Contract Law

General Introduction For parties to be bound by an agreement, it must first be determined if a prima facie valid and enforceable contract exists. A contract can be defined as an agreement containing promises made between two or more parties with the intention of creating certain legal rights and obligations and enforceable in a court of law [1]. For a legally binding contract to exist the following elements must be satisfied: 1. An offer must exist 2. The offer must be accepted 3. Consideration must pass between the parties 4. The parties must intend the agreement to be legally binding . The parties must have the legal capacity to enter into a contract 6. The contract cannot be for an illegal purpose. This essay will explore aspects of contract law based on two scenarios advising the correct legal position. Case One – Known Facts Negotiations took place between two parties for the sale of a car from Boris (the seller) to Michael (the purchaser) with the intent to create legal relations. The application of contract law is required to determine the legal position and remedies involved. Case One – Issues of the Law

The matters for legal consideration involved in case one include: 1) Did negotiations give rise to an offer and acceptance? 2) Was the revocation of the counter-offer by Michael effective? 3) Did consideration pass between the parties? 4) What remedies are available to Boris for breach of contract? Case One – Application of the Law Offer and Acceptance For an agreement to be legally enforceable there must be an offer by the offeror to be bound by certain terms. This offer can be in writing, orally or by conduct and made to an individual, group or even to the world at large.

This offer must be followed by an unqualified acceptance communicated by the offeree to the offeror. The offeror must indicate an intention or a willingness to be bound by the offer, otherwise it will be seen as an invitation to commence negotiations, or the soliciting of an offer[2]. An offer – an expression of willingness to contract on terms stated[3] is sometimes difficult to distinguish from an invitation to treat, as illustrated in the case Harvey v Facey [1983] AC 552 and Carlill v Carbolic Smoke Ball Co [1893] 1 QB 256.

Applying these principles to our case, Michael the buyer, is the offeree and Boris, the seller, is the offeror. The offer made by Boris created the ability for Michael to form a contract upon unconditional acceptance of the terms. If the courts experience difficulties determining the legality of offer and acceptance, the objective test would be applied. If a reasonable person believed an offer had been made or that the parties had reached an agreement based on their conduct, then they will be bound, notwithstanding the possibility of there being no real ‘meeting of the minds’[4]. In pplying this, a reasonable person would conclude the inspection of the car and time allowed for consideration amounts to an offer rather than an invitation to treat. Having determined an offer was made, the next step is to establish if there was an acceptance of the offer. To make sure there is a “meeting of minds” to create a contract, the acceptance of an offer must be unqualified (no questions, absolute, complete) with nothing further to be negotiated between the parties[5]. As such, it must be determined if Michael’s written response to Boris constitutes a counter-offer or a request for further information.

If it was a request for further information, as in Stevenson, Jacques & Co v McLean [1880] 5 QDB 346, the offer remains open and could have been accepted. However, Michael materially altered the offer terms by confirming he would pay a reduced sum. Furthermore, the language used by Michael suggests he was making a counter-proposal – he was advising Boris whilst he was happy with the condition of the car, $2000 was beyond his budget but he could purchase it for $800. As was held in Hyde v Wrench [1840] 3 Beav 334, a counter-offer amounts to a rejection of an offer.

In applying this case, the offer made by Boris would terminate the original offer. Therefore, Michael’s response constitutes a counter-offer not an invitation to treat. Another matter for legal consideration is whether Boris accepted the counter- offer and if the method of acceptance was legally binding. An acceptance converts the promise of the offeror into an agreement[6]. The acceptance by Boris to Michael’s counter-offer contained two key elements: The facts presented clearly indicate upon receipt of Michael’s letter, Boris accepted the offer and promptly replied by post creating a simple, bilateral ontract – ‘a promise for a promise’. The exchange of such promises creates an enforceable contract. In contract law, the offeror can establish the method of acceptance and the acceptance must comply with the requirements in the offer before an agreement is completed. The facts provided indicate, Michael as offeror, failed to prescribe any method of acceptance. There is an assumption that if no method of acceptance is prescribed, acceptance is to take the same form as the offer[7].

Given Boris replied by the method of offer, being post, it can be concluded that Boris complied with the method of acceptance by posting the letter of acceptance. Having determined there was an offer and acceptance in place, it must be determined when acceptance of the counter-offer took place. Contract law states if acceptance is not communicated to the offeror, there is no contract – unless the offeror has not required (waived) the need for communication expressly or by implication[8]. An important exception to the rule that acceptance must be communicated is the postal acceptance rule:[9] Where the circumstances are such that it must have been within the contemplation of the parties that… the post might be used as a means of communicating the acceptance of an offer, the acceptance is complete as soon as it is posted”. The postal acceptance rule is based on the principal;- As was held in the case of Adams v Lindsell [1818] 106 ER 250 and Byrne & Co. V Leon Van Tienhoven [1880] LR 5 CPD 344 acceptance of the offer took place and subsequent contract formed, when the letter of the acceptance was posted.

In applying these cases, it is concluded Boris acceptance of the counter-offer took place upon posting. Revocation A revocation of an offer is defined as a withdrawal or termination of an offer so that it can no longer be accepted[11]. To be effective, revocation must be communicated to the offeree before the offeree has accepted the offer[12]. As in the case of Byrne & Co. V Leon Van Tienhoven [1880] LR 5 CPD 344 a contract was formed upon telegraph of the acceptance posted, regardless of the letter of revocation being received after this date.

Given the postal method of acceptance, the revocation of the offer had to be received by Boris prior to him posting his letter of acceptance. The facts presented state the revocation was received after posting the letter of acceptance. Therefore, the attempt to revoke the offer is ineffective. An offer may exclude the operation of the postal acceptance rule by requiring actual communication of acceptance before a contract is created by such a clause as “Acceptance shall not deemed not to have taken place until it is received at this office” [13].

Had Michael stipulated this and the fact that Michael contacted Boris prior to receiving his letter of acceptance by post to revoke the offer, Michael would have been in a possession to legally enforce the revocation of offer. Consideration In every simple contract, consideration must be present for it to be valid. Consideration can be defined as the price, detriment or forbearance given as value for a promise[14]. Given the exchange in question provides mutual promises and is executory in nature (i. e.

Boris sells a car to Michael for a sum of money), a contract is evident. Case One – Conclusion In applying contract law, it is determined an offer was made by Boris, which was rejected by a counter-offer by Michael. Boris accepted this counter-offer by the appropriate method giving rise to a contract as consideration is present between the two parties. Case One – Remedies Michael’s attempt to revoke the offer is an anticipatory breach. Anticipatory breach is a breach of contract where one party states – or implies – or threatens a breach of contract[15].

With anticipatory breach, Boris has two options available – repudiate the contract and sue for breach of contract or affirm the contract and sue for breach of contract at the time performance was due to occur. If Boris elects to repudiate the contract and sue for breach, the general principle is that an injured party should be put in a position they would have been had the breach never occurred[16]. For Boris to be successful, he must clearly demonstrate causation and the loss suffered is usual and a reasonably direct consequence of the breach of contract.

On the facts presented, Boris rejecting offers made on the car by other parties constitutes both causation and loss suffered directly entitling him to expectation losses. If Boris elects to affirm the contract, he provides Michael time to complete the contract, or take advantage of any circumstances that he could decline, and then sue for breach. As was in the case of Foran v Wight [1989]168 CLR 385, by electing to wait until performance is due, the risk is that Michael may have an excuse for not performing rescinding the remedy available to Boris. Case Two – Known Facts

The known facts of the case are summarised as two parties had a written contract for the purchase of a clock. After the contract was discharged due to performance, there is a dispute regarding meaning of the contract and the legal recourse available. Case Two – Issues of the Law When a contract is disputed, it is necessary to interpret the terms of a contract. During negotiations, not all statements made by the parties will be regarded as terms of contract. To determine the appropriate legal remedies available, it is necessary to distinguish between contractual terms, representation, a collateral contract or a sales puff.

Case Two – Application of the Law Collateral Contract versus Contractual Term To determine if Benjamin’s statement regarding the age of the clock is a non-contractual representation or a contractual term is dependent upon (1) the intention of the parties, and (2) how important the statement is to the contract. For a statement of fact to form the basis of a collateral contract it must be determined Benjamin’s statement was intended to be relied upon, he guaranteed its truthfulness and Arthur relied on this as the basis for entering the contract.

As was in the case of De Lassalle v Guildford [1910] 2 KB 215, it was held an oral collateral contract existed based on a verbal assurance being the consideration for the party to enter into the contract. In applying this case and the pre-requisite of a collateral contract, the statement is considered to be a collateral contract. For a collateral contract to be valid and enforceable, it must be established the statement relied on is promissory in nature, consistent with the main contract and not supported by past consideration. As was in the case of JJ Savage and Sons Pty Ltd v Blakney [1970] 44 AJR 123, a statement must be romissory, not representational for it to be actionable in a court of law. In applying this case, whilst the statement induced Arthur to enter into a contract, it is considered an expression of opinion or representational. Regardless of the collateral contract being consistent with the main contract and no past consideration, a collateral contract could not be enforced on this basis. Condition versus Warranty Given the statement in question is a contractual term, it is necessary to ascertain the nature of the term to determine the legal remedies available to Arthur.

A condition is an essential term of the contract whilst a warranty is a less important term[17]. To distinguish between a condition and a warranty, a key consideration is the significance of the statement in question. Given the written contract is said to contain implied terms, the courts would apply an objective test. This considers the case as a whole and the importance of the broken stipulation as an inducement to enter into a contract. As was in the case of Associated Newspapers Ltd v Bancks [1951] 83 CLR 322, a contract would not have been entered into without adequate assurances regarding substantial performance of the contract.

Furthermore, as was in the case of Poussard v Spiers & Bond [1876] 1 QBD 410, failure to perform the contract entitled the Spiers & Bond to terminate the contract. The case of Bettini v Gye [1876] 1 QBD 183, resulted in Gye being unable to repudiate the agreement but could claim compensation for any loss incurred as the apparent breach of contract was subsidiary to the main purpose of the contract. Case Two – Conclusion In applying contract law, it is determined Benjamin’s statement regarding the age of the clock is a condition of the contract, not a warranty.

It is argued that Arthur would not have entered into the contract for the purchase of a 28 year old clock at the price of $2000 as a clock of that age is worth considerably less. Furthermore, the statement by Benjamin regarding the age of the clock provided Arthur with adequate assurance and inducement to enter into the contract. Case Two – Remedies Available The breach of contract enables Arthur to rescind the contract and/or seek damages. By rescinding the contract, Arthur can insist upon refund of monies paid and he returns the clock.

By seeking damages, Arthur can seek compensation for the difference in the value of a clock of the age of 285 versus 28 years old. The general rule is that, where the expectation or reliance losses can be quantified, the plaintiff would receive this much[18]. General Conclusion This essay has explored aspects of contract law. Case one specifically covered offer and acceptance, consideration and remedies available for anticipatory breach. Case two covered collateral contracts versus terms of contracts with particular emphasis on conditions of contracts and the remedies available for breach of contract. ———————- [1] Gibson, A. & Fraser, D. 2007 ‘Business Law’ 3rd edn, Pearson Education Australia, pp. 245. [2] Gibson, A. & Fraser, D. 2007 ‘Business Law’ 3rd edn, Pearson Education Australia, pp. 268 [3] IPP, The Honourable Justice et al 1997, Butterworths Business and Law Dictionary, LexisNexis Butterworths, Sydney p. 348 [4] Gibson, A. & Fraser, D. 2007 ‘Business Law’ 3rd edn, Pearson Education Australia, pp. 266 [5] Latimer P. 2009, ‘Australian Business Law’ 28th edn, CCH North Ryde, NSW p. 295 [6] Gibson, A. & Fraser, D. 2007 ‘Business Law’ 3rd edn, Pearson Education Australia, p. 77 [7] Latimer P. 2009, ‘Australian Business Law’ 28th edn, CCH North Ryde, NSW p. 305 [8] Latimer P. 2009, ‘Australian Business Law’ 28th edn, CCH North Ryde, NSW p. 303 [9] Gibson, A. & Fraser, D. 2007 ‘Business Law’ 3rd edn, Pearson Education Australia, p. 282 [10] Latimer P. 2009, ‘Australian Business Law’ 28th edn, CCH North Ryde, NSW p. 307 [11] IPP, The Honourable Justice et al 1997, Butterworths Business and Law Dictionary, LexisNexis Butterworths, Sydney [12] Latimer P. 2009, ‘Australian Business Law’ 28th edn, CCH North Ryde, NSW p. 307 [13] Latimer P. 009, ‘Australian Business Law’ 28th edn, CCH North Ryde, NSW p. 307 [14] IPP, The Honourable Justice et al 1997, Butterworths Business and Law Dictionary, LexisNexis Butterworths, Sydney p. 112 [15] Latimer P. 2009, ‘Australian Business Law’ 28th edn, CCH North Ryde, NSW p. 435 [16] Gibson, A. & Fraser, D. 2007 ‘Business Law’ 3rd edn, Pearson Education Australia [17] Gibson, A. , Rigby, S. , & Tamsitt, G 2005 Commercial Law in Principle 3rd edn. Lawbook Co, Sydney [18] Gibson, A. , Rigby, S. , & Tamsitt,G 2005 Commercial Law in Principle 3rd edn. Lawbook Co, Sydney p 214

American Horror Film and the Critical Public Sphere

American Horror Film and the Critical Public Sphere Should film be purely entertainment or should it contribute to the critical public sphere. In discussing the above argument, I will explore how the horror genre, often derided as simply pure entertainment, can contribute to the public sphere. Horror is one of the more prominent genres in film, back as far as the dawn of cinema with films such as Nosferatu (1922) and The Cabinet of Dr. Caligari (1920). As a genre, it is studied and criticised for its potential for layered symbolism and metaphors for real world tensions and anxieties.

Despite this, very few films of this genre ever exceed past cult following. It could be argued that horror merely satisfies as entertainment with cheap shocks and scares and fulfils a base taste for gore and gruesomeness. In this essay I will argue against this and reason that the horror genre can exceed cult value and cheap trills and be a valuable contribution to the critical public sphere. American horror will be the focal point as I feel it has a rich history in cinema with regards to contribution of cultural value and reflection of American society. Horror film has a propensity toward expressing a contemporary more moeileu.

Night of the Living Dead (1968), George A. Romero’s cult-classic and Tobe Hooper’s The Texas Chainsaw Massacre (1974) are two of the most important horror films ever made. Not only were they innovative in their special effects, they depicted stories that were culturally relevant, even if in a horror setting. Romero’s film depicts a sudden state of emergency sweeping the country – not forgetting that this was the time of the Vietnam War – as the dead back to life in order to eat the flesh of others. The film explored many deep seated fears and prejudices in society.

A noteworthy example of this is the fact that the protagonist, an African American man, display many heroic qualities without being elevated to anything more than human but is ultimately killed in a shocking twist, not by the zombie outbreak but by a white man with a rifle picking off the remaining undead. The chilling echoes of the sheriff’s words, “That’s another one for the fire,” sent shockwaves through audience members still reeling from the assassination of Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr. (as well as that of Malcolm X some three years earlier), in an age where lynching of black citizens was still all-too-common.

Indeed, the groups “search and destroy” mission during the film’s closing scenes, with reporters on-hand and helicopters in the air, spoke resoundingly to American citizens of the period, mirroring the media coverage of the war in Vietnam. Many critics immediately grasped the sociological impact the unpopular war had on the tone, style and content of Night of the Living Dead, and Romero himself agreed that his film was a product of the times. This film was deemed so culturally significant that it decidedly preserved in the United States National Film Registry.

Blending psychological insights with gore, it moved the genre even further away from the gothic horror trends of earlier eras and brought horror into everyday life. Romero also satirised the consumer society in the sequel Dawn of the Dead where a group of civilians are trapped in a shopping mall, a seemingly utopian location in contemporary society, by the zombie hordes. Dawn of the Dead was released in 1978, a time in which America began to get swamped in commercialism and materialism, Shopping malls were appearing on every corner and were becoming central meeting points for the masses.

Designer clothes and McDonald’s were at the forefront to America’s culture. To mirror this, Romero chose a shopping mall as the backdrop to Dawn of the Dead. Rather than the tense, rising action of the first film, we are treated with almost a parody of its own genre. The materialism that was sweeping through the country at the time became the focal point of the film with the non-dead greedily taking everything that they can from the mall. Now, fortified in the mall as their safe haven, all of the possessions that they have acquired become fruitless. The characters dress up in expensive clothes, play poker with real money that means less than matchsticks and spread caviar on their cream crackers. “[1] This was reflective of the time. It was the decade of the blockbuster and Hollywood celebrities were getting more money, more publicity and people looked up to them, wanting to be them. With this film, Romero was showing what could happen in that scenario – money doesn’t always make you happy; too much of something is like having nothing again. As for Texas Chainsaw Massacre, it was made at a time when war was being televised and people were becoming desensitised to violence.

As well as that, there were backlashes against the excesses of the feminist movement. Notice how “the film’s villains ignore the sexual dimension of their victims. To the demented family in The Texas Chainsaw Massacre, the body is sexually manifest but meaningless beyond its material components. ”[2] This film falls into the horror-of-personality sub-genre, which displays some of the more frightening aspects of contemporary society and the dark side of human nature which is often considered to be more harrowing than films which contained supernatural forces as a threat.

A prominent theme in this genre is patriarchal rage. According to film critic Vivian Sobchack, “As the culture changes, as patriarchy is challenged, as more and more “families” no longer conform in structure, membership, and behaviour to the standards set by bourgeois mythology, the horror film plays out the rage of a paternity denied the economic and political benefits of patriarchal power. ”[3] The Shining (1980), directed by Stanley Kubrick, is an example of a film with patriarchal rage as the foremost danger.

In the film, Jack Torrance, the schizophrenic father protagonist played by Jack Nicholson, undergoes a mental breakdown and his turmoil is exorcised through the attempted murder of his wife and son and his repressed patriarchal doppelganger serves as the monster. On a sociological level, Torrance himself is stalked by the cultural demons of success and status that highlight his own failure as a struggling writer. His denial of impending failure and his blaming of the wife and child reflect the dynamics of the contemporary patriarchal crisis.

This denial serves as a plot device to fuel and project his insecurities into supernatural and malevolent forces conspiring against him. The representation of race and class in demonic horror is examined by critics as many have likened the development of horror to the rise of the bourgeoisie and the dialectic of class. A classic horror film like King Kong (1933) evokes the fear of racial miscegenation in the figure of the dark ape, the beast in love with the white beauty. Dracula’s appeal in each of his incarnations is fundamentally his aristocratic background.

The 90’s film Candyman examined the link between an invented urban legend and the realistic horror of the racism that produced its villain. Critics have also argued that horror films are particularly enjoyed by adolescents because in their awkwardness they can easily empathize with the monsters, who are social outcasts, and because they express in metaphoric form the physical changes—the hairiness of the werewolf, the sexual drive of the vampire—that occur with the onset of puberty. Certainly horror films do function as adolescent rites of passage and socialisation. ut such theories do not account for the appeal of all horror films. In conclusion, the genre of horror within film draws upon contemporary society’s fears and worries and projects them in the form of monsters, supernatural entities and deranged psychopaths. While the unreal aspects of the genre may cushion the viewer into a sense of security that these things could never happen, it still conveys very real terrors that exist in the modern world. It is arguably the most effective means in film of expressing the true horrors that dwell beneath the unstable foundations of society.

American horror has proved to be an important contribution to the public sphere through its unique way of conveying real life fears and terrors and shows how it can continue to do so while still reeling in ticket sales or by acquiring a loyal cult following. Bibliography * Dika, V, Recycled Culture in Contemporary Art & Film. Cambridge University Press, USA, 2003 * Newman, K, Nightmare Movies. Bloomsbury Publishing Limited, UK, 1984 * Maddrey, J, Nightmares in red, white and blue: The evolution of American Horror, McFarland & Co. , Inc Publishers, USA Filmography Murnau, F. W. , Nosferatu, 1922 * Weine, Robert, The Cabinet of Dr. Caligari, 1920 * Romero, George A. , Night of the Living Dead, 1968 * Romero, George A. , Dawn of the Dead, 1978 * Kubrick, Stanley, The Shining, 1980 * Hooper, Tobe, Texas Chainsaw Massacre, 1974 * Rose, Bernard, Candyman, 1992 ———————– [1] Newman, K, Nightmare Movies. Bloomsbury Publishing Limited, England, 1984. pg 200 [2] Dika, V, Recycled Culture in Contemporary Art & Film. Cambridge University Press, USA, 2003. pg 73 [3] Jenkins, P, Interrogating Popular Culture, pg. 98

The Gifts of Cain & Abel

What is the significance and nature of Cain and Abel’s gifts? What was the basis of their acceptance or rejection? Gen. 4:1-6 v. 3 (AKJV) And in process of time it came to pass, that Cain brought of the fruit of the ground an offering to the LORD. v. 4 (AKJV) And Abel, he also brought of the firstborn of his flock and of the fat thereof. And the LORD had respect to Abel and to his offering: v. 5 (AKJV) But to Cain and to his offering he had not respect. And Cain was very wroth, and his countenance fell.

It appears that Cain was definitely an over the top kind of character. These were people that were apparently in very close proximity of God in a way that we do not typically experience. Cain’s parents walked with God in the garden. Cain and Abel knew by some means that they were supposed to give an offering. The kind of offering may have been described as a blood sacrifice, if so Cain rebelled at that point. I feel this is clearly indicated by Heb. 11:4 which pints out that Abel offered a more excellent sacrifice than Cain without an attitude being mentioned.

This verse further points out that God gave testimony to Abel’s gift not his attitude which would probably read in a KJV as him giving out of the abundance of his heart, or some such. [Heb 11:4 ¶ By faith Abel offered unto God a more excellent sacrifice than Cain, by which he obtained witness that he was righteous, God testifying of his gifts: and by it he being dead yet speaketh. ] “The LXX translation suggests that the problem with Cain and his offering is an error in a ritual detail of the sacrifice. Is Cain thus found right in offering (i. e. doing so) but guilty of offering a sacrifice that is not divided properly? ”[1] Dr. Henry Morris states, “Adam and Eve had no doubt instructed their sons that this required a substitutionary sacrifice of innocent blood (Gen 3:21), Cain however chose to bring another type of offering on this occasion. ”[2] They knew right away that God did or did not accept the offering. “Not only was the sacrifice bloodless, but it had already been cursed by God, therefore, Cain added insult to injury (see Gen 3:17. )”[3] The Bible says that God talked with Cain about his offering and his angry countenance. Ge 4:5 But to Cain and to his offering he had not respect. And Cain was very wroth, and his countenance fell. ] This kind of experiencing God was taking place, yet Cain was offering an inappropriate sacrifice with definitely an inappropriate attitude. “Cain gave out of formalism (it was time and custom to give), whereas Abel gave the best – pure devout worship. ”[4] This kind of rebellion is extreme, even by today’s standards. This is a Judas maneuver. Judas hung out with the Lord from day to day but rose up against him in spite of seeing the very attributes of God in flesh, so it is with Cain.

This constitutes rebellion in the face of God. This attitude of rebellion and cavalier response is now combined with anger directed toward God. The same idea was presented to Eve in the garden. This idea that God was being unfair, is an attitude from his spiritual father Satan. Now Cain wants to sit on the throne and decide for himself what kind of offering is ok. Then to further attest to the attitude, it manifests itself in the act of first degree murder. [Joh 8:44 You are of your father the devil, and the lusts of your father you will do.

He was a murderer from the beginning, and stayed not in the truth, because there is no truth in him. When he speaks a lie, he speaks of his own: for he is a liar, and the father of it. ] [1Jo 3:12 Not as Cain, who was of that wicked one, and slew his brother. And why slew he him? Because his own works were evil, and his brother’s righteous. ] Finally after Cain has disrespected God by the inappropriate offering with an unyielding attitude, he now chooses a path opposite from the mercy God has just extended to him, by killing Abel.

Then to ice the cake of ill doing when God approaches Cain with a rhetorical question of his whereabouts, he responds like an unyielding juvenile delinquent. You can sense the pout on his lips as he says to his Creator “How do I know, I don’t keep up with him” as he responds with a defiant rhetorical question of his own in which he repudiates any responsibility for his brother. [Ge 4:9 And the LORD said to Cain, Where is Abel your brother? And he said, I know not: Am I my brother’s keeper? The family of Cain exists today in a spiritual sense and is the underlying force behind every persecution of believers, rebellion against God, and humanistic driven religious system that wants to come to God on their terms with no respect for the terms that God has mapped out from the foundation of the world. By faith Abel offered the better sacrifice and it is the only way to reconcile to God. [Eph. 2: 8 (AV) For by grace are ye saved through faith; and that not of yourselves: it is the gift of God: Eph. 9 Not of orks, lest any man should boast. ] ———————– [1] Righteous Abel, Wicked Cain: Genesis 4:1-16 in the Masoretic Text, the Septuagint, and the New Testament, Joel N. Lohr, Catholic Biblical Quarterly; Jul2009, Vol. 71 Issue 3, p489 [2] The Defenders Study Bible, Commentary Notes, Dr. Henry Morris, 1995 World Publishing, p. 15 [3] Wilmington’s Complete Guide to Bible Knowledge, OT Survey, 1992 Tyndale House Publishers, p. 22 [4] Liberty Bible Commentary – OT, Jerry Fallwell II, Edward E. Hindson III, Michael Woodrow Kroll, p. 24

Moving Us Whitecollar Offshore

a. Who benefits from outsourcing skilled white collar jobs to developing nations? Who are the losers? The developing nations which the skilled white collar jobs that will be outsource from, it create employment in that developing country. Secondly, the company which outsourced the jobs from developing too will stand to gain from lower cost in terms of cheaper labor cost, hence give the company more competitive advantage in global market.

There will be a loss of employment in the native country of the company which it resides. The white collar workers whom are being employed by those companies at a very high cost will lose their jobs when the companies start to outsource white collar jobs from developing countries due to cheaper labor cost. b. Will developed nations like the United States suffer from the loss of high skilled and high paying jobs to countries like India and China?

Certainly and initially developed nations like the United States will suffer from the loss of high skilled and high paying jobs to countries as unemployment will increase. However, when costs are lowered, these companies will have a more competitive advantage globally. Revenues and profits increased, and the company will have more resources to expand hence, as company grows, jobs will be created. Jobs that are not outsourced will also increase thus creating new employment opportunity in developed nations like United States. c.

Is there a difference between transferring high paying white collar jobs, such as computer programming and accounting, and low paying blue collar jobs to developing nations? If so, what is the difference, and should the government do anything to stop the flow of white collar jobs out of the country to countries like India? There is an obvious difference between the two, outsourcing blue collar jobs to developing countries is more on transferring of capital and labor intensive industries from a high wage area to a lower wage area in order to reduce production cost.

Of course, there will a loss of jobs in the high wage area and more job opportunity in the lower wage areas, however goods exported from the lower wage area will be much cheaper, and overall benefit the consumers not only in the high wage areas but also globally, making goods cheaper and more accessible to more people. As these developing countries moving towards industrialization, these countries will invest in hi tech machinery to facilitate their mass production to improve productivity and efficiency.

And usually these hi-tech machinery are sourced from companies in the developed nations, hence these companies would experience an increase order for these machineries from abroad. Jobs in high tech sector would increase due to surge in demand for their hi-tech goods. In addition to that, the company that outsource, will find their labor cost lowered, and profit and revenues increased, thus more resources can be channel into R&D which these companies would still station their R&D dept in their native country.

What Women Really Want

Women are most powerful force shaping the future of this world. They are quietly exerting a unified power to make changes in our culture and commerce. She is considered to be the best creation of god. She plays different roles in this world. she is a mother, sister, wife, daughter, boss, and so on. She is playing a significant role in almost all walks of life. She carries out all her responsibilities without complaining much to this world. So now the question arises that “what women really want? ” Most women know it, and most of them certainly not.

Women need following things in order to be fulfilled :- Love :- The deepest desire of a women is to be loved and is to find a favor in her men’s eyes. Only love and accolades from her partner is what nourishes and sustains her relation. Love trumps all. She forgives many minor transgressions, if she has that sense of being treasured and loved, and being cared for. Love, which is a constellation of emotions and experiences related to a sense of strong affection or profound oneness.

Feminineness :- A women needs to enjoy all the things that comes with being a women. She needs to feel beautiful and sexy. She needs to feel feminine which makes her feel alive. Experiencing new things in new ways is very important. Confidence :- women want confidence from men. Confidence is not arrogance, dominance or one-upmanship. It is feeling of trust in their work and words. Confident women are always loved by the men. Confidence is an attitude thing.

It is very necessary in any work done by the women. It is primarily an attitude toward meeting life challenges of all kinds. Freedom :- women want freedom to think. They should be given enough freedom to think and put forward new innovative ideas. Sometime it happens that in an orthodox society they are not allowed to think and perform according to their wish. So at these places it becomes very difficult for the progressive women to think and work in a suppressed environment.

Dignity :- women always want that they are treated in a dignified manner. They want that their work and words should be given a dignity. 10. 11. Pleasure :- women want pleasure in their relationships. They want to feel pure sensual stimulation. They always try to find pleasure in the relationships for which they live. 12. Ultimately, fulfillment of their needs and desires is the final requirement of women from their men. To understand what women really want, we must understand what are those needs and desires.

The Bet by Anton Chekhov

Anton Chekhov The Bet It was a dark autumn night. The old banker was walking up and down his study and remembering how, fifteen years before, he had given a party one autumn evening. There had been many clever men there, and there had been interesting conversations. Among other things they had talked of capital punishment. The majority of the guests, among whom were many journalists and intellectual men, disapproved of the death penalty. They considered that form of punishment out of date, immoral, and unsuitable for Christian States.

In the opinion of some of them the death penalty ought to be replaced everywhere by imprisonment for life. “I don’t agree with you,” said their host the banker. “I have not tried either the death penalty or imprisonment for life, but if one may judge a priori, the death penalty is more moral and more humane than imprisonment for life. Capital punishment kills a man at once, but lifelong imprisonment kills him slowly. Which executioner is the more humane, he who kills you in a few minutes or he who drags the life out of you in the course of many years?      “Both are equally immoral,” observed one of the guests, “for they both have the same object – to take away life. The State is not God. It has not the right to take away what it cannot restore when it wants to. ”      Among the guests was a young lawyer, a young man of five-and-twenty. When he was asked his opinion, he said:      “The death sentence and the life sentence are equally immoral, but if I had to choose between the death penalty and imprisonment for life, I would certainly choose the second. To live anyhow is better than not at all. ”      A lively discussion arose.

The banker, who was younger and more nervous in those days, was suddenly carried away by excitement; he struck the table with his fist and shouted at the young man:      “It’s not true! I’ll bet you two million you wouldn’t stay in solitary confinement for five years. ”      “If you mean that in earnest,” said the young man, “I’ll take the bet, but I would stay not five but fifteen years. ”      “Fifteen? Done! ” cried the banker. “Gentlemen, I stake two million! ”      “Agreed! You stake your millions and I stake my freedom! ” said the young man. ; 2 ; And this wild, senseless bet was carried out!

The banker, spoilt and frivolous, with millions beyond his reckoning, was delighted at the bet. At supper he made fun of the young man, and said:      “Think better of it, young man, while there is still time. To me two million is a trifle, but you are losing three or four of the best years of your life. I say three or four, because you won’t stay longer. Don’t forget either, you unhappy man, that voluntary confinement is a great deal harder to bear than compulsory. The thought that you have the right to step out in liberty at any moment will poison your whole existence in prison. I am sorry for you.      And now the banker, walking to and fro, remembered all this, and asked himself: “What was the object of that bet? What is the good of that man’s losing fifteen years of his life and my throwing away two million? Can it prove that the death penalty is better or worse than imprisonment for life? No, no. It was all nonsensical and meaningless. On my part it was the caprice of a pampered man, and on his part simple greed for money … ”      Then he remembered what followed that evening. It was decided that the young man should spend the years of his captivity under the strictest supervision in one of the lodges in the banker’s garden.

It was agreed that for fifteen years he should not be free to cross the threshold of the lodge, to see human beings, to hear the human voice, or to receive letters and newspapers. He was allowed to have a musical instrument and books, and was allowed to write letters, to drink wine, and to smoke. By the terms of the agreement, the only relations he could have with the outer world were by a little window made purposely for that object. He might have anything he wanted – books, music, wine, and so on – in any quantity he desired by writing an order, but could only receive them through the window.

The agreement provided for every detail and every trifle that would make his imprisonment strictly solitary, and bound the young man to stay there exactly fifteen years, beginning from twelve o’clock of November 14, 1870, and ending at twelve o’clock of November 14, 1885. The slightest attempt on his part to break the conditions, if only two minutes before the end, released the banker from the obligation to pay him the two million. ; 3 ; For the first year of his confinement, as far as one could judge from his brief notes, the prisoner suffered severely from loneliness and depression.

The sounds of the piano could be heard continually day and night from his lodge. He refused wine and tobacco. Wine, he wrote, excites the desires, and desires are the worst foes of the prisoner; and besides, nothing could be more dreary than drinking good wine and seeing no one. And tobacco spoilt the air of his room. In the first year the books he sent for were principally of a light character; novels with a complicated love plot, sensational and fantastic stories, and so on. In the second year the piano was silent in the lodge, and the prisoner asked only for the classics.

In the fifth year music was audible again, and the prisoner asked for wine. Those who watched him through the window said that all that year he spent doing nothing but eating and drinking and lying on his bed, frequently yawning and angrily talking to himself. He did not read books. Sometimes at night he would sit down to write; he would spend hours writing, and in the morning tear up all that he had written. More than once he could be heard crying. In the second half of the sixth year the prisoner began zealously studying languages, philosophy, and history.

He threw himself eagerly into these studies – so much so that the banker had enough to do to get him the books he ordered. In the course of four years some six hundred volumes were procured at his request. It was during this period that the banker received the following letter from his prisoner:      “My dear Jailer, I write you these lines in six languages. Show them to people who know the languages. Let them read them. If they find not one mistake I implore you to fire a shot in the garden. That shot will show me that my efforts have not been thrown away.

The geniuses of all ages and of all lands speak different languages, but the same flame burns in them all. Oh, if you only knew what unearthly happiness my soul feels now from being able to understand them! ” The prisoner’s desire was fulfilled. The banker ordered two shots to be fired in the garden. < 4 > Then after the tenth year, the prisoner sat immovably at the table and read nothing but the Gospel. It seemed strange to the banker that a man who in four years had mastered six hundred learned volumes should waste nearly a year over one thin book easy of comprehension. Theology and histories of religion followed the Gospels.

In the last two years of his confinement the prisoner read an immense quantity of books quite indiscriminately. At one time he was busy with the natural sciences, then he would ask for Byron or Shakespeare. There were notes in which he demanded at the same time books on chemistry, and a manual of medicine, and a novel, and some treatise on philosophy or theology. His reading suggested a man swimming in the sea among the wreckage of his ship, and trying to save his life by greedily clutching first at one spar and then at another. The old banker remembered all this, and thought: “To-morrow at twelve o’clock he will regain his freedom.

By our agreement I ought to pay him two million. If I do pay him, it is all over with me: I shall be utterly ruined. ”      Fifteen years before, his millions had been beyond his reckoning; now he was afraid to ask himself which were greater, his debts or his assets. Desperate gambling on the Stock Exchange, wild speculation and the excitability whic h he could not get over even in advancing years, had by degrees led to the decline of his fortune and the proud, fearless, self-confident millionaire had become a banker of middling rank, trembling at every rise and fall in his investments. Cursed bet! ” muttered the old man, clutching his head in despair “Why didn’t the man die? He is only forty now. He will take my last penny from me, he will marry, will enjoy life, will gamble on the Exchange; while I shall look at him with envy like a beggar, and hear from him every day the same sentence: ‘I am indebted to you for the happiness of my life, let me help you! ‘ No, it is too much! The one means of being saved from bankruptcy and disgrace is the death of that man!      It struck three o’clock, the banker listened; everyone was asleep in the house and nothing could be heard outside but the rustling of the chilled trees. Trying to make no noise, he took from a fireproof safe the key of the door which had not been opened for fifteen years, put on his overcoat, and went out of the house. < 5 > It was dark and cold in the garden. Rain was falling. A damp cutting wind was racing about the garden, howling and giving the trees no rest. The banker strained his eyes, but could see neither the earth nor the white statues, nor the lodge, nor the trees.

Going to the spot where the lodge stood, he twice called the watchman. No answer followed. Evidently the watchman had sought shelter from the weather, and was now asleep somewhere either in the kitchen or in the greenhouse. “If I had the pluck to carry out my intention,” thought the old man, “Suspicion would fall first upon the watchman. ”      He felt in the darkness for the steps and the door, and went into the entry of the lodge. Then he groped his way into a little passage and lighted a match. There was not a soul there.

There was a bedstead with no bedding on it, and in the corner there was a dark cast-iron stove. The seals on the door leading to the prisoner’s rooms were intact. When the match went out the old man, trembling with emotion, peeped through the little window. A candle was burning dimly in the prisoner’s room. He was sitting at the table. Nothing could be seen but his back, the hair on his head, and his hands. Open books were lying on the table, on the two easy-chairs, and on the carpet near the table. Five minutes passed and the prisoner did not once stir.

Fifteen years’ imprisonment had taught him to sit still. The banker tapped at the window with his finger, and the prisoner made no movement whatever in response. Then the banker cautiously broke the seals off the door and put the key in the keyhole. The rusty lock gave a grating sound and the door creaked. The banker expected to hear at once footsteps and a cry of astonishment, but three minutes passed and it was as quiet as ever in the room. He made up his mind to go in. At the table a man unlike ordinary people was sitting motionless.

He was a skeleton with the skin drawn tight over his bones, with long curls like a woman’s and a shaggy beard. His face was yellow with an earthy tint in it, his cheeks were hollow, his back long and narrow, and the hand on which his shaggy head was propped was so thin and delicate that it was dreadful to look at it. His hair was already streaked with silver, and seeing his emaciated, aged-looking face, no one would have believed that he was only forty. He was asleep … In front of his bowed head there lay on the table a sheet of paper on which there was something written in fine handwriting. lt; 6 > “Poor creature! ” thought the banker, “he is asleep and most likely dreaming of the millions. And I have only to take this half-dead man, throw him on the bed, stifle him a little with the pillow, and the most conscientious expert would find no sign of a violent death. But let us first read what he has written here … ”      The banker took the page from the table and read as follows:      “To-morrow at twelve o’clock I regain my freedom and the right to associate with other men, but before I leave this room and see the sunshine, I think it necessary to say a few words to you.

With a clear conscience I tell you, as before God, who beholds me, that I despise freedom and life and health, and all that in your books is called the good things of the world. “For fifteen years I have been intently studying earthly life. It is true I have not seen the earth nor men, but in your books I have drunk fragrant wine, I have sung songs, I have hunted stags and wild boars in the forests, have loved women … Beauties as ethereal as clouds, created by the magic of your poets and geniuses, have visited me at night, and have whispered in my ears wonderful tales that have set my brain in a whirl.

In your books I have climbed to the peaks of Elburz and Mont Blanc, and from there I have seen the sun rise and have watched it at evening flood the sky, the ocean, and the mountain-tops with gold and crimson. I have watched from there the lightning flashing over my head and cleaving the storm-clouds. I have seen green forests, fields, rivers, lakes, towns. I have heard the singing of the sirens, and the strains of the shepherds’ pipes; I have touched the wings of comely devils who flew down to converse with me of God …

In your books I have flung myself into the bottomless pit, performed miracles, slain, burned towns, preached new religions, conquered whole kingdoms … “Your books have given me wisdom. All that the unresting thought of man has created in the ages is compressed into a small compass in my brain. I know that I am wiser than all of you. < 7 > “And I despise your books, I despise wisdom and the blessings of this world. It is all worthless, fleeting, illusory, and deceptive, like a mirage.

You may be proud, wise, and fine, but death will wipe you off the face of the earth as though you were no more than mice burrowing under the floor, and your posterity, your history, your immortal geniuses will burn or freeze together with the earthly globe. “You have lost your reason and taken the wrong path. You have taken lies for truth, and hideousness for beauty. You would marvel if, owing to strange events of some sorts, frogs and lizards suddenly grew on apple and orange trees instead of fruit, or if roses began to smell like a sweating horse; so I marvel at you who exchange heaven for earth.

I don’t want to understand you. “To prove to you in action how I despise all that you live by, I renounce the two million of which I once dreamed as of paradise and which now I despise. To deprive myself of the right to the money I shall go out from here five hours before the time fixed, and so break the compact … ”      When the banker had read this he laid the page on the table, kissed the strange man on the head, and went out of the lodge, weeping. At no other time, even when he had lost heavily on the Stock Exchange, had he felt so great a contempt for himself.

When he got home he lay on his bed, but his tears and emotion kept him for hours from sleeping. Next morning the watchmen ran in with pale faces, and told him they had seen the man who lived in the lodge climb out of the window into the garden, go to the gate, and disappear. The banker went at once with the servants to the lodge and made sure of the flight of his prisoner. To avoid arousing unnecessary talk, he took from the table the writing in which the millions were renounced, and when he got home locked it up in the fireproof safe.

Gdp in Bangladesh

GDP: The growth of GDP in last year was above 6% but it has started to decline and is expected to go down below 5. 7%. This is mainly because of the fall in export since export consist of 20% of GDP in Bangladesh. Moreover, investment and consumption also is decreasing along with the decline in growth in manufacturing and service sectors. The growth of GDP in Bangladesh depend mainly on the industrial and the agricultural sectors. In FY2006-07, the growth rate was 6. 43% that was estimated to be 6. 42% by the BBS. This is mainly due to the decline in agricultural sector.

Despite positive growth in the forestry sub-sector, the agricultural sector was largely affected by the Sidr, that had consequent effect on the agricultural sector till now. The Asian Development Bank (ADB) recently projected the lowest GDP growth for Bangladesh in five years starting from 2009 due mainly to impacts of the global turnmoil. Thus the economic growth is slowing down because of decline in exports and remittances and lower domestic demand. Thus industrial growth is suffering. . According to provisional estimates, the rates of domestic and national savings stand at 20. 08 and 29. 3 % of GDP in FY 2007-08. It is to be noted that the rates for FY 2006-07 were 20. 35 % and 28. 66 % respectively. The rate of investment may decline to 24. 16 % for FY 2007-08 which stood at 24. 46 % in the previous year. In the aggregate investment for FY 2007-08, the public sector accounts for 5. 01 % and private sector accounts for 19. 15 %, which were recorded at 5. 54 % and 19. 02 % respectively in FY 2006-07. Bangladesh’s growth outlook remains fairly robust, down by only half a %age point to 5. 6 % in 2009 (Table: 3). Asian Development Bank forecasts dip in Bangladesh GDP for 2009-10

Apr 01, 2009 (BBC Monitoring via COMTEX) — ADB predicted this year’s growth at 5. 6 %, down by 0. 6 %age points of the previous year’s achievement and around one %age point lower than the central bank’s projection of 6. 5 % for the current financial year. We expect economic activity to slow further to 5. 2 % in 2009-10. Bangladesh achieved over 6 % growth since 2003-04 except 5. 96 % in 2004-05 for damage to crops for floods. The government to invest more to address infrastructure constraints, especially power generation and gas exploration.

Accelerating implementation of the annual development programme and supporting small and medium enterprises have become essential to absorb the likely soaring unemployment shocks in the wake of decelerating external demand. As FDI (foreign direct investment) in gas and power is unlikely to materialise soon because of the global financial turmoil, the government needs to mobilise its own resources and tap external assistance. Industrial growth will slow to 6. 6 % this fiscal year from 7. 6 % last year mainly on declining export demand. Sliding consumer spending will push down the services sector growth at 6 % from 6. % in 2007-08. If normal weather prevails, agriculture output is to rise by 4 % this year, the report said. Inflation is expected to be at an average of 7 % this fiscal year, a significant decline from 9 % projected earlier, because of the falling global commodity and fuel prices, the report said. Inflation is likely to stay at 6. 5 % in 2009-10. Despite a drop in export and remittance earnings Bangladesh’s external current account is expected to show a small surplus in this fiscal year, the report said. But a poor revenue collection is a concern for Bangladesh, which needs additional funding to continue priority public spending.

Domestic productivity and competitiveness should get boost to help the country retain export market share and diversify destinations as well, it said. In a bid to stoke domestic demand, the government has already formed a high-powered taskforce to devise how it can help the businesses absorb the recession shocks. Replying to a query, the ADB country chief said the Bank would sit next month to discuss how it could lend more to Bangladesh to face the global challenges. “The ADB may arrange additional funding or relocation from existing projects or the both,” the decline of growth in crops and horticulture sub-sector.

He said the problems of power shortage, infrastructure inadequacy and high cost of finance had affected most of the garment manufacturers. BBS estimated the GDP growth rate to 6. 21 % in FY 2007-08. The GDP growth rate is assumed slightly lower compared to the previous fiscal year due to the decline of growth in agriculture and manufacturing sectors. It may be noted here that, according to the final estimate, the GDP growth rate was 6. 43 % in FY 2006-07. As per Medium Term Macroeconomic Framework (MTMF), the real growth of GDP for the fiscal year 2008-09, 2009-10 and 2010-11 have been forecasted to be 6. %, 7. 0 % and 7. 2 % respectively. From table 2. 1 it is observed that the per capita GDP and national income is increasing over time. At current prices, the per capita GNI for FY 2007-08 is estimated at Tk. 41103 which is 13. 81 % higher compared to the previous fiscal year. Per capita GDP was Tk. 33607 in FY 2006-07 which increased to Tk. 38056 in FY 2007-08. In FY 2007-08, the growth rate of per capita GDP is 13. 75 % which was 12. 19 % in the preceding fiscal year. In FY 2007-08, the per capita national income and GDP are US$ 599 and US$ 554 respectively. Table 2. shows the Gross Domestic Product (GDP) at current prices from fiscal year 2002-03 to 2007-08. BB governor hopeful of 6pc growth despite grim WB, IMF forecast FE Report Bangladesh Bank governor rejected grim growth prognosis by the World Bank and the International Monetary Fund (IMF), saying the economy is poised to grow around six % this fiscal despite global meltdown. The World Bank said Bangladesh would clock 4. 5 % growth in the current financial year — the lowest in seven years— while IMF put the figure at around 5. 0-5. 5 % for 2009 as the economy is mired by global recession.

But central bank governor Salehuddin Ahmed came out strongly in favour of a robust growth, as he sees fewer bumps in the three remaining months of the current fiscal year. “We’re hopeful of achieving around 6. 0 % growth in 2008-09 fiscal if the overall economic trend continues and the country does not face any major disasters,” Mr. Ahmed said after a meeting with an IMF delegation. “It could come down to 5. 6 to 5. 8 %. But will it drop down to 4. 5 % as predicted by the World Bank? Only three months are left and I am not sure whether there will be a huge recession that can drag down growth to that level,” he said.

Both the multilateral agencies have said that the global economic recession is having a knock-on effect on Bangladesh’s two main economic levers-exports and remittance — with recovery seem unlikely before 2011. On Tuesday Asian Development Bank (ADB) also lowered its Bangladesh growth projection to 5. 6 % for the current fiscal year and 5. 2 % for next fiscal year. Mr. Ahmed said the central bank would “deconstruct” the World Bank projection before making its own growth forecast for the current fiscal. “We will review how the World Bank’s estimated the latest growth forecast for Bangladesh.

We will see on which basis they made the projection,” the BB governor said. The central bank had projected a growth of around 6. 5 % for 2008-9 fiscal when it released its monetary policy in July last year – at time when the world looked perfectly safe from the United States’ housing price bubble. But as the US sub-prime housing crisis hit the global financial behemoths and snowballed into a full-blown economic recession, the BB lowered the growth projection to over 6. 0- 6. 2 %. Last month both the BB and Bangladesh Bureau of Statistics forecast the GDP growth in the current fiscal at 6. % as the exports slowed to a meagre 1. 2 % in the second quarter due to the meltdown. The governor ruled out bailout package for the overall economy, saying the government should instead help out the sectors already affected by plunging export orders. He said remittance remained robust although overseas employment plummeted by 38 % in the first three months of 2009. “Remittance is still in good shape. We got figure of March and it shows good trend. We are not seeing overseas employment numbers as we have expected. But it has not drastically declined,” he said

He said the main impact of the global meltdown would be felt in 2009-10 fiscal year, export is set to cool further and there will be fewer jobs available in the Middle-East and Southeast Asia. “The next budget would be very crucial,” Mr. Ahmed said, adding the government should increase spending in infrastructure, especially energy, in the budget to boost up machinery import and spur economic activities. Meanwhile, World Bank in Dhaka projected that GDP growth rate of Bangladesh may decline to 4. 8 % in the fiscal year 2008-09 which was projected by the caretaker government as 6. %. They argued that readymade garments and remittance inflow will suffer due to global financial crisis which will lead to decline in GDP growth rate. Though the caretaker government and the governor of Bangladesh Bank is at variance with the World Bank, it indicates that they do not like to see the gravity of the financial crisis. However, if the new government looks at the gravity of the financial crisis very lightly, then it will be very harmful for the nation. BB governor hopeful of 6pc growth despite grim WB, IMF forecast

Riordan Manufacturing– Business Systems Analysis

Riordan Manufacturing– Business Systems Analysis Riordan Manufacturing– Business Systems Analysis Mission Riordan Manufacturing leads the industry in the field of plastic injection molding. The organization specializes in innovative plastic designs, manufacturing plastic bottles, fans, heart valves, medical stents and other custom plastic parts. As a for-profit organization, Riordan Manufacturing is one of the fastest growing organizations in its field, with annual earning that averages up to $46 million.

Though the company’s annual earnings seems like it is well off, Riordan Manufacturing is not reaching its full potential of growth and profit generation. According to the mission of the organization, the focus for the company’s future is “achieving and maintaining reasonable profitability to assure that the financial and human capital is available for sustained growth. By assuring that our employees are well informed and properly supported, we will provide a climate focused on the long term viability of our company. And we will strive to be a solution provider for our customers and not be a part of our customer’s challenges. Like all successful companies, Riordan manufacturing always has room for improvement. In order for Riordan Manufacturing to grow as an organization and reach its full potential of generating profit, the organization must implement enhancements to all of its business systems for all departments. Internet Site Riordan Manufacturing’s website is the first face of the company that most consumers see. The website consists of the stylish Riordan logo in the upper left corner of the page. The upper right corner houses the address, phone number and contact info of the main headquarters in San Jose, California.

The middle left of the webpage gives a brief description of the company. Next to that there are a couple pictures of products that the company makes with a list of some of the other products that are finally the lower left-middle of the webpage shows a picture of Riordan Headquarters. Although the Internet webpage seems easy to read and appealing to look at, the webpage lacks key features to be an effective advertising tool. The webpage needs to contain more information for the first time costumer searching for plastic injection molding.

The logo is nice and the brief description is good to introduce the company to the consumer. However, there needs to be a link to allow the viewer the opportunity to read more into Riordan’s history and background. Another important area of the webpage that needs improvement is the contact information. The e-mail address under headquarters address and phone number is incomplete. A “Contact Us” hyperlink needs to be provided. This hyperlink should contain the full contact information (address, phone number, and e-mail address) for all four of the Riordan Manufacturing locations.

The last section of the webpage that can use more detail is the list of “Some of Our Products”. This list needs to be a complete full list of all products available so consumers can have no doubt in what is available. Each product also should be a hyperlink directing to different pictures of the products available. Description Finance & Accounting The Finance and Accounting Department of Riordan Manufacturing is responsible for all financial transactions of the company. This includes accounts receivable, accounts payable, creating financial reports for review by upper management, purchasing, budgeting, and forecasting.

Riordan Manufacturing has 3 operating entities; Georgia, Michigan, and California, with also a joint venture in the People’s Republic of China. Each location has its own Finance and Accounting Systems, and all provide input that is consolidated at Corporate Headquarters, in San Jose, California. The components of each system include: General Ledger, Accounts Payable, Accounts Receivable, Order Entry, Procurement, Sales and Purchasing History, Invoicing and Shipping, Payroll, and Financial Reporting. San Jose also includes EDI, Bar Code Reading, and an Executive Decision Support System.

Riordan Manufacturing acquired their operating entities in Michigan, and Georgia without addressing the Finance and Accounting software compatibility of the existing systems. The Michigan location had purchased a vendor developed software application, however the vendor is no longer in business. Their application runs on a pair of DEC Alpha’s using VMS operating system, VAX4000 work stations, and programmed in C. Georgia had purchased a vendor developed software application and the attendant source code as well, but from a different vendor.

Their systems run on a pair of AS400’s using UNIX OS, using Windows PC’s and programmed in RPG400. The problem facing Riordan Manufacturing is in the consolidation of these systems in order to create a cohesive set of data. Currently, some Finance and Accounting data is provided via hard copy reports that must be re-entered, some data is provided via data files but must be re-converted to the proper account codes, and some data is provided in compatible code. The following specific problems have been identified by Riordan Manufacturing. 1.

Consolidated close of the general ledger and subsequently the Income Statement and Balance Sheet is labor intensive, and normally not completed from fifteen to twenty days after the end of the month. 2. Audit (to include external auditors) is required each month and is costly and labor intensive. 3. Compliance with new government required reporting requirements at the consolidated level is difficult at best. Riordan Enterprises finds the situation unacceptable, and has mandated that solutions / alternatives be recommended as soon as possible.

Human Resources Human resources are one of the main parts of an organization. It is the single department that houses all information regarding the employees, policies and procedures, company communications, job descriptions, classifications, organizational charts, and various reports. All of the information is stored on a database that is run by software from a company called Infor. It is also a human capital management (HCM) tool which was implemented in the year 2000 during the company’s recent expansion.

During the migration over to Infor’s HCM system, all of the old paper record files, since the company’s inception in 1991, was converted and stored onto the current database that the department has been using ever since. In 2000, when Infor’s HCM system was introduced to the company, the idea of having a paperless system where everything was kept in the databases was phenomenal. It was not until years later where the managers started to notice more and more issues with incompatibility between the company’s business systems.

Currently, the main problem that the department is having is that the other departments are having issues viewing their data because the other departments are using their own individual business systems. The current workaround is that the information must first be converted into a form that is viewable by the other departments. This takes up a lot of time depending on the piece of information that needs to be converted and is bringing the level of productivity down. Legal Every organization needs to have a legal department or at least a go to person that is well experienced in legal matters to make sure everything is safe.

Riordan understands this very well and has a dedicated person who overlooks every legal matter for the organization. That person is Lowell Bradford, who is the Chief Legal Counsel for Riordan and his assistant, Rick Ethridge. If there are any matters that need to be reviewed, Mr. Bradford would be the one to go to. In which case, he would take action based on his personal experience or knowledge, or would work alongside a major attorney firm that is retained by Riordan called Litteral & Finkel. The legal department currently does not have its own business system.

Instead, Mr. Bradford, who works alongside the firm, Litteral & Finkel, has access to their SharePoint databases for documentation and references should he need, and has access to outlook where he has access to anyone at the firm should he need. Litteral & Finkel and Riordan Manufacturing have had a great relationship and the firm has been representing the organization ever since its inception. Their close relationship is due to family ties between Dr. Riordan and his cousin who was a partner in the firm. Sales & Marketing

The sales and marketing department is currently preparing for a major transformation to efficiently consolidate customer information. This will better streamline the department to allow for better customer service, more accurate records, and improved sales and marketing processes. The areas of information that will be consolidated are Historical Sales, Files of Past Marketing Research, Marketing Plans, and Design Awards, Sales Databases, Production Records, Profit and Loss Statements by Item and Group, and Marketing Budget. In efforts to prioritize resources and activities of the sales department, Dr.

Riordan has developed a three part plan to reach a goal of $50,000 in revenue. The three part plan is to be achieved through increased sales to existing customers and expanding sales to new customers. Part 1: Strategic sales objectives with corresponding financial goals and roll-out schedules. This is the part of the plan that will increase and expand sales. It is estimated that of the $50,000 goal, 60% will come from existing customers and 40% will come from new customers. Part 2: Tactics by marketing mix, timing, and relationship to strategic sales objectives.

This will be accomplished by four key components, product, pricing, promotions, and place. The company will be open to manufacturing new product suggestions from their customers. Pricing will remain the same, but give sales managers more authority to give customers discounts as long as minimum profits are still met. Another way to increase sales will be through sales team promotions. Every time a new client spends at least $100,000 on their initial order, the sales manager will receive a bonus of $5000 and an additional $2000 bonus will be divided amongst the supporting members of the sales team.

Customers will also receive promotions for buying set numbers of products. Riordan Manufacturing will also be conducting a comprehensive market strategy to determine places for expansion. Part 3: Customer Relationship Management Strategies. Here is where it is up to all the employees to help build stronger relationships with customers to help bring in revenue to hit the $50,000 goal. To help with this the company will be providing financial incentives, tradeshow funding, and market research reports. Human Resources Human resources are one of the main parts of an organization.

It is the single department that houses all information regarding the employees, policies and procedures, company communications, job descriptions, classifications, organizational charts, and various reports. All of the information is stored on a database that is run by software from a company called Infor. It is also a human capital management (HCM) tool which was implemented in the year 2000 during the company’s recent expansion. During the migration over to Infor’s HCM system, all of the old paper record files, since the company’s inception in 1991, was converted and stored onto the urrent database that the department has been using ever since. In 2000, when Infor’s HCM system was introduced to the company, the idea of having a paperless system where everything was kept in the databases was phenomenal. It was not until years later where the managers started to notice more and more issues with incompatibility between the company’s business systems. Currently, the main problem that the department is having is that the other departments are having issues viewing their data because the other departments are using their own individual business systems.

The current workaround is that the information must first be converted into a form that is viewable by the other departments. This takes up a lot of time depending on the piece of information that needs to be converted and is bringing the level of productivity down. Operations In order to ensure consistency of operations and quality control at all Riordan plants, a common set of procedures has been developed for the management of receiving raw materials, tracking products during manufacturing, and accounting for the finished goods inventories.

The following describe the procedures that are currently in place at Riordan: Receiving of Raw Materials 1. A truck from the supplier with raw materials arrives at Riordan receiving area and the receiving area supervisor compares shipping document against scheduled incoming orders. 2. Following validation of the materials to be received, the receiving area team unloads the truck and moves the raw materials into the raw materials area in the factory. 3. At the end of each day, the receiving area supervisor gives the log of all raw materials received during the day and the associated shipping documents to the receiving clerk. . The inventory clerk enters the information related to the raw materials receipts into the inventory system. The data entered includes the type of materials received the vendor, and the quantity. Manufacturing with Inventory 1. As raw materials and sub-assemblies are taken out of inventory, the manufacturing staff completes an inventory usage from to indicate the type of materials removed from inventory and the quantity. 2. The inventory clerk enters the information related to the raw material and sub-assembly usage into the inventory system 3.

As the manufacturing team builds sub-assemblies and final products, they complete an inventory form which is given to the inventory clerk for updates into the inventory system. 4. The inventory clerk enters the information related to the sub assemblies and final products added into the inventory. Final Product Shipping 1. Orders from customers come into Riordan via phone or fax. There is also a sales staff that can place orders for customers. 2. The sales orders are entered into the customer shipping and billing system.

Based on the shipping document generated each day, the shipping department will load the trucks with the products specified by each order. 3. The inventory clerk updates the inventory system based on the shipping documents. Riordan Manufacturing’s inventory and manufacturing processes are obsolete. Riordan Manufacturing’s mission for its future states that “we must be focused in achieving and maintaining reasonable profitability to assure that the financial and human capital is available for sustained growth. ” In order for Riordan Manufacturing to grow as an organization, a new inventory process must be implemented.

Conclusion The Internet, Sales & Marketing, Finance & Accounting, HR, Legal, Description and Operations systems are what make Riordan Manufacturing’s entire system a whole. All successful organization’s objective is growth as a company and profit. As clearly stated in the mission statement of the organization, Riordan’s focus for its future is “achieving and maintaining reasonable profitability to assure that the financial and human capital is available for sustained growth,” which is no different from other organizations.

For Riordan to reach its set objective, it must implement the changes suggested by the IT department for each subsystem. It takes money to make money, and it’s certain that the decision makers for Riordan Manufacturing are aware of this. It is a fact that the company will have to spend some money to execute all suggested improvements for each system. With these improvements, it is guaranteed that an increase of profit will show as a result of change, and company growth will occur, making Riordan, one of many organizations to successfully reach its objective. References

Green It

Green Technology: Future of power generation NEED FOR GREEN TECHNOLOGY Recently concluded Copenhagen conference on climate change and green house emission expressed concern over the amount of CO2 being released. This would in turn heat up the atmosphere and cause global warming that will result in the melting of glaciers and hence the sea level will rise that is a threat to several coastal cities of the world. So one can imagine how the amount of CO2 emissions can cause problems of displacing people from their home.

So why do we produce lot of CO2 in the atmosphere? Most of the industries, power generation plants have CO2 as the finally released compound and with greater industrialization more and more pollutants especially CO¬2 are increasing the atmosphere causing lots of damage to the nature. Not only CO¬2 but there are several reasons like burning of fossil fuels, deforestation , rapid urbanization which result all types of land, water and atmospheric pollution and therefore causing a threat to nature and the human life itself.

What could be the solution then to reduce these types of emissions and to reduce the damage that we cause to the atmosphere? Should we stop industrialization? Shall we stop generating energy? Although these could be ideal solutions however in today’s world they are impractical. We need to protect our environment. In this situation we are left only with an alternative of using what is now widely known as “Green Technology” WHAT IS IT ? Green technology is a group of innovative methods and materials by which energy can be generated without polluting the environment.

This involves use of solar energy, wind energy, wave energy, biomass energy. Unlike the other conventional sources of energy this technology has certain goals; they are as following (taken from www. green-technology. org) The goals that inform developments in this rapidly growing field include: Sustainability – meeting the needs of society in ways that can continue indefinitely into the future without damaging or depleting natural resources. In short, meeting present needs without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs. Cradle to cradle” design – ending the “cradle to grave” cycle of manufactured products, by creating products that can be fully reclaimed or re-used. Source reduction – reducing waste and pollution by changing patterns of production and consumption. Innovation – developing alternatives to technologies – whether fossil fuel or chemical intensive agriculture – that have been demonstrated to damage health and the environment. Viability – creating a center of economic activity around technologies and products that benefit the environment, speeding their implementation and creating new careers that truly protect the planet.

Examples of green technology subject areas Energy Perhaps the most urgent issue for green technology, this includes the development of alternative fuels, new means of generating energy and energy efficiency. Green building Green building encompasses everything from the choice of building materials to where a building is located. Environmentally preferred purchasing This government innovation involves the search for products whose contents and methods of production have the smallest possible impact on the environment, and mandates that these be the preferred products for government purchasing.

Green chemistry The invention, design and application of chemical products and processes to reduce or to eliminate the use and generation of hazardous substances. Green nanotechnology Nanotechnology involves the manipulation of materials at the scale of the nanometer, one billionth of a meter. Some scientists believe that mastery of this subject is forthcoming that will transform the way that everything in the world is manufactured. “Green nanotechnology” is the application of green chemistry and green engineering principles to this field.

These are some of the green technology related links Energy National Renewable Energy Laboratories (NREL) http://www. nrel. gov Rocky Mountain Institute http://www. rmi. org Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory http://www. lbl. gov/Publications/annual-report/2005-2006/files/01-energy-tech-1. html National Energy Research Scientific Computing Center http://www. nersc. gov/ Energy Star http://www. energystar. gov/ Green Power Network http://www. eere. energy. gov/greenpower/ American Council on Renewable Energy (ACORE) http://www. acore. org

Oak National Laboratory Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy Program http://www. ornl. gov/sci/eere/ Sandia National Laboratory – Renewable Energy Office http://www. sandia. gov/Renewable_Energy/renewable. htm Renewable and Appropriate Energy Laboratory (UC Berkeley) http://rael. berkeley. edu/aboutrael. html Renewable Energy Research Laboratory (University of Massachusetts) http://www. ceere. org/rerl/ Idaho National Laboratory http://www. inl. gov/renewableenergy/ Natural Energy Laboratory of Hawaii Authority http://www. nelha. org/about/gateway. html Renewable Energy Access ttp://www. renewableenergyaccess. com National Association of Energy Service Companies http://www. naesco. org/ Green Building US Green Building Council http://www. usgbc. org/ US EPA: Green Building http://www. epa. gov/greenbuilding/ Sustainable Buildings Industry Council http:www. sbic. org World Green Building Council http://www. worldgbc. org/ California Integrated Waste Management Board: Green Building Basics http://www. ciwmb. ca. gov/greenbuilding/Basics. htm California Commissioning Collaborative http://www. cacx. org/ Building Commissioning Association ttp://www. bcxa. org/ Whole Building Design Guide http://www. wbdg. org/ Green Purchasing Recycled Content Product Directory (California Integrated Waste Management Board) www. ciwmb. ca. gov/RCP Best Practices Manual (Green California) http://www. green. ca. gov/EPP/Introduction/default. htm California Integrated Waste Management Board http://www. ciwmb. ca. gov/EPP/ US EPA: Environmentally Preferable Purchasing http://www. epa. gov/epp/ Database of Environmental Information for Products and Services (US EPA) http://yosemite1. epa. gov/oppt/eppstand2. sf/Pages/Homepage. html? Open Green Nanotechnology Project on Emerging Nanotechnologies http://nanotechproject. org/ US EPA Perspective Factsheet http://es. epa. gov/ncer/nano/factsheet/ Foresight Nanotech Institute http://www. foresight. org/ Green Chemistry US EPA: Green Chemistry Program http://www. epa. gov/greenchemistry/ Center for Green Chemistry: Universityof Massachusetts Lowell http://www. greenchemistry. uml. edu/ Green Chemistry Institute http://www. chemistry. org/greenchemistryinstitute/ Chemalliance. org http://www. chemalliance. org/Columns/050520. asp

Energy Crisis

An energy crisis is any great bottleneck) (or price rise) in the supply of energy resources to an economy. In popular literature though, it often refers to one of the energy sources used at a certain time and place. Causes Market failure is possible when monopoly manipulation of markets occurs. A crisis can develop due to industrial actions like union organized strikes and government embargoes. The cause may be over-consumption, aging infrastructure, choke point disruption or bottlenecks at oil refineries and port facilities that restrict fuel supply.

An emergency may emerge during unusually cold winters due to increased consumption of energy. Pipeline failures and other accidents may cause minor interruptions to energy supplies. A crisis could possibly emerge after infrastructure damage from severe weather. Attacks by terrorists or militia on important infrastructure are a possible problem for energy consumers, with a successful strike on a Middle East facility potentially causing global shortages. Political events, for example, when governments change due to regime change, monarchy collapse, military occupation, and coup may disrupt oil and gas production and create shortages.

Historical crises {draw:a} 1970s Energy Crisis Cause: peaking of oil production in major industrial nations (Germany, U. S. , Canada, etc. ) and embargos from other producers 1973 oil crisis Cause: an OPEC oil export embargo by many of the major Arab oil-producing states, in response to western support of Israel during the Yom Kippur War 1979 oil crisis Cause: the Iranian revolution 1990 spike in the price of oil Cause: the Gulf War The 2000–2001 California electricity crisis Cause: failed deregulation, and business corruption.

The UK fuel protest of 2000 – Cause: Raise in the price of crude oil combined with already relatively high taxation on road fuel in the UK. North American natural gas crisis Argentine energy crisis) of 2004 North Korea has had energy shortages for many years. Zimbabwe has experienced a shortage of energy supplies for many years due to financial mismanagement. Political riots occurring during the 2007 Burmese anti-government protests were sparked by rising energy prices. [edit] Emerging shortages {draw:a} {draw:a} Kuwait’s Al Burqan Oil Field, the world’s second largest oil field, will be depleted within 40 years. 1] Crises that exist as of 2008 include: Oil price increases since 2003 Caused by continued global increases in petroleum demand coupled with production stagnation, the falling value of the U. S. dollar, and a myriad of other secondary causes. 2008 Central Asia energy crisis, caused by abnormally cold temperatures and low water levels in an area dependent on hydroelectric power. Despite having significant hydrocarbon reserves, in February 2008 the President of Pakistan announced plans to tackle energy shortages that were reaching crisis stage. 2] At the same time the South African President was appeasing fears of a prolonged electricity crisis in South Africa. [3] South African electrical crisis. The South African crisis, which may last to 2012, lead to large price rises for platinum in February 2008[4] and reduced gold production. China experienced severe energy shortages towards the end of 2005 and again in early 2008. During the latter crisis they suffered severe damage to power networks along with diesel and coal shortages. 5] Supplies of electricity in Guangdong province, the manufacturing hub of China, are predicted to fall short by an estimated 10 GW. [6] It has been predicted that in the coming years after 2009 that the United Kingdom will suffer an energy crisis due to its commitments to reduce coal fired power stations, its politician’s unwillingness to set up new nuclear power stations to replaces those that will be de-commissioned in a few years (even though they will not be running in time to stop a full blown crisis) and unreliable sources and sources that are running out of oil and gas.

It is therefore predicted that the UK may have regular blackouts like South Africa. [7] [edit] Social and economic effects Main article: Energy economics The macroeconomic implications of a supply shock-induced energy crisis are large, because energy is the resource used to exploit all other resources. When energy markets fail, an energy shortage develops. Electricity consumers may experience intentionally-engineered rolling blackouts which are released during periods of insufficient supply or unexpected power outages, regardless of the cause.

Industrialized nations are dependent on oil, and efforts to restrict the supply of oil would have an adverse effect on the economies of oil producers. For the consumer, the price of natural gas, gasoline (petrol) and diesel for cars and other vehicles rises. An early response from stakeholders is the call for reports, investigations and commissions into the price of fuels. There are also movements towards the development of more sustainable urban infrastructure. {draw:a} {draw:a}

In 2006, US survey respondents were willing to pay more for a plug-in hybrid car In the market, new technology and energy efficiency measures become desirable for consumers seeking to decrease transport costs. [8] Examples include: In 1980 Briggs & Stratton developed the first gasoline hybrid electric automobile; also are appearing plug-in hybrids. the growth of advanced biofuels. innovations like the Dahon, a folding bicycle modernized and electrifying passenger transport Railway electrification systems and new engines such as the Ganz-Mavag locomotive variable compression ratio for vehicles

Other responses include the development of unconventional oil sources such as synthetic fuel from places like the Athabasca Oil Sands, more renewable energy commercialization and use of alternative propulsion. There may be a Relocation) trend towards local foods and possibly microgeneration, solar thermal collectors and other green energy sources. Tourism trends change and ownership of gas-guzzlers vary, both because of increases to fuel costs which are passed on to customers. Items which were not so popular gain favour, such as nuclear power plants and the blanket sleeper, a garment to keep children warm.

Building construction techniques change to reduce heating costs, potentially through increased insulation. See also: Green building_ and _Zero-energy building [edit] Crisis management An electricity shortage is felt most by those who depend on electricity for their heating, cooking and water supply. In these circumstances a sustained energy crisis may become a humanitarian crisis. If an energy shortage is prolonged a crisis management phase is enforced by authorities. Energy audits may be conducted to monitor usage. Various curfews with the intention of increasing energy conservation may be initiated to reduce consumption.

To conserve power during the Central Asia energy crisis, authorities in Tajikistan ordered bars and cafes to operate by candlelight. [9] Warnings issued that peak demand power supply might not be sustained. In the worst kind of energy crisis energy rationing and fuel rationing may be incurred. Panic buying may beset outlets as awareness of shortages spread. Facilities close down to save on heating oil; and factories cut production and lay off workers. The risk of stagflation increases. [edit] Mitigation of an energy crisis {draw:a} {draw:a} Nuclear power in Germany Main article: Mitigation of peak oil

The Hirsch report made clear that an energy crisis is best averted by preparation. In 2008, solutions such as the Pickens Plan and the satirical in origin Paris Hilton energy plan suggest the growing public consciousness of the importance of mitigation. Energy policy may be reformed leading to greater energy intensity, for example in Iran with the 2007 Gas Rationing Plan in Iran, Canada and the National Energy Program and in the USA with the Energy Independence and Security Act of 2007. In Europe the oil phase-out in Sweden is an initiative a government has taken to provide energy security.

Another mitigation measure is the setup of a cache of secure fuel reserves like the United States Strategic Petroleum Reserve, in case of national emergency. Chinese energy policy includes specific targets within their 5 year plans. {draw:a} {draw:a} World energy usage Andrew McKillop has been a proponent of a contract and converge model or capping scheme, to mitigate both emissions of greenhouse gases and a peak oil crisis. The imposition of a carbon tax would have mitigating effects on an oil crisis. [citation needed] The Oil Depletion Protocol has been developed by Richard Heinberg to implement a powerdown during a peak oil crisis.

While many sustainable development and energy policy organisations have advocated reforms to energy development from the 1970s, some cater to a specific crisis in energy supply including Energy-Questand the International Association for Energy Economics. The Oil Depletion Analysis Centre and the Association for the Study of Peak Oil and Gas examine the timing and likely effects of peak oil. Ecologist William Rees) believes that Due to a lack of political viability on the issue, government mandated fuel prices hikes are unlikely and the unresolved dilemma of fossil fuel dependence is becoming a wicked problem.

A global soft energy path seems improbable, due to the rebound effect). Conclusions that the world is heading towards an unprecedented large and potentially devastating global energy crisis due to a decline in the availability of cheap oil lead to calls for a decreasing dependency on fossil fuel. Other ideas have been proposed which concentrate on improved, energy-efficient design and development of urban infrastructure in developing nations. [10] Government funding for alternative energy is more likely to increase during an energy crisis, so too are incentives for oil exploration.

For example funding for research into inertial confinement fusion technology increased during 1970’s. [edit] Future and alternative energy sources In response to the petroleum crisis, the principles of green energy and sustainable living movements gain popularity. This has led to increasing interest in alternate power/fuel research such as fuel cell technology, liquid nitrogen economy, hydrogen fuel, methanol, biodiesel, Karrick process, solar energy, geothermal energy, tidal energy, wave power, and wind energy, and fusion power. To date, only hydroelectricity and nuclear power have been significant alternatives to fossil fuel.

Hydrogen gas is currently produced at a net energy loss from natural gas. When not produced from natural gas, hydrogen still needs another source of energy to create it, also at a loss during the process. This has led to hydrogen being regarded as a ‘carrier’ of energy, like electricity, rather than a ‘source’. The unproven dehydrogenating process has also been suggested for the use water as an energy source. Efficiency mechanisms such as Negawatt power can encourage significantly more effective use of current generating capacity.

It is a term used to describe the trading of increased efficiency, using consumption efficiency to increase available market supply rather than by increasing plant generation capacity. As such, it is a demand-side as opposed to a supply-side measure. See also: Strategic uranium reserves_ and _Nuclear energy policy [edit] Predictions Although technology has made oil extraction more efficient, the world is having to struggle to provide oil by using increasingly costly and less productive methods such as deep sea drilling, and developing environmentally sensitive areas such as the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge.

The world’s population continues to grow at a quarter of a million people per day, increasing the consumption of energy. Although far less from people in developing countries, especially USA, the per capita energy consumption of China, India and other developing nations continues to increase as the people living in these countries adopt more energy intensive lifestyles. At present a small part of the world’s population consumes a large part of its resources, with the United States and its population of 300 million people consuming far more oil than China with its population of 1. billion people. William Catton has emphasised the link between population size and energy supply, concluding that David Pimentel professor of ecology and agriculture at Cornell University,has called for massive reduction in world populations in order to avoid a permanent global energy crisis. The implication is that cheap oil has created a human overshoot) beyond Earth’s carrying capacity which inevitably lead to an energy crisis.

David Price postulates that population growth occurs when a higher quality form of energy is commercialised. [11] See also: Energy balance_ and _Tragedy of the Commons {draw:a} {draw:a} For nearly 60 years the US dependence on imported oil has grown significantly. Matthew Simmons and Julian Darley amongst others, have examined the economic effects of an energy crisis. Historian, and sociologist links an energy crisis with a deflating American dollar.

He has stated that According to Christopher Falvin, geopolitical factors has resulted in current energy system, based on fossil fuels, to be a risk management issue that undermines global security. [citation needed] Considering the significant source of greenhouse gas emissions accumulating in the atmosphere, fossil fuel energy is being viewed as increasingly socially irresponsible. Joseph Tainter is an expert on societal collapse and energy supply who draws attention to the complexity of modern society and our ability to problem solve the wider issue of environmental degradation. [12]