Blue Eyes Technology

THE BLUE EYES TECHNOLOGY The BLUEEYES technology aims at creating computational machines that have perceptual and sensory ability like those of human beings. It uses non-obtrusige sensing method, employing most modern video cameras and microphones to identify the user’s actions through the use of imparted sensory abilities. The machine can understand what a user wants, where he is looking at, and even realize his physical or emotional states. BlueEyes uses sensing technology to identify a user’s actions and to extract key information.

This information is then analyzed to determine the user’s physical, emotional, or informational state, which in turn can be used to help make the user more productive by performing expected actions or by providing expected information. For example, a BlueEyes-enabled television could become active when the user makes eye contact, at which point the user could then tell the television to “turn on”. ________________________________________ The Blue Eyes system has hardware with software loaded on it Blue Eyes systemcan be applied in every working environment requiring permanent operator”s attention for it.

The hardware comprises of data acquisition unit and central system unit. The heart of Data acquisition unit is ATMEL 89C52 microcontroller Bluetooth technology is used for communication and coordination between the two units. Blue eye system can be applied in every working environment which requires pemanent operator”s attention. Blue eyes sytem provides technical means for monitoring and recording human operator”s physiological condition.

A blue eyes is a project aiming to be a means of stress reliever driven by the advanced, technology of syudying the facial expressions for judgment of intensity of stress handled. In totality blue eyes aims at adding perceptual abilities which would end up in a healthy stress free environment and can be applied in every working environment requiring permanent operator”s attention. In the future, ordinary household devices — such as televisions, refrigerators, and ovens — may be able to do their jobs when we look at them and speak to them.

Project Management in Bangladesh

University of Information Technology & Science (UITS) Term Paper For Project Management SubmitTo:Md. Abdullah Al-Hasan Lecturer: BBA, MBA (Finance & Banking, CU) School of Business (UITS) Subject: “Project Management Practices in Bangladesh” Submitted By: Name of Student: Mahmud Name of Program:EMBA ID No:09335018 Batch No:22nd Semester:3rd Semester (Fall-2009) Date of Submission:1st January, 2010 Project Management Practices Project management is defined by the set of principles, methodologies, procedures and practices used to ensure that “projects” are completed on time, on budget and as required.

To qualify as a project, the designated initiative must have specific goals, a clear beginning and end, assigned resources, and an organized sequence of activities, tasks and events. Project Management Practices Start With the Basics When addressing project management practices, the best place to start is with a few definitions of project management terms. Task – an individual item of work that has a beginning and an end. Duration – the amount of time it takes to do a task. Resources – the people or things [machinery, equipment, conference room] that actually perform the work of each task within allotted time and cost.

Phases or Categories – groups of related tasks; a series of events for one phase that must be completed before the next phase [group of related tasks] can begin. Each phase is a complete cycle, at a minimum– Project planning phase Project execution phase Project closure phase .although there can be many more phases. Each phase has a review process at its end and it produces a deliverable or product. . Milestone – an important event; can be marked as the beginning or end [sometimes both] of an event or series of events; usually a major stage of completion, often associated with a deliverable.

Project Management Practices – Define Project Well Project – work that is not normally done [what we normally do is operations, not a project]. A project will have to meet four criteria- Temporary – it has a beginning and an end; so its project team will only exist for the purpose of that project Unique – the outcome is one of a kind. However, projects might well be similar, so planning will consider what others have accomplished that is similar, and the way those other projects might have elements that are the same or different.

And a SWOT Analysis will consider whether these similarities and differences are Strengths or Weaknesses. A Creation – because you are creating something that did not previously exist, you are probably going to go through phases of development, and there will be many people and even other organizations who have a stake in the outcome. Communicating the project’s status and progress through the phases will be important. A Product – is the goal of the project We measure the project’s value by how it met the goal of producing the product or service. Now, with the basics out of the way, let’s look at some roject management best practices. Project Management Practices – Apply to Any Type of Project Activity The obvious types of projects come to mind – huge civil engineering projects like bridges and power dams; construction of residential and commercial properties; implementing or upgrading computer systems. But project management practices and techniques can and should be applied to any activity that meets project definition: The annual marketing plan; All of the corporate budgets; Developing or upgrading human resources manuals and policies – Designing and installing a new CRM

Overhauling your bid-response system Preparing for the annual audit Virtually every consulting engagement whether you are hiring the consultant or are the consultant Project Management Practices – Don’t Cut Short on the Planning Phase Fast-Tracking, Rapid Application Deployment, Rapid Deployment and many other euphemisms started appearing on the project management scene a few years ago. One can’t really argue with their objective – speed up projects and therefore reduce cost. Those cases where the goal was accomplished have our respect and admiration. But they are few and far between. Why?

Because one or more of the project management practices were not considered! Fast tracking is usually accomplished by gutting the planning process. Sure, if you shorten the time here, you are underway faster. But let’s look at some components of a good planning phase and see if they can safely be dispensed with… Scope Stakeholders: Individuals and organizations who need the project or are affected by it Standards: What quality level is required: perfect, workable, just get it running? Whose standards: internal policy, external like government or regulators? Written or implied? Organization Structure

Authority: project manager often gets as much authority as s/he takes Autonomy: team members need approvals from their respective organizations? Stakeholders: are there others who think they should be stakeholders but haven’t been included? Goals: does the whole organization agree with the goals? Risks Has a SWOT Analysis been done? What steps have been identified to overcome the risks? Goals Should be written, clear and detailed Need to be signed off by all stakeholders before execution commences to avoid later confusion Sure as long as it is not accomplished by glossing over them.

For example, a SWOT Analysis is often done casually by a small section of the project team and the result is that only some of the threats are identified. The key is to keep each step to a perspective that is appropriate for the overall project. The extent of risks to consider can be different for a trial launch type of project than for one that demands virtual perfection. Making sure that everyone on the team is aware of project management best practices ensures the best results. Project Management Practices – Hints and Tips Planning: Without a plan, your project will be impossible to control.

People who must execute a plan should be involved in its preparation. Use a Project Notebook to fully document a project – proper and accurate documentation is an important aspect of project management best practices. Project plan should be signed off by all stakeholders in a meeting. Use a Change Order form, signed by affected stakeholders, to record significant changes to the project. Mission statement should be developed for larger projects before goals and objectives are established. Satisfying the customer of a project must be a primary concern.

Objectives should be written out and placed in project notebook. Objectives should contain actual calendar deadlines rather than being specified as “within x months” Estimating Time and Cost Padding is legitimate to reduce risk, but should be done above the board. An estimate is not a fact. Reduce time available for a person to work on a project to allow for meetings, breaks and other interruptions Use chart-of-accounts to track labor costs. Record time daily to ensure accuracy. Gantt chart is most useful to see who is responsible for which tasks. Scheduling

Scheduling considers both duration of tasks and sequences in which work must be done. Break work down only to level needed to develop an estimate sufficiently accurate for intended use. Don’t plan in more detail than you can manage. Bar chart = Gantt chart Bar charts do not usually show interrelationships of work, thus do not permit easy analysis of impact on a project if one activity slips Software can show how vacations and holidays will extend working times in order to assess their impact Organization We must consider your own Organization Structure when planning and staffing your project.

Hierarchical structure has serious disadvantages for running multi-discipline projects. Matrix is almost synonymous with project management because of its advantage in dealing with many disciplines. Success in matrix requires very good interpersonal skills on the part of all managers Project Manager Look for a leader, not just a manager. People skills are important. Negotiating skills and flexibility will be important attributes. No project ever goes exactly according to plan and the PM has to negotiate the adjustments. Problems “go with the territory” and must be resolved.

Avoiding conflict and technical problems only lets them fester and build. Communication skills are critical. PM will often have to bridge a gap between technical and non-technical stakeholders. And credibility is always at stake. PM really has to be “everybody’s friend… and nobody’s friend” in order to lead the project to the desired conclusion. Project Management Practices – Decide Early Where You Will Manage Time, Costs and Budgets One of the most significant project management best practices revolves around the fact that most projects involve non-financial and financial factors.

Non-financial Information Non-financial includes things like defining tasks, and their sequence and duration; scheduling; resource planning for people and equipment; organizational planning; risk identification; quality planning; staffing; reporting; problem-solving; controlling changes. Financial Information But projects also have financial factors: they generally have a finite cost limitation so estimates and budgets and cost control are needed.

To the extent that the Project Manager has to interact with other sections of the organization and even outside agencies for resources, they become stakeholders in the project, but the manger is relatively independent in managing and reporting on their use – they come under his control for the duration of the project. However, with financial factors, it is a certainty that the project manager will have to interact somehow with the financial or accounting function. Eventually all financial information finds its way into the general ledger and the financial statements of the organization.

So project management best practices recognize and deal with this inevitability right up front. It amazes us how often a project plan does not recognize that the finance / accounting function is inevitably a stakeholder of every project that has cost / budget constraints – and what project doesn’t have those constraints?! Financial Information Model Our organization might not fit this model exactly, but here is a general model to help you visualize the different ways financial information can be collected and flow through your system – and to be considered as important project management best practices.

Time sheets for people might be entered into a specialized time and billing or project accounting module; or into a payroll subsidiary ledger. Costs of equipment and expenses might be entered into the time and billing module or accounts payable subsidiary ledger. Both time and expenses might go in through a job-costing module. In some older and inflexible systems, entry might be right into the general ledger module. Also, your organization should have a system of internal control to ensure that information flows smoothly and accurately between the components of the model.

Notice that this has become complex already – and we have only considered what might happen given the existing systems that could be in place in your organization. There are so many possibilities… And your project manager has to work with whatever system your financial function has in place One of the first project management best practices is that the Project Manager needs to consider the financial function as a stakeholder and get briefed as to how the existing system works.

This briefing must include the reports that can be made available to the Project Manager and the timing for the processing cycles that the financial function uses to process information. In general, newer systems process transactions more frequently and closer to real-time, while older systems have less frequent cycles such as weekly, biweekly or even monthly. While a Project Manager probably doesn’t need up-to-the-second information, he also probably can’t control his project with just monthly information either. In general, newer systems have better reporting available, while older systems have less flexible or extensive information.

Also, newer systems can often obtain or produce specialized information quite easily through report writers whereas older systems don’t have that flexibility. Armed with this knowledge, the project manager can now deal with one of the most important and basic of the project management best practices – deciding where to manage time, costs and budgets. Other things being equal, if the existing financial system can provide the information, it is going to be much simpler to rely on that than to maintain another whole system.

Conversely, if the existing system is not capable, then he/she has to look to alternatives. Either way, making this decision early leave more time to prepare for whatever approach is selected. Remember that whether you choose or are forced to go outside the financial system for part or all of your project management information, you still have to have enough controls and reconciliation to ensure the integrity of the data you are using. Costs in your project system must be the same as costs in the general ledger. The End ———————– Page1

Local Trains

Local Trains: The Lifeline of Mumbai July 17, 2007 Rohan Rao Leave a comment Go to comments When a true to the core Mumbaikar utters “Aamchi Mumbai”, the local trains will always be an inseparable element of the true spirits reflected in these. The locals have become a hallmark of Mumbai and one is not surprised to know that the daily commuters call the locals as their first homes; this in not surprising considering the fact that some of them spend more than six hours travelling in these trains day in and day out. The Great Indian Peninsular Railway, which later formed the nucleus of the present day

Central Railway, came into existence on April 16, 1853, when the first train on the Indian Sub-continent steamed off from Mumbai to Thane, a modest stretch of only 34 kms. Central Railway has since grown manifold. The suburban townships of Mumbai have to shuttle to and from Mumbai day in and day out from distances well beyond 100 kms. Electric Multiple Units (EMU’s) are the lifeline of Mumbai, suburban Mumbai in particular. Given the geographical spread of the population and location of business areas, the rail network is the principal mode of mass transport in Mumbai. The general populace commonly refers to the as local trains.

The local trains ply on two zonal railways, the Western Railway (WR) and the Central Railway (CR). The Suburban system in Mumbai is one of the most complex and intensively utilised public transportation systems in the world. Spread over 303 route kilometres, it connects distant regions within the daily manageable commute. The British built the first railway line in India in 1853. This was also the oldest railway system in Asia. The first train ran between Mumbai and Thane, a distance of 34 km. The Bombay Railway History Group has been striving to document railway heritage along this line.

The Mumbai Suburban Railway, as well as Indian Railways, is an extension of this sapling planted by the British. Since then lots of radical changes have seen the developments of the suburban railway services. Mr. S. C. Mudgerikar, Chief Public Relation Officer, Central Railway, says, “The first 1500V DC EMUs used around Bombay (the first EMUs in India, 1925) were from Cammell Laird (UK) and Uerdingenwagonfabrik (Germany). Later units were supplied by Breda (Italy) as well. ICF has been building about twenty 9-car AC EMU rakes for Mumbai’s system each year. ” Owing to population explosion in Mumbai, the distant suburbs have become residential ones, but however don’t provide any employment avenues. Owing to this it is natural that the people inhabiting in these suburbs have to travel towards Mumbai for their employment purposes. The populace suburbs depend on the local trains for their daily bread and butter. Banks, mills, software firms, government offices and others services and businesses heavily rely on the railways for its sustenance. Also schools and colleges have many students and staff relying on railways for commuting. Even a single days stoppage will amount to huge losses, on an individual basis to the commuters and on a ollective basic to the commercial sector. Industries like steel Plants, Cement factories, fertilizer factories, refineries, food grains, salt, fertilizers, petroleum agricultural products and agro industries are relying on railways for freight purposes. “The suburban services runs 184 rakes of 9-car and 12-car composition are utilized to run 2067 train services. The system carries more than 6. 4 million commuters on a daily basis and constitutes more than half of the total daily passenger capacity of the Indian Railways itself. It has the highest passenger density of any urban railway system in the world,” says Mr.

Mudgerikar. Western Railway, Churchgate to Virar, carries about 2. 6 million passengers per day, almost 43 percent of the total Mumbai suburban rail traffic. The annual traffic density, about 255 million passenger-km per km of route, is believed to be the world record for passenger rail transport. The Central Line in Mumbai bifurcates as they run into Suburban satellite towns. Central From Chhatrapati Shivaji Terminus (CST) to Kalyan it bifurcates to Kasara in the northeast and Karjat–Khopoli in southeast. These two corridors constitute the ‘Main’ Line. The Harbour Line runs between CST and Panvel, and between CST and Andheri.

The Harbour line has been further added as a link between Thane and Vashi. A new broad gauge line running from Panvel to Karjat has further extended this line. Mr. Kundan Lokhande, Motorman, Central Railway Mumbai Division, says, “Presently the local trains are capable of maximum speed of 85 km/h in regular service. The recently introduced AC/DC rakes are capable of 105 km/h during low traffic times. The actual average speed of locals on the slow lines is about 35 km/h and on the fast line about 45-50 km/h. ” Overcrowding has grown to be a compelling problem. 4700 passengers are packed into a -car rake during peak hours, as against the rated carrying capacity of 1700. Trains on the suburban line are on average more than 4 minutes apart, contributing to the problem of overcrowding. The impending introduction of new higher speed rakes may help address the issue. “Boarding a fast local during peak hours is an ordeal. Managing to find a floor space to place my right foot, with left foot hanging on for some time and then slowly resting on the feet of someone else. It’s just absolutely impossible to tell whose foot is trampling on ones feet in the mind boggling and suffocating rush,” says Mr.

Ninad Satpute a Thane resident. The people, who take pride in being called as ‘Dombivlikar’, just have a knack of rushin-pushing-screaming on top of their voices while entering the local trains. It is just impossible for a person to alight at Dombivli during the peak hours. The rushing in crowd of these ‘Dombivlikars’ has become a trademark along the central line. “I don’t get the feel of boarding the local if I don’t scream and rush, even if the train is empty, “ says Ganesh K. , a resident of Dombivli. Bhajans has been a characteristic of the local trains. The commuters complain that they ave no time to offer prayers to the almighty since they hardly are home. So they seek opportunity during commuting to offer their prayers and also feel relaxed during the stressful journey. These rakes are designed to seat three people per unit bench installed. However, the brotherhood of Mumbaikars has this undying spirit. This has given way to the ‘Fourth-seat’ concept, specifically in the second-class compartments. These units now accommodate four people as against the rated 3. However this fourth-seat concept did not manage to penetrate the order of the first class compartments.

The railway also tried to introduce air-conditioned compartment to relieve the commuters of the ever-increasing temperatures. However hosting in air-conditioned compartment is not only expensive for the commuters to afford, but it also eats up more space. Also maintaining closed compartment where halts are sometimes less than two minutes apart is a big problem. The railways could did not make any further advances in this regard. The trains are so much overcrowded that one cannot even find enough floor space to place his feet. People can also be seen travelling on the footboard, balanced precariously and hanging on their fingertips.

With a super-Dense Crush Load of 14 to 16 standing passengers per square meter of floor space, one struggles to find a footing. People are even seen traveling on the rooftops and standing on the window bars to commute to their destinations. Yearly more than 3,500 people die on the Mumbai suburban railway track due to overcrowding during peak hours. This is believed to be the highest number of fatalities per year on any urban or suburban railway system. To enable the Mumbai Suburban Railway to meet the demands of the ever-growing passenger traffic, The Ministry of Railways and the Government of Maharashtra have ointly envisioned the constitution of a separate corporate entity to operate the system. “The Mumbai Railway Vikas Corporation Ltd (MRVC Ltd), a public sector unit of the Government of India under the Ministry of Railways, was incorporated under to implement the rail component of an integrated rail-cum-road urban transport project, called Mumbai Urban Transport Project (MUTP). The cost of the rail component of the project is to be shared equally by Ministry of Railways and Government of Maharashtra. Under the MUTP the city would be receiving newly designed coaches manufactured by the Integral Coach Factory, Perambur. Says Mr. Mudgerikar. Mr. C. Pitambaran, Senior Public Relation Officer says, “There are plans to change the DC section to 25kV Alternating Current (AC) by 2010. In preparation for this, BHEL has been retrofitting some EMUs with AC drives to allow them to operate with both DC and AC traction as the system conversion proceeds. Conversion to 25kV AC has already been done on the Titwala-Kasara section; next to be converted is Khopoli-Vangani, Vangani-Thane, and Titwala-Thane. BHEL has recently developed some AC-DC EMUs for use in the Bombay area in both the 25kV AC and 1. 5kV DC traction regions. Plans ave been in place to convert the entire Virar-Churchgate section to 25KV AC since a long time. ” It is a really huge operational challenge to carry out the conversion work without affecting the suburban EMU traffic, which carries millions of commuters everyday. Although, there have been some great milestones achieved, it will be atleast three to four years more till the entire section. Whatever be the present status of the Mumbai suburban railways, the fact that millions of people have their lives dependent on it and the essence and flavour it carries along with it truly and exclusively belongs to ‘Aamchi Mumbai’. 3 Votes

Mcdonalds Supply Chain

There are few people in the world that do not know McDonalds, or recognize the famous Golden Arches. The success of the McDonald’s corporation is founded on the consistent quality of its hamburgers. Have you ever wondered why McDonald’s hot, fresh products taste the same everywhere in the world? It’s McDonald’s unique purchasing system and the relationship McDonalds shares with its dedicated suppliers that ensure the quality of products in every restaurant. At McDonald’s they have a saying, “One Taste Worldwide”, which is only possible because McDonalds sets strict requirements, hich are the foundation of the production standards for the entire McDonald’s supply chain. Consistency of product quality is one of the top priorities for McDonald’s and they are on the leading edge of research and development in order to set new standards in quality. In addition because the McDonalds delivery program is so highly developed, they can trace any individual meat patties back to the supplier’s specific batch. To become one of the suppliers to McDonald’s restaurants, a company has to supply proof of its high operation standards. Cleanliness, consistency nd traceability are three key factors that a supplier is judged on. Located in Linkoping, Sweden Farlo was founded ten years ago for the sole purpose of making McDonalds hamburgers. Farlo produces roughly one million hamburgers per day exclusively for McDonald’s in both Sweden and Finland. For Farlo, the need for quality, consistency and traceability influences each level of production. OVERALL SYSTEM OBJECTIVES To improve production quality and capacity while lowering operating costs by streamlining and integrating plant monitoring and business systems. Farlo is required to prove that it meets

McDonald’s high quality requirements by documenting the quality and traceability of each item produced. In the past this has proven to be costly and inefficient using the existing manual systems. The challenge was to implement a business solution that was totally integrated, with zero Farlo – Supplier to McDonald’s McDonald’s meats – 100% quality, guaranteed risk of lost or compromised data storage. Farlo also wanted to replace the manual system with a solution that would improve efficiency and provide a direct interface for employees, all the while ensuring the consistent quality of their amburgers. TRACEABILITY IS A PRIORITY Traceability was the most important requirement of the new system. Extensive quality measures and systems require that each box of hamburgers could be traced through a complex supply chain to component sources. “In our business, traceability is very important,” says Barbro Bengtsson, project leader at Farlo. “If something should happen, we need to trace all source components to ensure that only the highest quality beef reaches our customers. ” AN INTEGRATED SOLUTION CitectSCADA integrates data from a Mitsubishi PLC controlling the production process and a

Jeeves Manufacturing Execution System (MES). Elcontrol AB, a Swedish Citect Integration Partner, presented the CitectSCADA solution. One of the reasons CitectSCADA was chosen is because it allows updates to the latest version without risk to production or quality. CitectSCADA was also very straightforward to use, and everything Farlo needed could be integrated in the CitectSCADA package. CitectSCADA and the MES work together in the same network-domain, and on the client side, the run side by side in several workstations. Farlo has linked the production process to the administation system in a completely new ay. “As we wanted to use two systems in parallel, compatibility was very important,” says Bengtsson. “The two systems and their suppliers are communicating efficiently and smoothly with each other…everything has worked very well so far. ” REAL-TIME PERFORMANCE THROUGH-OUT THE BUSINESS Data acquisition rates from the controllers are less than 1 second, as are the data transfers to the MES, effectively delivering real time data to the enterprise. CitectSCADA communicates using stored procedures – a fast and secure process that ensures the integrity of the MES database. The CitectSCADA Server nables other applications to trigger events in CitectSCADA through standardised interfaces. When an event is triggered, CitectSCADA takes a snapshot of the process data and logs it to the MES database. By using CitectSCADA to link production processes to the administration system, Farlo has achieved the highest level of traceability of all McDonalds suppliers in the world. As a result McDonalds is looking to implement systems in other plants. MONITORING THE PROCESS While the MES is responsible for stock overview, traceability, fat content registration and the recipe for the pre-blend, CitectSCADA onitors the production machines and plant temperatures. The production machine monitoring includes mixing of the meat, forming the hamburger patties, monitoring the recipe for the final mixture, and sending batch information back to the MES for traceability. Farlo places its orders for meat via the MES. This information is entered automatically into the MES and then transferred to CitectSCADA to give the grinding operator a complete overview of the raw materials available. McDonald’s requires two types of mince, each with different fat content and McDonald’s BELOW: The production lines at Farlo. equire that the fat content is only allowed to deviate by less than one percent. CitectSCADA automatically allocates the amount of fat and lean minced meats, and the correct blend ration is then calculated based on required fat content values. The two minces are combined to produce a mix with the required fat content. This mix is then run through one of two lines that forms the mince into 45 gram and 113 gram hamburger patties. CitectSCADA supervises the mixing process for each batch and transfers the batch results, including fat content and quantity, to the MES. CitectSCADA optimizes, xecutes and reports these results for each individual batch. Fat data is manually entered into the MES and sent to CitectSCADA for analysis using CitectSCADA’s Statistical Process Control (SPC) algorithms. The operator performs random size and weight checks on the patties, and enters the data into CitectSCADA. CitectSCADA updates the MES with batch start and stop times, batch number, and production time and date information. Each box of patties is uniquely marked with the time and date of the batch. This identification is used to track each patty until it lands on a customer’s bun, giving Farlo the raceability McDonalds so highly value. Leveraging the Benefits of an Integrated Process Monitoring Solution The combination of CitectSCADA and the MES operate smoothly as a single integrated solution. Farlo employees enter information and work with CitectSCADA and the MES directly, giving them more information and control in their workplace. The integrated system allows the employees to become involved at a higher level. “We gain a lot from an integrated system which encompasses the whole process,” says Barbro Bengtsson. “The information flow creates a holistic approach and increases fficiency as well as reliability in our daily work. ” CitectSCADA has been used to automate many manual operations in the plant, and as a result has improved quality by eliminating potential human errors, minimized the delays in business information systems and has significantly improved production performance. BELOW LEFT: Graphs BELOW RIGHT: Diagram of the Farlo system CitectSCADA version 5. 20 Operation system WinNT4. 0 Server & WS Network Equipment TCP/IP network (mostly 3COM hardware) Number of CitectSCADA tags 500 Number of CitectSCADA digital alarms 50 Number of CitectSCADA trends 40

Number of CitectSCADA graphics pages 15 Number of CitectSCADA IO, Trend and Alarm Servers 1 Number of Windows NT File Servers 1 Number of Windows SQL File Servers (Dual Pentium 200, 128MB RAM) 1 cluster (768 MB RAM) Number of CitectSCADA Display Nodes 11 Number of I/O Devices 1 Observed response time 0. 035 sec Observed time to call up a graphics page (with all display data) < 0. 5 sec Observed time to call up an historical trend page (with all display data) < 1 sec IO, Trend, Alarm and Report Server CPU Usage 5% Statistics ABOVE: Packing the McDonald’s hamburgers

Evaluation of Surviellance System

A full report on evaluation of: Measles surveillance in context of Disease Early Warning System (DEWS), Afghan Public Health Institute (APHI), Ministry of Public Health (MoPH) Afghanistan By Dr. Khwaja Mir Islam Saeed, Acting Director Public Health and Management Training Department, APHI, MoPH Third cohort Field Epidemiology and Laboratory Training Program (FELTP), National Institute of Health (NIH), Pakistan November-December 2009 Introduction

As a requirement of field epidemiology and laboratory training program (FELTP), fellows are asked to evaluate and surveillance system of their country using updated guidelines for evaluation of public health surveillance system which is develop by CDC- HHS. The evaluation of the surveillance will identify the shortcomings and will provide recommendations to improve the system and strengthen the effectiveness and efficiency of the system.

In order to apply the guidelines, Disease Early Warning System (DEWS) which is sentinel based surveillance system was selected for this purpose It should be mentioned that this document is focusing on measles surveillance in the context of DEWS. Background After establishment of new government and fall of Taliban regimen the efforts have been continuing to reinforce and expand the existing health system and just reconsider and refine the priorities of the health system.

The main health priorities have been summarized in two main documents of Ministry of Public Health which are Basic Package of Healthcare Services (BPHS) for primary healthcare services and Essential Package of Hospital Services which is mostly for secondary and tertiary care. Strengthening and rebuilding the health infrastructure is leaded to new policies and strategies to deal with health related events including communicable and vaccine preventable diseases equitably.

Generally vaccine preventable diseases in children including measles have been one of top priority in the country and scattered surveillance systems have been there in order to collect data for purpose of its control and prevention. Measles remains a major cause of childhood mortality throughout the world, especially one of the most severe health problems throughout Afghanistan. Being endemic it has been always present, during all the years and in all seasons in some parts of the country.

However, the high morbidity and mortality is preventable and mass immunization against measles has been one of the top priorities in order to prevent the disease. Measles is one of the most contagious human diseases. In 1980 before the use of measles vaccine was widespread, there were an estimated 2. 6 million deaths from measles worldwide (10). The estimation of the global burden of measles is challenging in the absence of reliable and comparable surveillance systems worldwide.

In 2000, it was estimated that there were a global incidence of 39. 9 million measles cases, 777,000 deaths, and 28 million disability-adjusted life years (8). Globally the number of measles’ death estimated to 750000 in 2000 which declined by 74% to an estimated 197000 deaths in 2007 and by 78%, from to 164,000 in 2008, but the reduction in measles mortality has been leveling off since 2007 (6). Measles was estimated to be the fifth leading cause of mortality worldwide for children aged

Amazon: The Success Story

Success Story of Amazon Amazon, a Fortune 500 company based in Seattle, Washington, is the global leader in e-commerce. Since Jeff Bezos started Amazon in 1995, it significantly expanded their product offerings, international sites, and worldwide network of fulfillment and customer service centers. Today, Amazon offers everything from books and electronics to tennis rackets and diamond jewelry.

They operate sites in the United Kingdom, Germany, France, Japan, Canada, and China and maintain over 25 fulfillment centers around the world which encompass more than 12 million square feet. Amazon has the reputation of being “Earth’s Most Customer-Centric Company” Technological innovation drives the growth of Amazon, offering their customers more types of products, more conveniently, and at even lower prices.

They offer a personalized shopping experience for each customer and several community features like Listmania and Wish Lists that help its customers to discover new products and make informed buying decisions. In 2000, Amazon began to offer its best-of-breed e-commerce platform to other retailers and to individual sellers. Now, big-name retailers work with Amazon Services to power their e-commerce offerings from end-to-end, including technology services, merchandising, customer service, and order fulfillment.

Other branded merchants also leverage Amazon as an incremental sales channel for their new merchandise; you can find products from top retailers across its retail site. Finally, independent software developers also derive value from the platform–through Amazon Web Services–by building profitable applications and services that cater to Amazon customers and sellers. Years after Jeff Bezos started Amazon. com in his garage, the company is celebrating three things that evaded legions of other Internet start-ups: survival, independence and profitability.

Profits are stagnating, competition is blooming, and even people who are bullish about the company are concerned about downward pressure on prices. Required Prepare a formal report covering the issues described. • Compare alternative Definitions of Marketing • Identify the main characteristics of Amazon as a Marketing oriented Organization • Explain the various elements of the Marketing Concept in the context of Amazon . com • Identify and assess the benefits and costs of the Marketing approach of Amazon. com

Colgate Leadership

Colgate-Palmolive: Leadership Style of Reuben Mark As per the reading of the Colgate-Palmolive: Leadership paper, Reuben Mark thought that “the essence of leadership is the idea of continuous improvement. ” He was an agent of change, which has propelled the company to become one of the most powerful consumer product giants. His leadership style encouraged the employees to participate in the creation of new products and Mark would ensure that the credit was not his, e. g. he did not hog the limelight. He was credible to the employees, by having worked his way up the ladder, he had the experience.

By implementing the name tag element and involving them in the decision-making process, he made the employees feel part of the success, made them visible and promoted friendliness within the organization. He has been quoted to say: “The job of the major leaders in the organization centers around culture. ” In essence, Mark’s leadership model is to (Enable, Envision, Empower and Energize). The granularity can be categorized as follows: ENVISION – Continuous improvement – Know what needs to be done (focus on improving the quality of life for the customers) – Globalization is a fundamental growth strategy Avoid media interviews ENABLE – Also ensure to keep focused on the core expertise of the company – Involve employees in the decision-making process – Laid out career paths and identified skills to build – Have a formal process to identify next-generation leaders EMPOWER – Ensure that the employees get the credit – Good leaders apply common sense – Be consistent in the execution of business plans ENERGIZE – Nurture the caring of the internal environment – Promote the sense of friendliness – Encourage participation and advancement of women and minorities – Must have a balanced life

In summary, Mark’s abilities and qualities to lead could be listed as: •Integrity •Common sense •Clarity in communications •Emphasis on the “human touch” •Show respect •Value the contributions of everyone •Humor Without having much written on the other models of leadership in the case study, my understanding of the Crane model is that it promoted a more cohesive approach. According to Carron & Spink (1995), they defined cohesion as “the dynamic property that is reflected in the tendency for a group to stick together, and remain united in pursuit of its goals and objectives” (p. 6). This in turn, didn’t work for the Colgate-Palmolive company, when new product developments needed to be done. This may be attributable to the fact that the structure was one of “silo”, where if the vision is not clear and the employees do not feel empowered; they will not be motivated to reach the goal, which they do not necessarily relate to. As for the Foster model, it seems that is was solely focused on the business, not the employees. That was certainly not a winner model!

As per an article in the [email protected], Marks is described as a leader who has worked to move the bell curve towards the right. He compares the company’s performance like a bell curve. The bulk of a company’s activities will fall in the thickest part of the bell curve in the middle. Management’s job is to gradually implement and nurture improvements that will move the entire curve toward the right, Mark has suggested: “It’s not romantic and not revolutionary or headline-getting, but over time, that’s what generates success”.

As I must lead in my current position at work, Mark’s is a great example where the team has a whole is mostly important, and he also had a vision to which he has been loyal. He has led the team and the company to success and I will take his advice from the reference article where Mark’s stressed that despite the importance of focus in business, it is also crucial to maintain balance. “You will be a far better professional in all respects if your life is balanced”. **End of paper**

Domestic vs. International Adoption

Domestic vs. International Adoption I. Introduction A. (Opening Device) I am sure that you’ve all seen the infomercials on television asking us to donate or adopt a less fortunate children in third world countries like Sudan, Somalia, China, and parts of Africa. Have you every stop to think what about the children in our own country that are also suffering. They may not be in such harsh conditions like those of other countries but they are also in need of a safe, loving, stable, and nurturing family. B. Thesis Statement) When it comes to choosing between domestic or international adoption, there are many factors a couple or single person adopting must consider. C. (Previews of Main Points) In order to help you better understand why I prefer domestic adoption rather than international adoption, I will present three main points: the pros and cons of both domestic and international adoption including cost, wait time, children available, medical and social history, and legal concerns. II. Body A. Domestic adoption is easier when it comes to cost. . Cost a. According to Complete Adoption and Fertility Guide by Brette McWhorter Sember “Choosing between adopting a child within the United States or from another country is a common dilemma faced by potential adoptive parents. With domestic adoptions, it is generally easier to adopt a younger and possibly healthier child than it is to adopt from another country…” Many couples are often overwhelmed by the cost when they begin looking into adoption. b. Both domestic and international adoption has its unique costs. Couples dopting domestically will not have to worry about the cost of a visa, which couples adopting internationally must budget for. Couples adopting domestically may be asked to provide some living expenses for the expectant mother, such as help with rent or utility payments, an expense that is not typically seen in international adoptions. 2. Waiting Time a. The time a couple waits to receive a child also depends on many factors. The more restrictive a family is in their limits or guidelines such as only being open to one race, the longer the family may wait.

The more open a family is to certain situations, the less time they wait. b. The amount of time you wait also depends on what agency is doing your adoption process, which now brings me to children available. B. There’s a chance that you might not always get the child want. 1. Children Available a. “All Carrie West wanted was a chance to care for an orphaned child. But when she traveled to Vietnam five years ago, she says, she got something else: a quick lesson on the murky world of international adoptions.

Here’s how she tells the story: Informed by her adoption facilitator that Thuy, the little girl she had planned to adopt, had fallen deathly ill with tuberculosis, she ended up taking a different child. But Thuy’s plight stayed with her, and she sought out updates on her condition. Eventually, she learned that the child, far from being ill or convalescing, had been adopted by someone else–long before. ” (Quote provided by Kit R. Roane from USNEWS. com) b. Children of all ages are available for adoption in the U. S. The National Council for Adoption estimates that there are approximately 25,000 U.

S. -born children placed for adoption each year. The number of children adopted internationally is very similar to those adopted domestically. The U. S. Department of State reported 19,411 immigrant visas issued to orphans entering the U. S. in 2007. (Statistics provided by AmericanAdoptions. com). 2. Provided or Lack of Medical & Social History a. One very great difference between domestic and international adoption is the availability of the medical history of the child and their birth parents. The medical history of children adopted internationally is often, if infrequent available at all.

It is common for couples to adopt a child internationally without any knowledge of the child’s medical history. Where as in a domestic adoption mother and child’s medical history is thoroughly provided. b. In a domestic adoption social history is also provided. Some agencies make this information available to families before entering into an adoption agreement. This gives them the choice of accepting the match based on those factors or not. In an international adoption couples adopting are more likely to receive. They should be prepared for attachment disorders.

If a child is not provided consistent care by a familiar person, such as the case of children in orphanages in international countries, then the child is not able form an attachment. C. Legal matters are most important in both cases. 1. Legal Concerns a. Domestic and international adoption also has their own unique legal concerns. One very large legal concern in domestic adoption is that the child’s biological parents may come back years later and take the child back. b. Couples adopting internationally should fully research the adoption process required by each country.

Each country has its own set of legal mandates governing adoption that must be met before the adoption is finalized. III. Conclusion A. (Summary) In conclusion, I think when it comes to choosing between international and domestic adoption, there are many factors to consider. Couples should do their best to fully research each of these adoption avenues and weigh their options. B. (Closing Device) While domestic adoption may be a better fit for couples seeking a newborn, other couple may prefer to adopt a child from another country to add cultural diversity to their family.

So next time your watching those infomercials , also keep in mind the suffering children that live amongst you and if you can in any way lend a helping hand . IV. References Bender & Leone Series Edition (1995) Opposing Viewpoints Lindsay, J. (1997) Pregnant? Adoption Is an Option Jones, Cheryl (1998) The Adoption Sourcebook Kit R. Roane “Pitfalls for Parents” USNEWS website Posted 5/29/05 Mia Carter “International Adoption Program Restrictions” Suite101’s website 6/27/09

Professional Value and Ethics

Professional Values and Ethics Values and ethics are foundational to any successful organization. Values are the standard against which society measures good and bad, the desirable and undesirable and the concept of business ethics is knowing what is right and wrong and then doing what is right. Important decisions are made every day in the work environment and every decision will have a financial impact on the company whether the choice is positive or negative. A company will assume the values and ethics of its leaders, which is expressed through their behaviors with their employees, customers and competitors.

These behaviors become the culture or personality of the company. Judgments on an individual’s ethics and values have long been part of the behind the scenes evaluation of one’s personal and professional lives. Ciulla defines the study of ethics as, “the study of ethics is about what we should do and what we should be. It’s about right, wrong, good, evil and the relationship of humans to each other and other living things” (Ciulla, 2003, p. xi). Ethics also can be stated as the simple task of an individual honoring those rights that are considered naturals rights of every human being.

Values are quite similar to ethics in that they are the seen as beliefs that are both critical and enduring that a society holds important for its citizenry (Business Dictionary, 2009). It is important to note that in most cases ethics and values are culturally biased. A simpler explanation for this statement would be that what one culture or group of people holds an enduring beliefs and values which can be dramatically different from the views shared in other cultures.

An example of this would be the difference in viewpoints between those in countries that honor arranged marriages versus those whose philosophy are more in line with Western culture. Business men and woman who act on professional values and ethics throughout their career can have a positive influence on others.. If employees have not aligned their values with those in the workplace, mistrust from employees and clients often result. The actions and behaviors of upper management broadcast their values and ethics. Employees will then decide if they will emulate the behaviors of the leadership or look elsewhere for employment.

Professional ethics go hand in hand with professional values. If a company’s policy has a code of conduct and ethical expectations, they become an organizational joke if the upper level employees display unethical behavior which can have a strong influence on fellow employees and clients. An individual’s values are a culmination of influences from their culture, family, teachers, religion, friends, and other environmental influences. These values form the framework that they will make decisions about their behavior in every situation they encounter.

Their values represent attributes they believe are important to their wellbeing such as integrity, responsibility, respect, loyalty, credibility, and so on (Heathfield, 2009, Examples of Values). Within a long list of attributes that they find important there are those attributes that are more important to them than others. For instance they may find both attributes of integrity and learning as being very important to them, but having to make a choice between the two, they may decide integrity is more important to them than learning.

Individuals depend on their values to guide them through their daily lives and help them make decisions about who they befriend, who they marry, what businesses they frequent and where they work as well as the type of work they perform. Individuals who make career choices that align with their values will find more satisfying, successful careers. Career decisions are driven by an individual’s personal values, and a major characteristic of a protean career is that an individual’s career choice and the search for career fulfillment is internal (i. . psychological success) rather than external (Hall, 1996; Hall & Moss 1998). Problems will arise if an individual finds themselves in a career that does not align with their values or is in conflict with their ethical judgment, which is another way of referring to their most fundamental belief system. For example, if they were an advocate for animals living in their natural habitat they would not be successful working for a company that performed product testing on animals. This would cause a conflict that was untenable.

A person’s values and ethics in the workplace should be just as important as a person’s ethics and values in their personal lives. Shared values in the workplace can bring and individual a profound sense of satisfaction and accomplishment. When personal values and ethics are in conflict with the values and ethics of the business, the two cannot co-exist. For an individual to succeed professionally it is important that an individual seek out employment that offers them meaningful work and aligns with their values or their sense of right or wrong. References

Business Dictionary. (2009). Retrieved October 1, 2009), from http://www. businessdictionary. com/definition/values. html Ciulla, J. (2003) The Ethics of Leadership. Belmont, California: Wadsworth/Thomson Heathfield, S. M. 2009) About. com, Success in Life and Work, Identify and Live Your Personal Values, Retrieved October 2, 2009 from http://humanresources. about. com/od/success/qt/values_s7. htm? p=1 Hall, D. T. and Moss, J. E. 1998), “The new protean career contract: helping organizations and employees adapt”, Organizational Dynamics, Vol. 26 No. 3, pp. 22-37.

Feminist Theory

Feminist theories have emerged as early as 1792 (– 1920’s) in such publications as “The Changing Woman”[10], “Ain’t I a Woman”[11], “Speech after Arrest for Illegal Voting”[12], and so on. “The Changing Woman” is a Navajo Myth that gave credit to a woman who, in the end, populated the world. Footnote with citation. In 1851, Sojourner Truth addressed women’s rights issues through her publication, “Ain’t I a Woman. ” Sojourner Truth addressed the issues surrounding limited rights to women based on the flawed perceptions that men held of women.

Truth argued that if a woman of color can perform tasks that were supposedly limited to men, then any woman of any color could perform those same tasks. After her arrest for illegally voting, Susan B. Anthony gave a speech within court in which she addressed the issues of language within the constitution documented in her publication, “Speech after Arrest for Illegal voting” in 1872. Anthony questioned the authoritative principles of the constitution and its male gendered language.

She raised the question of why women should be punished under law but they cannot use the law for their own protection (women could not vote, own property, nor themselves in marriage). She also critiqued the constitution for its male gendered language and questioned why women should have to abide by laws that do not specify women. Although there were not any feminist terminologies based on their arguments, all of these women have founded a lexicon of debates that contribute to feminist theory. For example, Sojourner Truth raised the issue of the intersectionality debate and Susan B. Anthony raised the issue of the language debate.

Nancy Cott makes a distinction between modern feminism and its antecedents, particularly the struggle for suffrage. In the United States she places the turning point in the decades before and after women obtained the vote in 1920 (1910-1930). She argues that the prior woman movement was primarily about woman as a universal entity, whereas over this 20 year period it transformed itself into one primarily concerned with social differentiation, attentive to individuality and diversity. New issues dealt more with woman’s condition as a social construct, gender identity, and relationships within and between genders.

Politically this represented a shift from an ideological alignment comfortable with the right, to one more radically associated with the left. [13] Susan Kingsley Kent says that Freudian patriarchy was responsible for the diminished profile of feminism in the inter-war years,[14] others such as Juliet Mitchell consider this to be overly simplistic since Freudian theory is not wholly incompatible with feminism. [15] Some feminist scholarship shifted away from the need to establish the origins of family, and towards analyzing the process of patriarchy. 16] In the immediate postwar period, Simone de Beauvoir stood in opposition to an image of “the woman in the home”. De Beauvoir provided an existentialist dimension to feminism with the publication of Le Deuxieme Sexe (The Second Sex) in 1949. [17] As the title implies, the starting point is the implicit inferiority of women, and the first question de Beauvoir asks is “what is a woman”?. [18] Woman she realizes is always perceived of as “other”, “she is defined and differentiated with reference to man and not he with reference to her”.

In this book and her essay, “Woman: Myth & Reality”, de Beauvoir anticipates Betty Friedan in seeking to demythologise the male concept of woman. “A myth invented by men to confine women to their oppressed`state. For women it is not a question of asserting themselves as women, but of becoming full-scale human beings. ” “One is not born, but rather becomes, a woman”, or as Toril Moi puts it “a woman defines herself through the way she lives her embodied situation in the world, or in other words, through the way in which she makes something of what the world makes of her”.

Therefore, woman must regain subject, to escape her defined role as “other”, as a Cartesian point of departure. [19] In her examination of myth, she appears as one who does not accept any special privileges for women. Ironically, feminist philosophers have had to extract de Beauvoir herself from out of the shadow of Jean-Paul Sartre to fully appreciate her. [20] While more philosopher and novelist than activist, she did sign one of the Mouvement de Liberation des Femmes manifestos.

The resurgence of feminist activism in the late 1960s was accompanied by an emerging literature of what might be considered female associated issues, such as concerns for the earth and spirituality, and environmental activism. [citation needed] This in turn created an atmosphere conducive to reigniting the study of and debate on matricentricity, as a rejection of determinism, such as Adrienne Rich[21] and Marilyn French[22] while for socialist feminists like Evelyn Reed,[23] patriarchy held the properties of capitalism.

Elaine Showalter describes the development of Feminist theory as having a number of phases. The first she calls “feminist critique” – where the feminist reader examines the ideologies behind literary phenomena. The second Showalter calls “Gynocritics” – where the “woman is producer of textual meaning” including “the psychodynamics of female creativity; linguistics and the problem of a female language; the trajectory of the individual or collective female literary career and literary history”.

The last phase she calls “gender theory” – where the “ideological inscription and the literary effects of the sex/gender system” are explored. “[24] This model has been criticized by Toril Moi who sees it as an essentialist and deterministic model for female subjectivity. She also criticized it for not taking account of the situation for women outside the west. [25] From the 1970s onwards, psychoanalytical ideas that has been arising in the field of French feminism has gained a decisive influence on feminist theory. Feminist psychoanalysis deconstructed the phallic hypotheses regarding the Unconscious.

Julia Kristeva, Bracha Ettinger and Luce Irigaray developed specific notions concerning unconscious sexual difference, the feminine and motherhood, with wide implications for film and literature analysis. [26] [edit] Disciplines There are a number of distinct feminist disciplines, in which experts in other areas apply feminist techniques and principles to their own fields. Additionally, these are also debates in which shape feminist theory and they can be applied interchangeably in the arguments of feminist theorists. edit] Bodies In western thought bodies have been historically associated solely w/ women whereas men have been associated with the mind. The notion of the body (and not the mind) being associated with women has served as a justification to deem women as property, objects, and exchangeable commodities (among men). For example, women’s bodies have been objectified throughout history through the changing ideologies of fashion, diets, exercise programs, cosmetic surgery, etc.

The race and class of women can be a determinate of whether one body will be treated as decoration and protected which is associated with middle or upper-class women’s bodies. On the other hand, the other body is recognized for its use in labor and exploitation which is generally associated with women’s bodies in the working-class or with women of color. Second-wave feminist activism has argued for reproductive rights and choice, women’s health (movement), and lesbian rights (movement) which are also associated with this Bodies debate. edit] Epistomologies The generation and production of knowledge has been an important part of feminist theory. This debate proposes such questions as “Are there ‘women’s ways of knowing’ and ‘women’s knowledge’? And “How does the knowledge women produce about themselves differ from that produced by patriarchy? ” (Bartowski and Kolmar 2005, 45) Feminist theorists have also proposed the “feminist standpoint knowledge” which attempts to replace “the view from nowhere” with the model of knowing that expels the “view from women’s lives”. Bartowski and Kolmar 2005, 45) [edit] Intersections of Race, Class, and Gender This debate can also be termed as intersectionality. This debate raises the issue of understanding the oppressive lives of women that are not only shaped by gender alone but by other elements as racism, classism, ageism, heterosexism, etc. One example of the concept of intersectionality can be seen through the Mary Ann Weathers’ publication, “An Argument for Black Women’s Liberation as a Revolutionary Force. [27] Mary Ann Weathers states that “black women, at least the Black women I have come in contact with in the movement, have been expending all their energies in “liberating” Black men (if you yourself are not free, how can you “liberate” someone else? )” Women of color were put in a position of choosing sides. White women wanted women of color and working-class women to become a part of the women’s movement over struggling with their men (working-class, poor, and men of color) against class oppression and racism in the Civil Rights Movement.

This was a conflict for women of color and working-class women who had to decide whether to fight against racism or classism versus sexism—or prioritize and participate in the hierarchy. It did not help that the women’s movement was shaped primarily by white women during the first and second feminist waves and the issues surrounding women of color were not addressed. Contemporary feminist theory addresses such issues of intersectionality in such publications as “Age, Race, Sex, and Class” by Kimberlee Crenshaw. [edit] Language

In this debate, women writers have addressed the issues of masculinized writing through male gendered language that may not serve to accommodate the literary understanding of women’s lives. Such masculinized language that feminist theorists address is the use of, for example, “God the Father” which is looked upon as a way of designating the sacred as solely men (or, in other words, biblical language glorifies men through all of the masculine pronouns like “he” and “him” and addressing God as a “He”). Feminist theorists attempt to reclaim and redefine women through re-structuring language.

For example, feminist theorists have used the term “womyn” instead of “women” (which comes from the root term: “men”). Some feminist theorists find solace in changing titles of unisex jobs (for example, police officer versus policeman or mail carrier versus mailman). Some feminist theorists have reclaimed and redefined such words as “dyke” and “bitch”—and others have invested redefining knowledge into feminist dictionaries. [edit] Psychoanalysis Related terms: Psychoanalysis Psychoanalytic feminism is based on Freud and his psychoanalytic theories.

It maintains that gender is not biological but is based on the psycho-sexual development of the individual. Psychoanalytical feminists believe that gender inequality comes from early childhood experiences, which lead men to believe themselves to be masculine, and women to believe themselves feminine. It is further maintained that gender leads to a social system that is dominated by males, which in turn influences the individual psycho-sexual development. As a solution it was suggested to avoid the gender-specific structuring of the society by male-female coeducation. 8][9] In the last 30 years, the contemporary French psychoanalytical theories concerning the feminine, that refer to sexual difference rather than to gender, with psychoanalysts like Julia Kristeva,[28][28] Luce Irigaray,[29][29] and Bracha Ettinger [30] has largely influenced not only feminist theory but also the understanding of the subject in philosophy and the general field of psychoanalysis itself[31], [32]. Other feminist psychoanalysts whose contribution enriched the field are Jessica Benjamin[33] and Jacqueline Rose. [34] [edit] Literary theory Main article: Feminist literary criticism Related terms: Gynocriticism

Feminist literary criticism is literary criticism informed by feminist theories or politics. Its history has been varied, from classic works of female authors such as George Eliot, Virginia Woolf,[35] and Margaret Fuller to cutting-edge theoretical work in women’s studies and gender studies by “third-wave” authors. [36] In the most general, feminist literary criticism before the 1970s was concerned with the politics of women’s authorship and the representation of women’s condition within literature. [36] Since the arrival of more complex conceptions of gender and subjectivity, feminist literary criticism has taken a variety of new routes.

It has considered gender in the terms of Freudian and Lacanian psychoanalysis, as part of the deconstruction of existing power relations. [36] [edit] Film theory Main article: Feminist film theory Feminists have taken many different approaches to the analysis of cinema. These include discussions of the function of women characters in particular film narratives or in particular genres, such as film noir, where a woman character can often be seen to embody a subversive sexuality that is dangerous to men and is ultimately punished with death. citation needed] In considering the way that films are put together, many feminist film critics, such as Laura Mulvey, have pointed to the “male gaze” that predominates in classical Hollywood film making. Through the use of various film techniques, such as shot reverse shot, the viewer is led to align herself with the point of view of a male protagonist. Notably, women function as objects of this gaze far more often than as proxies for the spectator. [37][38] Feminist film theory of the last twenty years is heavily influenced by the general transformation in the field of aesthetics, ncluding the new options of articulating the gaze, offered by psychoanalytical French feminism,[39]. [edit] Art history Linda Nochlin[40]and Griselda Pollock[41][42] are prominent art historians writing on contemporary and modern artists and articulating Art history from a feminist perspective since the 1970s. Pollock works with French psychoanalysis, and in particular with Kristeva’s and Ettinger’s theories, to offer new insights into art history and contemporary art with special regard to questions of trauma and trans-generation memory in the works of women artists. [edit] History Main article: Feminist history

Feminist history refers to the re-reading and re-interpretation of history from a feminist perspective. It is not the same as the history of feminism, which outlines the origins and evolution of the feminist movement. It also differs from women’s history, which focuses on the role of women in historical events. The goal of feminist history is to explore and illuminate the female viewpoint of history through rediscovery of female writers, artists, philosophers, etc, in order to recover and demonstrate the significance of women’s voices and choices in the past. [43][44][45][46][47] [edit] Geography Main article: Feminist geography

Feminist geography is often considered part of a broader postmodern approach to the subject which is not primarily concerned with the development of conceptual theory in itself but rather focuses on the real experiences of individuals and groups in their own localities, upon the geographies that they live in within their own communities. In addition to its analysis of the real world, it also critiques existing geographical and social studies, arguing that academic traditions are delineated by patriarchy, and that contemporary studies which do not confront the nature of previous work reinforce the male bias of academic study. 48][49][50] [edit] Philosophy Main article: Feminist philosophy The Feminist philosophy refers to a philosophy approached from a feminist perspective. Feminist philosophy involves attempts to use methods of philosophy to further the cause of the feminist movements, it also tries to criticize and/or reevaluate the ideas of traditional philosophy from within a feminist view. There really is not a specific school for feminist philosophy like there have been in regard to other theories.

Meaning, Feminist philosophers are just philosophers after all and can be found in the analytic and continental traditions, and the different viewpoints taken on philosophical issues with those traditions. Feminist philosophers, also have many different viewpoints taken on philosophical issues within those traditions. Feminist philosophers who are feminists can belong to many different varieties of feminism. The writings of Judith Butler, Rosi Braidotti, and Donna Haraway are most significant psychoanalytically informed influences on contemporary feminist philosophy.

These women have been the main driving force behind the Feminism philosophy. [edit] Sexology Main article: Feminist sexology Feminist sexology is an offshoot of traditional studies of sexology that focuses on the intersectionality of sex and gender in relation to the sexual lives of women. Feminist sexology shares many principles with the wider field of sexology; in particular, it does not try to prescribe a certain path or “normality” for women’s sexuality, but only observe and note the different and varied ways in which women express their sexuality.

Looking at sexuality from a feminist point of view creates connections between the different aspects of a person’s sexual life. [51] [edit] Economics Main article: Feminist economics Feminist economics broadly refers to a developing branch of economics that applies feminist insights and critiques to economics. Research under this heading is often interdisciplinary, critical, or heterodox.

It encompasses debates about the relationship between feminism and economics on many levels: from applying mainstream economic methods to under-researched “women’s” areas, to questioning how mainstream economics values the reproductive sector, to deeply philosophical critiques of economic epistemology and methodology. [52] One prominent issue that feminist economists investigate is how the Gross Domestic Product (GDP) does not adequately measure unpaid labor predominantly performed by women, such as housework, childcare, and eldercare. 53] Feminist economists have also challenged and exposed the rhetorical approach of mainstream economics. [54] They have made critiques of many basic assumptions of mainstream economics, including the Homo economicus model. [55] They have been instrumental in creating alternative models, such as the Capability Approach and incorporating gender into the analysis of economic data. Marilyn Power suggests that feminist economic methodology can be broken down into five categories. [56] [edit] Legal theory Main article: Feminist legal theory

The study of feminist legal theory is a school thought based on the feminist view that law’s treatment of women in relation to men has not been equal or fair. The goals of feminist legal theory as defined by leading theorist Claire Dalton, consist of understanding and exploring the female experience, figuring out if law and institutions oppose females, and figuring out what changes can be committed to. This is to be accomplished through studying the connections between the law and gender as well as applying feminist analysis to concrete areas of law. [57][58][59]