Attitude Is Everything

THE ICEBERG HOW MUCH DO YOU SEE OF AN ICEBERG? THE ICEBERG ONLY 10% OF ANY ICEBERG IS VISIBLE. THE REMAINING 90% IS BELOW SEA LEVEL. THE ICEBERG VISIBLE ABOVE SEA LEVEL 10 % SEA LEVEL INVISIBLE BELOW SEA LEVEL 90 % THE ICEBERG The Iceberg phenomena is also applicable on human beings … THE ICEBERG KNOWN TO OTHERS KNOWLEDGE & SKILLS SEA LEVEL UNKNOWN TO OTHERS ATTITUDE THE ICEBERG In other words, THE ICEBERG KNOWN TO OTHERS BEHAVIOR SEA LEVEL UNKNOWN TO OTHERS VALUES – STANDARDS – JUDGMENTS ATTITUDE MOTIVES – ETHICS – BELIEFS WHAT MAKES YOUR LIFE 100% ?

Let each letter of the alphabetic has a value equals to it sequence of the alphabetical order: A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 S K I L L S 19 11 9 12 12 19 K N O W L E D G E 11 14 15 23 12 5 4 7 5 H A R D 8 1 18 4 W O R K 23 15 18 11 = = = = 82 96 98 100 A T T I T U D E 1 20 20 9 20 21 4 5 THE CAN DO ATTITUDE You CAN DO everything, but not all at once. You CAN DO everything, if it’s important enough for you to do. You CAN DO everything, but you may not be the best at everything.

You CAN DO everything, but there will be limitations. You CAN DO everything, but you’ll need help. BEST QUOTES ON POSITIVE ATTITUDE A positive thought is the seed of a positive result. If you don’t like something, change it. If you can’t change it, change your attitude. Don’t complain. The most significant change in a person’s life is a change of attitude. Right attitudes produce right actions. If you really want to be happy, nobody can stop you. BEST QUOTES ON POSITIVE ATTITUDE Whether a glass if half-full or half-empty, depends on the attitude of the person looking at it.

There is a better way for everything. Find it. A positive attitude is not a destination. It is a way of life. The difference between a successful person and others is not a lack of knowledge, but rather a lack of will. BEST QUOTES ON POSITIVE ATTITUDE The positive thinker sees the invisible, feels the intangible, and achieves the impossible. The man with confidence in himself gains the confidence of others. You will only go as far as you think you can go. The biggest mistake of all is to avoid situations in which you might make a mistake.

BEST QUOTES ON POSITIVE ATTITUDE A positive attitude is like a magnet for positive results. Our life is a reflection of our attitudes. Positive attitudes create a chain reaction of positive thoughts. Attitude, not aptitude, determines your altitude. No man fails if he does his best. BEST QUOTES ON POSITIVE ATTITUDE Sooner or later, those who win are those who think they can. A creative attitude is the fuel of progress and growth. Either I will find a way, or I will make one. Be the change you want to see in this world. Forgive others and you will be forgiven.

Increase of Women Population in Prison

Women in Prison Introduction The growing rate of women in prison has spawned widespread awareness in our society; leading people to question why the percentage multiplied exponentially over the past three decades. In the past, female offenders have not only been compared to their male counterparts, but to society’s view on the role of women; the roles that labeled them as housewives and mothers. But how did these housewives and mothers go from the home to the prisons?

The subject of women’s issues has sporadically been discussed in our society, and it has just recently being uncovered that women operate differently than men in situations; and those differences are now starting to effect the growth rate in the population of women in prisons. The mission statement of the Federal Bureau of Prisons states that it “…protects society by confining offenders in the controlled environments of prisons and community-based facilities that are safe, humane, and appropriately secure, and which provide work and other self-improvement opportunities to assist offenders in becoming law-abiding citizens. This mission statement is similar to state prison mission statements written back in the late 1700’s when male offenders were the ones majority of people were referring to since the number of female offenders was insignificant; so insignificant that there was no differential treatment between the two. Now that the number of female offenders has grown exponentially there are not only different treatments between the two genders, but different facilities as well.

The first state prisons were founded in the end of 1700s and back then there was no need for different treatments of facilities for women because of the small population of women offenders in these prisons. Most of them held fewer than 20, if any at all, so there was no need for separate institutions. As time progressed on the population of female offenders in prison grew at a slow rate and in the late 1800s to the 1970s the purpose of prisons shifted from punishment to rehabilitation. This brought along with it the separation of male and female offenders due to different rehabilitation methods.

And since the 1970s prisons have shifted back towards equal treatment, but maintain different facilities. Using this as a background, this paper is going to address the ever growing issue of the rise of the female population in prisons. It will also provide a detailed literature review regarding the rise in the female population of prisons in four wide-ranging objectives: • To examine society’s view on the role of women and how it has changed throughout the years. • To examine how the population of women has increased throughout the years. To examine how the treatment of women in prisons has changed since the founding of it in 1790. • To provide recommendations on how to maintain a lower population of women in prison. The role of women in society Fifty years ago the average person would have said that the only roles a woman had in our society is that of a housewife and mother, my how things have changed since then. Criminology theorist John Hagan did a study on the average household in 1987, developing a spectrum of types of families. At the opposite ends of that spectrum were patriarchal and egalitarian families.

The patriarchal family type was reason why the average person would have made those comments about a woman’s role in our society since it was the most popular during that time. It was the typical ‘Leave it to Beaver’ family where the father went off to work to provide for the family, very Ward Cleaver-esque, and the wife would stay at home and take care of the children and maintain the home. That was a time in our society where parents played a big role in shaping their propensities; they were the power brokers in defining their children’s gender roles.

It was a time where little girls were given dolls and dressed in frilly pink dresses and trained to be proper young ladies and manage a household. When a woman’s main goal in life was to get married and have children. It was a time when, according to Hagan’s theory, sons were more likely to be deviant because they were not as restricted as their sisters. The sons were allowed to stay out late, hang out with friends, and when their misdemeanors were fixed with the simple saying of “boys will be boys”.

With males having more freedom to commit delinquent acts, there was doubt that the men were the majority of the population of prisons. As time passed and women began to embrace their liberations, more and more of them began working outside the home. This sudden rise of women in the workplace led to the shift in families. The number of egalitarian families in this nation began to increase, and with that women held more equal weight in household decisions with their husbands. A shift in the deviance of the children began to occur as well.

Criminology theorists Matza and Sykes (1957) believe that anyone can be freed up to be delinquent and under this egalitarian household both boys and girls shared equal chances of doing just that, since there was starting to be a lack of supervision. When the parents did come home from work the women would bring the equal opportunity mentality with them so daughters were not being as restricted as they were before. The rise in the population of women in prison “The imprisonment boom that began in the late 1970s has swelled the state and federal prison system to more than 1. 4 million prisoners.

Adding those held in local jails and other lockups (juvenile facilities, immigrant detention, etc. ) the total number of people behind bars rises to almost 2. 3 million—of which seven percent are women” (Harrison and Beck, 2005). Though women make up a small portion of all the people serving time in prison their number is growing at a quicker rate than that of men. The population growth of females in state prisons has far surpassed male growth in the past twenty-five years. The Bureau of Justice Statistics provides statistical data that reveal the rate of increase in the female population in prisons from 1977-2004.

Some key findings on this report include: • There was a growth of over 750% in the number of women serving sentences of more than a year, almost double the 388% increase that the men experienced. • Although the size of the gap varies, female prison populations have risen more quickly than male populations in all 50 states, Montana having the highest growth rate of them all. • Several other Mountain states also appear to be particularly tough on women. Idaho and Colorado rank among the top 10 on every scale of female imprisonment, including population growth over the last five years. Oklahoma is one of six states where women make up at least 10 percent of the prison population, and Mississippi’s population has grown 28 times larger since 1977. Table 1 summarizes the rise in the population of female offenders in United States prisons from 1980-2004. [pic] This higher growth rate can also be in correspondence to the increase in the number women arrested. For instance, during the time between 1994 and 2004, the percentage of women arrested only rose by 13 percent, but the percentage of women behind bars grew by 53 percent.

The imprisonment rates for women soared 36 percent over the same time period, while the percentage for men only rose 17 percent (Bureau of Justice Statistics). The question is; where are all these female offenders coming from? Who are all these women who are causing this spike in the rise of the prison population? The NIC has compiled a national profile of female offenders in their “Gender Responsive Strategies”. It is a profile based on national data for women offenders reveals the following characteristics: • Disproportionately women of color. • In their early to mid-30s. • Most likely to have been convicted of a drug-related offense. From fragmented families that include other family members who also have been involved with the criminal justice system. • Survivors of physical and/or sexual abuse as children and adults. • Individuals with significant substance abuse problems. • Individuals with multiple physical and mental health problems. • Unmarried mothers of minor children. • Individuals with a high school or general equivalency diploma (GED) but limited vocational training and sporadic work histories. A lot of those characteristics seem to coincide with criminologist theories from the early 1900s, particularly Cesare Lombroso’s The Female Offender (1920).

In it he deals with crime as an atavism, survival of “primitive” traits in individuals, especially in those of the female and nonwhite races. Lombroso theorized that people developed differently in sexual and racial restrictions which differ hierarchically from the “most highly developed, the white men, to the most primitive, the nonwhite women”. He assumed that all criminals were atavistic and spent a lot time comparing body parts like heads, heights, weights, etc of convicted criminals and prostitutes to normal women.

Any trait that he found more prevalent in criminals he deemed atavistic and stated that people with those traits were genetically criminals. Some of these traits included dark skin, short heights, some pertaining directly to specific races and others to physical problems in general. Lombroso wasn’t the only theorist who researched the topic female offenders; Kingsley Davis (1961), a theorist who did a study on prostitution determined that most of the women who had been arrested for working in that industry had also been sexually abused. W. I.

Thomas (1907, 1923) stated that women turn to crime out of poverty and even Sigmund Freud (1933) said that women committed crimes due to a failed development of healthy attitudes. So the traits listed in that national profile from 2004 are traits that have been theorized and tested on long before it was comprised; and the profile still fits these theories decades later. Examining how the treatment of women in prisons has changed since their founding. The first state prisons were founded around 1790 and at the time the inmates they held were mostly men.

With the highest population of women in one being 10 or less, the states saw no need for separate institutions for them and often jailed women in cells next to men. There was also no special treatment towards women, they lived and worked in same harsh conditions the men did. From the outside looking in it looked like there was complete equality with the two genders, but that was not the case. There wasn’t much privacy in the original prisons, and since there was no separation of the genders the female prisoners were often assaulted by guards and other males prisoners.

Since most of the staff in the institution was males they showed favor to the male prisoners, ignoring, mistreating and abusing the female convicts as well, especially when it came to pregnancies. Pregnant female prisoners were forced to give birth by themselves in their cells in the founding prisons, and the lack of medical care led to many still-born babies and sick ones if they did survive. As time passed and the female population in prisons grew they were moved into separate quarters, but still in the same facilities. This helped with sexual abuse by male prisoners, but they ere still treated differently by the personnel. The rehabilitation era of 1870 brought change to the way prisoners were treated. It was believed they would assimilate better into society if they were rehabilitated and not just punished, so the prisons developed programs to do just that. Feminists in society started to push for separate treatment for women in prison compared to their male counterparts, and their actions worked, female prisoners received the separate treatment, but the feminists’ plan backfired. Not only were women being treated differently in prisons, but in the courtroom as well.

Harsher and unfair sentences were now being given to women, longer sentences than those that would be given to men who committed the same crimes, and because of that backfire the population of female prisoners grew. It wasn’t until the first female institution in Alderson, West Virginia was founded in 1927 that things began to change. The facility, developed by Mary Belle Harris, cost $2. 5 million to build was “14 cottages (segregated by race), each containing a kitchen and rooms for about 30 women, were built in a horseshoe pattern on two tiered slopes” (Heffernan, 1992).

It was after this prison opened that true equal treatment began to occur. Now that the women were in a separate facility than the men there were very few acts of sexual abuse and they were free to serve their time and fulfill their rehabilitation programs without having to worry about being harassed by male prisoners. The rehabilitation programs in these female facilities went from domestic training in the 1920’s to being prepared for the workforce by the 1960’s. It was then when true equality between female and male convicts came to be; equal sentence and treatment in prison was fought for and for the most part granted.

Conclusion and Recommendations Equality in current prisons for women is a huge step from the treatment they were receiving in the earlier ones, but now that that fear of being mistreated and abused is gone, more and more women are ok with being incarcerated. The “get tough on crime” movement skyrocketed the female population and it is only continuing to grow. With all these women in prison, who is there to take care of their children; their families? In 1999 there were about 721,500 parents in state and federal prisons; about 55% in states and 63% in federal, and that was a decade ago. In cases ike this, it’s the children who miss out. They are the ones who either are raised by another family member or thrown into the system if there is no one able to care for them. People always want to hope for the best, but children in the system don’t always receive the best treatment and have a better chance of being deviant and continuing that cycle of crime like their parents than children raised by their parents. My recommendation to relieve the problem of the ever-growing female population in prisons is to focus more on the rehabilitation and education programs in prison since most of the female inmates are repeat offenders.

Increasing these drug and alcohol rehabilitation programs and education classes will help these women be prepared to better assimilate back into society. Hopefully with these learned skills and loss of habits the population of women in prison will decrease. Also, instead of going straight to giving sentences of incarceration there could be more opportunities for the female convicts to make amends for their wrong doings through community service. This would keep petty drug charges and first time offenders of misdemeanors out of prison.

These recommendations would not only lower the population of women behind bars, but if applied to men too it could lower the entire population of prisoners. References Bureau of Justice Statistics. Profile of state prison inmates — 1986. Washington, DC:  US Department of Justice. 1988; Harrison, Prisoners in 2004 Davis, Kingsley (1961). “Prostitution. ” Contemporary Social Problems. Edited by Robert K. Merton and Robert A. Nisbet. New York: Harcourt Brace and Jovanovich. Originally published as “The Sociology of Prostitution. American Sociological Review 2(5) (October 1937) Freud, Sigmund (1933). New Introductory Lectures on Psychoanalysis. New York: W. W. Norton Hagan, John, Gillis, A. R. & Simpson, John, “Class in the Household: A Power-Control Theory of Gender and Delinquency,” American Journal of Sociology, 92 (1987): 788-816 Heffernan, Esther. “The Alderson Years” Federal Prisons Journal, 3 (1992): 20-26 Lombroso, Cesare (1920). The Female Offender (translation). New York: Appleton. Originally published in 1903.

Mumola, Christopher J. Bureau of Justice Statistics. Incarcerated Parents and Their Children — 2000. Washington, DC: US Department of Justice Rafter, Nicole H. “Equality or Difference? ” Federal Prisons Journal, 3 (1992): 16-19 Sykes, Gresham M. & Matza, David (1957) “Techniques of Neutralization: A Theory of Delinquency,” American Sociological Review 22 (December): 664-670 Thomas, W. I. (1907). Sex and Society. Boston: Little, Brown and Company Thomas, W. I. (1923). The Unadjusted Girl. New York: Harper and Row

Gandhi Paper

Gandhi Paper “An eye for an eye leaves the whole world blind” (Gandhi). It seems like I’ve heard this quote a million times in my lifetime, but the meaning behind it didn’t set in until now. Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi was a world renowned political and spiritual leader and arguably one of the most influential people of all time. He pioneered ‘satyagraha’, the resistance of tyranny through non-violence and believed in and stood by this even in the most extreme circumstances.

His actions not only led to Indian independence, but it sparked the civil rights movement here in America and Nelson Mandela used Gandhi’s non-violent methods to help end apartheid in South Africa. These weren’t the only situations where non-violence succeeded either, Khan Abdule Ghaffar Khan, Steve Biko, Aung San Suu Kyi and Benigno Aquino, Jr. used Gandhi’s non-violent tactics to win out over their enemies. Aquino even succeeded in freeing his Philippine people from the dictatorship of Ferdinand Marcos.

All of these victorious situations show us that non-violence does work, but only in certain circumstances. I could be naive and say that non-violence is a plausible solution to the world’s problems today, but I’d be lying to you and to myself as well; and in the following paragraphs I’m going to elaborate on my views. First of all, the majority of the problems that non-violence has solved in the past were centered on people ignorantly accepting racism and people being suppressed by non-desirable governments. As I stated earlier, Benigno Aquino, Jr. sed the non-violent approach to free his people from the dictator leadership of Ferdinand Marcos. And in South Africa Nelson Mandela had to deal with both of racism and a non-desirable government since the country’s government was a strong supporter of apartheid. Another common denominator in all these situations is that the problem is within a country. Yes, they used the non-violent approaches that Gandhi taught about, but they focused their energies on correcting the wrongs their small section of the globe.

I’m going to have to agree with Martin Luther King Jr. when he said “The ‘turn-the-other-cheek’ philosophy and the love-they enemies’ philosophy…were only valid when individuals were in conflict with other individuals” (D’Souza). I think that theory, Gandhi’s theory only works when it involves a small community, like a country. The situation we have globally is clouded by so many excuses and too corrupt for the ‘turn-the-other-cheek’ theory. I believe that the problems we have globally boils down to egos and the ‘my-god-is-better-than-your-god’ syndrome.

I might be a conspiracy theorist, but I think that what it all boils down to are leaders trying to prove who has the biggest cahones and putting their citizens in danger in order to do so. It’s the citizens who are out fighting. But for what? Oil? Democracy? Religion? The world may never know. Now don’t get me wrong, I don’t agree with all the reasons behind the various wars that are being raged now, but I don’t think that the non-violence approach would work either. Because in order for it to work people would have to admit that they were wrong about things, and no one wants to do that.

I wish that the non-violence approach could be a plausible solution for the situation in the world today, but I know that as long as leaders are willing to use their citizens as pawns instead of sorting out issues themselves it won’t. Works Cited D’Souza, Placido P.. “Commemorating Martin Luther King Jr. : Gandhi’s influence on King”. San Francisco Chronicle January 20, 2003 Gandhi, M. K.. For Pacifists. Ahmedabad, India: Navajivan Publishing House, 1949 Hardiman, David. Gandhi in His Time and Ours. Columbia University Press, 2004. Pal, Amitabh. “A Pacifist Uncovered – Abdul Ghaffar Khan, Pakistani pacifist”. The Progressive February 2002:

Managing Religious Conflict in Therapy

Running Head: MANAGING RELIGIOUS CONFLICT Managing Religious Conflict within Psychotherapy Ryan Hagen UMASS Lowell Abstract This paper discusses the relationship of religion and psychology within the setting of interpersonal dynamic psychotherapy. It raises the question of whether and to what extent religion should be included in a therapeutic setting. Varying perspectives on this issue are reviewed, followed by an examination of the consequences of addressing religion within therapy.

Several examples are offered of potential pit falls a therapist may encounter in this situation as well as suggestions for minimizing the likelihood of these occurrences. Two models are included which provide frameworks for assessing the degree in which a person an individual client may be religious. These models can be used in tandem and are helpful to the therapist in determining whether religion should be addressed with a particular client. They are also helpful in indicating whether their patients’ religion is connected to their mental health, as well as how the therapist should adjust their approach accordingly.

Conflict can arise, when the values and beliefs of one’s religion run contrary to those which are developed in a therapeutic setting. Although the purpose and the goals of therapy and religion are often aligned, their methods for achieving this are often incongruent, particularly when questions of morality and sin arise. In this paper, I aim to understand the nature of the kinds of resistance a therapist may encounter in these types of settings and explore tactics which allow the therapist to remain relatively neutral about their own particular biases, as well prevent the patient’s religious bias from interfering with their own progress.

The second group of problems revolve around the therapist having only a very limited understanding their patients religion, which may restrict the therapist capacity for understanding a patient who has based much of their life’s choices on their faith. For example, each religious division in the Christian faith has a particular kind of religious reasoning, which is usually drawn from different bible texts. It may be difficult to understand the reasoning of a patient without having this knowledge beforehand, and the therapist may be unable to ccurately assess the significance of certain behaviors or customs. The third set of problems has to do with a lack of strategies for approaching the first two sets. It is only recently that mental health programs have begun to incorporate a religious diversity course into their curriculum. Often, the patient’s beliefs are so ingrained and complex, that if a therapist tries to breach a certain defense which is linked with a religious position using argument or logic, another religious position is already in place to reinforce the first.

Another problem can arise when a patient feels the therapist has given them an unpleasant interpretation of something, will quickly fall back on the fact that the therapist does not share their religious values. Several suggestions are made by Spero (1981) on how to avoid developing negative counter-transference: The therapist needs to learn to distinguish between mature and immature religious belief systems. The therapist must be willing to analyze personal religious beliefs and attitudes objectively and independently.

The therapist must develop a nonanxious, nonfamilial approach toward working with religiously similar clients. The therapist must learn to distinguish between true commitment to religious values and such expression used as a defense to avoid warranted exploration of religious material. 5. The therapist should focus specifically on those areas of belief that have therapeutic value, and he or she needs to remember that the client’s beliefs themselves are not the focus of therapy. Some patients, however, benefit from including religion or spirituality within therapy.

Shafransky and Gorsuch (1984) that therapists who had revealed a positive spiritual stance in therapy had a positive effect on the outcome. In 1989, Richards, in a study of 100 Mormon patients, found that they were more trusting of therapists who disclosed a belief in god. A lot of this depends on the patient. Quackenbos (et al 1986) outlined four viewpoints or degrees of involvement a person may have with their religion, and how it is used to interpret mental health. The four viewpoints are orthodox, moderate, neutralist and atheistic.

These lay on a continuum, where those with orthodox viewpoints believe mental problems are caused by sin, and on the other end, atheistic sees mental problems as purely psychological. Another framework was proposed by Batson and Ventis (1982). They argued that a therapist’s need to understand the different ways of being religious in order to understand the impact that religion may or may not have on their patient. They created their framework around 3 dimensions, each of which has it’s own continuum. The 3 dimensions are quest, ends and means.

The ‘quest’ continuum measures the degree of importance the individual places on existential questions, but does not necessarily feel an urgency to have answered. An example of this would be an agnostic, or a philosopher who enjoys the process of examining these kinds of questions. A person on the high end of this continuum would tend to have doubts about religion, and be tentative about religious viewpoints. The ‘means’ continuum assesses religion in terms of its practical usefulness, in regards to meeting the needs of the person.

A person high on this spectrum may appreciate the moral structure and regular fellowship that their church provides, or even be a business man who feels church attendance is good for business. The ‘end’ continuum gauges the degree of dedication an individual puts into the practice and values of a specific religion. An example of someone on the high end of this spectrum would be a person who takes the bible very literally, attends church weekly and believes Jesus will bring their salvation.

These three dimensions are measured separately and are meant to give a framework for taking into account a patient’s reliance or attachment to their religion. By using this framework as a guideline, the therapist is able to better understand the impact religion has on their patient’s mental health, as well as what kind of therapeutic help would be most beneficial in light of this. Another framework was proposed by Spilka (1986) which examines the role of religion in an individual’s life in view of primary and secondary control. Primary control refers to an individual’s power to effectively act on external reality.

Secondary control refers to how we change our own cognitive framework to adjust or accommodate to reality. There are four kinds of secondary control, according to Spilka, which are offered through religion; predictive, vicarious, illusory and interpretive. Predictive control draws on religious practices which are promised to produce positive results. Prayer is the ultimate example of this. The person prays for something to happen and believes it will because of their prayer, and often, in terms of smaller worldly goals the prophecy is self fulfilling. Vicarious control has to do with identification with a higher power.

This can be seen in those who speak of feeling Jesus within them. Often they will speak of God working through them, which it might be said may alleviate some of the anxiety that comes with having responsibility for one’s actions. Illusory control is accepting that all reality is the product of God’s divine plan. This can be a way for a person to explain painful phenomenon which there is no explanation for. It’s a belief that is acceptance is important because we are unable to fully comprehend God’s will. Interpretive control is a way of giving personal meaning to a problem as a way of trying to understand it.

A person who has befallen some tragedy may look for weaknesses in their own character which God may be punishing them for, allowing them the opportunity to redeem themselves by correcting this behavior. Understanding a patient within this framework can help a therapist determine the center of the patient’s conflicts by observing which methods they particularly rely on as a means of secondary control. A person who relies heavily on an illusory form of control (focusing on acceptance of whatever comes their way as god’s will) may have trouble being assertive in important areas of their life.

Returning to the therapists own values, establishing where they themselves fit inside Spilka’s and Batson and Ventis’s frameworks can help them get a better sense of what their own bias may be and be more aware of how it may affect therapy. By placing their patients within these frameworks through conversational questions or diagnostic tests, not only can therapists gain insight about their patient’s internal conflicts but they can foresee value conflicts that may arise between the therapist and patient. The therapist’s role in this situation is to encourage and facilitate, but not necessarily to confront or interpret.

Most articles on this subject make the same recommendation at one point or another: questions about religion are best handled in the same manner therapists handle other questions; candid but concise answers, with exploration as to what the answers mean to the patient and what it is that is important to the patient. Again, exploration of this are can help the therapist determine how to best help the client and can help the client to gain an understanding of their own mental health is connected with their religiousness. References Cox, R. H. 1973). An introduction to human guidance. In R. H. Cox (Ed. ), Religious systems and psychotherapy (pp. 3-12). Springfield, IL: Thomas. KEHOE, N. , & GUTHEIL, T. G. (1984). Shared religious belief as resistance in psychotherapy. American Journal of Psychotherapy, 38(4), 579-585. Lovinger, R. (1984). Working with religious issues in therapy. Northvale, NI: Jason Aronson. 147(4), 542. Quackenbos, S. , Privette, G. , & Klentz, B. (1986). Psychotherapy and religion: Rapprochement or antithesis? Journal of Counseling and Development, 65, 82-85.

Shafransky, E. P. , & Gorsuch, R. L. (1984). Factors associated with perception of spirituality in psychotherapy. The Journal of Transpersonal Psychology, 16, 231-241. Shiedler, M. M. (1983). The priest and the psychotherapist. Advances in Descriptive Psychology, 3, 229-241. Spero, M. H. (1981). Countertransference in religious therapists of religious patients. American Journal of Psychotherapy, 35(4), 565-576. Spilka, B. (1986). Spiritual issues: Do they belong in psychological practice? Yes–But! Psychotherapy in Private Practice, 4, 93-100.

The Search for Filipino Philosophy

The search for Filipino Philosophy Is there a Filipino Philosophy? I read an essay titled “Doing Philosophy in the Philippines” by Dr. Afredo P. Co and his answer to this question can be summarized this way: Since the Philippines is a melting pot of cultures brought about by invasions, missionaries, trade etc. the Philippines has no distinctive and native philosophy to speak of. He goes on to say that the Philippines is a Spanish creation and an amalgam of east, west, north, south, Christian, pagan, Malayan, Muslim etc. cultures. “Ours is the identity of the new age—ambivalent, polymorphous, processual, always becoming. According to Dr. Co, philosophy as a formal discourse is a Spanish import. Dr. Co is writing with a postmodern perspective. (His essay is part of an essay collection titled “Two Filipino Thomasian –from the University of Stro. Thomas and not Aquinas–Philosophers on Postmodernism. ”) I don’t know if I’m (an old college student) qualified to challenge a professional philosopher’s essay but since Dr. CO not reading this blog, I’ll try with the knowledge that my arguments can be destroyed by the touch of his (or anyone’s’) pinky.

First what is the measure of a thing before it can be called a philosophy? Is it formalism? A system? Because if the search for the Filipino philosophy is the search for a philosophy patterned after the Graeo-Roman-Jewish-English-German etc. system of Philosophy then the wrong instrument is being used. What one will find is a Graeco-Roman etc. philosophy because there’s a template, a fingerprint already at hand to act as a reference to whatever is being searched, hence to fail to measure up to that reference meant failure in identification. What tool must we use in searching for Filipino Philosophy?

That is the first question in the exploration for the search for Filipino Philosophy. I think the western philosophical tools are inadequate or inappropriate for this task. Then what is? I don’t know but I think this is where Filipino thinkers must start. One may ask, is there such philosophy without a system or a structure? This is one of the tasks of the philosopher also—to find and formulate a system or order from an existing, albeit primitive philosophy or potential philosophy. They criticize, deconstruct, reconstruct whatever it is that they do to philosophies in order to make it “presentable. Second, whether we liked it or not, philosophy, to be recognized as a philosophy must have a founder, a champion, an innovator. It must have a thinker to attach it to. But Filipino’s has no recorded sage in the level of Plato, Confucius etc. But is that requisite for a philosophy to exist? We have no champion in philosophy because we have not searched all the individual cultures in the Philippines with diligence because if this is done, in their epics, in their poems, in their songs, in their myths there is and will always be champion of wisdoms.

Mythical these people maybe but then again most philosophers especially Asians are mythical, or mystical. It must also be understood that some Asians philosophies became “recognized philosophies” because they are in part became political creatures in the form of governmental ethics. Dr. Co has mentioned that there’s no such thing as native Filipino culture because there’s no culture to speak of in the first place; it was destroyed by foreign intrusion etc. I agree but that does not mean the Filipino’s lost all of it.

We are an archipelago and the diversity of languages is a testament that there are survivors. I think what Dr. Co is thinking when he that we have no national language he may be referring to the death of the Alabata, the ancient Filipino alphabet. But as present history proves and the modern Filipino, the national language, is proving a national language is still in the process of being created because there exist a regionalistic mentality among the Filipinos. Yes, Filipino, the national language, is being taught and being used but there are still more Cebuano speakers than the Tagalog based Filipino.

Third, there’s this tendency to think of philosophy as abstracts and not practical. Hence what is considered articulation is verbal conceptual articulation. But it is that necessarily so. A practical people with practical language will have practical philosophy. A highly abstract people like the Greeks will have abstract philosophy. An organic people like the Chinese will have an organic philosophy. What is the measure then? Environment is a factor. Fourth, is we tend to think of a Filipino Philosophy as a unified Filipino Philosophy. If I follow Dr.

Co’s argument that the culture is preserved in its language it follows that since the Philippines has hundreds of languages then the search must be for Filipino Philosophies and not for the Filipino philosophy. Leonardo N. Mercado in his book “Applied Filipino Philosophy” tried to do a comparative study of Filipino philosophy by comparing local languages like his exploration of the word beauty ( aesthetics) and according to Dr. Co “Mercado is still on the level of comparing them but he has not established what can be categorically claimed as the Filipino Philosophy. ” I think that Dr.

Co is (not) forgetting that the Philippines is a country of many nations. There’s no “the Filipino Philosophy” there is “ Filipino Philosophies. ” Fifth, what is meant by formal philosophical discourse? Logical? Dialectical? Empirical? Pragmatic? Etc. Do we have to apply these things in search of Filipino Philosophy/ies? Dr. Co’s concluding statement is I think fatalist. “As I said, you not need not worry any longer about the search for a Filipino philosophy, for when you philosophize with excellence, your articulation is bound to be recognized here and elsewhere, now or later.

And since you are a Filipino philosophizing, then that philosophy of yours becomes Filipino. ” I don’t think a people can survive without culture, without philosophy. Tribes have ethics that must require sophisticated discourses and articulation, no matter how primitive they seemed to the highly abstract western philosophy, but they must for how can they survive? The search for Filipino Philosophies is a worthy enterprise. Although Dr. Co does not discourage this endeavor, it seems that he has already made up his mind as to what Filipino philosophy should be and is all about—skills in articulation, articulating other philosophies.

I have one suggestion, Why not start the explorations of Filipino Philosophies by exploring Filipino cuisine. I’m not joking. Mercado tried by exploring the Filipino’s sense of time, why not try, again, Pinoy cuisine. It’s not a matter of nationalism or patriotism, but I think there is or there are native Filipino Philosophies to speak of. I can feel it because we Filipino have values and practices, an ethos and an ego that is uniquely ours. If there’s smoke there must be fire! There’s discourse in there, and definitely there’s Philosophy in there. It’s just that in the search we must invent the tools —that is, if we have to.

The Fully Integrated Financial Services Business Model of Future Capital Holdings

HTTP://PAKISTANMBA. JIMDO. COM FOR DOWNLOADING THIS REPORT AND FOR MORE PROJECTS, ASSIGNMENTS, REPORTS ON MARKETING, MANAGEMENT, ECONOMICS MARKETING MANAGEMENT, ACCOUNTING, HUMAN RESOURCE, ORGANIZATIONAL BEHAVIOR, FINANCIAL MANAGEMENT COST ACCOUNTING VISIT HTTP://PAKISTANMBA. JIMDO. COM PANTALOON Double or Quits Kishore Biyani is India’s most successful retailer to date. And he wants to stay that way. Even if it means wagering everything he has built so far. Is Kishore Biyani a retailer or a fund manager? That question might well be asked of him in the not too distant future.

Over the last few months, Future Capital Holdings (FCH), led by CEO Sameer Sain, has stitched together a fully integrated financial services business model. FCH has already become the fastest growing start-up in the alternative asset management business in India with almost $830 million in assets. Now, it has big plans in insurance, retail lending and forex services. “Whether we have a consumer who wants to leverage future income to realise his aspirations today, or wants to save and invest, or buy protection for his family, we want to be a part of it,” says Sain.

He believes that in 5-7 years, FCH’s bottom line will be bigger than the retail business! In the insurance business, the Future Group has managed to wrest a 74 per cent stake in a joint venture by investing just Rs 100 crore (its JV partner invested the same amount for a 26 per cent stake). “Italian Assicurazioni Generali, ranked 21 on the Fortune 500 list, is a good fit for us because they derive almost 17 per cent of their sales from mall assurance. They have also partnered another retailer in the Philippines,” says Sain.

Biyani estimates that with just a 1 per cent footfall conversion rate, the insurance business would have over 2 million customers. That would earn him huge fees on distribution and catapult the company to amongst the largest private insurance players by way of number of policies sold. FCH has promoted an integrated retail financial services distribution company christened Money Bazaar that will be housed within all Future Group stores and malls. It will market credit cards, personal loans, mortgages and consumer durable loans. Raman Mangalorkar, ead (consumer and retail practice), AT Kearney, says that a study in the Americas found that the cards business contributed most of the value of the retail business of large American and Canadian retailers as the core business was characterised by cut-throat margins. Perhaps Biyani is motivated by similar expectations. FCH will also distribute forex products and mutual funds. For its sub-prime financing business, it is in talks with potential partners who will hold a minority stake while pumping in money and contributing expertise. Also on the anvil is a $200 million-250 million hospitality fund.

This will set up a chain of 30-40, three and four star hotels pan India. FCH will also launch hedge funds in addition to Kshitij 2, a domestic real estate venture fund, estimated to be around $80 million in size. It will also undertake corporate finance and advisory work and has set up Future Capital Special Situations (Investment) to do proprietary investments. The first such proprietary investment is a 47,000-sq. ft building in Peninsular Corporate Park at Lower Parel in central Mumbai, part of which will be self occupied. We are putting investors on notice. That’s a surprising statement from a man who is about to raise funds for a high-risk Rs 4,000crore expansion. Kishore Biyani, 44, who controls the country’s biggest retail group, should be talking up his share price, not spooking it. But as he steers the Rs 1,993-crore Pantaloon Retail (India), or PRIL, into its next phase, Biyani, more than anyone else, knows there is no point trying to camouflage the scale of his wager. He is buying up more retail real estate than many Asian biggies. He is attempting a quick fire launch of 18 formats and over 3,340 new stores by 2010. (He has four formats and 140 stores now. He is getting into risky and capital-intensive businesses, which include lending to his customers and selling insurance. And he is planning an advertising blitzkrieg that he claims will make him one of the top three advertisers in the country. And Biyani is planning his biggest and most audacious moves at a time when PRIL is starved of resources — it has a Rs 395-crore negative cash flow from operations and investment, and a cash crunch is looming large. Last year, the stock underperformed the Sensex by a wide margin. This has cast a shadow over Biyani’s fund-raising ability.

Besides, if he manages to expand as much as he is planning to, he will need hordes of trained managers at every level. Industrywide, there is a shortage of talent and Biyani has no clue where he will find people. Meanwhile, profit margins, already a wafer thin 6-7 per cent, are coming under more pressure. Of course, Biyani had taken huge gambles even earlier. And he had shown a remarkable ability to come roaring back each time he was written off. The difference this time is that he is taking a make-or-break gamble when he actually has lots to lose. He has built his group to a respectable size.

But now, he is putting all that at stake. Why does he need to do this? Deep inside, Biyani had known that one day it could come to this. tried his best to thwart such a scenario. A few months ago, he explored the possibility of collaborating with Reliance Retail by engaging with Mukesh Ambani. He had But the talks failed. A top Reliance executive, who spoke on condition of anonymity, is brutal in his assessment: “With our the retail sector will see a bloodbath. ” Biyani, as the biggest and, perhaps, the only independent one, is vulnerable. That was probably the real trigger for this ‘high-growth, high-risk’ plan.

Today, he is caught in the middle of one of the fiercest corporate battlegrounds of the decade. Besides Reliance, several like the Aditya Birla Group and Bharti are eyeing this sector. the retail arm of the $17. 8-billion Tata Group, has expanded into hypermarkets. Shoppers’ Stop is expanding. South Africa’s Shoprite is already here via the franchisee route. UK’s giant Tesco, according to consultant AT Kearney, is in talks with Homecare Retail Marts, owners of the upcoming Magnet hypermarket chain. And Wal-Mart is straining at the leash, waiting to be allowed. “What happened in 25 years in the US will happen years here,” says B.

S. Nagesh, managing director, Shoppers’ and vice-chairman, HyperCity hypermarket. Suddenly, despite all that he has built so far, Biyani will get marginalised in the retail game unless he grows to many times his size in the next couple of years. He wants to remain a significant or, as some say, at least an attractive target for an acquisition. His to turn PRIL into a $7-billion integrated retailer with over $1 billion profits by the year 2010 (see ‘What Biyani Wants To Be In 2010…’). To do that, Biyani’s empire — recently renamed the Future Group to be ‘everything, everywhere for everyone’. We should be able provide everything from a mochi’s (cobbler’s) services to that of a chaviwala (key maker), to a money changer,” says Biyani. “We in the next one year what we have achieved in the last seven,” Sanjay Jog, head (HR). Nothing illustrates his new risk appetite more than his real estate Till March 2006, he had occupied 2. 7 million sq. ft of retail space. over the last two-and-a-half years, he has booked 16 million sq. ft realty at an average Rs 45 per sq. ft. By 2010, PRIL’s stores will occupying a total of 30 million sq. ft. That apart, Biyani aims to 40 million sq. t more under Pantaloon’s real estate funds business by 2010. That’s a total of 70 million sq. ft. And it dwarfs CapitaLand, one of Asia’s largest mall management and listed property companies. CapitaLand currently oversees around 20 sq. ft of space. entry, retailer game players Trent, retailer for FDI in five Stop current player plan is in — has to will do adds plans. But of be have million “Biyani has moved fast and become the largest holder of retail real estate in the country. This will give him at least a two-year head start,” says Akshaya Kumar, chairman, Colliers International.

At the moment, some retailers are struggling to find suitable properties. “Availability of large ground floor space like that suitable for our Spencer’s Hypermarket is limited,” concedes Harsh Goenka, chairman, RPG Enterprises. Could this be a source of competitive advantage? Perhaps, but only in the short term as there is plenty of mall supply coming up. In any case, PRIL has now taken on a huge realty risk. It is obvious that Biyani is trying to match Ambani in ambition, even though it calls for more capital and involves more risks. But the big question is: can Biyani match Ambani with hard cash?

Reliance Industries will spend more than Rs 25,000 crore ($5. 6 billion) on retail. This is where Biyani’s cookie begins to crumble. By his own estimates, the group plans to invest Rs 4,000 crore over the next four years. But even this may be quite a stretch. Put that figure in perspective — PRIL’s current market capitalisation is only Rs 4,109 crore. Cash Crunch To achieve $7 billion in sales, Pantaloon needs money to launch new formats and expand existing ones into new locations. “If we had restricted ourselves to only food and fashion retailing, our sales would expand only at 30-40 per cent.

But we want to grow at 80-90 per cent, which categories like home and communication and durables will allow us to do,” says Prashant Desai, head (knowledge office), PRIL. Of the Rs 4,000 crore needed, about Rs 2,100 crore will be used for capital expenditure and Rs 1,900 crore for working capital. Where could this money come from? “We expect internal accruals of Rs 1,800 crore and can raise debt for 75 per cent of our working capital needs,” says Biyani. This would leave a net deficit of around Rs 775 crore, to be funded largely by equity. There are two problems here.

First, PRIL’s negative cash flow from operations and investment, a result of its breakneck pace of expansion, is unlikely to change soon. The sales cycle in the fashion part of the business is almost double the credit period received. The only way to change this is to increase the share of food sales. “But that would depress our EBITDA (earnings before interest, tax, depreciation and amortisation) margins, which we want to maintain at 7-8 per cent levels,” admits Desai. Biyani is also counting on the group’s financial services business to generate significant cash flow for him (see ‘Kishore Biyani, Fund Manager’).

It currently manages a little under a billion dollars in assets and could earn annual asset management fees of around $20 million. And if the funds achieve the targeted 30 per cent internal rates of return, it could earn another $60 million in profits. Meanwhile, raising the Rs 775-crore equity (or more if the expected accruals don’t kick in) isn’t going to be easy. Unlike Ambani, who will put in $2. 24 billion in equity, Biyani will depend on the market for funds. But he isn’t getting much support there. “Runaway growth is not a good idea. There are inherent risks.

Biyani is a first generation entrepreneur. He does not have a proven blue-chip management,” says Abhay Aima, country head (equities and private banking), HDFC Bank. “Currently, investors are sceptical about funding this sector because they want to see what happens when Reliance launches fully,” adds Ullal Ravindra Bhat, managing director, Dalton Capital Advisors India. Moreover, Biyani may not issue fresh shares if he does not get a premium high enough to protect his family’s shareholding from falling too much below the current 44. 24 per cent, especially when he personally holds only 3. 13 per cent.

Finally, foreign institutional investors’ (FII’s) holding in retail companies has been limited to 24 per cent of equity. In PRIL, FIIs held 28. 25 per cent stake as of end March 2006, creating a supply overhang. Effectively it also rules out fresh issue of shares via GDRs (global depositary receipts), ADRs (American depositary receipts) or FCCBs (foreign currency convertible bonds), all of which hold the possibility of issuing equity at a premium to current market price. But Biyani thinks he has come up with a solution. He plans to split his businesses and raise money separately for each.

All the new businesses are being carried out under separate legal entities. PRIL will seed the business with equity capital. Later, it will hawk stakes in these companies, hopefully at fat premia, realising both value and much needed hard cash. “I have lots of pieces to sell and we may not need to raise any fresh equity from the market,” says Biyani. For example, he is in talks to sell a little under 20 per cent stake for around Rs 180 crore in Home Solutions Retail India, the company that will launch Home Town stores, a large format one-stop shop stocking everything from plumbing and cement to consumer durables and furnishings.

Similar plans are also afoot at Future Media and Future Logistics. In fact, two of Biyani’s biggest formats could be hived off as separate companies. “Central, which aims to provide a premium shopping destination built around big brands, is being made into a separate company; Big Bazaar could follow too,” he says. The Pressure Points For all his bravado, there is no doubt that Biyani is under extreme pressure. Occasionally, though, he lets his guard down. “We don’t say that we will be the No. 1 retailer in India, but we will be dominant,” says Biyani.

Perhaps he realised his own frailty when he lost Raghu Pillai, who was to head Home Solutions Retail, to Reliance. Pillai was the architect of the RPG Group’s retail business. He had built many successful formats like Foodworld, Spencer’s Hypermarket, etc. Biyani had lured him with much fanfare. But in only a few months, Pillai moved over to the Mukesh Ambani camp foregoing employee stock options for a significantly higher fixed salary. The scale and scope of Biyani’s plans will also require a lot of senior managers. “Management bandwidth is a problem,” says Dalton’s Bhat. And good talent is hard to come by in the retail sector.

Biyani has already taken on board this criticism. He has now hired a second line of management to run the company while he and the rest of his family like cousin Rakesh (oversees IT strategy and new retail formats like Central and Fashion Station), and uncle Gopikishan (participates in overall strategy) focus on ‘strategy and relationships’. “We have been working with McKinsey over the past six months to ensure that we are ready for 2010. We have identified 10 members of the top management and will shortly be announcing a management board and a management council to lead the organisation,” he says.

But competition is intensifying. Big Bazaar, Pantaloon’s most successful format, was built on a price platform. Its core proposition is ‘Is se sasta aur achha kahin nahi’ (nowhere is it cheaper and better than here). That brought in huge volumes, but it also meant low margins. And some rivals may be in the process of discovering a more profitable model. HyperCity, launched by the Rahejas, is perhaps one example. HyperCity in Mumbai buzzes with activity as consumers prefer its layout and merchandising and do not seem to mind its slightly higher prices.

It has already crossed the millionth customer mark in the first quarter of its opening. But Big Bazaar will continue to fight on price. So will Reliance. That could result in profit margins dropping to 5-6 per cent. In preparation, Pantaloon is squeezing suppliers Wal-Mart style to get better deals. “We have obtained 5 per cent lower prices this year on food and FMCG products. We believe there is more scope to extract lower prices,” says Biyani. The company is also establishing bases in the Middle East, Hong Kong and China to source globally as compared to its current model where over 80 per cent of sourcing is local.

Such pressures have forced Biyani to rethink his business model. The ‘Own Everything’ Business Model During his early years, Biyani preferred an asset-light, capital-light business model. He didn’t control real estate. Rarely did he lock up more than what was necessary. He did not even control all the merchandise in his stores. But now, he wants to control everything. He wants to control the real estate, so he has set up realty funds. He wants to control his vendors, so he has set up a private equity fund to invest in them.

He wants to control his merchandise, so he is creating his portfolio of branded products. He wants to control the consumer, or at least how much she spends, so he is setting up a lending arm. He wants to control his supply chain, so he is building 2 million sq. ft of warehousing space and is setting up a logistics business. He is even setting up his own advertising company to monetise footfalls by exposing them to in-store advertising. “Whatever is required in our malls or in our stores should be directly or indirectly controlled by us,” says Biyani.

That is the mandate of the new Future Group. Realty is the first building block in the new model. “If the malls you need aren’t ready on time, then you simply cannot expand,” says Ved Prakash Arya, COO, PRIL. That’s why the group has also set up a real estate funds business. These days, it is not uncommon for Biyani to lease out entire malls. (The new mall being built in place of the once popular Milan Cinema in suburban Mumbai is one example. ) He will use part of it. The rest he will lease out to others, at a profit. This way, he also locks out competitors.

Second, Future Capital will provide GE Money-like counters insider Pantaloon formats to help fund purchases through loans, credit card offerings, etc. “Financing can help expand retail into segments that wouldn’t otherwise buy, despite aspiring to consume,” says Roopa Purushothaman, chief economist and strategist, Future Group. This, though, is fraught with risk. “Net margins on loans have come down from 11 per cent to almost 3-4 per cent even in areas like credit card financing, and while the number of cards has grown, usage per card has hardly grown. So, we would FOR COMPLETE REPORT AND DOWNLOADING VISIT HTTP://PAKISTANMBA. JIMDO. COM

Buy One Get One

Buy One Get One Free (BOGO) – Does it really boosts the Sales? Gone are the days when customers use to easily lure away by the gimmicks of the marketing persons. Today the customers are cleverer and demanding than ever before. They cannot be easily caught in the snare of the companies’ ideological gimmicks as they used to be in the past. I would love to share with you a real life and an interesting anecdote which is about a sales promotion program of a well established and renowned cigarette company. A week ago, in the afternoon, I stopped by a Pan Shop near my place, to buy a packet of cigarettes.

There was an unusual rush on that Pan shop at that time. As I reached up to the counter, I came to know that some cigarette company’s Sales Promotion was going on there and a team of four Sales persons of that company were promoting their renowned and well established cigarette brand which was probably due to its attractive repacking and they might have added some more features to it so as to differentiate it more effectively from its nearest rivals. All these Sales Persons were well dressed, all of them wearing formal black pant, formal white shirt, and a tie and neatly polished black shoes.

They also had a van painted nicely and having a picture of a packet of their cigarette which they were promoting. One of the Sales team members was busy in hanging a dangler which was attractively designed and printed and some 30-40 Pens inside a very nice packing were pasted on it. The pen was also a renowned brand. I was surprised for a while why the dangler containing pens is there when they were promoting their cigarette brand. I anxiously enquired one of them what they exactly want to promote, a cigarette brand or a pen brand.

Then he briefed me about their consumer scheme. “If you buy a Packet of our Cigarettes which will cost you Rs. 24/-, you will get this pen worth Rs. 15/- absolutely free. ” , Said the Sales Person. Undoubtedly, the offer was attractive enough to compel a consumer of other brands of cigarette to try their brand at least once, if not regularly, and this must be the intended objective of their sales promotion program, I guess. But I had never tried their brand before, and I resist changing my brand as I have been using my brand for last ten years.

Still, I was eager to take advantage of their attractive consumer scheme. While I was just pondering that somehow I must take advantage of their attractive offer and that too without changing my regular brand, an idea came into my mind. I just asked the Pan Shop owner about the usual landing rate of a Packet of their Cigarette to him. He said he earns two rupees per packet as his profit margin in the usual course i. e. when there are no such schemes. It meant the landing price of a pack of their cigarette to him is Rs. 22/- in the usual course of time.

So I ordered him a packet of their cigarette by giving Rs. 24/- for it and demanded him my free pen. He gave me both the items as per the consumer scheme. I then immediately offered the Pan Shop owner to buy back the packet of cigarettes for just Rs. 20/- which I just purchased from him for Rs. 24/- i. e. at the rate which was below Rs. 2/- than its usual landing rate (Rs. 22/-) to him. Since the Cigarette brand which they were promoting was also a fast moving brand, he happily accepted my offer and returned my Rs. 20/- to me. All this happened in front of the promoting sales team.

They immediately understood that I got the pen in just Rs. 4/- by returning their cigarette pack to the shop owner for Rs. 20/-. They started pondering and analyzing their consumer offer and anxiously indulged in the discussion about it. The dismay on their face was clearly visible. After my purchase, other customers, who were standing around the counter while this deal of mine was going on, had also repeated the same process and the company’s free gift – pens – were depleted within 15 minutes after my purchase and all their cigarette packets were kept intact on the counter.

Their Sales Promotion scheme which was intended to compel a consumer to use their brand at least once for which they had offered them such an attractive free pen had completely fallen flat in front of their eyes and they hardly get any time to stop all this. In a nutshell, it has become a convention nowadays to hang a board of BIG SALE outside a retail outlet throughout the year. Today almost every company, having similar products or products with little or no differentiation, is vying to come up with a consumer scheme which will attract maximum number of customers to them.

In spite of wasting their precious time on figuring out such types of consumer schemes which are now well understood by the smart customers and consumers of today, it is the high time now for the companies to think about some other ways to boost their sales. Product differentiation & Continuous Innovation can be the possible answers to their problem. Products which provide full value of money to their consumers don’t really need consumer schemes like BOGO since they sold out on their own without any such futile efforts. By Anand Hisaria Email: anand. [email protected] com

Ebay: “the World’s Largest Online Marketplace”- a Case Study

eBay: “The world’s largest online marketplace”- A Case Study J. Gopalkrishnan* V. K Gupta** Abstract eBay, Inc. is the largest and most popular marketplace on the Internet, allowing members to buy and sell almost anything. Launched in 1995, about 147 million people now use eBay. An estimated 430,000 people in the United States make all or most of their living by selling on eBay. eBay’s online payment service, called PayPal, enables transactions nearly anywhere in the world. eBay proclaims “trust” between buyers and sellers as the key to the success of the marketplace. Bay is the “The world’s Online Marketplace”, which is its positioning statement, and it means many things about the company’s identity. It enables trade on local, national and international basis, with a diverse and passionate community of individuals and small businesses. eBay offers an online platform where millions of items are traded each day. The objective at eBay was to “to develop the work ethic and culture of eBay as a fun, open and trusting environment and to keep the organization focused on the big picture objectives and key priorities. The company market capitalization had surpassed that of even Amazon. om, making it the “world’s most valuable Internet retailer”. Pierre Omidyar, founder, is focused to achieve excellence in strategic management for improving the company’s strategy, sustaining the company’s growth and business performance, and potentially expanding from online auctions into general “etailing”, and to become “the world’s largest online mall”. This research paper intends to study the click and click business model of eBay, whose competitive advantage lies in its pure play strategy, a breakthrough from the traditional brick and mortar model, which leads to sustainable growth and a competitive edge over the other retailers.

Keywords: Online marketplace, etailing, work ethics, online auctions/platform/mall Introduction: eBay establishes itself as the “The world’s Online Marketplace” . Coincidently, it is also the positioning statement of eBay,which itself means many things about the company’s identity, it enables trade on local, national and international basis, with a diverse and passionate community of individuals and small businesses, Bay offers an online platform where millions of items are traded each day.

According to company lore, the idea for eBay came from founder Pierre Omidyar’s wife, who wanted to trade Pez dispensers with other collectors over the Internet. In truth Omidyar had been pondering an Internet auction venture before he was ever aware of Pez mania. He says that he had been thinking about how to create an efficient marketplace-a level playing field, where everyone had access to the same information and could compete on the same terms as anyone else. ” After writing the code for the site, Omidyar launched eBay from his home in mid-1995. he concept of an Internet marketplace caught on so quickly that by the end of the year, eBay was getting a few thousand hits daily. Even more impressive the website was profitable from its inception. The objective at ebay was to develop the work ethics and culture of eBay as a fun, open and trusting environment and to keep the organization focused on the big picture objectives and key priorities. Ebay went public in September 1998 at $18 a share. By early march 1999, the stock was trading approximately b$282 per share. The company market capitalization had surpassed that of even Amazon. om, making it the world’s most valuable Internet retailer. *Institute of Management, Nirma University of Science & Technology, Ahmedabad. E-mail: [email protected] com **Indian Institute of Management, Indore IIMK IIML eBay’s strategy eBay community values are incredibly amazing since it focuses on trading millions of dollars on mere faith and trust among the community members. Its values can be sited as below, “We believe people are basically good We believe everyone has something to contribute We believe that an honest, open environment can bring out the best in people.

We recognize and respect everyone as an individual. We encourage you to treat others the way you want to be treated”. These community values mean that the entire strategy lies in “trust” to build e-loyalty, for longterm profitable relationships, these set of core values encourages open and honest communication between its members. Corporate strategy The whole foundation of eBay, lies on the idea that practically anything that can be bought and sold can be facilitated through this Internet retailer, and this auction platform provider was implementing the concept of e-commerce even more forcefully. We help people trade practically anything on earth and conduct commerce through the Internet on a global basis” is certainly eBay’s business model . This model was so effective and efficient in conducting transactions that more and more people preferred to trade online, so that they can enjoy the comfort at home or work-places and still buy things online just by the click of the mouse. Today eBay users can bid anything from office equipments to real estate to cars. It is surprisingly true but perplexing that “Why has eBay prevailed, but others have failed? Though many of its successes resulted from its adaptive approach, eBay’s accomplishments can also be explained by the company’s consistent focus on two long-term goals that is “becoming the world’s largest consumer to consumer online auction house and building out each of the five core strategies”. An analysis into these strategies reveal that eBay has applied sound strategic management as adopted from Porter and other Management experts . Its whole business revolves around creating an environment where everyone can come and transact without any second thought of being cheated or misguided in any form.

The first strategy is creating an insurmountable customer base, that is (1) Establishing a larger user base To attract new users, eBay established relationships with more than 60 websites, including America online which gave eBay the largest access to the largest user base on the internet and prevented AOL from entering the auction arena, bay also added dealer to person trading and addresses the fast growing and fragmented small business market by creating a feature called business exchange, where businesses could buy or sell new, used or refurbished business merchandise and professional tools in their local market.

The second strategy is: (2) eBay concentrated on local and international trading EBay has local sites in 53 U. S markets they deliver distinct regional flavors and give users the convenience of shopping locally for difficult –to ship items such as automobiles or antique furniture. The company also built a truly global presence with users in more than 150 nations.

The third strategy is: (3) Creating a strong brand For eBay’s first few years it did not spend a single penny on marketing, relying instead on viral marketing and its ability to piggyback on competitors ceaseless (and expensive) efforts to retain Conference on Global Competition & Competitiveness of Indian Corporate 544 IIMK IIML market recognition. The company’s brand building shifted though with the arrival of new top professionals.

The fourth strategy is: (4) Broadening the trading platform By 1999, eBay’s fourth year, a host of competitors had entered the online auction market, while eBay had the first entry advantage, not all of its competitors were small start ups, some including yahoo and Amazon were internet significant players with extensive, established user bases. Ebay’s response was to extend its core business into other attractive niches, the company introduced higher priced product categories, a move that would increase its profit margin dramatically while requiring minimal infrastructure and operating expenditures.

The only caveat was that the company needed to develop a new skill set-to overcome this obstacle eBay made several acquisitions, starting with auction house Butterfield and Butterfield, the marriage of offline and online auction houses revolutionized the way that fine antiques and collectibles were bought and sold, allowing users to place real-time bids for items on offline auction house floors.

The fifth strategy is: (5) Maintaining a strong community affinity The company believes that fostering direct interaction between buyers and sellers with similar interest had enabled it to create loyal, active community of users, As noted earlier this emphasis on community building has been present since eBay’s founding. 6) Continually enhancing site features and functionality Because eBay’s strategy is to be as hands-off as possible when it comes to transactions, the company has to provide a reliable and straight forward way for users to manage the process on their own, buying and selling on eBay are made easy for users to manage the process on their own. Sellers need do little more than write a compelling description of the item up for auction, provide a suitable photograph, and decide how many days the auction will last.

To enhance the payment component of the customer experience, an admitted difficulty for mast buyers and sellers, bay acquired a company called Billpoint, whose online bill payment service facilitates credit card payment between buyers and sellers. Applying the five external market tests Ebay can be understood to a common man who is not aware of online retailing and sites which provide such facilitaies, which could be some of the market test like Inimitability: is the resource hard to copy eBay’s resource could easily be copied Durability: how quickly does the resource depreciate? Bay is immersed in a very dynamic environment, thus the evolution and up gradation of its resources are crucial. Appropriateness: who captures the value that the resource creates eBay certainly holds the most valuable resource for auction-like sites: critical mass, the company extracts profits from its community, making it one of a handful of profitable Internet companies. Substitutability: can a unique resource be trumped by a different resource? A different format of seller/buyer transaction could undermine eBay’s successful model-if eBay is not able to adapt quickly to the changing environment, which is unlikely.

Auction aggregators also pose a significant threat. Competitive superiority: whose resource is really better. eBay has improved substantially in terms of committing internal resources to improving customer experience. Other sites such as yahoo or Amazon, might still have better services, but eBay has Conference on Global Competition & Competitiveness of Indian Corporate 545 IIMK IIML the first mover advantage, and its has one resource in particular that cannot be replaced: a large and loyal community.

SWOT Analysis of eBay is carried out to get onto the finer and intricate details that eBay has adopted in such a shorter span of time to achieve profits in millions and is able to maintain a customer base that is again unbelievable. The strengths of eBay could be identified like: eBay is the leading global brand for online auctions. The company is a giant marketplace used by more than 100 million people to buy and sell all manner of things to each other. Pierre Omidyar, a French entrepreneur, was just 28 when he sat down over a long holiday weekend to write the original computer code for what eventually became an Internet megabrand.

The brand has grown tremendously over the decade or so since its conception. The company exploits the benefits of Customer Relationship Management (CRM). Buyers and sellers register with the company and data is collected by eBay on individuals. This is the Business-to- Consumer (B2C) side of their business. However the strong customer relationships are founded on a Consumer-to-Consumer (C2C) business model, where strong interrelationships occurs, for example where buyers and sellers leave feedback for each other, and whereby awards are given to the most genuine of eBayers.

The term ‘eBay’ has become a generic term for online auctions. Other companies with such a strong position include Hoover for vacuum cleaners, and Google for search engines. Today it is common to hear that someone is ‘ebaying’ or is an ‘eBayer,’ or that someone is going ‘to eBay. ‘ Weaknesses of eBay were as below, The organizations work tremendously hard to overcome fraud. However, the eBay model does leave itself open to a number of fraudulent activities. Often the company deals with such activities very quickly. Fraud includes counterfeit goods being marketed to unsuspecting (and suspecting! eBayers. Other forms of theft could include the redistribution of stolen goods. It should be pointed out that fraud and theft are problems with individuals, not eBay. The weakness is that unscrupulous individuals can exploit the C2C business model. As with many technology companies, systems breakdowns could disturb the trading activities of eBay. In the past both eBay and its payment brand Pay pal have encountered shutdowns and outages. As technology improves such a weakness is less and less of an issue. Opportunities that eBay had were tremendous and invincible.

They are: Acquisitions provide new business strategy opportunities. eBay’s latest venture is it has agreed to buy online telephone company Skype Technologies in a deal reported to be worth $2. 6 billion. Skype’s software lets PC users talk to each other for free and make cut-price calls to mobiles and landlines. eBay has been buying up firms – including payment system PayPal – in an effort to increase the number of services it offers to consumers and keep its profits growing. New and emerging markets provide opportunities (Market Development).

Countries include China and India. There, consumers are becoming richer and have more leisure time than previous generations. Aspirating consumers are growing segments in many developing nations. There are also still opportunities in current markets (Market Penetration). Western Europe and the USA still have many potential consumers that have yet to discover the benefits of online auctions. Remember products have life cycles that eventually come to an end, and such products are ideal for selling and buying on eBay.

Even a mammoth organization like eBay faces threats, which can be like as below: As with many of the global Internet brands, success attracts competition. International competitors competing in their domestic markets may have the cultural experience that could give them a competitive advantage over eBay. In fact eBay has found that it has met with other USAbased Internet companies when trading overseas. For example, Yahoo! Dominates the Japanese market. Conference on Global Competition & Competitiveness of Indian Corporate 46 IIMK IIML Attack by illegal practices is a threat. As with weaknesses above, the brand is attacked by unscrupulous individuals. For example e-mails are sent to unsuspecting eBayers pretending to come from eBay. Logos and the design of the pages look authentic. However they are designed so that you input private information that the thieves can use to take passwords and identifications. So beware! Some costs cannot be controlled by eBay. For example delivery charges and credit card charges.

If fuel prices were to rise, the cost is passed on to the consumer in terms of delivery and postal fees. This could make the overall cost of an auctioned item too expensive. Similarly, if a credit card company such as Visa or Mastercard imposed a charge for online transaction, the total cost of the same items would increase with similar consequences. Today, the eBay community includes more than a hundred million registered members from around the world. People spend more time on eBay than any other online site, making it the most popular shopping destination on the Internet.

Let’s look at the way eBay manages to provide value at each stage of the value chain. Value Chain Analysis Value Chain Analysis The value chain is a systematic approach to examining the development of competitive advantage. M. E. Porter created it in his book, Competitive Advantage (1980). The chain consists of a series of activities that create and build value. They culminate in the total value delivered by an organization. The ‘margin’ depicted in the diagram is the same as added value. The organization is split into ‘primary activities’ and ‘support activities. Primary activities includes inbound logistice, outbound logistics, marketing and sales, operations,and service, which are discussed as below: Primary Activities Inbound Logistics eBay operated as an online venue for buyers and sellers, sellers listed items and provided descriptions, often including photographs, an auction was conducted, in which potential buyers could bid on the item on sale until a fixed time (unlike traditional auctions, which continued until no more bids were placed), the sellers specified the conditions of the auction, as well as the time the auction would close, bidding was often active as the auction neared closing time, sometimes driven by automated “sniping” programs that some buyers used their bid in just before the auction closed, so these created an interesting and involving environment Operations One incident, in 1997, there were forty categories of items for sale, the posting of antiques and collectibles had increased dramatically, and additional categories for these items were needed, eBay evaluated the items listed and developed many new listing categories, without even consulting the community, it doesn’t have to bother about goods which are to be manufactured or assembled and individual operations, Bay was not bothered about the operations aspect of any goods, it only provided a virtual roof for enabling transactions. Conference on Global Competition & Competitiveness of Indian Corporate 547 IIMK IIML Outbound Logistics eBay acted as an online auction site so they need not be worried about goods being sent along the supply chain to wholesalers, retailers or the final consumer.

Marketing and Sales eBay’s fundamental challenge was to establish trust among remote and anonymous traders who might never interact again, it had a feed back system for building reputations, community members could use a number of tools to make their transactions secure. Most purchases on eBay were protected by an insurance policy administered by Lloyd’s of London as part of the standard eBay service and protected at no charge to the buyer, high value transactions were protected by Tradenable, a third party escrow service company. Sales outside the eBay marketplace were a concern for eBay an enterprise, since it did not receive fees for such off-site transactions. The company also believed such that off-site transactions deprived the participants of eBay’s services in case of problems. Bay formed groups called “voices”, they agreed to participate for one year without any compensation, it established a group for community support and relations, true customer orientated fashion, at this stage the organization prepares the offering to meet the needs of targeted customers. This area focuses strongly upon marketing communications and the promotions mix. Service EBay community flourished, this community was analogous to a real world society, in which people interacted with each other under a set of shared rules and expectations, this excludes all areas of service such as installation, after-sales service, complaints handling, training and so on.

Support Activities Procurement eBay need not be worried about procurement; (this function is responsible for all purchasing of goods, services and materials, the aim is to secure the lowest possible price for purchases of the highest possible quality. But, eBay only provides a platform for online trading to take place, doesn’t take possession of the items being sold, this reduces inventory management costs. Technology Development EBay operated as an online venue for buyers and sellers; technology is an important source of competitive advantage. eBay uses online option to innovate, to reduce costs and to protect and sustain competitive advantage. This includes Internet marketing activities, lean manufacturing, Customer Relationship Management (CRM), and many other technological developments. Human Resource Management (HRM) Employees are an expensive and vital resource.

An organization would manage recruitment and selection, training and development, and rewards and remuneration. The mission and objectives of the organization would be driving force behind the HRM strategy. eBay’s strategy of developing a community whose members are anonymous, trust among traders still prevailed, is indeed incredible, Firm Infrastructure This activity includes and is driven by corporate or strategic planning. It includes the Management Information System (MIS) and other mechanisms for planning and control such as the accounting department. But eBay has created an online marketplace, it operated much like a newspaper-classified section, it facilitated person-to-person transactions but did not take possession of the items being sold.

Conclusion eBay’s strategy of providing a safe trading place on the internet, the eBay community has flourished, by not only providing an efficient medium for people to buy or sell items directly from or to a large member of people, it’s a forum where buyers and sellers, develop reputations and in some cases, it can change people’s lives. This case study was of interest to the authors because it was intended to analyze the case from a strategic viewpoint. This attempt requires more information and data, which could provide ground to understand its strategy in a better way, Conference on Global Competition & Competitiveness of Indian Corporate 548 IIMK IIML hich is an important area for the future researchers and analysts who wish to write case studies of giant e-tailers like eBay . We are not very much convinced as yet of the study as it required material that really could be of importance to researchers, probably that would provide direction for further research. Not, many case studies have been written by researchers on eBay, primarily research by Indian researchers in Indian context on online shopping is heavily lacking. Keeping that in mind we attempted to write this case study, which has ample scope for improvement and further research will add value undoubtedly. References Armstrong, Arthur and John Hagel III. 1996. “The Real Value of Online Communities. ” Harvard Business Review. (May-June): 134-141.

Bajari, Patrick and Ali Hortacsu. 2000. “Winner’s Curse, Reserve Prices and Endogenous Entry: Empirical Insights from eBay Auctions. ” Working paper, Stanford University. Clay, Karen. 1997. “Trade without Law: Private-Order Institutions in Mexican California. ” Journal of Law, Economics and Organization, 13: 202-231. Duh, Rong-Ruey, Karim Jamal, and Shyam Sunder. 2001. “Control and Assurance in ECommerce: Privacy, Integrity and Security at eBay. ” Working paper, Yale University. Greif, Avner. 1989. “Reputation and Coalitions in Medieval Trade: Evidence on the Maghribi Traders. ” Journal of Economic History, 49: 857-82. The Maghribi Traders’ Coalition. American Economic Review, 83: 525-548. Houser, Daniel and John Wooders. 2000. “Reputation in Auctions: Theory, and Evidence from eBay. ” Working paper, University of Arizona. Katkar, Rama and David Lucking-Reiley. 2001. “Public versus Secret Reserve Prices in eBay Auctions: Results from a Pokeman Field Experiment. ” Working paper, University of Arizona. Kollock, Peter. 1999. “The Production of Trust in Online Markets,” in Advances in Group Processes, Vol. 16, JAI Press, 99-123. from eBay: the Determinants of Price in Online Auctions. ” Working paper, University of Arizona. McDonald, Cynthia G. and V. Carlos Slawson, Jr. 2000. “Reputation in an Internet Auction Model. Working paper, University of Missouri-Columbia. McMillan, John and Christopher Woodruff. 2001. “Private Order Under Dysfunctional Public Order. ” Michigan Law Review, 98: 2421-2458. Melnik, Mikhail I. and James Alm. 2001. “Does a Seller’s eCommerce Reputation Matter? ” Working paper, Georgia State University. Milgrom, Paul R. , Douglass C. North and Barry R. Weingast. 1990. “The Role of Institutions in the Revival of Trade: The Law Merchant, Private Judges, and the Champagne Fairs. ” Economics and Politics, 2:1-23. Resnick, Paul, Richard Zeckhauser, Eric Friedman, and Ko Kuwabara. 2000. “Reputation Systems. ” Communications of the ACM, 43: 45-8. Resnick, Paul and Richard Zeckhauser. 2001. Trust among Strangers in Internet Transactions: Empirical Analysis of eBay’s Reputation System. ” Working paper, University of Michigan. Saloner, Garth, Andrea Shepard, and Joel Podolny. 2001. Strategic Management. New York: Wiley. Snyder, James M. 2000. “Online Auction Fraud: Are the Auction Houses Doing All They Should or Could to Stop Online Fraud. ” Federal Communications Law Journal, 52: 453-72. Woodruff, Christopher. 1998. “Contract Enforcement and Trade Liberalization in Mexico’s Footwear Industry. ” World Development. 26:979-991. Michael Porter’s: Case Studies and books ************************** Conference on Global Competition & Competitiveness of Indian Corporate 549

Marketing Communication in Banks and Atms

2009 R Marketing Communication in Banks A Survey research on ATMs as a part of communications tool for banks Faculty Guide:Prof. R. Srinivasan Faculty, ICFAI Business School. Bangalore. Company Guide:Mrs. Kalpana Rao (Senior Strategy Brand Manager) R. K. Swamy(BBDO) Pratik Misra IBS Bangalore 5/24/2009 May 24, 2009 [Marketing Communication in Banks] A REPORT ON Marketing Communication in Banks and ATMs By Pratik Misra 08BS0002311 A report submitted in partial fulfillment of The requirements of MBA program Submitted to Faculty Guide Prof. R Shrinivasan ICFAI Business School Bangalore 2

Company Guide Mrs. Kalpana Rao Senior Brand Strategy Manager R K SwamyBBDO May 24, 2009 [Marketing Communication in Banks] Contents Executive Summery ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 7 Objective of the Project ………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 8 Introduction……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 0 A) About the company: ………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 10 B) About the project:……………………………………………………………………………………………………… 11 Advertisement: …………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 12 Sales promotion ………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 2 Personal selling …………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 13 Public Relation ………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 14 Direct marketing ……………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 14 Modern Indian Banking:…………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 5 Phases of banking in India: …………………………………………………………………………………………………. 15 Phase I …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 15 Phase II ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 16 Phase III ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 7 Different Sector in India:-……………………………………………………………. …………………………………….. 17 Public Sector Banks in India:-………………………………………………………………………………………………. 18 Private Sector Banks in India:- …………………………………………………………………………………………….. 19 Co-Operative Banks in India:- ……………………………………………………………………………………………… 0 Regional Rural Banks in India:-…………………………………………………………………………………………….. 20 Foreign Banks in India:-……………………………………………………………………………………………………… 21 Bank Marketing ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 22 Service Marketing…………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 3 Relevance of marketing to Indian bank …………………………………………………………………………………. 25 Marketing of services needs to be different from that of products ……………………………………………… 29 Generic Difference between Goods and Services …………………………………………………………………. 29 Contextual difference between goods and services marketing………………………………………………… 1 Marketing Communication in Banks:- …………………………………………………………………………………… 33 Internal Communication…………………………………………………………………………………………………. 33 External communication…………………………………………………………………………………………………. 34 Syndicate Bank: ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 36 3 May 24, 2009 Marketing Communication in Banks] Syndicate Institute of Bank Management (SIBM) and its activities ………………………………………………. 37 SIBM an Overview…………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 37 Training Centers & their activities …………………………………………………………………………………….. 37 Training Programs…………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 7 Training Methodology ……………………………………………………………………………………………………. 37 E-Learning Initiatives……………………………………………………………………………………………………… 37 Syndicate Bank BPO Service: ………………………………………………………………………………………………. 38 Syndicate Bank Toll Free Voice Mail service……………………………………………………………………………. 8 Canara Bank ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 39 Marketing Communication in Canara Bank…………………………………………………………………………….. 40 Canara Bank’s Mobile ATM Van:……………………………………………………………………………………. 40 Canara Bank’s New Brand Identity ……………………………………………………………………………………. 0 CBCRD Trust ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 41 (Canara Bank Centenary Rural Development Trust)………………………………………………………………. 41 Self-employment initiative ………………………………………………………………….. …………………………. 41 Promotion of Traditional Arts & Crafts ………………………………………………………………………………. 1 Promotion of women entrepreneurship …………………………………………………………………………. 42 Upliftment of SC and ST ………………………………………………………………………………………………. 42 CSR Activities…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 42 An effort for Helping Women Entrepreneurs in Marketing ………………………………………………….. 2 Jalayoga…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 43 (A scheme for providing drinking water to villages) …………………………………………………………… 43 Mahila Arogya Shushrusha Yojana (MASHU) ……………………………………………………………………. 43 Society for the Educational and Economic Development (SEED) …………………………………………… 3 Abhayam …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 43 Bank of Baroda………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 44 Mission statement……………………………………………………………………………………………………… 44 The Logo………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 4 Generation Next………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 44 1. Gen-Next Junior (Saving Account) ………………………………………………………………………………. 45 2. Gen-Next Lifestyle ………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 45 3. Gen-Next Power (OD Facility) ………………………………………………………………….. ………………. 45 4 May 24, 2009 [Marketing Communication in Banks] 4. Gen-Next Suvidha …………………………………………………………………………………………………… 45 Retail Loan Factory …………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 46 SME Loan Factory …………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 6 Few Finding about loan performances: …………………………………………………………………………… 47 CSR Activities…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 47 (Helping Rural Economy)……………………………………………………………………………………………… 47 ING Vysya……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 8 Mission ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 48 Profile ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 48 The new Identity ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 48 The business side……………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 9 ING Vysya Accounts ………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 49 A) ORANGE SAVING ACCOUNT ………………………………………………………………….. …………………. 49 B) SOLO account………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 50 KIOSK Marketing………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 0 KIOSK Functions……………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 50 Self Banks ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 51 Customer Relationship Management ……………………………………………………………………………………. 51 Bringing Business for ING Vysya…………………………………………………………………………………………… 2 Pre-Approach……………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 52 Approach…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 53 Presentation …………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 53 The AIDA Model: ……………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 3 Method of presentation:- ……………………………………………………………………………………………. 54 Overcoming Objections: ……………………………………………………………………………………………… 54 Closing:……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 54 Follow-up and maintenance:………………………………………………………………………………………… 5 Vijaya Bank …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 56 Agriculture Related Activities ………………………………………………………………….. …………………………. 56 Agriclinics and Agribusiness Centers………………………………………………………………………………….. 56 A) Objectives:……………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 6 B) What are Agriclinics………………………………………………………………………………………………… 56 5 May 24, 2009 [Marketing Communication in Banks] C) Agribusiness Centers ………………………………………………………………………………………………. 57 Vijaya Krishi Vikas (VKV) Scheme …………………………………………………………………………………………. 57 Objective…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 7 Salient Features……………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 57 V-Gen U th ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 57 Questionnaire …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 60 Take Away from project: ……………………………………………………………………………………………………. 3 Recommendations……………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 73 References ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 74 6 May 24, 2009 [Marketing Communication in Banks] Executive Summery This project deals with a detailed study of various tools used by banks for their marketing communication. Marketing communication includes messages and related media used to communicate with a market.

Those who participate in advertising, branding, direct marketing, graphic design marketing, packaging, promotion, publicity, sponsorship, public relations , sales and sales promotion and event marketing , online marketing, are all included in marketing communication. In bank the communication is basically divided into two parts. Internal Communication External Communication In this project I have tried to analyze the marketing communication of different banks through different communication tools.

The banks I have identified for the purpose of study are as follows:Vijaya Bank Canara Bank Syndicate bank Bank of Baroda ING Vysya The project also deals with finding out the marketing communication effectiveness of banks through their ATMs. This has to done through a Market research with the help of filled questionnaire and SPSS output. My methodology to achieve, what I intended, was meeting marketing managers in banks and communicate with them, interact to derive necessary information and also necessarily visiting the official site of the banks.

It was found that almost all of the banks did more or less the same activities in terms of marketing communication. A few public sector banks like Canara bank, Vijaya Bank, are more active in terms of Agriculture relate rural development program and private sector banks like ICICI, HDFC are engaged in advertising their brand through ads and local collaterals. The later part of this project also deals with a survey of ATMs and services of different banks. A sample size of around 140 samples was collected and was grouped in to 5 age categories! Age 18to 22 Age 22 to 27 Age 27 to 32 Age 32 to 37 Age 37 and above 7 May 24, 2009 Marketing Communication in Banks] It has been found that those who have account in ICICI bank is having a salary account with ICICI and the age group of those sample was found to be between 22 to 27 and 27 to 32 and most of them were found working. Now same sample when was tested for SBI bank it was found that age group of 22 and 27 have their account in SBI because their parents have a account in SBI or they personally feel that SBI is good. In fact these students feel that SBI is good because it provides them zero balance account which is not available in any other private sector bank apart from the salary account.

And also it provides loans at a lower rate as compared to any private sector banks. While on the other hand it was found that Canara bank is a consistent holder of all age group of people. This project was done with a lot of efforts put forward to fill the questionnaire and doing it with a SPSS analysis makes it unique. I had learned SPSS application and data /statistics analysis. It has photographs of all major ATMs and I did a comparative analysis of different banks in the market which were identified. Objective of the Project 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6.

To study the various channels of marketing communication for banks To understand the effectiveness of the marketing communication undertaken by a bank To find out the contribution of ATMs in marketing communication To analyze different players in the market To study the MarCom activities of major players in the market To suggest probable recommendations 8 May 24, 2009 [Marketing Communication in Banks] Acknowledgment I express my deep gratitude to ICFAI Bangalore which has given me an opportunity to learn something practical apart from books by including internship training in the MBA course.

With immense gratitude, I acknowledge all those whose guidance and encouragement served as a “beacon light” and crowned my efforts with success. I sincerely thank Mrs. Kalpana Rao Senior Strategy Brand Manager of R K Swamy BBDO for giving me an opportunity to take up this project. I thank her for being a constant source of inspiration, mentor and above all for her encouragement. I would like to express my profound sense of gratitude to Prof. R Shrinivasan – ICFAI Business School, Bangalore, and my project guide for guiding me as well as providing me the support to conduct this project.

With a deep sense of gratitude and indebtedness, I sincerely and whole-heartedly thank the staff team at R K Swamy BBDO for giving me value suggestions and advice throughout the execution of the project. This project would not have been concluded successfully within time without their support and help. I take this opportunity to thank all the library members of ICFAI Business School, Bangalore, friends, and my seniors who provided me with the study material on my project. 9 May 24, 2009 [Marketing Communication in Banks] Introduction A) About the company:

R K Swamy BBDO Year Founded FACTS 1973 Companies India: R K SWAMY BBDO Hansa Research Hansa Vision Customer Equity Solutions i-Vista Solutions USA: Hansa/ GCR Research Hansa Marketing Services Spread 18 offices across India & USA India Bangalore, Chennai, Hyderabad, Kolkata, Mumbai, New Delhi, plus 11 field offices USA Chicago, Il. &Portland. 20 distinct offerings n Advertising /Marketing Communications and Services 900+ 150+ 70+ Cities Services Employees Clients Served Countries where we have undertaken field work 10 May 24, 2009 [Marketing Communication in Banks]

Objective: R K Swamy BBDO has a simple goal of assisting clients by developing solutions to their marketing communication problems and to provide intelligence and support to reach their goals. The Hansa: R K Swamy adopted Hansa bird as its symbol right from its inception in 1973. This unique bird has a special place and significance in Indian mythology, making it most appropriate for advertising agency. The Hansa bird has power to separate milk from water. This characteristic more than anything else is what R K Swamy BBDO aims to live up to at all times. Founder: Mr.

R K Swamy started R K Swamy advertising associates on 3rd April 1973 and within 7 years this company has spread its wings across the top five cities of India. He pioneered the concept of Total Communication System (a four runner to the Integrated Marketing Communication of today) and opened up entire public sector as an advertising category. Network: BBDO ranks top three networks in the world. Its offices span 250 cities across 70 countries. BBDO serves the marketing communication needs of leading companies like PepsiCo, DaimlerChrysler, Mars, Wringleys , visa, ICI, BT, Cingular, Sainsbury’s, Guinness etc.

BBDO is the most creative global agency network having won more awards in the leading shows of the year than any other network. BBDO is wholly owned by Omnicom groups the world’s leading marketing communication group listed on the NYSE. B) About the project: The marketing communication can be defined as “ A strategic business process used to plan, develop, execute and evaluate coordinated and measurable persuasive brand communication program over time with consumers, customers, prospects and other targeted, relevant external and internal audits. As already explained earlier that in banks communication is divided in to two parts internal and external communication. As we proceed we would deals with both internal and external communication for each bank I have identified. Before we proceed we would in general go through, what are the basic channels in marketing communication mix. The Marketing Communications Mix is the specific mix of advertising, personal selling, sales promotion, public relations, and direct marketing, a company uses to pursue its marketing objectives.

We would briefly see all of these one by one. 11 May 24, 2009 [Marketing Communication in Banks] Advertisement: Advertisement is a means to reaches large, geographically dispersed audiences in no time. Though sometimes the overall costs are high, consumers perceive advertised goods as more legitimate. It Dramatizes company/brand; Builds brand image and also stimulate short-term sales. It is the most effective tool for building buyers’ preferences, convictions, and actions. Personal interaction allows for feedback, adjustments, and relationship-orientation.

In today world buyers are more attentive and Sales force represents a long-term commitment. It is the most expensive of all the promotional tools. Sales promotion Sales promotion may be targeted at the trade or ultimate consumer. It takes use of a variety of formats, premiums, coupons, contests, etc. Its main feature is to attract attention of the consumers or trade, offers strong purchase incentives, dramatizes offers, and boosts sagging sales. It stimulates quick response, Short-lived, not effective at building long-term brand preferences. It reaches many prospects issed via other forms of promotion; Dramatizes Company or product; Often the most under used element in the promotional mix; relatively inexpensive (certainly not ‘free’ as many people think–there are costs involved). Promotion is not just advertisement. Promotion is a form of corporate communication that uses various methods to reach a targeted audience with a certain message in order to achieve specific organizational objectives. Nearly all organizations, whether for-profit or not-for-profit, in all types of industries, must engage in some form of promotion.

Such efforts may range from multinational firms spending large sums on securing high-profile celebrities to serve as corporate spokespersons to the owner of a oneperson enterprise passing out business cards at a local businessperson’s meeting. An effective promotional strategy requires the marketer understand how promotion fits with other pieces of the marketing puzzle (e. g. , product, distribution, pricing, target markets). Consequently, promotion decisions should be made with an appreciation for how it affects other areas of the company. E. g.

For instance, running a major advertising campaign for a new product without first assuring there will be enough inventory to meet potential demand generated by the advertising would certainly not go over well with the company’s production department (not to mention other key company executives). Why promotion is needed? Build Awareness – New products and new companies are often unknown to a market, which means initial promotional efforts must focus on establishing an identity. In this situation the marketer must focus promotion to: 1) effectively reach customers, and 2) tell the market who they are and what they have to offer.

Create Interest – Moving a customer from awareness of a product to making a purchase can present a significant challenge. Customers must first recognize they have a need before they actively start to consider a purchase. The focus on creating messages that convince customers that a need exists has 12 May 24, 2009 [Marketing Communication in Banks] been the hallmark of marketing for a long time with promotional appeals targeted at basic human characteristics such as emotions, fears, sex, and humor. Provide Information – Some promotion is designed to assist customers in the search stage of the purchasing process.

In some cases, such as when a product is so novel it creates a new category of product and has few competitors, the information is simply intended to explain what the product is and may not mention any competitors. In other situations, where the product competes in an existing market, informational promotion may be used to help with a product positioning strategy. Marketers may use promotional means, including direct comparisons with competitor’s products, in an eff ort to get customers to mentally distinguish the marketer’s product from those of competitors Stimulate Demand – The right promotion can drive customers to make a purchase.

In the case of products that a customer has not previously purchased or has not purchased in a long time, the promotional efforts may be directed at getting the customer to try the product. This is often seen on the Internet where software companies allow for free demonstrations or even free downloadable trials of their products. For products with an established customer-base, promotion can encourage customers to increase their purchasing by providing a reason to purchase products sooner or purchase in greater quantities than they normally do.

For example, a pre-holiday newspaper advertisement may remind customers to stock up for the holiday by purchasing more than they typically purchase during nonholiday periods. Reinforce the Brand – Once a purchase is made, a marketer can use promotion to help build a strong relationship that can lead to the purchaser becoming a loyal customer. For instance, many retail stores now ask for a customer’s email address so that follow-up emails containing additional product information or even an incentive to purchase other products from the retailer can be sent in order to strengthen the customer-marketer relationship.

Personal selling Personal selling is a promotional method in which one party (e. g. , salesperson) uses skills and techniques for building personal relationships with another party (e. g. , those involved in a purchase decision) that results in both parties obtaining value. In most cases the “value” for the salesperson is realized through the financial rewards of the sale while the customer’s “value” is realized from the benefits obtained by consuming the product. However, getting a customer to purchase a product is not always the objective of personal selling.

For instance, selling may be used for the purpose of simply delivering information. Because selling involves personal contact, this promotional method often occurs through face-to-face meetings or via a telephone conversation, though newer technologies allow contact to take place over the Internet including using video conferencing or text messaging (e. g. , online chat). Among marketing jobs, more are employed in sales positions than any other marketing-related occupation. In the U. S. alone, the U. S.

Department of Labor estimates that over 14 million or about 11% of the overall labor force are directly involved in selling and sales-related positions. Worldwide this figure may be closer to 100 million. Yet these figures vastly under-estimate the number of people who are actively engaged in some aspect of selling as part of their normal job responsibilities. While millions of people can easily be seen as holding sales jobs, the promotional techniques used in selling are also part of the day-to-day activities of many who are usually not directly associated with selling.

For 13 May 24, 2009 [Marketing Communication in Banks] instance, top corporate executives whose job title is CEO or COO are continually selling their company to major customers, stock investors, government officials and many other stakeholders. The techniques they employ to gain benefits for their company are the same used by the front-line salesperson to sell to a small customer. Consequently, our discussion of the promotional value of personal selling has implications beyond marketing and sales departments.

Public Relation Public Relation is a management function that involves monitoring and evaluating public attitudes and maintaining mutual relations and understanding between an organization and its public. Public could include shareholders, government, consumers, employees and the media. It is the act of gettin g along with people we constantly come in touch with. PROs ensure internal cohesion in the company by maintaining a clear communications network between the management and employees. Its first objective is to improve channels of communication and to establ ish new ways of setting up a two-way flow of information and understanding.

Public relations as a separate career option has came into existence when lots of private or government companies and institution felt the need to market their product, service and facilities. Public image is important to all organizations and prominent personalities. The role of public relation specialist becomes pertinent in crisis situations when the correct and timely transmission of information can help save the face of the organization. Direct marketing Direct marketing is a sub-discipline and type of marketing. There are two main definitional characteristics which distinguish it from other types of marketing.

The first is that it attempts to send its messages directly to consumers, without the use of intervening media. This involves commercial communication (direct mail, e-mail, and telemarketing) with consumers or businesses, usually unsolicited. The second characteristic is that it is focused on driving purchases that can be attributed to a specific “call-to-action. ” This aspect of direct marketing involves an emphasis on tractable, measurable positive (but not negative) responses from consumers (known simply as “response” in the industry) regardless of medium.

If the advertisement asks the prospect to take a specific action, for instance call a free phone number or visit a website, then the effort is considered to be direct response advertising. 14 May 24, 2009 [Marketing Communication in Banks] Modern Indian Banking: Without a sound and effective banking system in India it cannot have a healthy economy. The banking system of India should not only be hassle free but it should be able to meet new challenges posed by the technology and any other external and internal factors. For the past three decades India’s banking system has several outstanding chievements to its credit. The most striking is its extensive reach. It is no longer confined to only metropolitans or cosmopolitans in India. In fact, Indian banking system has reached even to the remote corners of the country. This is one of the main reasons of India’s growth process. Not long ago, an account holder had to wait for hours at the bank counters for getting a draft or for withdrawing his own money. Today, he has a choice. Gone are days when the most efficient bank transferred money from one branch to other in two days.

Now it is simple as instant messaging or ‘dial a pizza’. Money has become the order of the day. The first bank in India, though conservative, was established in 1786. From 1786 till today, the journey of Indian Banking System can be segregated into three distinct phases. They are as mentioned below: Early phase from 1786 to 1969 of Indian Banks Nationalization of Indian Banks and up to 1991 prior to Indian banking sector Reforms. New phase of Indian Banking System with the advent of Indian Financial & Banking Sector Reforms after 1991 Phases of banking in India: Phase I

The General Bank of India was set up in the year 1786. After that came the Bank of Hindustan and Bengal Bank. The East India Company established Bank of Bengal (1809), Bank of Bombay (1840) and Bank of Madras (1843) as independent units and called it Presidency Banks. These three banks were amalgamated in 1920 and Imperial Bank of India was established which started as private shareholders banks, mostly Europeans shareholders. In 1865 Allahabad Bank was established and first time exclusively by Indians, Punjab National Bank Ltd. was set up in 1894 with headquarters at Lahore.

Between 1906 and 1913, Bank of India, Central Bank of India, Bank of Baroda, Canara Bank, Indian Bank, and Bank of Mysore were set up. Reserve Bank of India came in 1935. 15 May 24, 2009 [Marketing Communication in Banks] During the first phase the growth was very slow and banks also experienced periodic failures between 1913 and 1948. There were approximately 1100 banks, mostly small. To streamline the functioning and activities of commercial banks, the Government of India came up with The Banking Companies Act, 1949 which was later changed to Banking Regulation Act 1949 as per amending Act of 1965 (Act No. 3 of 1965). Reserve Bank of India was vested with extensive powers for the supervision of banking in India as the Central Banking Authority. During those days, public had lesser confidence in the banks. As an aftermath deposit mobilization was slow. Abreast of it the savings bank facility provided by the Postal department was comparatively safer. Phase II Government took major steps in this Indian Banking Sector Reform after independence. In 1955, it nationalized Imperial Bank of India with extensive banking facilities on a large scale especially in rural and semi-urban areas.

It formed State Bank of India to act as the principal agent of RBI and to handle banking transactions of the Union and State Governments all over the country. Seven banks forming subsidiary of State Bank of India was nationalized in 1960 on 19th July, 1969, major process of nationalization was carried out. It was the effort of the then Prime Minister of India, Mrs. Indira Gandhi. 14 major commercial banks in the country were nationalized. Second phase of nationalization Indian Banking Sector Reform was carried out in 1980 with seven more banks.

This step brought 80% of the banking segment in India under Government ownership. The following are the steps taken by the Government of India to Regulate Banking Institutions in the Country: 1949: Enactment of Banking Regulation Act. 1955: Nationalization of State Bank of India. 1959: Nationalization of SBI subsidiaries. 1961: Insurance cover extended to deposits. 1969: Nationalization of 14 major banks. 1971: Creation of credit guarantee corporation. 1975: Creation of regional rural banks. 1980: Nationalization of seven banks with deposits over 200 crores. 16 May 24, 2009 Marketing Communication in Banks] Phase III This phase has introduced many more products and facilities in the banking sector in its reforms measure. In 1991, under the chairmanship of M Narasimham, a committee was set up by his name which worked for the liberalization of banking practices. The country is flooded with foreign banks and their ATM stations. Efforts are being put to give a satisfactory service to customers. Phone banking and net banking is introduced. The entire system became more convenient and swift. The financial system of India has shown a great deal of resilience.

It is sheltered from any crisis triggered by any external macroeconomics shock as other East Asian Countries suffered. This is all due to a flexible exchange rate regime, the foreign reserves are high, the capital account is not yet fully convertible, and banks and their customers have limited foreign exchange exposure. Different Sector in India:Public Sector Banks in India Private Sector Banks in India Cooperative Banks in India Regional Rural Banks in India Foreign Banks in India In India the banks are being segregated in different groups. Each group has their own benefits and limitations in operating in India.

Each has their own dedicated target market. Few of them only work in rural sector while others in both rural as well as urban. Some only catering in cities. Some are of Indian origin and some are foreign players. 17 May 24, 2009 [Marketing Communication in Banks] Public Sector Banks in India:Allahabad Bank Andhra Bank Bank of Baroda Bank of India Bank of Maharashtra Canara Bank Central Bank of India Corporation Bank Dena Bank Indian Bank Indian Overseas Bank Oriental Bank of Commerce Punjab & Sind Bank Punjab National Bank Syndicate Bank UCO Bank Union Bank of India United Bank of India Vijaya Bank State Bank of India 8 May 24, 2009 [Marketing Communication in Banks] Private Sector Banks in India:Bank of Punjab Bank of Rajasthan Catholic Syrian Bank Centurion Bank City Union Bank Dhanalakshmi Bank Development Credit Bank Federal Bank HDFC Bank ICICI Bank IDBI Bank IndusIand Bank ING Vysya Bank Jammu & Kashmir Bank Karnataka Bank Karur Vysya Bank Laxmi Vilas Bank South Indian Bank United Western Bank UTI Bank 19 May 24, 2009 [Marketing Communication in Banks] Co-Operative Banks in India:Co operative Banks in India are registered under the Co-operative Societies Act.

The cooperative bank is also regulated by the RBI. They are governed by the Banking Regulations Act 1949 and Banking Laws (Co-operative Societies) Act, 1965. Regional Rural Banks in India:Till date in rural banking in India, there are 14,475 rural banks in the country of which 2126 (91%) are located in remote rural areas. SBI has 30 Regional Rural Banks in India known as RRBs Haryana State Cooperative Apex Bank Limited NABARD – National Bank for Agriculture and Rural Development Sindhanur Urban Souharda Co-operative Bank United Bank of India Syndicate Bank 20 May 24, 2009 Marketing Communication in Banks] Foreign Banks in India:ABN-AMRO Bank Abu Dhabi Commercial Bank Bank of Ceylon BNP Paribas Bank Citi Bank China Trust Commercial Bank Deutsche Bank HSBC JP Morgan Chase Bank Standard Chartered Bank Scotia Bank 21 May 24, 2009 [Marketing Communication in Banks] Bank Marketing Most of are familiar with the term “Marketing”. When a housewife goes to purchase something from the market, we say that she has gone for marketing. When a vegetable vendor or a potato merchant goes to market to sell potato or vegetable we say they he is selling.

When we see a “Pepsi” advertisement on TV screen we tell this is marketing strategy of the company. When we find in a shop a heavy discount, we say it is marketing gimmick. Now a days by reading the corporate messages like “we believe in relationship”. By looking at the above mentioned example we can now answer the following questions:1. 2. 3. 4. Is marketing synonymous with sale and purchase of goods and services? Is there any difference between selling and marketing? Does marketing mean advertising? Is it fashionable to talk of relationship before going for marketing?

Before we get in to answering these questions, we will see some definitions of marketing. Marketing is the management process responsible for identifying, anticipating and satisfying customer’s requirements profitably. (British Institute of Marketing) Marketing is process of choosing markets to be in, products to offer, prices to change, distributors to use and message to send. (Philip Kotler) Marketing is an attitude of mind. It is a way of organizing the organization. It is a range of activities which will employ ools and techniques in process of identifying, anticipating and satisfying customer requirements. Going by the above definitions one thing is clear. The entire activity related to marketing originates from Customer. It is those functions or that management disciplines which try to give value to the customers. No organization can exist without existence of customer. Anybody having a customer needs marketing. Hence by simple logic all organizations need marketing. Marketing is no longer confined to exchange of goods or satisfaction of demand only.

It has broadened its scope and it has also become more diffused within the organizations. That means marketing is no longer an isolated concern of few but has become everyone’s business and for good reasons. The very attributes of “market orientation” and “customer mindedness” are going to make the difference between success and failure in the fast changing market environment. Contributing towards creation of superior customer values has become the core competency in a marketer’s agenda. 22 May 24, 2009 [Marketing Communication in Banks]

Borrowing ideas from above mentioned definitions we can define bank marketing as the functions directed at understanding, meeting and satisfying customers financial needs effectively- keeping in mind the organizational objective. If the corporate objective of the bank may be growth in business which may result in more profit, the sole objective of marketing is profit through customer satisfaction. Marketing is much border concept than selling. While selling starts with the bank, for marketing the starting point is market.

Selling focuses on products while focus for marketing is customer’s needs and wants. While selling emphasizes on exchange concept, marketing is concerned with value concept. In selling cost determine the price while in marketing customer determines the price s. Selling may thrive of the casual relationship with customer while marketing believes in long term permanent relationship. Service Marketing In bank they don’t sell saving bank account, current account, fixed deposit, or various loan products like demand loan, personal loan, or term loan.

In fact what they sell is financial services. When a customer comes to bank, he comes with an expectation of satisfying some of his financial needs. Generally financial needs arise because of a customer’s following requirement. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. Cash Accountability Security of valuable goods Transfer of money from one place to another Deferred payment facility where he wants to take something with a promise to pay in future. Liquidity Return on his funds Financial Advices To satisfy these needs they develop some products in the form of deposits, advance, remittance scheme etc.

But marketing means satisfying those needs rather than selling these products. A thorough understanding about the actual need of the customer can provide better insights to offer the relevant products to meet customer’s expectations. But the message for bank marketing is they are dealing in services and in products. In marketing physical products like a soap, fridge, or a motor cycle (physical goods) different from selling services in a bank or a saloon or a restaurant or an educational institute (services). There is a substantial difference between marketing of physical product and marketing of services.

This will be clear if we analyze the core characteristics of services. Services are intangible one cannot touch it, smell it or see it only he can experience or feel. A good is an essence an object, a thing. A service in essence is a performance. The marketing task for service marketers becomes difficult as he cannot measure the impressions of the customers correctly. In practice the customers tent to be attentive to tangible clues about the service. The evidence that service marketers manage may be through physical environment, communications and prices.

The other characteristics of services products are that production and consumption of services take place simultaneously. If a pair of reebok shoes is manufactured in china and consumed in India or a Nirma 23 May 24, 2009 [Marketing Communication in Banks] soap is manufactured in Ahmadabad and consumed in Mumbai the user of the products are not aware of the products. But to have a feel of the service of a particular branch of bank, to enjoy in-flight service of an airway or to have a hair cut of Amitab Bhachan’s style one has to enter the bank premises, fly in air lines, or sit before mirror in a saloon respectively.

It is because of this characteristics that a marketing man has to enter that user derive satisfaction out of his involvement in the service delivery process. Not only the mood behavior but approach of the service provider but also those attributes of the receiver may influence the service quality. Hence delivery of the service to the satisfaction of the customer becomes subjective and judgmental. Another critical aspect of the service product is its heterogeneity. A particular brand of BPL TV or Mercedes car sold through any dealer may be same throughout the world.

But service product offered at 1000 branches of banks may be of 1000 types. Hardly service product provides any scope for standardization of the products. This lack of homogeneity creates a particular problem for the service marketer. If a customer is not satisfied with a particular dealer of BPL TV he will go to another dealer but if he is not satisfied with the service of the branch of bank he will hardly use the service of the service from another branch of same bank because he will generalize quickly that service of that bank is not good.

Service products are easily perishable in the sense that there is no scope to hold an inventory of the service product like physical products. If on a particular day on a Saving Bank Account counter of a bank only 5 people come avail the facility the opportunity of serving more people on that particular day is lost forever. If an airline flies on a particular rout on a particular day with 20 seats vacant, the opportunity to generate more revenue is lost forever. This necessitates the responsibility of service marketing is manage the supply and demand by regulating flow of customer evenly throughout the delivery period.

Bank’s services products in contrast to physical products have a particular characteristic in terms of lack of distribution channel, relationship between service producer and service receiver, absence of patent rights, non availability of information with third parties and high level of government intervention etc. Whereas goods marketers may be able to move prospective customers from brand awareness to brand preference with packaging, promotion, pricing and distribution, service marketers usually cannot.

How service personals conduct themselves in presence of customers, how they act, what they say, what they don’t say, there overall appearance – influences whether customers buy from firm again. But a superior physical product can be manufactured in a factory, packaged and delivered intact to the customer. Now a day’s marketing is a way of exploring opportunities. When organizations are trying to develop market orientation, basically it refers to creation an environment where all the staff should speak one language in terms of creating value to the customer through their activities.

In any discussion, on marketing concept, it is worthwhile to mention the differences between “products features” and “Products benefits”. The customers are more interested in benefits than features. 24 May 24, 2009 [Marketing Communication in Banks] Following e. g. in terms of credit card may clarify the point in better way. Credit Card:- Features 1. It is a plastic Card. 2. It is a means of payment 3. It can be used to take credit 4. A known interest is charged on credits outstanding. 5. It has a distinguishing color 6. You can get a copy of every bill 7. It is more secure than cash.

Benefits 1. It is easy to carry in purse. 2. You don’t have to carry a large sum of cash. 3. You can purchase goods and services now and pay later. 4. You always know how much credit card will cost. 5. You will be recognized as a person of distinction. 6. You can keep a running total of commitments. 7. Only your sign will commit you to debt. The above e. g. shows that the banker should be able to communicate the benefits of the products to enable the customer to choose a product that satisfies his needs. Any marketing activity begins with information about the customers.

Though not much effort has been made by Indian bank to crate data base of the customers they have been able to percolate down the line the message that is “Successful banking is creating and keeping the customers”. Relevance of marketing to Indian bank The Indian banking is undergoing a metamorphosis since last few years. The discontinuous and turbulent changes have forced bank to come out of their traditional mind set and act proactively not only to face the challenges bravely but also to survive and grow in the fiercely competitive scenario.

Strategic change management on the part of banker necessitated suspending of existing structures and believe and in some cases abandoning the age old practices. To have this paradigm banks need to have a very drastic attitudinal change at all level of organization. To break the paradigm and or rules and system orientation, the banker of today needs to have more and more customer oriented. The traditional manager was sitting in his cabin and waiting for the customer. His job was to accept deposits, lend money and handle instrument for collection or remittance.

Because the business was profitable there was no need to analyze for the competition. But perspective for the present manager has undergone change. He has to go out and get the business. He will be nowhere if he prefers to stick to his seat. Once out he has to study the market. Intermediation banking is declined. Distinction between commercial /developmental/specialized banks is going to vanish. Every organization is trying to function as financial supermarket. Electronic technology has changed the entire service delivery process 25 May 24, 2009 [Marketing Communication in Banks] here by considerably reducing the prospect of cross selling. The quality of the human assets is going to decide the quality of Bank. The cash and the currency are being replaced by the credit cards and checks. The bankers have entered into a phase of buyers market where the customers no longer want the products off the selves. They want Taylor made service. Market segmentation into specialized market is going to be the order of the day. All these changes call for marketing approach on the part of banker. Marketing in the simplest form refers to giving value to the customers. It is the way of organizing the organization.

It is an attitude of mind. It is proactive thinking In terms of understanding the customer, evaluating competition and monitoring the environment. Since nationalization, banks in India dilute their commercial character in name of social banking and as a result profit took a back seat undermining their financial health. Till 1990 bakers were perfectly comfortable with their unparallel growth in terms of bank’s geographical coverage, achievement in priority sector, leading contribution towards capital formation and their role as an allocator of scarce financial resource to various sectors of economy.

But with the advent of liberalization and deregulation in financial sector, mushroom growth of non banking, financial institutions, mutual funds, long term developmental financial institutes taking part in commercial banking operations, entry of new , private and foreign banks and diversified need of ever demanding customers, the banks have started feeling the need of having a strategy to face these challenges. The new environment calls for some new competencies and greater professionalism to sail through this turbulent phases when banks are finding sea-changes in their areas of operations.

Though the banks have started learning the art of managing changes the pace and the intensity of change sweeping across the banking horizon has prevented bankers in claiming to have the desired level of competencies and professionalism. Service with a smile is a synonymous with the quality service. But today’s quality service encompasses several dimensions. If we analyze the paradigm shift if quality concept as given below, we may be able to relate the quality services as an integral part of bank marketing. Excellent service is the foundation for excellent marketing.

When service is excellent service is easier. Quality services help bankers to raise customer’s perceived value in service there by making any price rise more potable to the customer. But aggressively marketing a low quality service in the essence, the core, of the service marketing are the banks prepared themselves to identify themselves as partners in quality culture. Unfortunately rendering quality service has been a matter of great concern for bank management. As the staff members who constitute the segment of internal customers have developed an indifferent attitude towards customer service.

In service industry like banks, the service provider i. e. staff member have to be significant part of service. The quality of the employee influences the quality of the service which ultimately influences the effectiveness of the service marketing. Hence marketing job becomes more critical in successfully implementing the strategies of internal marketing. According to Leonard L. berni and A Parasuram “Internal Marketing attracting, developing, motivating and retaining qualified employees through job products that satisfies their needs.

The ultimate goal of 26 May 24, 2009 [Marketing Communication in Banks] internal marketing is to encourage effective marketing behavior. Only a satisfied or a motivated employee can satisfy a customer. The employee striving to for meeting customer expectation should have clear vision. Most of the employees may be physically present but the organization may not be able to keep them mentally and emotionally. A clear understanding of the vision and mission will add dignity to the work and make the job more meaningful.

Often service providers are ill prepared for delivering quality services encompassing its various dimensions like reliability, tangibility, responsiveness, assurance and empathy. The employers need to have knowledge of banks products, their features and how they benefit the customer and pricing. An added knowledge of banks fundamental strengths and achievements may push the negotiation further. Needless to say they too arrive at a win-win situation; they are also required to reply to customers quarry about the benefits extended by the competitors. Banking can mostly be carried by trong common sense. By using this precise virtue, an employee can understand customer’s personality, value, likes and dislikes. In case of need a banker can master some questioning and negotiation skills. But what today’s customer wants most is personalized presentation of knowledge which will appeal to their needs, desires, behavior, value and interest. A positive and persistent attitude must be marketer’s valuable weapon. When a customer goes to a bank he possesses enormous faith on them and they have to justify themselves as trustworthy in his eyes.

The fundamental skills mentioned above can be possessed provided one approach his/her work with positive attitude. Attitudes are difficult to be changed by training either class room or on job unless the employee decides to change it. Attitudinal change is the prime necessity at this present moment. All banks have started realizing that to bring about the market orientation, internal marketing has to be practiced in a big way. Managers either at middle or at senior level s have to perform the role of coach, counselor and mentor to bring about desired changes.

Service is a performance and it is difficult to separate performance from people. Investing in people quality in a service industry will certainly enhance product quality. Many times one may wonder why banks not avail promotional tools like advertising to sell their products to mass markets. Now withstanding the huge cost of advertising which may affect bottom line of bank, the bankers are not sure of service assurance from the front line staff. The lack of skill accentuated by attitudinal problem limits the guarantee to the service quality.

The poor social, political and PR skills needs up gradation. Frontline staff needs empowerment to use discretion to be concerned about the customer. Frontline staff needs empowerment to use discretion to be concerned about the customer, to take the initiative or they will continue to refer all the matters in hierarchical chain there by allowing opportunities to pass by. Lastly teamwork has to be the order of the day if customers have to experience several moments of truth during their brief interaction with employees at the branch premises. 27 May 24, 2009 [Marketing Communication in Banks]

Transaction Banking Vs Relationship banking It is sufficiently well established that the cost of acquiring a new customer is nearly 5 times than that of retaining one growing concern for customer. Retention has in tent focus attention on newly emerging concept of relationship marketing. When we target at a customer base of 2 A. D. it is natural to have emphasis on relationship marketing rather than carrying transaction on camel relationship basis. This call on concentration on building unique relationship between individuals customers on a one-to-one basis.

Since the service component will become more critical in building long term relationship, the organization should emphasis on internal marketing, empowerment of front line people and the training of the employees to be marketing personal at branches. 28 May 24, 2009 [Marketing Communication in Banks] Marketing of services needs to be different from that of products Services often compete with goods to offer similar core benefits to customer, but this does not mean that marketing management task s are the same. There are generally both contextual and generic differences between goods and services marketing.

Although latter are likely to narrow over time, he former will remain, requiring service marketers to play a number of roles not usually expected of their counterparts in manufacturing industries. Christopher H. Loveslok Services of course often complete in the market place with goods that offer their users the same (or broadly similar) core benefits. For instance buying a service may be an alternative to doing it yourselves. Example range from lawn care and babysitting to industrial equipment maintenance. But just because a goods and services are close competitors does not mean that marketing management task for both are the same.

A packaged food marketer is likely to come to grief using similar strategies to market fast food restaurants , a successful automobile marketer will not necessarily find it easy to replicate that success in the rental car business. A marketing executive for a manufacturer of heavy electrical instrument will need to develop a new managerial style. As well as new strategies –if transferred to same company’s equipment servicing division. Marketing management tasks in the service sector can be differentiated from those in the manufacturing sector along two dimensions. Generic Difference between Goods and Services

Nature of the products “A Good, “Is an object, a device a thing: A service is a deed, a performance, an effort. ” Admittedly, Goods are sometimes an integral part of unparticular service, especially where rentals are concerned. But even in such an explicitly Good-Oriented service as the car-Rentals business, the relevant products attributes extents for beyond those normally associated with owing once car , Including such elements as pickup and drop-off locations (Often indifferent cities), inclusive insurance, maintenance, free connecting airport, shuttle buses long distance reservations, and speedy, courteous customers contact personal.

From the customer’s perspective, three distinctive characteristics of most of most service products are: their ephemeral, experiential nature. Different products methods Producing a service typically involves assembling and delivering the output of a mix of physical facilities and mental or physical labour. Sometimes customer’s role is relatively passive, more often they are actually involved in helping create the service product. These factors make it hard for service organization to control for quality and to offer customer a consistent product.

When you buy a hotel room, you are sure at some lesser percentage it will work to give you a good night’s sleep without any hassle, or people hanging on the walls and all the bad things that can happen in hotel. 29 May 24, 2009 [Marketing Communication in Banks] No inventories for service Because a service is a deed or performance, rather than a tangible item, it cannot be inventoried. Of course the necessary equipment, facilities and labour can be held in readiness to create the service, but these simply represent the productive capacity and not the product itself.

An unused capacity in a service organization is rather like a running tap in a sink with no plug: the flow is wasted unless customers are present to receive it. As a result the service marketers must work to smooth demand levels to match capacity. Lack of physical distribution channels for most services: The marketer’s task in manufacturing firms includes developing distribution strategies physically moving the product from the factory to the customers. Typically this involves the use of one or more intermediaries.

Because the services delivered to the person of the customer are consumed as they are produced, the service factory, retail outlet, and consumption point are often one and the same. Hence distribution strategies in service organizations emphasize the scheduling of service delivery as much as the locations. And unlike manufactures most service organizations have direct control over the service delivery outlet, either through outright ownership or tightly written franchise agreements.

Availability of electronic distribution channels for some services: A rapidly growing approach to service distribution is through electronic distribution channels. Physical goods and people cannot be teleported, as science fiction writer predict that some day they will. But services directed at the customers mind such as education, entertainment and information- can be telecommunicated through such channels such as radio, television and telephone, telescoping or microwave relays.

Moreover the use of remote printers, video recorders and telecopiers, even makes it possible for such services to produce a hard copy at receiving end, the closest we have yet come to

Research Methology

RESEARCH METHOLOGY 2. 1 Title of the study: To understand “The customers satisfaction after sales and services provided by Harpreet Ford” 2. 2 Statement of the problem: With the recent influx of different brands in today’s four wheel auto segment each striving to satisfy customer with the end result of maintaining loyalty, at present cars as such have become necessity but not a nicety. Keeping in mind curriculum requirement and organizational requirement the study has been conducted to find out customer satisfaction towards Ford Ikon. However, due to time constraint an in depth study could not be undertaken. . 3 Need for the study: Aim of every business organization is to satisfy its customers and to earn profit. The need for the study arises in order to create awareness among the customers and to determine the customer satisfaction towards Harpreet Ford and to know their preferences towards Ford Ikon. 2. 4 Objective of the study: 2. 4. 1 Primary objective: • To know the customers opinion towards existing after sales services. • To find out customer’s preference towards Ford Ikon. 2. 4. 2 Secondary objective: • To attain feedback regarding success of sales promotional tools of the dealer. To market brand loyalty towards the product. 2. 5 Scope of the study: Nowadays car is a part of everyone’s life. Almost everyone from the lower class people to the upper class have cars. Customers will b satisfied only when they are provided with proper service of their cars. So findings of the study help the organization in the following ways: 1. Its helps to know which publicity media gives maximum retention to the customers. 2. The study also helps the company to improve their standard of service and handle the competition in the near future. 3.

It also helps in putting possible improvements, additions, and new strategies. 4. It also puts a detailed insight into the different aspects of the company, such as manufacturing, marketing, sales, production and finance etc. 2. 6 Limitations of the Study: 1. It is restricted to Delhi only; hence respondents are selected from in and around Delhi. 2. It mainly confines to the age group of 18-45 years of students, professors, businessman, and serviceman, i. e. middle class & upper class population. 3. The study could not be conducted on a large sample size and area due to time constraints.

This covers all academic requirements strictly maintaining organizational standards; a sincere attempt has been made to collect the information. 4. The number of sample size is 100 respondents. 2. 7 Research Methodology of the study: A research design is the arrangement of conditions for the collection and analysis of data in a manner in which it aims to combine the relevant information to the research purpose. It is the overall observation pattern framework of the projects that stipulated what information is to be collected from which source, by what procedure. Methodology; The research was conducted on basis of questionnaire survey approach; the survey was conducted to learn about customer’s satisfaction towards the brand, product, price and promotion. ? A structured questionnaire was given to fill in the answers required to study factors such as attitude, satisfaction, mode of purchase etc, as the rate of reliable information is higher in this method 2. 8 Source of Data: 2. 8. 1 Primary Data: Primary data refers to the data collected a fresh or at first hand by the researcher. In this survey method, it is collected by means of observation and structured questionnaire.

The questions are carefully framed in simple and direct words to enable easy response from the respondents. 2. 8. 1 Secondary Data: Secondary data are those which have already been collected by other people and which have already been passed through a statistical process. Here, the secondary data was collected from company profile, records and personal discussions with the officials as well as with help from books, journals and websites. 2. 9 Research Instrument (Questionnaire): The questionnaire is a set of questions presented to respondents for their answers. It consists of simple, direct, unbiased wording.

All questions are framed in multiple options so that it easy to the respondent. The primary data collected through questionnaire was done in Delhi at Harpreet Ford under external guide Mr. Tandon general manager of the showroom. 2. 10 Plan of analysis: The data collected from the questionnaires was processed and analyzed. The information was carefully handled and sorted out under various headings. Each question was treated under separate heading and tabulation. To understand the satisfaction of target population in a better manner their answers were analyzed with reference to their personal data.