Case Study on Google

Competitive Strategy Assessment 2 Case Study Google Inc. INTRODUCTION This Business Report primarily addresses 4 questions asked on the Google Inc. case study. Information is primarily obtained from the case study and from publicly available news reports and articles. KEY QUESTIONS 1. What were the key factors behind Google’s early success? A number of key factors contributed to Google’s early success. Google had unassailable competitive advantage in the form of PageRank algorithm that can efficiently index web pages and delivers highly relevant searches to users.

It avoided competing head to head with yahoo, etc by choosing not to diversify to portal positioning. Instead, Google focuses on developing its strategic assets (Makides, 1997) and licensing its search technologies to Yahoo and other 3rd party sites. Operating under a duopoly market structure (Lewis, 1999) and under an expanding market, Google encountered less competitive resistance. Staying true to its competitive advantage and focusing on its search services, Google grew quickly.

Google was able to adopt a very competitive pricing strategy in paid listing and was offering a lower CPC and higher revenue split than its competitions. And by ensuring a higher click through rate, Google became the search engine of choice for both the paid-listers and users alike and was able to capture cross-side networks effect. (Eisenmann, 2006) Google was able to translate its reach and pervasiveness of its search engine to paid listings revenue.

Google’s reach also enables it to avoid the traditional overheads required for advertizing to make itself and its services known. Google’s also seek out new market space (Kim, 1999) and the move to provide free unlimited e-mail web storage also greatly built its base of loyal customers and good-will. Google’s corporate values, corporate culture and service offering was well “fitted” for the industry. By fostering and encouraging a culture of innovation, Google was able to reap the benefits of new monetizing new ideas that came out. . Should Google pay AOL more than 100% of the revenue generated from AOL searches? How did Microsoft’s maximum affordable bid for AOL’s search traffic compare with Google’s? a. Given that Google is already sharing 85% to 90% of the ad-revenue collected with AOL the question of paying more than 100% of the revenue generated does not seemed like a significant one especially in the light of Google paying way over the odds for 5% of AOL shares.

While the one-off decision by Google to pay a high premium for AOL’s share can be justified from the perspective of a defensive play to ward off a possible entry by Microsoft a very dangerous competitor with deep pockets, entering a contract to pay over 100% of the ad-revenue is not justifiable even though there may be justifications with regards to cross-subsiding and the risk of higher acquisition/conversion cost. Paying more than 100% may not meant much in term dollars but the resultant loss of bargaining leverage may be too high a price to pay. b.

With hindsight, given that Microsoft bid failed it could be speculated that the bid is inferior to Google’s. If so, did Microsoft misread the potential of the AOL deal to make serious in-roads into the search market? Google on the hand saw the need to snuff out Microsoft’s foray into its lucrative market. 3. In addition to enhancing its core search business, should Google diversify into new arena? Which would you recommend: 1) building a full pledged portal like yahoo’s 2) targeting Microsoft’s desktop hegemony 3) becoming e-commerce intermediary like e-Bay?

It’s interesting that while Schmidt was deflecting the question that Google might create its own web-based operating system, he added that “there was a great deal of strategic leverage for Google in building an ecosystem around content and advertizing and that it is an extension of Google’s search mission. ”. He went on to say, “Google is in the business of making all the world’s information accessible and useful”. I would strongly recommend Google to pursue a solution that can challenge or substitute desktop computing even if Microsoft is toying with the idea.

Consider the amount of information that is just sitting in desk-tops, note books and servers around the world. Information, that is useful and can be made accessible. Of course, there must be means and protocols establish for users to secure their private and proprietary information but by and large most information is shareable. I imagine, one day, in the near future when all of one’s files which have been designated as shareable, are indexed and becomes searchable by people around the world.

Shareable information can be traded for a fixed or negotiated according to a fee sharing plan with Google. Google then facilitates or mediates the payment electronically. This is just a small example of what a web based desk-top replacement solution can do. People can store data online and keep a copy in the local drive. We can do away with the expensive OS upgrades and extend the life-span of the hard-wares we have. Software support will also be kept to the minimum. It is not only a more sustainable model but one that is more nvironmentally friendly as well. The list of benefits can only grow. As web services becoming more prevalent, the move to replace desk-top will gain momentum and as in its early days, Google can yet again take the lead and change the way we access and find information for the better. 4. Do you view Google’s distinctive governance structure, corporate culture and organizational processes as strengths or potential limitations? Google’s distinctive governance structure, corporate culture and organization processes reflect the co-founders emphasis on innovation.

From the very beginning, both Sergey and Larry had intended for the company to grow and do its business in manner that is consistent with its corporate values. In essence, Google is a company that promotes innovation and pushes the envelope all the time. Google’s governance structure however, can be a potential limitation. Google’s over reliance on the co-founders and Schmidt may be a liability in the long run. In the event one or more of these leaders cease to be with the company, the probable impact can only be described as negative.

However, as the company grows certain adjustments are needed to ensure that its size does not stifle creativity and innovation. Google recognizes this as well and as Schmidt explains, “Google has begun to hold regular meetings at which employees are encouraged to present new ideas to me, Larry and Sergey. ” It has also begun giving some projects more resources and independence than usual. Both moves are designed to ward off conservatism that can set in as companies mature. It has also put in place technological tools, such as Google wave, to promote innovation and collaboration. This certainly bodes well for the company.

I believe this culture of innovation itself would position Google to innovate and adapt its own organizational processes to keep itself true to its corporate cultures. “Making our own rules” is proving more and more relevant especially in times of economic uncertainty. REFERENCES Eisenmann, Thomas, Oct 2006, HBR, Strategies for two sided market W Chan Kim, Jan/Feb 1999, HBR, Creating New Market Space Lewis, Geoffrey, 1999, Australian and New Zealand Strategic Management; concepts, context and cases Makides, Constantinos C. , 1997, HBR, to diversify or not to diversify http://www. internetworldstats. com/emarketing. htm

Case Study on Google

Competitive Strategy Assessment 2 Case Study Apple Inc. , 2008 INTRODUCTION This Business Report primarily addresses 3 questions asked on the Apple Inc. case study circa mid 2008. What effects have the changes of structure and dynamics in the PC industry had on Apple Inc’s competitive position? What competitive advantages did Apple possess and what were the strategies employed by Apple? What is your evaluation of Steve Job as a leader? Has he finally solved the long standing problems with respect to the Macintosh business? Information is primarily obtained from the case study and from publicly available news reports and articles.

KEY QUESTIONS 1. What effects have changing of structure and dynamics in the PC industry on Apple Inc’s competitive position 1) in the mid-1980s and 2) mid-2008? Mid-1980s The “Porter’s five forces” (Porter, 2008) is useful for analyzing and expressing the effect of changes in the PC industry on Apple from the mid-1980s to 2008. IBM’s entry (New Entrant) into the PC market in 1981 using the Microsoft DOS operating system and the microprocessor from Intel (Substitutes) fundamentally altered the PC competitive landscape. The PC industry became less vertically integrated (Machosky, 2006).

The relatively “open” system resulted in a proliferation of computer applications to be written and heralded the emergence of the IBM-compatible clones (more New Entrant) and the rise of contract manufacturers and strategic outsourcing. Because of their quasi-monopolies, Microsoft (OS) and Intel (microprocessors) were able to control commodities and to manipulate pricing, and consequently, to wield tremendous influence (increasing power of Supplier). Buyers on the other hand voted with their wallet in droves (increasing bargaining power of Buyer) for IBM PC which worked more for less.

Thus Apple lost its market leadership and could only garner around 8% of market share in 1986 (a far cry from its early years) and a net income of US$154 million. The intervening years The intervening years between the mid-1980s and 2008 saw tremendous changes in the PC industry in general and particularly Apple. Kindly refer Appendix A for details. Mid-2008 Apple by 2008 had responded to changes in the PC industry by diversifying into consumer electronics years earlier. Its net sales for 2007 was more than 12 times of 1986 (US$24 billion) and its net income was more than 22 times of 1986 (US$3. 5 billion).

On the PC front, Mac now uses Intel microprocessors which are able to work on multiple OS, allowing it to freely run Window-based applications. It has also made strategic trade-offs (Porter, 2001) in its pricing strategy to reach a wider consumer base rather than sticking to the premium segment. While Apple has been able to reposition its Mac offering, Mac ceased to be Apple’s lead offering. The iconic iPod became the next standard bearer after Apple took a strategic decision to diversify into consumer electrics. Though they were not the first, the iPod leapfrogged the competition (Makides, 1997) by delivering what Apple does best i. . a superior user experience and exceptional design. The successful introductions of iTunes, Video iPod & iTunes and later iPhones further seal the iconic status of Apple. By now, Apple had created a new market space (Kim, 1999) by introducing a much sought-after music/video player that download music and video seamlessly and legally. Making responsibility “cool” again, this model provided record labels to monetize their music over the internet. 2. What competitive advantages do Apple possessed and strategies employed by Apple to compete? In the years following its inception in 1976, Apple built a number of competitive advantages.

Right from the start, Steve’s mantra “changing the world through technology” clearly resonates with the brave new world as much as it drives the company forward. Apple’s emphasis on exceptional hardware design and “ease of use” that focuses on the customer experience (rather than just purveyor PC)and later, on consumer electronics garnered a steady and faithful following. Apple exploited this advantage and loyalty to pursue a value based business strategy based on differentiated advantage rather than a cost advantage thus driving a wedge between costs and amount buyers are willing to pay (Brandenburger, 1996).

The ability to capture a high value is reflected in the higher-than-industry margins stated in the case (exhibit 5). Apple’s aim to create new market space, rather than persistently going head-to-head with its competition, saw it diversifying into consumer electronics. Significantly, when apple launched its iPod, its strategies evolved from the earlier closed proprietary approach of Macintosh. Apple began working with partners to develop the accessories market and started a “made for iPod” licensing program which generated a new revenue stream.

Apple also worked with record labels and introduced iTunes which made it easy to buy and to download music and videos legally, thus creating a new platform (Eisenmann, 2006) for two-sided networks. Undoubtedly, Apple demonstrated the ability to focus on their distinctive competencies (Porter 2001) and to move away from strategies and practices which have served them well in the past but no longer held true due to the changing forces in the market. In my opinion, what sets Apple apart is its Marketing strategy. Their ability to sniff out what the consumer wants and deliver on that is just phenomenal.

Apple’s campaign, advertising, product launch and product placement are second to none. Rob Enderle, TechNewsWorld wrote “Apple simply seems to understand what will get people excited about its products, and then it executes on that vision. You don’t see the company mainly talking about features or technology, but about how the computer will make your life better. ” 3. What is your evaluation of Steve Job as a leader? Has he finally solved the long standing problems with respect to the Macintosh business? Steve Job as a leader When one thinks of Apple, one cannot help but think of Steve Job.

In its early years, Steve galvanized Apple to be the PC market leader. He is visionary and transformational (Dubinsky 1995). While he is clearly not infallible, his determination and drive is exemplary. He is also clearly Apple’s chief strategist (Montgomery, 2008) On his return in 1997, Steve began re-establishing Apple’s distinctive strategic positioning (Porter, 2001). Apple began outsourcing manufacturing of its Mac products, revamped its distribution system and also started selling its product through the internet. He led Apple into consumer electronics and created a new platform that offers unprecedented user xperience in personal music and video. US News on Dec 9, 2006 described him as one who has been labeled a saint, a sinner and now a saint again after his successful second stint at Apple. One question that lingers in the minds of investors is – Will Apple thrive without Steve Job? The Macintosh business The earlier issues with Macintosh being a proprietary platform and its inferior processors were addressed in 2005 with the migration to a new chip architecture that adopted the Intel Processors which allows Mac users access to a plethora of Window-based applications thus removing a major hurdle to wider acceptance.

This move coupled with Apple’s own distinctive value (Porter 2001) saw a sales increase by 27% in 2005. Apple also made strategic trade-offs (Porter, 2001) in its pricing strategy of its Macs to reach a wider consumer base rather than sticking to the premium segment. Its subsequent successful product extension into mobile computing segment ensured the Apple buzz continues. CONCLUSIONS Some can point to Apple’s failings to capture a bigger piece of the PC cake as Microsoft did and it is a valid point.

But it is hard to begrudge a company that has weathered the storm, adapted to changing market forces and dynamics and changed its strategies, delivered value to its shareholders and last but not least captured the imagination of consumers worldwide eagerly awaiting their next big hit. APPENDIX A The intervening years The intervening years between the mid-1980s and 2008 saw tremendous changes in the PC industry in general and particularly Apple. •A shift in buyers’ attitude towards PC as a commodity increased the bargaining power of buyer. The emergence of Intel as a supplier of cutting edge and cost competitive processors and Apple’s eventual adoption of the Intel micro-processors in 2005 further increased the bargaining power of Supplier. •The acceptance of the Windows OS as the industry standard meant Apple’s OS X was in fact “Substituted”. •The new Wintel platform reduced the barrier to entry and a slew of PC manufacturers (new entrants) entered the market. •The twin rise of the Wintel platform and other PC manufactures such as HP, Dell etc. also altered the nature of the competitive rivalry in the industry. Steve Job got the sack in 1985 after the Macintosh failed to deliver. REFERENCES Brandenburger, Adam M. , 1996, Journal of economics and management Strategy, Value based business strategy Yoffie, David B, Slind, Michael. , 2008, Harvard Business School, Case Study, Apple Inc. ,2008 Eisenmann, Thomas, Oct 2006, HBR, Strategies for two sided market Ghemawat, Pankaj, 2006, Strategy and the business landscape, Creating competitive advantage, Upper Saddle River. Machosky, Michael. , February 13, 2006, “Vertical Integration”, Pittsburgh Tribune Review. Montgomery, Cynthia A, Jan 2005, HBR, Putting Leadership back into strategy

Porter, Michael E, Jan 2008, HBR, Five Competitive Forces that Shapes strategy Porter, Michael E, Mar 2001, HBR, Strategy and the Internet W Chan Kim, Jan/Feb 1999, HBR, Creating New Market Space W Chan Kim, Renee Mauborgne, 2005, Blue Ocean Strategy Andrew Burke, Andre van Stel, and Roy Thurik. , May 2009, Blue Ocean versus Competitive Strategy, Theory and Evidence, Erasmus Research Institute of Management (ERIM), ERS-2009-030-ORG. Dubinsky, A. J. , Yammarino, F. J. , F. J & Jolson, M. A. 1995, Personal Characteristics and dimensions of transformational leadership. (Quoted from the book Leadership by Dubrin, Dalglish and Miller)

Foreign Exchange Hedging at Gm

Abstract: How should a multinational firm manage foreign exchange exposures? The case examines transactional and translational exposures and alternative responses to these exposures by analyzing two specific hedging decisions by General Motors. Describes General Motors’ corporate hedging policies, its risk management structure, and how accounting rules impact hedging decisions.

The company is considering deviations from prescribed policies because of two significant exposures: an exposure to the Canadian dollar with adverse accounting consequences and an exposure to the Argentinean currency when devaluation is widely anticipated. Students must evaluate the risks General Motors faces in each situation and consider which hedging strategy – if any – might be appropriate. Asks students to analyze the financial costs and accounting treatment of alternative derivative transactions for hedging purposes.

How should a multinational firm manage foreign exchange exposures? Examines transactional and translational exposures and alternative responses to these exposures by analyzing two specific hedging decisions by General Motors. Describes General Motors’ corporate hedging policies, its risk management structure, and how accounting rules impact hedging decisions. Although the overall corporate hedging policy provides a consistent approach to the foreign exchange risks that General Motors must manage, the company also has to consider deviations from prescribed policies.

Describes two such situations: a significant exposure to the Canadian dollar with adverse accounting consequences and GM’s exposure to the Argentinean currency when devaluation is widely anticipated. Students must evaluate the risks General Motors faces in each situation and consider which hedging strategy–if any–might be appropriate. Additionally, asks students to analyze the financial costs and accounting treatment of alternative transactions for hedging purposes. A rewritten version of an earlier case.

Mom and Pops Restaurants

Mom & Pop’s Restaurants, Inc. Facts – Pop Westerfields had entered the restaurant business by taking over family restaurant at the corner of Halsted Avenue and Third Street, operating the first restaurant in in Homewood, Illinois, in 1982 – The initial “Strategy” was to serve very good meals in traditional American style at reasonable prices. – In early 1990, the Westerfields owned six restaurants in Illinois, Indiana, Southern Michigan using Mom&Pop name, and employed 9 full-timed salaried staff members, and about 40 wage-earning waiters, cooks, and other helps. Problems: The Westerfield faced a highly competitive for restaurant business in his territory of Illinois, Indiana, and South Michigan, for example, Burger King restaurant had introduced stuffed potatoes and a new salad bar and McDonald’s was expanding its menu to compete more and more traditional restaurants. – So , the Westerfields try to look into alternative markets that were not as highly competitive for restaurant business such as nearby Canada. – Pop’s main concern was choosing a method of dealing with one or several restaurants that were so distant from the existing businesses and, another nontrivial factor, so expensive to open and operate.

Solutions : • The range of possibilities included a new restaurant , set up in the new location 1. A green field ( or de novo) investment. ? It requires site selection, major financial, legal assistance to comply with local law, and employment of basically all new staff ? The start-up cost would be in neighborhood of $150,000. ? None of the current employees was willing to move to the Windsor, Canada. ? (advantage) There appeared to be no significant limitations on importing any needed equipment or food into Canada 2. An acquisition of an existing Canadian restaurant. (advantage) It costed less than the new venture and the lower financial cost and the potential availability of existing staff were very attractive. ? The purchase of an existing facility would 3. A joint venture ? (advantage) Finding a local partner, the Westerfields can reduce all the costs of doing business in Canada. ? The drawbacks of this strategy are that there is a real risk that the partner may not be a good businessperson or a reliable one and that earnings from the venture have to be shared with the partner. ? Management of the joint venture could be a troubling issue. ???????? ???????? joint venture ?????? ????????????? ) 4. Franchise out the name Mom&Pop’s. ? The least costly possibility for entering the Canadian market. ? Mom&Pop’s would allow the franchisee to use the restaurant name and would also help the franchisee to set up and operate the facility. ? The full set of responsibilities(and sharing of revenues) would be determined in negotiations with the franchisee. 5. Combinaton of the other strategies , for example, they set up a joint venture and sell some of the proprietary food preparations to it on fee basis. The number of combinations is limited only by the imagination of the Westerfields ( of course, to some extent by Canadian laws) (????????????? ????? ) Our group’s solution ? We determine to solve problem by using franchise. ? This is the first abroad investment and they were not familiar with Canadian laws ? Type 1 and 2 seems too risk because we have to start up the business and cost too much. ? We choose franchise for our first step in Canada because it is quite a low risk and cost the least investment because Pop is concerned about his investment cost. ?????????????????????? ) ? We can sell a lot of franchises to franchisees at the same time. ? We can gain certain income by distributing proprietary food preparation to franchisees. ? We don’t have to take care of our business because franchisees are taking care of the restaurants. ? We can negotiate sharing of revenues with our franchisees ? Regarding table income, we have enough income a year for establishing franchises. ( ?????????????? joint venture)[pic]

It220 Web Browsers

Web Browsers Bob Ulysse IT/220 12/18/2009 Prof. Jennifer Schroeder Web Browsers Web browsers, while they all may differ in name, creators, and design; they all serve one purpose—to browse the World Wide Web. Amongst the many web browsers available to consumers, the three—Microsoft Internet Explorer, Netscape Navigator, and Mozilla Firefox—are the most prominent. Because of the browsers’ common purpose, they tend to share more similarities than differences.

All three browsers connects the user to the same internet or intranet (start page may differ); they all include a toolbar to navigate through web pages; but only the earlier two—Internet Explorer and Netscape Navigator—are based on the earlier technologies of NCSA Mosaic. The remainder of this essay will further elaborate on more of features, functions, and my personal experience with these browsers.

Microsoft Internet Explorer, my current default browser, was created by the Microsoft Corporation and released as an add-on to the Windows 95 Operating system (released in July 1995. ) Growing public interests of internet browsing led Microsoft to the development of this software add-on, giving many more people access to the internet. Common amongst this browser, and the many other browsers, is the internet toolbar. The toolbar houses commonly used buttons such as Back, Forward, Home, and Reload/Refresh.

The Back and Forward buttons allows the user to return to a previously visited page; Home brings the user to his or her pre-selected or default start page; and Refresh/Reload reloads the current web page, in case all components were not properly loaded the first time. Most important amongst these toolbar features is the address bar, also known as the URL, which allows the user to set their browsing destination. Below is the toolbar for Microsoft Internet Explorer (see figure 1. ) [pic] Figure 1: Internet Explorer Toolbar Source: http://www. learnthenet. om/english/html/12browser_2. htm Netscape Navigator, currently owned by AOL, features a very similar toolbar interface (see figure 2. ) Netscape Navigator, the earliest of the three browsers, was founded by one of the Mosaic developers, Marc Andreessen. Netscape Navigator featured all the same features of its predecessor Mosaic but with improved functionality and operability. Currently, Netscape Navigator has been rendered obsolete and no longer operable to any of the operating systems, ending the “Browser War” between IE (Internet Explorer) and itself. pic] Figure 2: Netscape Toolbar Source: http://www. learnthenet. com/english/html/12browser_2. htm Mozilla Firefox, successor of Netscape Navigator, is one of the newest browsers out today; released in November 2004. Firefox features a distinct fox emblem, wrapped around the globe, which is well-recognizable amongst the other browsers (see figure 3). Unlike Netscape and Internet Explorer, Firefox features a cross-platform format that supports both Microsoft operating systems as-well-as the newer Mac Operating systems—Mac OS X and Mac OS 9.

This cross-formatting has gained Firefox the slight advantage over Netscape Navigator but not enough to account for Internet Explorer’s tremendous lead in the internet market. Presently, Firefox accounts for almost 25% of the usage share of browsers as of 2009; Internet Explorer accounts for nearly 64% (see figure 4. ) [pic] Figure 3: Firefox Emblem Source: http://www. learnthenet. com/english/html/12browser. htm [pic] Figure 4: Usage share of Browsers Source: http://en. wikipedia. rg/wiki/Comparison_of_web_browsers I currently operate Internet Explorer as my default explorer because (1) it came pre-installed with my operating system and (2) every time I run Microsoft Update, it automatically checks for updates and fixes for IE as well as other components, without the need to visit a third-party website. Over the years, I have gradually increased my functionality awareness of most, if not all, of IE’s features; there is very little functionality that I am unaware of when referring to Internet Explorer. References Browser wars. 2009, December 19). In Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia. Retrieved from http://en. wikipedia. org/w/index. php? title=Browser_wars&oldid=332602884 Comparison of web browsers. (2009, December 18). In Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia. Retrieved from http://en. wikipedia. org/w/index. php? title=Comparison_of_web_browsers&oldid=332436067 Learn The Net. (2009). Web Browsers. Retrieved from http://www. learnthenet. com/english/html/12browser_3. htm Microsoft. (2003). Windows History: Internet Explorer History. Retrieved from http://www. microsoft. com/windows/WinHistoryIE. mspx

Views of Society

Every day we have to decipher the information provided to us. The manner in which a sociologist would do this can be done using 3 different theories: conflict theory, functional analysis, and symbolic interactionism. Lets us use embryonic stem cell research as an ethical dilemma to apply these three theories. Before applying our theories it will be helpful to explain the meaning of them. Conflict theorists impress that society is made up of a system of social structures that compete with each other for scarce resources.

Life the conflict theory, the functional analysis sees society as a system of interrelated parts, or subsystems. But in order for society to work as a unit all of those subsystems have to work together. The third perspective used by sociologist is symbolic interationism and that is that we as humans use symbols to understand and develop views of the world and to communicate with others when defining both our-self concept and concept of others. To explain why embryonic stem cell research is debated, conflict theorists focus on the ethical issues that have been raised regarding stem cell research.

Because stem cells are derived from the cells of embryos and fetuses serious debates sparked regarding ethical concerns about the use of these cells in research and treatments. But the National Institutes of Health have released guidelines regarding their use. However the guidelines have not necessarily alleviated all of the ethical issues raised the Nationals Institutes of Health is now the small group controlling the recourses. Applying the functional analysts’ perspective to the embryonic stem cell research opponents is a little different.

Remembering that with this approach society is a whole unit that works together. To allow such research that requires the destruction of human embryos, mo matter how noble the purpose may be, is to treat that human person as merely a mean to an end of an unrelated issue and disregarding the well-being of that embryo. Therefore all parts are not being allowed to function together. Symbolic integrationists that are trying to explain why embryonic stem cell research is debated use the thought that, that embryo was a life and it has now been destroyed.

Depending on our own conceptions of this research it could symbolize that alleviating one disease permits us to destroy this other human life. If I were to design a study to show or indicate why embryonic stem cell research is wrong I would use the conflict theory. Whether trying to prove or disprove this particular issue I feel that this perspective is going to provide reasons why groups should be arguing one way or another for those recourses. Society in the United States is comprised with many different values.

This is due to different backgrounds people come from. This could be the result of different ethnic-ethnicity or a different social class. But sociologists have identified some core values that are shared by people making up society in the United States. A few of the values developed by Robin Williams will be described here. Efficiency and practicality is one of these core values. Americans are rewarded for their fast and efficient way of doing things. Hence we’re always looking for a more efficient way to get things done. Some of these values work hand in hand.

Another core value is science and technology. Using science to control nature is one idea being done with technology such as the new wind turbines. But the development of new technology for computers can sure help us become more efficient with numerous tasks. Again building the values Williams has listed progress because Americans always want ‘bigger and better’ which will help society progress while also helping society be more efficient. Freedom is a core value that many Americans may forget or rather, take for granted. But this core value pervades U.

S. life. Democracy is the form of representative government that the United States has which has been granted due to the freedom we have and allows everyone to express their opinion and political views to the government. Americans central role of equality is another important value that plays a part in our lives. The six values listed here and another six values described by Williams can combine together in different combinations to form a value cluster. When combining different values together don’t work together forming a value contradiction.

For example, one certainly couldn’t always express achievements and success, humanitarianism, and equality. I’m sure there may be times where this could be tolerated, but it would be difficult for the person looking to achievement and success to treat a co-worker equally and as a humanitarian when he’s looking to get ahead of everyone else. That would be a value contradiction where a value cluster could be shown with democracy, freedom, and equality because we couldn’t have a democracy without freedom and our United States democracy promotes that everyone is equal.

Everyone plays a role in society and this role depends on our attitudes, behaviors, self-concept, and beliefs toward life. There are many agents of socialization which can affect these traits for an individual such as ones family friends, religion, day care, school & peers, and the workplace. I do believe that some of these do have a greater influence than others and I will discuss and explain them below. The family is going to be the first agent of socialization one encounters and it is one that will always be with you throughout your life.

One of the main findings noted by sociologists is that the family’s social class can play a major role in socialization for the child. The family’s social class in part depicts the type of opportunities or lack thereof one might have experienced. Typically the working class family is going to be less educated and not used to having some of the opportunities offered to them that the middle-class or upper-class have. Therefore, the working-class expect their children to have the same experiences and teach them obedience to do what they are told because they will usually expect that they will always have a boss telling them what to do.

Where in contrast, the middle-class and upper-class are maybe given more opportunities and take the initiative to explore the valuable qualities they have. But again how they are taught at home is going to give the child their idea of what is expected from them and how they are treated from others. As one gets a little older school and peer groups will play a very weighted role as an agent of socialization and then that peer group, even though it will change, it will continue throughout your life. The roles one learns from their peers can possibly even replace the ones learned first from home.

But from these groups of peers one can be accepted or rejected and this outcome can and does definitely dominate ones self-concept, attitude, and future behaviors as we continue to grow. Finally we get to what I feel the third significant agent of socialization is. The workplace comes into play after the initial family and peer influences have molded our attitudes and beliefs toward life. Here we actually get a glimpse of the whole picture and the different roles people have in society and many times we have different roles throughout our time in the workplace, but a lot of times our workplace becomes part of our attitude and self-concept.

Research Methodology for Mobile Phone Ads.

Research Methodology For Mobile Phone Ads. Topic: 1. Introduction. 2. Secondary data. 3. Problem definition. •Management decision problem. •Marketing research problem. 4. Approach to the problem. •Theoretical framework. •Analytical model. •Research questions. •Hypothesis. 5. Descriptive research design. •Sampling. 6. Sample of the questionnaire. 7. Conclusion. •Result. 8. References. Introduction: The advent of the Internet has made dramatic changes in every aspect of our lives. It profoundly changes how to communicate with people as well as how to buy products and how to use spare time.

Surely, marketing communication strategies of corporations kept up with these changes in building corporations’ websites, creating online shopping malls, providing online consumer services, and conducting various types of Internet ads such as banner ads. The Wireless is more rapidly diversifying consumers and increasing contact points between consumers and companies. Many corporations already secured that their Internet service is working properly with consumer’s mobile device. Wireless communication creates endless opportunities for advertisers, including reaching target specific consumers and location-based promotions.

The newly emerging marketing communications phenomenon, advertising via Short Messaging Service (SMS), has the potential to reach millions of consumers by wireless devices anytime, anyplace. The rapid growth of this marketing concept in Europe, Asia and U. S. A encourage the Egyptian wireless industry to adapt it for the Egyptian consumer. This study explores the relationships between attitudes toward the mobile phone medium and mobile phone ads and the behaviour of the respondents in relation to their propensity to accept and use mobile phone ads.

At the end we want to know if Egyptian consumers affected in their purchasing patterns by mobile phone ads or not? Literature Review: Wireless Advertising is one of the newest ways advertisers/marketers have found to reach consumers in a new and compelling way. With the boom of Internet advertising beginning to level out, advertisers discovered a new technology that consumers are beginning to welcome with open arms. It has been estimated that there will be half a billion mobile phones in the U. S. by 2003 (King, 2000).

There are currently about 4. 4 million wireless Web and messaging subscribers in the U. S. as of August 2001, but the expected growth by 2005 is 71. 1 million (Kotch, 2001). If the rapid growth of the mobile phone is any indication as to what is to come, the entire wireless market is looking at a bright future. But nobody knows if wireless advertising will grow to be a viable industry. There is a great chance that a large percentage of the population will someday get some kind of advertising-supported content on a wireless device of some kind.

But right now the industry is at a sensitive point and it has to prove that consumers will accept advertising on personal digital assistants (PDA), cell phones, and others. Even though it is important to present market predictions for wireless advertising, one of the most important questions that should be asked right now is whether or not consumer will be willing to receive advertising on their wireless devices such as cell phone. Mobile Advertising The forms of new media advertising mentioned so far are primarily designed to be used with the Internet.

A different form of new media communication is intended to take advantage of the on-the-go nature of modern consumers and is referred to as mobile advertising (Senn, 2000; Stafford, 2005). This technology uses wireless communication to reach consumer via cell phones, pages, and personal digital assistants. In some counties such as Japan and Finland, these devices have already become important forms of new media communication. Although their use for promotion has been slower in the United States, the diffusion of mobile devices has already begun to surpass the Internet (Perlado & Barwise, 2005).

Thus, the use and importance of mobile advertising is likely to grow in the future. It is unlikely that mobile technology will be rich enough to support the amount of content or the quality of visual we associate with print or electronic media advertising. More likely, it will take the form of short text messages intended to inform, remind, or notify consumers. Thus, it can best be used to support relationships with existing customers rather than to be used to attempt to acquire new consumers (Perlado & Barwise, in press).

For example, mobile advertising may help to remind consumers to make a purchase or to provide information for immediate consumer decisions. Perhaps the major advantage of mobile advertising is that it is able to reach people at exactly the moment they are making purchase decisions. For example, it can be used to provide information about sales promotions at the time of purchase to help sway consumer choices for parity products. Short Messaging Advertising In the United States, there is not yet sufficient text messaging ads or text messaging to cause service disruptions.

Only recently have the major wireless carriers agreed to let their customers send text messages to one another (Shachtman, 2002). Competing standards (global system for mobile communications versus code division multiple access), fragmented systems, and lack of variety in calling plans are all cited as reasons for the lower per capita use of cellular phones in the United States than in Japan or Europe (Hirsh, 2001). On the basis of experience in Japan and Europe, it seems likely that text messaging ads will increase in the United States as cellular phones and other wireless devices increase in popularity.

Worldwide, nearly 33% of cellular telephone users reported in January 2002 that they had received some sort of advertisement on their mobile phones, compared with just 1% of survey respondents in June 2001 (Kelsey, 2002). Analysts expect that text messaging ads could be the next big inexpensive marketing tool and that it could experience dramatic growth. The majority of digital cellular phones (100 million-123 million users) can already accept text messaging. Ovum, a Boston-based research firm, expects text messaging ads to grow to a $16 billion market by 2005 (Berman, 2000).

There is a broad range of other predictions for wireless advertising sales in 2005 from $6 billion (The Yankee Group), $3. 9 billion (Strategis), $891 million (Forrester), and $700 million (Jupiter Media Metrix) (Graham, 2001). Just as cellular phones are supplanting pagers, PDAs and cellular phones are beginning to merge into a single unit with an interactive larger screen format that is more conducive to advertising (Hirsh, 2001; Stone, 2001). There is good reason to be optimistic about the growth of text messaging ads in the United States.

Whereas a study by Jupiter Media Metrix reports that nearly half of all U. S. cellular phone and PDA users would not accept advertising even if compensated for it, more than 33% of the people surveyed expressed interest in receiving advertising in exchange for subsidized access (Olsen, 2001). Most of those customers considered the advertising valuable, and many proactively sought to view advertisements they were not selected to receive (Berman, 2001; Pintak, 2001).

WindWire surveyed the 260 users who took part in its trial of text messaging ads, and 86% favored free or ad-subsidized wireless content over fee-based content (Graham, 2001). Similarly, Adbroadcast. com of Baltimore offers consumers between $. 05 and $. 50 each time they view advertisements. These trials were made possible when AT&T Wireless and Sprint PCS introduced free text-messaging capabilities on wireless telephones in early 2000. Other carriers, such as Nextel and Cellular One, now Cingular, charge extra to receive text messages (Musgrove, 2000).

Consumers most likely would be reluctant to pay for unsolicited text messaging ads if charged for each message. Types of SMS ads There are six types of SMS ads altogether (Barwise & Strong, 2002). Brand building: Examples include an esoteric campaign for Tango (a soda) with executions such as “Feed the Tango inside” and “The Tango inside is wise. Feed him. ” Another, for Carlsberg, is sent to males 18+ at 10:30 p. m. on a Friday night “Pulled? If Carlsberg ran a nightclub you’d have pulled by now. Probably…” Specific offers: These create awareness of existing special offers.

A typical example is from Sega “A Dreamcast with 4 selected games for just 109. 99 pounds at Electronics Boutique or Game. Details in store. Call 000 000 0000 for your nearest store. ” Timely Media Teasers: These are used by media organizations to encourage purchase or viewing, as illustrated by the following execution by the Evening Standard (London’s main local newspaper) “Tube strike starts 8 p. m. Anger as Major says ‘walk’… see tonight’s Evening Standard for ‘walking times’ map of key routes in London. Product, service or information request: Examples included Interflora “Have you remembered Mother’s Day this Sunday? It’s not too late to say it with flowers, just call Interflora on 000 000 0000. ” And Cadbury’s “Cadbury Gifts Direct – THE guide to gifts for chocolate lovers. For your copy sent direct to your door just text back CADBURY now! ” Competitions: Examples are Wella, “Free Wella Shockwaves. 1st 50 win! Text back WELLA now” and Lucozde Sport, “Win a signed Premier League shirt from Lucozade Sport. Text back your team’s name 2 enter draw. Lucozade Sport.

Have you got it in you? ” Polls/Voting: Include lottery company Gamelot’s SMS “Would you like to play the National Lottery using you mobile? For further details text back YES. U 16s cannot play” and Blockbusters, “THE BLOCKBUSTER OSCARS VOTE Marilyn Monroe or Cameron Diaz. Text us your favourite female movie star, past or present. Let U know poll winners on Mar 18th! ” Mobile Phone Usage And Advertising Acceptance Among College Students. The mobile phone is rapidly becoming one of the most influential media for marketing since the advent of the Internet.

As Gerry Purdy, a leading mobile industry analyst, points out: “probably the most important medium for advertising in the 21st century is going to be the cell phone, not print media, not billboards…” (SMS Marketing, 2006). By leveraging the mobile phone, the mobile phone network and the cast of players within the mobile marketing ecosystem, brands, businesses and marketing agencies can intimately engage and interact with their target audience in a fashion that has previously been unavailable to them.

Young people, as early adopters of new technology, have shown the highest incidence rates of cell phone usage and mobile content adoption, according to M:Metrics (2005). Students with jobs consume more mobile content than any other group, and are 42% more likely to use mobile email than the average subscriber, and 23% more likely than typical full-time workers. Working students also download mobile games and personalize content on their phones twice as often as other users (M:Metrics, 2005).

ComScore Networks, who has labelled 18-24 year olds as the “Cellular Generation,” says students see their cell phones as more than a means of voice communication; they can provide entertainment, convey social status and help express one’s individuality The practice of mobile marketing, defined as marketing through the mobile channel and via mobile enhanced traditional media (Becker 2005), can embody any number of different marketing activities. One very common form of mobile marketing is mobile advertising. Virtually unheard of just a few years ago, mobile advertising has drawn much attention recently.

Leading companies like Procter & Gamble, Microsoft, ESPN, Disney, Coca-Cola, Sony Pictures, and McDonalds are embracing mobile advertising and including it within their marketing budgets, often targeting teens and college students. Since the first mobile text advertising was done in Scandinavia in 1997, mobile advertising has grown consistently (Becker, 2005). It’s expected that by 2011 marketers will be spending $11. 3 billion annually on mobile advertising, up from $871 million in 2006 (O’Shea, 2007). Jupiter Research predicts a somewhat less aggressive growth rate for mobile advertising: a 50% increase to $2. billion by 2011 (Jupiter Research, 2006). As a reference, it took two years for broadcast TV, four years for the Internet and five years for cable TV advertising to reach $1B in ad revenue, and five years for Internet and broadcast TV advertising to reach $5B. None crossed the $10B revenue mark in their first 10 years of existence (Sharma, 2007). Mobile advertising can be targeted to the individual, personal and interactive, unlike traditional advertising that is considered to be a non-personal means of conveying a message via mass media for the purpose of informing and persuading a target audience (Ayanwale, Alimi, and Ayanbimipe, 2005).

Marketers can engage consumers via mobile advertising in a number of ways. They may include a call-to-action in their traditional media advertising and encourage consumers to respond via text messaging, multimedia messaging, picture messaging, Bluetooth alerts, or voice channels on their cell phone. For instance, a consumer may be invited to send a text message, respond to a Bluetooth alert, dial a regular or toll-free number, interact with an instant voice response service, or send a picture message via the phone’s multi-media messaging service.

For consumers who have previously opted in and agreed to receive mobile messages, marketers may append an advertisement to any of these messaging or voice channels, both on a broadcast basis to specific demographic groups and to individuals. Another common way to advertise on a mobile phone is through embedded on-device applications and browsers. For example, it is very common for advertisers to include inline and interstitial ads on mobile Internet sites, embed advertisements in mobile radio, video clips, TV, and games, and place an ad within a mobile operator’s dedicated portal.

Ads may also be included within the interface of the phone, although this practice is not common. Mobile advertising uses both “push” and “pull” advertising strategies, often in tandem with other direct-to-consumer marketing strategies and niche market advertising strategies. Because of the inherent regulatory and telecommunications delivery barriers of advertising through the mobile channel, the presentation or delivery of mobile advertising messages has restrictions that other advertising media do not.

These restrictions force marketers, in most cases, to get prior approval from consumers before being able to send commercial messages to a mobile device. With mobile marketing, receiving prior approval from a consumer before delivering a message is critical because access to mobile consumers in the United States is dictated by federal law and industry best practices (Mobile Marketing Association, 2007; CAN-SPAM Act, 2003), while in many areas of Europe and the rest of the world prior approval is not always required.

What makes mobile advertising unique is the fact that the mobile medium is extremely personal (Tahtinen & Salo, 2003). Marketers have discovered through research that mobile devices – primarily cell phones – are personal communication tools that have become embedded in the social network and fabric of our digital society. According to a recent study by the Mobile Marketing Association, the mobile phone, across all age groups, has been found to be an important part of our everyday lifestyle.

The study found that 82% of all respondents indicated that their mobile phone is highly to moderately important to their daily life, and 79% say that they are highly to moderately dependent on their mobile phone (Mobile Marketing Association, 2007). To many, a cell phone represents one of the few remaining unspoiled personal spaces they can use to communicate and socialize and still maintain control. It is, therefore, important for marketers to respect this personal space and learn to gauge consumers’ perceptions of and willingness to accept mobile advertising.

A recent study by Forrester Research found 79% of consumers said they would be irritated if an ad was sent to their mobile phones (Forrester Research, 2007). One-third (34%) of mobile Web users in the United States and internationally say they would watch advertisements on their cell phones in exchange for free mobile content, according to the Online Publishers Association (2007). A Harris Interactive study found 35% of U. S. adult cell phone users are willing to accept incentive-based mobile advertisements (Harris Interactive, 2007).

Although there is a growing body of knowledge about consumer attitudes toward mobile advertising and the factors that may affect consumer acceptance of mobile advertising, no multi-year analysis of those factors exists. Problem definition: The marketing research problem is to determine the effectiveness of using mobile phone as an advertising media in the companies & producers advertising campaigns. What are the strengths and weakness of using this advertising media over there major competitors?

By the end of the research we should be able to determine whether companies & producers should use the mobile phone ads on their advertising campaign & will it increase sales & market share. We should also find out whether Egyptian consumers preferences of mobile phone ads & if it affect their purchasing patterns, and whether such media should be used in the future or not. Management decision problem: Management & producers should seek to find out how successful will it be using mobile phone ads? Does the sale will increase after the use of mobile phone ads or not?

They are therefore seeking action and their question is as follows: Should the use of Mobile phone advertising increase sales & market share? Marketing research problem: This question is translated in to another one that seeks to find the information needed, one that will be used to conduct the marketing research and this question is: We need to determine the effectiveness of using mobile phone ads & the preferences of consumers on this advertising media. Throughout this research we will be using the marketing research problem to help us provide the decision makers with better understanding of this marketing phenomenon.

We will also be able to provide them with information such as the effectiveness of mobile phone ads and its influence on Egyptian consumers, whether they are affected and increase their purchases leading to increased sales and hence increase its market share. Approach to the problem Theoretical Framework: The study discussed in this paper investigated consumer attitudes about the mobile phone medium, the general mobile phone ads, and SMS-based mobile phone advertisements. This study also examined the relationships among attitude, intention, and behavior.

It is important to identify mobile phone user’s needs and preferences for certain applications for targeting them. Users consider driving directions, instant messaging, news/weather, streamed music (mp3) and email services the most important applications while on the move. In particular, users are highly interested in driving directions service. This issue can be combined with mobile phone ads message for a successful mobile phone advertising activity. It would be interesting to further investigate what factors would be effective in changing the mobile phone consumers’ attitude towards mobile phone advertising and SMS advertising.

It would be beneficial for the wireless service provider to know how to change the users’ attitude in order to create service plan and offers that would appeal to the mobile phone users. Related to this concept, future research should explore the type of messages that would appeal to the wireless users in detail. This study has several limitations including the sample, sampling procedure, and the measurements. First, since this study will be conducted with college student sample with convenient sampling, the result of this study cannot be generalized to the mobile phone user population as a whole.

Second, because of a lack of previous studies regarding perception of mobile phone ads, it will be difficult to develop appropriate measurements. I will try to test the consumer perception for mobile phone ads, & I will try to know if they find it convincing or not & if they feel that this kind of ads violate their privacy or not. Research questions: Specifically, research should provide information on the following questions: 1. Are Egyptian consumers affected in their purchasing patterns by mobile phone ads? 2. Are Egyptian consumers found mobile phone ads attractive & convenient? . Did companies & producers market share increase since the use of mobile phone ads in their advertising campaign? 4. Should companies & producers continue using the same campaign process or should it be changed? 5. Does the use of mobile phone ads disturb consumers? These questions should be answered by the end of the research to provide insight on this market phenomenon, where mobile phone ads are affecting consumers to the extent of persuasion in the purchasing patterns. Hypothesis: From the previously mentioned questions we can come up with some hypotheses o test throughout the research and see if they are true or not. H1: Mobile phone ads will have more advertising effects in terms of attitude toward the brand and purchase intention in the Egyptian market. Egyptian consumers are affected by mobile phone ads. H2: Mobile phone ads attract consumers & convince them to purchase the product or use the service in the ads. H3: Mobile phone ads will increase the companies’ sales. H4: Mobile phone ads will increase the companies’ market share. H5: Mobile phone ads intrude the consumer privacy.

Descriptive research design: The structured questionnaire is the survey method that will be given to respondents. This will be done through a personal interview method, I chose the mall intercept method because questionnaires can be given to consumers at their point of purchase and they can then produce their opinion on the topic, also it will be distributed to college students at the university because they also represent a big sector of the society. My main sample will be college students because they are representing the future for the Egyptian market.

The questionnaire will mainly contain ordinal and interval scales to measure several perceptions, and preferences in the minds of the Egyptian consumers. Sampling: The sample to which the questionnaire will be distributed to will be based on a convenience sampling technique, as mentioned before that the mall intercept method will be used which is one of the types of convenience sampling. The researcher will pass out the structured questionnaire to the customers in a supermarket, malls, sport clubs & university, mainly to college students.

If they are there in the right place at the right time, they will take part in the sample. I will distribute thirty questionnaires for my research. In the next page there is a sample of the questionnaire that will be distributed to the test units to provide us with the information needed. Questionnaire:- Dear participant, The following is a questionnaire that will enable us to measure consumer’s perception of using mobile phones as an advertising media. Because you as a consumer will help give us the correct picture, I request from you to respond to the questions frankly and honestly.

Thank you for your time and cooperation. 1. (x1). a) Thinking about advertising which advertising media comes first to your mind? (x2). b) Which advertising media do you find it easy & fast to reach you? (x3). c) Which is the most advertising media convinced you to purchase goods or use service in the past 3 months? MEDIA: (a) (b) (c) TV 1 1 1 Radio 2 2 2 Mobile Phone 3 3 3 Billboard 4 4 4 2. During receiving mobile phone ads: (x4). I paid attention to the content of the ads. Strongly Disagree(1) Disagree (2)

Neutral (3) Agree (4) Strongly Agree (5) (x5). I carefully read the ads. Strongly Disagree(1) Disagree (2) Neutral (3) Agree (4) Strongly Agree (5) (x6). I concentrated on the ads components. Strongly Disagree(1) Disagree (2) Neutral (3) Agree (4) Strongly Agree (5) (x7). I expended effort to look at the content of the ads. Strongly Disagree(1) Disagree (2) Neutral (3) Agree (4)

Strongly Agree (5) (x8). I found it easy to understand. Strongly Disagree(1) Disagree (2) Neutral (3) Agree (4) Strongly Agree (5) 3. I think Mobile phone ads are: •(x9). Interesting 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Boring •(x10). Persuasive 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Not Persuasive at all •(x11). Informative 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 UN informative •(x12). Believable 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 UN believable • (x13). Impressive 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 UN impressive •(x14). Clear 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Not clear (x15). Convincing 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Not convincing •(x16). Overall liking 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Disliking •(x17). Meaningful 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Meaningless •(x18). Helpful 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Not helpful 4. (x19). (a). I always receive mobile phone ads. Strongly Disagree(1) Disagree (2) Neutral (3) Agree (4) Strongly Agree (5) (x20). (b). My overall opinion on mobile phone ads is very good. Strongly Disagree(1) Disagree (2) Neutral (3) Agree (4)

Strongly Agree (5) (x21). (c). I think mobile phone ads violate my privacy. Strongly Disagree(1) Disagree (2) Neutral (3) Agree (4) Strongly Agree (5) 5. Arrange the advertising media according to which you like the most. (1 is the most you like, 7 is the worst): a)(x22). TV ads. 1) ___ b)(x23). Magazine ads. 2) ___ c)(x24). News paper ads. 3) ___ d)(x25). Radio ads. 4) ___ e)(x26). Cell phone ads. 5) ___ f)(x27). Internet ads. 6) ___ g)(x28). Billboard. 7) ___ 6. (x29). My age range between: 1. 21-25 2. 26-30 3. 31-35 . 36-40 5. 41-50 6. above 50 7. (x30). My gender is: 1. Male 2. Female 8. (x31). Total monthly household income: 1. 1000 – 3000 $ 2. 3001 – 6000 $ 3. 6001 – 10,000 $ 4. 10,001 – 20,000 $ 5. above 20,000 $ Thank you for your time… Conclusion: Throughout the research we have been measuring Egyptian consumer attitudes and behaviour towards cell phone advertising. Through a structured questionnaire we will be able to finally answer the research problem which was should companies use cell phone ads through their advertising campaigns, and if the Egyptian consumer accept cell phone ads or not?

If results from this research show that Egyptian consumers are being affected by cell phone ads in their purchasing patterns and that they do purchase more, then the answer to the question is yes use cell phone ads in promotions. However if the results show that the Egyptian consumer don’t like this kind of ads, and that it does not affect their purchasing patterns and that they do fell that it harm their privacy, then the answer to the question is no stop using cell phone ads in promotions or try to improve it.

Result: While most respondents have positive attitude toward mobile phone medium, especially in “useful” aspect, but most respondents have negative attitude toward mobile phone advertising. The significant positive correlation between attitude toward mobile phone medium and attitude toward mobile phone ads was found in this sample. The result shows that the individuals who had more positive attitude toward mobile phone ads were more receptive to accept and use mobile phone ads.

It appears that attitude toward mobile phone ads is very important to get higher likelihood to accept and use mobile phone ads. The results from this study indicate that users are skeptic toward mobile phone advertising. The respondents held negative attitudes about receiving mobile phone ads. This may have been because they found mobile ads irritating, given the personal, intimate nature of mobile phones, also many of them find mobile phone ads boring & inconvenient & they think that it’s meaningless, unbelievable, uninformative & not helpful.

Also through my research I found out that many of respondents don’t receive a lot of ads at their mobile phones which means that until now Egyptian companies & producers did not efficiently use the mobile phone as an advertising media & they have to think to use it in an appropriate way in their adverting campaigns in order to convince & attract users to try their products & services so it can increase their sales & market share.

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Non Verbal Communication

Nonverbal communication Nonverbal communication is the process of communicating through sending and receiving wordless messages. Such messages can be communicated through gesture, body language or posture; facial expression and eye contact, object communication such as clothing, hairstyles or even architecture, or symbols and infographics, as well as through an aggregate of the above, such as behavioral communication. Nonverbal communication plays a key role in every person’s day to day life, from employment to romantic engagements.

Speech may also contain nonverbal elements known as paralanguage, including voice quality, emotion and speaking style, as well as prosodic features such as rhythm, intonation and stress. Likewise, written texts have nonverbal elements such as handwriting style, spatial arrangement of words, or the use of emoticons. A portmanteau of the English words emotion (or emote) and icon, an emoticon is a symbol or combination of symbols used to convey emotional content in written or message form. Other communication channels such as telegraphy fit into this category, whereby signals travel from person to person by an alternative means.

These signals can in themselves be representative of words, objects or merely be state projections. Trials ave shown that humans can communicate directly in this way[5] without body language, voice tonality or words. Categories and Features G. W. Porter divides non-verbal communication into four broad categories: Physical. This is the personal type of communication. It includes facial expressions, tone of voice, sense of touch, sense of smell, and body motions. Aesthetic. This is the type of communication that takes place through creative expressions: playing instrumental music, dancing, painting and sculpturing.

Signs. This is the mechanical type of communication, which includes the use of signal flags, the 21-gun salute, horns, and sirens. Symbolic. This is the type of communication that makes use of religious, status, or ego-building symbols. Static Features Distance. The distance one stands from another frequently conveys a non-verbal message. In some cultures it is a sign of attraction, while in others it may reflect status or the intensity of the exchange. Orientation. People may present themselves in various ways: face-to-face, side-to-side, or even back-to-back.

For example, cooperating people are likely to sit side-by-side while competitors frequently face one another. Posture. Obviously one can be lying down, seated, or standing. These are not the elements of posture that convey messages. Are we slouched or erect ? Are our legs crossed or our arms folded ? Such postures convey a degree of formality and the degree of relaxation in the communication exchange. Physical Contact. Shaking hands, touching, holding, embracing, pushing, or patting on the back all convey messages.

They reflect an element of intimacy or a feeling of (or lack of) attraction. Dynamic Features Facial Expressions. A smile, frown, raised eyebrow, yawn, and sneer all convey information. Facial expressions continually change during interaction and are monitored constantly by the recipient. There is evidence that the meaning of these expressions may be similar across cultures. Gestures. One of the most frequently observed, but least understood, cues is a hand movement. Most people use hand movements regularly when talking. While some gestures (e. g. a clenched fist) have universal meanings, most of the others are individually learned and idiosyncratic. Looking. A major feature of social communication is eye contact. It can convey emotion, signal when to talk or finish, or aversion. The frequency of contact may suggest either interest or boredom. Communication Approaches in an Organization Informal and Formal Communication are used in an organization. Informal communication: Informal communication, generally associated with interpersonal, horizontal communication, was primarily seen as a potential hindrance to effective organizational performance.

This is no longer the case. Informal communication has become more important to ensuring the effective conduct of work in modern organizations. Top-down approach: This is also known as downward communication. This approach is used by the Top Level Management to communicate to the lower levels. This is used to implement policies, gudelines, etc. In this type of organizational communication, distortion of the actual information occurs. This could be made effective by feedbacks.

Guide Questions for Mse

MSE Guide Questions 1. Appearance: How does the patient look? Neatly dressed with clear attention to detail? Well groomed? 2. Level of alertness: Is the patient conscious? If not, can they be aroused? Can they remain focused on your questions and conversation? What is their attention span? 3. Speech: Is it normal in tone, volume and quantity? 4. Behavior: Pleasant? Cooperative? Agitated? Appropriate for the particular situation? 5. Awareness of environment, also referred to as orientation: Do they know where they are and what they are doing here? Do they know who you are?

Can they tell you the day, date and year? 6. Mood: How do they feel? You may ask this directly (e. g. “Are you happy, sad, depressed, angry? “). Is it appropriate for their current situation? 7. Affect: How do they appear to you? This interpretation is based on your observation of their interactions during the interview. Do they make eye contact? Are they excitable? Does the tone of their voice change? Common assessments include: flat (unchanging throughout), excitable, appropriate. 8. Thought Process: This is a description of the way in which they think.

Are their comments logical and presented in an organized fashion? If not, how off base are they? Do they tend to stray quickly to related topics? Are their thoughts appropriately linked or simply all over the map? 9. Thought Content: A description of what the patient is thinking about. Are they paranoid? Delusional (i. e. hold beliefs that are untrue)? If so, about what? Phobic? Hallucinating (you need to ask if they see or hear things that others do not)? Fixated on a single idea? If so, about what. Is the thought content consistent with their affect?

If there is any concern regarding possible interest in committing suicide or homicide, the patient should be asked this directly, including a search for details (e. g. specific plan, time etc. ). Note: These questions have never been shown to plant the seeds for an otherwise unplanned event and may provide critical information, so they should be asked! 10. Memory: Short term memory is assessed by listing three objects, asking the patient to repeat them to you to insure that they were heard correctly, and then checking recall at 5 minutes.

Long term memory can be evaluated by asking about the patient’s job history, where they were born and raised, family history, etc. 11. Ability to perform calculations: Can they perform simple addition, multiplication? Are the responses appropriate for their level of education? Have they noticed any problems balancing their check books or calculating correct change when making purchases? This is also a test of the patient’s attention span/ability to focus on a task. 12.

Judgment: Provide a common scenario and ask what they would do (e. g. “If you found a letter on the ground in front of a mailbox, what would you do with it? “). 13. Higher cortical functioning and reasoning: Involves interpretation of complex ideas. For example, you may ask them the meaning of the phrase, “People in glass houses should not throw stones. ” A few common interpretations include: concrete (e. g. “Don’t throw stones because it will break the glass”); abstract (e. g. “Don’t judge others”); or bizarre.

Good Continuation

[pic] KAUNAS UNIVERSITY OF TECHNOLOGY INTERNATIONAL STUDIES CENTER Aesthetics in Product Design Good Continuation Student: Gintare Pletaite, UA-6 Lecturer: Arvydas Palevicius Kaunas 2009 Content Introduction………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 3 What is the law of continuation?……………………………………………………………………………… 4 Principles of good continuation………………………………………………………………………………. The power of mind………………………………………………………………………………………………… 7 Good continuation for design………………………………………………………………………………….. 9 Conclusion………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 10 References…………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 1 Introduction The aim of this work is to get acquinted with the law of continuation. WordWeb Online dictionary good continuation explains as: A Gestalt principle of organization holding that there is an innate tendency to perceive a line as continuing its established direction. So in this work I would attempt to get better knowledge about this principle of psichology. What is the law of continuation? The law of continuation is one of four visual perception laws as theorized by gestalt psychologists.

Paul Martin Lester, the author of Visual Communication, an expert in the field wrote: “The law of continuation rests on the principle, again assumed by Gestalt psychologists, that the brain does not prefer sudden or unusual changes in the movement of a line. In other words, the brain seeks as much as possible a smooth continuation of a line. ” Our brains try to organize information and make meaningful order from what we see. We have an innate need to create order in our lives (even though we are capable of creating disorder).

Interior designers and graphic designers organize objects and information for aesthetic appeal with the law of continuation in mind. Actually, all of us, whether intuitively or consciously, organize objects and information on a daily basis. When graphic designers are laying out advertisements, posters, or even business cards, they lay out the information and graphics in such a way that readers follow the lines of the layout. The goal is to create visual organization to help the reader progress through the information in a predictable way.

This gives readers a sense of ease as they digest the information in a positive way. When professional musicians organize their musical expressions without breaking the rhythm, they too, conform to the law of continuation. Continuing, recurring, and developing patterns not only occur musically, but law of continuation occurs all around us. The clock ticks, ticks, and ticks without end. The coastal waves rise and fall without let up. When it rains or snows, the fall of the droplets or snowflakes predictably spiral downward.

As you can imagine, the law of continuation can be seen in a candid photograph when a person or a group of people are walking (rhythmically) together in the same direction. Not only this, but if we see trees in an orchard, we quickly notice the lines or a grid of lines. This too, describes what the law of continuation is. Therefore, when we see identical objects such as trees or houses, we organize the objects as visual lines? even though the lines are curved or break. With the law of continuation, we know and assume the continuation and wholeness of objects even though we can’t see all of it.

We realize that things overlap and diffuse with distance. We know it’s there even though we can’t see it. We know the sound of the ocean continues even though we’re not there to actually hear it or smell it. This too, is the law of continuation. No doubt about it, we have an innate desire to organize our world. In knowing and understanding this concept, we consciously know how to improve our aesthetic world whether it is our personal appearance, living space, yards, designs, music, and presentations.

The law of continuation is how we visually organize our thoughts, surroundings, and all artistic endeavors. Principles of good continuation The Gestalt principle of “good continuation” says that elements arranged in a straight line or smooth curve are perceived as a group, and are interpreted as being more related than elements not on the line or curve. In addition, visual patterns with good continuation may suggest to the viewer that the pattern continues beyond the end of the pattern itself. That is, we mentally “fill in” or “paint in” the rest of the pattern.

Good continuation is important in the design of tables, especially in the alignment of columns. Readers should not look down a column to see the good continuation broken by a rule line that is intended to frame a subheading. Inexperienced document designers sometimes position subheadings in a centered position over the columns and then bound the subheads with horizontal rule lines above and below them. When designed in this way, the horizontal lines may interfere with the reader’s ability to connect the column headings with the data.

In effect, this strategy carves up the content into parts which are marked by the rule lines. Unless the content of the columns changes from one section to the next, horizontal cues should not compete with vertical ones. To avoid this problem, subheadings should appear in the left-most column of the table as side headings. Document designers can conclude that unless they want to signal a rhetorically distinct text element, it is a good idea to maintain good continuation. [pic]

The principle of good continuation suggests that you will see the drawing in Figure 1a as two lines (A-D and B-C), as in Figure 1b. This is because of the common movement, or good continuation, of a curve or delicately changing line. It is just as likely that this illustrates lines A-B and C-D, as in Figure 1c. However, good continuation dictates that a human will perceive the image as the former combination of line segment. Figure 1 [pic] The law of continuity leads us to see a line as continuing in a particular direction, rather than making an abrupt turn.

In the drawing on the left below, we see a straight line with a curved line running through it. Notice that we do not see the drawing as consisting of the two pieces in the drawing on the right. [pic] The power of mind The mind continues visual, auditory, and kinetic patters even after sensory perception has ceased — or when the pattern is technically “broken. ” [pic] We see objects as a whole even when they are partially occluded by other objects because we know that they do not break up when they disappear from view. [pic]

Sometimes the law of continuity gives us the mistaken impression that lines continue when they do not. Not only is the diagonal rectangle in the left hand side of the figure below not continuous, the two diagonal rectangles (as can be seen in the figure to the right) do not even align. [pic] For example, when looking at the illustration below, most viewers will perceive a straight line (12345) intersecting a waveform line (ABCD). Very few, if any, viewers perceive a series of short lines (1:2, 2:3, 3:4, 4:5) intersected by several curves. pic] So Gestalt principle of good continuation is the most often exploited perceptual tendency in magic. Take the most well-known of all stage illusions, cutting a woman in half. It would not be an effective illusion if audience’s didn’t fill in the space between the assistant’s head poking out of one end of the box and her feet poking out the other. Often times, magicians will facilitate this filling in process by painting a representation of the assistant’s body on the outside of the box.

In actuality, the woman’s body is much like the sticks pictured above. The illusion works because your filled-in perception of the location of her body does not jive with the actual orientation of her body. This is just one of many instances of good continuation in magic. Good continuation for design The principle of good continuation advises us on effective ways to indicate relatedness. Good continuation is especially useful for allowing us to penetrate and understand meaning as indicated by all sorts of visual structures.

For example: [pic] The continuity approach also helps placing hierarchy in the submenu. Simply be jumping the subsubmenu items a few pixels to the right and placing them a little closer to one another we distinguish them as a subgroup. [pic]Law of continuity used as a design tool for a submenu Conclusion The law of continuation is how we visually organize our thoughts, surroundings, and all artistic endeavors. So, I think that Gestalt law of good continuation is very profitable for every people and is usable in a lot