First, I propose that a number of HR people participate the interviews with Rae.

They will train the banker first, tell them what type of students is SG Cowen most needed at present, oversee the whole process, and provide their professional viewpoints about the candidates. Next, I propose a less-unstructured approach to handle the 30-miniutes interview that would include some must-answer questions which could cover or disclose some important traits and information SG Cowen needs to know. A 5mins elevator pitch that the topic designed to simulate current working settings, noticing candidates in advance, could be conducted to check their personality and capabilities.

Last, Rae should design a more relax and flexible agenda for all of the recruiters. For example, if one banker wishes to interview a candidate once again, he should get the opportunity. Or, Rae might encourage SG Cowen to consider the necessarily of hiring grads only from so-called top schools, a policy that make this type of interview seem inevitable. Choosing only from the top 25 schools but not a school like UW-Whitewater is just as unwisely as a growing customer in health care industry only wants to choose partners from Goldman and Mogen Stanly but not SG Cowen.

E-Learning Technology in Maharashtra

E-learning mode for 400 schools by July PUNE: It is not just another cliche in the digital world. Come July, the Maharashtra Knowledge Corporation Limited (MKCL) will introduce Digital School project in 400 schools in the State, which it claims, will change the base of learning from informed content to performed content. MKCL, promoted by the State government’s Department of Higher and Technical Education, is venturing into digital intervention at school level from the coming academic year. The Digital School project will cover 400 State education board schools and 3. 2 lakh students from class V to class IX in its pilot episode. The refined project will then be implemented at all 18,000 schools in the State, said MKCL MD Vivek Sawant. Speaking to Sakal Times, Sawant described the project as e-learning based on principal of actionability. He said, “The drop-out rates at secondary school level is alarming as classroom teaching has lost all the fun. MKCL has developed E-learning Revolution for All-ERA software, which has formative as well as summative syllabus of Science and Math subjects for five standards in both Marathi and English.

Forty instructional designers helped us to create this content. ” ERA facilitates interactive and ‘continuous challenge’ based learning, Sawant added. In simple terms, this software will have concepts in the form of activity and students will have some task to complete before moving to the next level. Scenario-based technique of learning, which involves student in teaching, is also used in ERA. Responses and progress of individual student could be monitored as each one will have log-in ID and the central server will store all the data.

Teachers from different schools can interact by using dial-up connection and MKCL software. For implementation of the project, MKCL will provide software while schools will bear the cost of hardware. A separate classroom will be set up where students will spend two hours every week. This classroom will have central server PC connected to 10 other PCs, each one with two microphones. This means, 20 students can use the facility at any given time. Provision of power back-up is mandatory. Performance of schools will also be assessed.