Cell Phone: Advantages and Disadvantages

dvantages and disadvantages of cell phone Has it happened to you that sometimes you go out but forgot your cell phone at home and so you’re not feeling complete. There’s a feeling somewhere inside that you’re missing something, a sense of insecurity sometimes prevails… welcome to the world of cell phone addiction! Cell phones are having a great influence in our live and are very convenient to keep with us. Cell phones are a faster and more effective way to transfer information. Indeed, it is a resource that gives its user’s great advantages.

They say, if something is of great utility (usage, etc), it will surely have its own problems as well; cell phones are no exception. In earlier times cell-phone used to be a craze, symbol of money and success but nowadays even kids find it a neccessity of life. I would want to list some quick good and bad things about a typical cell phone. The list is not typical to any phone, just a generalization. Advantages : • The more you talk, the more you know how to talk and the better your communication skills become.

This is applicable if you’re a sensible person and keep note of your interacting habits over the phone. It can be a communication tutorial! • Nothing more than a cell phone comes to great help in emergency. You are driving by the freeway and the vehicle jams and cell phone comes to your rescue. You are stuck in a lone place, again call somebody and ask for directions. • Parents can be a little less worried about their kids by being in constant touch with them. • If you’re a net-savvy, you can have Internet handy all the time and anywhere the signal of your cell phone provider can reach. Trendy and stylish cell phones can be used as a bait to receive attention. It can be part of fashion and styling. • From the industy and economy point of view, cell phone companies (communication industry) is florishing with market capital in billions. This is a good thing for the economy to be smooth and healthy. • Companies find it yet another medium to advertise their products; so another medium to reach the consumers. • Nowadays, cell phones are not just phone calls; they’re about messaging, vidoe, songs, games, alarm clock, notes, calendar, reminder, etc.

So one equipment, lots’ of uses! • Although cell phone use can be dangerous while driving but sometimes it can be a time-saver – you are driving and simultanesouly discussing some urgent matter as well. A sensible and only urgent usage during driving can be a great help at times. Dis-advantages : • Some people (especially teens) get so much addicted to cell phones for talking, video, messaging, games, etc that they forget the real purpose of the phone and waste large part of their time in unnecessary interaction over their cell phones. Nothing more can be a distraction for a teached in the classroom, when a student’s phone rings. Cell phones are increasingly becoming a problem for the schools during classroom hours and are becoming a means of cheating during examinations and other kinds of ability tests. All this is really bad and does hurt the future of the student, who doesn’t realize that he/she is him/her-self responsible for it. • Health of those living in the vicinity of cell phone towers is becoming a growing concern.

Towers result into an area with concrete development along with destruction of natural features (vegetation etc) around the place. The towers also emit strong electromagnetic signals, which can be health hazard for those living nearby and who are getting exposed to strong radiations continuously during a good span of their lives. • While remaining in touch is good thing but sometimes it becomes annoying to have to deal with continuous incoming phone calls. You are on a vacation and your boss calls up, how does that sound! • Cell phone monthly bills are usually more than a landline bill.

Sometimes, we may not require to have a cell phone but we still buy one and start paying monthly bills; so it increases our monthly/recurring expenses. • Use of hands-free (wired/blue-tooth) can at times pass on loud sounds to our ears which can result in weakening of ear-drums. Nowadays, one can download lot’s of songs, so keeping the hands-free glued inside your ears for long hours can really affect the sensitivity of ears in the long run of life. • There have been cases of cell phone blasts, due to the excessive heating up of it’s battery. This can be a fatal issue; although rare. No joke, the surface of a cell phone has millions of bacteria and virus on it and that can be a strong reason of immediate skin problem on face or can result into other internal infections wherein the microbes creep inside the body through mouth or other openings. • Some use the keypad excessively; due to size restrictions the buttons and keypad of the cell phone are not natural for human hands; so excessive and prolonged typing can be an issue for fingers and finger joints. • The continuous exposure of signal to and from our cell phone can be a cancer concern, although to a meagre amount- research is still going on.

However, the mobile phone industry has long resisted any suggestion of a link to cancer, though it accepts that mobile phone radiation does affect the electrical activity in the brain. • The battery parts and other electonic parts of a cell phone can be environmental hazard if not disposed off properly through approved means. • A cell phone can be helpful while driving and talking in case of urgent matters but increasingly it is becoming cause of accidents because it deviates the attention of a driver; human brain can do only one thing at a time (however small span of time it may be). It can be a big time distraction and nuisance in calm and silent places like libraries, cinemas, restaruants, etc. Some cell phone users lose the sense of deciding when and where they can talk on the cell phone and where they can’t, without slightest consideration for the fellow beings around. • The mobile phone advertisements through messages are becoming a pain for the cell phone users. • Your SIM can be exploited as tracking device and if you’re an important person then that can be a big concern for you. Having said all about cell phones, I think they are one of the biggest boons humanity ever had.

If used properly and sensibly, cell phone can be a wonderful piece of utility in life and most of its disadvantages will simply be insignificant. Mobile Phones – a great invention? Mobile Phones — A Flawed Invention? Mobile phone is a good technology which is not lacking from our lives. This report will discuss the advantages and disadvantages of using mobile phones. > Delete > See? We are trimming words already Today, mobile phone has become popular to everybody since it is very convenient. > phoneS have > popular FOR everybody > since THEY are gt; delete “very” Because of their convenience, mobile phones have become universally popular. The most advantage of having a mobile phone is you can communicate to your family and your friends no matter what where you are. For instance, you can contact easily to your friends by calling or sending messages everywhere without electricity. It is maybe the main reason why almost all people today choose to own a mobile phone. > Reduce the word count by deleting the repetition of the same idea. > You have used all these words to point out that mobile phones are mobile.

With them we can call anyone at any time, independent of a landline connection. From the customer’s point of view, it is obvious that mobile phones assist you in business a lot, such as, make schedule of working, surf the internet, and keep in touch with their companies. > “assist you in business a lot, such as,. . ” should be “assist you in business by . . ” > Don’t shift from “we” to “you” ; “make schedule of working” does not really carry a meaning ; Surfing the internet belongs in the next sentence Our cellies keep us in constant communication with our families, our friends, and our businesses.

Moreover, you can relax with mobile phone’s applications, for example, play games, listen to music, or chat with your friends. We also use special apps for listening to music, playing games, surfing the net, and text messaging. It’s hard to picture life as it was before the mobile phone. On the other hand, there are also disadvantages. > Don’t say both “on the other hand” AND “also” But there are disadvantages to the use of mobile phones. Using a lot mobile phone can harm your brain, particularly teenager and children who are under 16 years old. gt; using mobile phones a lot can harm your brain ; spell out the number 16 as a word Using mobile phones is said to be harmful to the brain, especially for those who are under the age of sixteen. If you use mobile phones too much, you will get bad effects like dizzy, blood-brain barrier, or ears problems. ; Blood-brain barrier is not a harmful effect. It is a part of the body. Excessive use of mobile phones has been accused of causing dizziness, (NOTE: Connect this sentence with the one after the next) In addition, when you use mobile phones while you are driving, you will get an accident. gt; get IN an accident (NOTE: Move this part to after the next one) And drivers distracted by talking on their cell phones are more likely to get into car crashes. Moreover, “radiations emitted from the phone are dead harmful for the eardrum”, has proved by many scientist. ; It has not been proved by many scientists. and “radiations emitted from the phone are dead harmful for the eardrum,” says (person’s name and title. ) (NOTE: Attach this after the word “dizziness” in the sentence above) It is essential not good for you and others.

Owning a mobile phone in your hand is you can solve many issues and hold most of information around the world. Even though is not good for your health and you have to protect yourself from bad effects of mobile phones if you choose to have one. > This little summary is disorganized and poorly thought out. Mobile phones solve problems and provide new channels of communication. We can access all the world’s information no matter where we are, just by using a device small enough to fit into one hand. But be careful — mobile phones might also be bad for you!

P/s: Plz help me to correct this essay since next week i’m going to do final exam. How can i reduce this essay because i should write from 150 to 180 words and this essay has about 291 words. Thank you for helping me. I ran this through a Word doc to get a word count. This comes in at 190 words. Because of their convenience, mobile phones have become universally popular. With them we can call anyone at any time, independent of a landline connection. Our cellies keep us in constant communication with our families, our friends, and our businesses.

We also use special apps for listening to music, playing games, surfing the net, and text messaging. It’s hard to picture life as it was before the mobile phone. But there are disadvantages to the use of mobile phones. Using mobile phones is said to be harmful to the brain, especially for those who are under the age of sixteen. Excessive use of mobile phones has been accused of causing dizziness, and “radiations emitted from the phone are dead harmful for the eardrum,” says (person’s name and title. And drivers distracted by talking on their cell phones are more likely to get into car crashes. Mobile phones solve problems and provide new channels of communication. We can access all the world’s information no matter where we are, just by using a device small enough to fit into one hand. But be careful — mobile phones might also be bad for you! Most of the problems with this essay are not related to the grammatical use of English. That is fine. It’s not uncommon for people to revert to babytalk and infantile ideas when they are aware that their vocabulary is limited.

Resist that tendency. This essay was not worth reading, and only partly because the assigned topic makes it hard to come up with anything worthwhile to say. It makes it hard — but not impossible. You should have done more work to express these banal ideas in a more appealing way — varied sentence structure, maybe, and a spicier vocabulary. Almost everybody has a mobile phone. But is it a great invention? I think there are both advantages and disadvantages. > This is a poor intro. It has no life, no “snap. ” It doesn’t draw the reader in.

It is plodding, obvious, and dull. ; For a tiny piece like this one, the opening sentence should be what is called a “hook. ” A hook grabs the reader’s attention and makes him want to read the following passage. > Until you do the mental work to come up with an intro that is a “hook,” don’t bother to write one at all. A bad intro is worse than none. ; Delete these sentences Today, mobile phones have become popular to everybody since they are convenient. ; It’s not easy to come up with something interesting to say when the material is self-evident. gt; But don’t make it worse by using the most stodgy and boring sentence structure available. Because of the great convenience of mobile phones, they are now a modern-day must-have — the 21st century equivalent of a businessman’s fountain pen. The most advantage of having a mobile phone is you can communicate to your family, your friends, and your business no matter what where you are. > If you must say the self-evident, at least try to make the expression fresh or lively. Jetting to Europe or stalled in traffic, with your mobile phone you’re always in touch with your family, your friends, and your business.

We also use special applications for listening music, playing games, surfing the net, and texting messages. ; The problem with writing down something that everyone already knows is that it makes it sound like you are writing a story for people who are six years old. ; It is crucial that you remove that problem by saying these infantile things in a spicy or interesting way. Special apps for texting, listening to music, playing games, and surfing the web keep our phones plugged into our heads around the clock. Besides that, ; “Besides that” means “in addition to that” gt; You use “besides that” when you are going to add more of the same ; But in this case, you are not adding more of the same ; You are turning the direction of your remarks around ; For that use, the correct conjunction is “but” But there are lots of disadvantages. ; This ends rather abruptly ; for a better transition, add something more be careful. There are also some disadvantages to using our beloved cellies. Using mobile phones can harm our brains, especially for those who are under the age of sixteen. ; Unless “we” are all under the age of 16, it is better to refer to it as “the brain,” rather than “our brains. > Since this is far from a known fact, it is better to place the data in the opinions of SOME people Some researchers have claimed that mobile phones are harmful to the brain, especially for children. Excessive use of mobile phones has been accused of causing dizziness, and “radiations emmitted from the phone are dead harmful for the eardrum” , say many scientists. > “Many” scientists do not say this, and it is no doubt scientifically false > ONE scientist said this > He even used a slang expression in his quote: “dead harmful” is not standard English; it is a personal idiosyncrasy of speech. gt; The remark is in quotation marks, which means that it is a direct quote directly from the mouth of a specific person > “Many scientists” did not stand up all at once and chant this line, so you can’t attribute a specific utterance to a group. > If you don’t know his name, you can write “according to a publicity-seeking quack quoted in a tabloid journal of bad repute” or something like that > “emitted” is spelled wrong Excessive use of mobile phones has been accused of causing dizziness, and “radiations emitted from the phone are dead harmful for the eardrum,” according to one researcher in the field.

In addition, when we use mobile phones while we are driving, we will get in an accident. > This is logically false, and the ridiculous and simplistic nature of statements like this contribute to making this piece infantile > Using cell phones probably increases the risk of accidents > It is now considered un-PC to call them “accidents” on the grounds that they are caused by avoidable driver misconduct > traffic accidents are now called “car crashes”

In addition, using a mobile phone while driving hikes the risk of getting into a car crash. In summary, mobiles are a great invention but they still have many issues. You have to protect yourself from the bad effects of mobiles if you choose to have one. > Just delete this on the grounds that it is not adding a single thing that would repay the reader the trouble of seeing it. > It is not interesting, amusing, entertaining, informative, new, or any of the millions of other reasons why we might read something. gt; Do some mental work to think of “What would be good to say in conclusion? What can I say to wrap this up that would be good to read? ” > A teeny piece like this, with almost no ideas in it, does not need a “summary. ” > You might give it a “conclusion” just so it doesn’t end so abruptly > But a conclusion is not just a dull repeat of the self-evident and dull stuff that we JUST HEARD 15 SECONDS AGO!!! > Not unless you are writing for people who are 6. > You can’t say “they have issues. ” It’s ridiculous.

Erosion of Trade Union Power

The erosion of trade union power since 1979 Trade unions in Britain have existed for over two hundred years. In the early 19th century, trade unions were outlawed for being anti-competitive but by the early 20th century there were two million trade union members and this rose to a peak of over thirteen million in 1979. However, in the 1980s there was a sharp fall in the number of trade union members. There are a number of possible explanations for this radical change in trade union membership in the 1980s but I feel that there are three main reasons.

Firstly, the recession of 1980-82 led to an increase in unemployment of nearly two million and the unemployed tend to let their trade union membership lapse. It is interesting to note, however, that the rise in employment in the late 1980s did not lead to a corresponding rise in trade union membership. Secondly, the 1980s saw a radical restructuring of British industry as employment in manufacturing, a sector which was very highly unionised, fell significantly.

The new jobs that were created tended to be in the service sector of the economy, which is traditionally far less unionised than manufacturing. Thirdly, the 1980s was a decade in which the government showed a marked hostility to trade unions. This affected the willingness of workers to join unions and increased the confidence of those employers attempting to reduce or eliminate trade union activity in their workplaces.

Trade unions have to work within a legal framework and this started in Britain when they gained the right to organise in 1824 with the repeal of the Combination Acts and their right to strike without being sued for damages by an employer was enshrined in the Industrial Disputes Act of 1906. During the 1960s, however, there was a growing feeling that trade unions and their members were using their power in a way which was damaging to the economy as a whole.

The Labour government of 1964-70 shelved plans to introduce trade union reforms in the face of union opposition, but Edward Heath’s Conservative government of 1970-74 did take action. The Industrial Relations Act (1971) was highly controversial, met substantial opposition from the trade union movement and failed to reduce their power effectively. It was repealed in 1974 when a new Labour government came into office and trade union rights were extended by various pieces of legislation in the following two years. The 1980s, arguably, saw a transformation in the climate of industrial relations in Britain.

The Conservative government, instead of introducing large scale legislative reform, passed a number of acts each of which restricted union power at the margin. By 1990 secondary picketing had been made illegal; trade unions had to hold a secret ballot and gain a majority of the votes cast to call an official strike; social security benefits were withdrawn from the dependants of striking workers; union officers had to be elected by secret ballots and closed shop agreements were restricted and greater opportunities were given to employees to opt out of closed shops.

Power within the trade union movement has also shifted because before 1979, small groups of workers who were willing to take unofficial strike action and certain militant trade union leaders tended to dominate at least the newspaper headlines and the policy decisions and activities of their branches. The reforms of the 1980s made it more costly and more difficult for workers to take widespread unofficial action and the power of trade union leaders to call strikes was curbed because workers now had to be balloted on strike action.

Moreover, the democratisation of union voting procedures made it much more difficult for militant trade union leaders to get elected to key posts within trade unions. The government also shrewdly distanced itself from the prosecution of trade unions. Previous legislation had concentrated on criminal law, where offenders were prosecuted by the state and could be fined or imprisoned and as a result government always risked creating trade union “martyrs”. Much of the union legislation concentrated on civil law and so employers were given powers to sue trade unions for breaches of the law.

For instance, if a trade union called a strike without holding a secret ballot, it was the employer affected that sued the trade union for damages. The government has no power to prosecute the union. This means that the trade union risks losing considerable sums of money if it does not comply with the law, but individual trade union members cannot gain public sympathy by being sent to prison as they could in theory under the 1971 Industrial Relations Act.

Not only has the government considerably reduced the ability of trade unions and their members to take industrial action, it also, during the 1980s, took a strong stance with public sector trade unions. The most important trade union defeat in the public sector was the breaking of the miners’ strike in 1984-5. Furthermore, the government completely cut off the trade union movement from decision making at a national level. This contrasted with the 1960s and 1970s when governments, both Labour and Conservative, would often consult trade union leaders before making important decisions.

To say whether the reduction in the trade union movement is a propitious development or not, a definition of what trade unions are needs to be obtained. Beatrice and Sidney Webb’s definition of a trade union as “a continuous association of wage-earners for the purpose of maintaining or improving the conditions of their working lives” is still very apt today. For many important players in the economy, such as this Government, the Institute of Directors and the CBI, the decline of the unions is seen as a propitious development.

They blame Britain’s trade unions for pushing up wages, applying restrictive controls to work and thwarting management’s ability to plan and innovate and as a result are the “prime factor in economic crisis”, as McIroy puts it. The Right also emphasise the role of trade unions in creating inflation and cramping productivity. They tend to believe that employees are self-regarding individuals, who have less need than in the past to organise themselves collectively to defend or promote their interests in the workplace.

While some of these arguments can be seen as being true in the 1970s, when trade union power arguably got out of control, these views carry less weight today because of the decline of union power. Other factors must be taken into consideration when looking at Britain’s economic problems. There is the view that there is a debilitating split between the interests of the financial world and the industrial world. In other words borrowing, lending and currency speculation have taken precedence over what is really important as the basis of a thriving economy, building factories and producing goods.

Others claim that incompetent management, the fragmentation of the economy into small units, or the tendency of capitalists to put consumption and dividends before investment, or investment overseas before investment at home is equally to blame. I feel that there is still a need for trade unions as they provide several important functions for the majority of workers. For a start there is and always has been an unequal relationship at work. In other words, the employee as an individual in the workplace suffers from having an unequal relationship of power with his or her employer.

It is only when the employees decided to join together collectively, that they can create enough united strength to have a strong and credible voice to counter that of the employers. Unfortunately, the main feature of today,s labour market is its insecurity and lack of certainty. As a result a great fear for the future exists among employees. This insecurity is no longer confined to unskilled manual workers but has spread to all sections in the British workforce. As John Monks, General Secretary of the TUC said, “There are no steady jobs. They are here today, gone tomorrow jobs with no security, no pension, no sick pay and no paid holidays. Trade unions at least go some way in trying to redress this balance. Recent years have seen the rise of a divided workforce because the British labour market is not just deregulated but it is also becoming increasingly segmented. The growth of part-time employment has strengthened the sense of employee insecurity. Problems are caused for employees because part-time workers have no legally enforceable employment protection like those who are employed in full-time jobs. Even with trade union representation, employees, especially in retailing, find their working lives unstable, insecure, low paid and under valued.

Without trade unions all the evidence suggests that their situation would be even more impoverished than it is at the moment. The government’s own commissioned Workplace Industrial Relations Survey carried out in 1990 indicated just how vital trade unions are. Its findings revealed “repeatedly how much worse off employees who do not enjoy the protection of collective bargaining are. They are, on average, less favoured in terms of pay, health and safety, labour turnover, contractual security, compulsory redundancy, grievance procedures, consultation, communication and employee representation.         The power of the British trade union movement has certainly been significantly reduced since 1979. While I think that the trade unions were getting too big and powerful and as a result were causing more bad than good in the 1970s, their rapid decline in the 1980s was not a propitious development. This is because employers now do not need to adopt basic recognised fair standards of labour practice because of the lack of legal regulation. This, combined with workplace insecurity and evidence of a squeeze on living standards has made conditions in the labour arket ripe for trade union protection. Workplace conditions and terms of employment will only detriorate further if trade union power and influence, responsibly used, is not allowed to continue. Bibliography British Trade Unionism c. 1770-1990 K. Laybourn 1991         Trade Unions WEJ McCarthy 1972 Trade Unions In Britain Today J. McIlroy 1988         Trade Unions. Public Goods or Public C. Robins 1981 ‘Bads’? The Future of the Trade Unions R. Taylor 1994         The History of Trade Unionism S&B Webb 1922

Advertising Is Legalised Form of Lying

Advertising, generally speaking, is the promotion of goods, services, companies and ideas, usually performed by an identified sponsor. Marketers see advertising as part of an overall promotional strategy. Other components of the promotional mix include publicity, public relations, personal selling, and sales promotion. Advertising involves the process where in a massage is designed so as to promote a product, a thought, an idea or even a service. The concept of advertising has assumed a dynamic form with the use of the various mediums of communication.

From the newspaper, magazines, posters, neon and fluorescent signboards, billboards to the commercial on TV, laser shows to inflated high-rise figures and objects, advertising has come a long way. The work is formidable as it spearheads a process intended to attract, modify, change and influences public opinion. Modern advertising really began in the middle of the century. World War II had taught Americans plenty about propaganda and new technologies had erupted, offering both increased production and more ways to propagate a media message. They combined to create the modern ad.

In addition to stating the facts somewhere in the fine print, advertisers began to lace their ads with ideas designed to appeal to the senses of the reader, as well as the deeper, more emotional self interests of love, sex, anxiety, fear, alarm, ambition, envy, indulgence and especially vanity. And to discover which appeal would work best, advertisers began to develop more and better research techniques — and act upon the results. Someday, they’d call it “target marketing,” but for now, they were content with being able to select the right message to transmit and then aim it at the right receiver in the market.

What sounds obvious now was in fact not recognized in the 19th century. Advertising was a print medium at first, and primarily followed the basic rules of decorum and factual reporting of the journalism of the day. Thus, a Sears And Roebuck catalogue from the 19th century offered Underwear For Fat Men with a line drawing a hefty, older fellow with a distended belly trying on a pair of longjohns (Sears & Roebuck, 1879, p. 6). In addition to such straightforward advertising, there were rules which limited the effectiveness of print advertising as a visual medium in many venues.

Ads were kept in the back in the early 19th century, and only moved across to the front of magazines and newspapers in the 1890s. Line drawings and other artwork was introduced, but the copy remained relatively staid and straightforward. Print advertising today is far different. Incredible graphics, manipulative copy and inserts, [email protected] (ads disguised as articles) and coupons make up the bulk of newspaper and magazine advertising. Of course, the old style of print ads remain as well. There are still classified ads in the back of nearly every magazine, and line drawings grace the ads in many newspapers.

Nobody sells Aunderwear for fat [email protected] any more though. Bills, or bulletins, are also still common in the 1990s. Most urban centers have huge sections of walls and public space taken over by row after row of bills, huge print ads. In these days of media saturation, it is not surprising to see many layers of bulletins atop a wall or on a construction site. Bulletins were started in the 1890s as well. ARagged bills hawking everything from Tutts Pills and St. Jacob=s Oil to Battle Ax Plug, Hood=s Sasparilla, and Official Five Cent Cigars fluttered from every fence, lamppost and curb. (Starr and Hayman, p. 25). In both centuries, bulletins are most often [email protected] or posted up without the permission of property owners. The final form of outdoor advertising is the billboard or display. Displays are three-dimensional, huge mockups of products or events. The first billboards were painted bulletins, permanently covering the side of a building and often identifying the businesses within. Later, around the end of the 19th century when most major cities had electricity to spare, these billboards were lighted so that they would be visible at night.

It wasn=t long before the [email protected] was born. Spectaculars are bright, lighted billboards made of many bulbs (the slogan or logo is often spelled out in light) which often contains some three-dimensional elements. The first spectaculars debuted at the end of the 19th century, along with the first lighted marquees. At the end of the 20th century, spectaculars have become even more important, becoming landmarks in places like New York City and Las Vegas. However, outside of the landmark status of some spectaculars, outdoor advertising is very limited.

The largest differences between the advertising of the 1890s and the 1990s are the sheer number of media available and what can be called the culture of Acool. @ The 1990s has radio, television, ads before motion pictures and videotapes, Internet advertising of various types (email [email protected] banner ads), direct mail advertising, blimps and cropdusters to add to the arsenal of outdoor advertisement and concentrated target marketing. More important than the available media is the net effect of advertising. Advertising is now totalizing, both the dominant culture and counterculture are appealed to.

Instead of simply announcing the existence of a product, advertising works to create a culture of consumption for everyone. Advertising’s images of consumption evolved from phony promises of a better life for white, nuclear families to the hip-based brand of product cool that still exists today. (Frank, 1997). Everything from youth rebellion to counter-hegemonic violence to law breaking has been commodified. Advertising today seemingly encourages people to break the rules, to tell the world to Akiss [email protected] and to be an individual.

Beneath this surface rebellion though, people are trained to buy, to tie their emotions to consumption, and eventually, to discard the old with disappointment and embrace the new, in order to rebel again. The greatest difference between the advertising of the 1890s and the 1990s is that instead of buying underwear, one buys the feeling of being cool. This paper is meant to explain some concepts of advertising in cortese s Provocateur. Three basic concepts I will explain, as well as show examples of, are Body Clowning, Body Chopping and Subconscious Seduction. These three concepts are widely used in the advertisement business today.

I will be providing and referring to some advertisements, out of magazines, to show these methods. This should further help the understanding of the material being covered. The first method advertising I will be discussing is Body Clowning. Body Clowning is a technique used to show a happy or entertaining side of the product at hand. In this type of advertising there are usually a man and a woman. The man is being portrayed as very powerful, secure and seductive. Even if they are wearing next to nothing the men are still looking very powerful and intelligent.

While the men are being portrayed as the higher power in the ad, the woman are acting very playful and are shown to be almost childish. Some describe them as acting like clowns, hence the name Body Clowning. Now that we are in the 1990 s we have started to change the role of this. The woman is the more serious one, {as in ad #1}, and the guy is acting more playful. This ad shows a man in a football uniform jumping around while the woman is holding a cake and having excellent posture and acting incredibly lady like. Though I could not find any advertisements on the traditional and more popular roles of this topic, there are many out there.

This type of advertising, if it is done correctly, can be incredibly affective. Body Chopping is another advertising concept that is incredibly effective in the modern advertising business. This technique is used in a lot of clothing, cologne/perfume ads and make-up ads. Body Chopping is when a certain part of the body is photographed and shown in the advertisement. This method is supposed to focus on the sexy side in the human body. It is commonly said by critics that it is degrading to women because it makes it seem that a woman s body is more important than her mind.

This is mainly used with woman but it is also used with men every once and a while. You can t even flip through a magazine without seeing this method. This is effectively shown in ad number 2. As you can see, the face is the only part of the body being shown in this ad for Revlon. It shows the sexy, full and luxurious lips of a woman. This is supposed to make ladies feel that if they used this brand of make-up than their lips will look as good as the woman s in the ad. In ad number 3 you can see that the persons tongue is in focus. This ad is for the candy Spree.

The phrase at the bottom of the page reads It s a kick in the mouth. Now this obviously is saying that this candy will make your mouth feel very good as well as taste terrific but will it really taste like that? You will never know until you try it. This whole point of the ad is to make you want the candy and make you feel like you have to go out right now and buy it. This is made possible by the close up view of the tongue. That is why the method of Body Chopping is so successful. Out of all the advertisements we see in a day very rarely do we sit down and try to analyze them.

If we did do this however, we would find a good bit of subliminal massages inside of an advertisement. Now these are really not very easy to see but they are very catchy to the human eye. These stand out but at the same time have a very different meaning. This is done because the average person looks at an ad for two seconds. This is not leaving a whole lot of time for the ad to make you want to have the product advertised. That is why they put these messages in that stick out, so you can see this and relate to the mood of he ad and want the specific product.

We all do this with out even thinking about it, leaving it the name of subconscious. Here are some examples of some subconscious seduction techniques: In lipstick ads the lipstick is usually a symbol for oral or anal sex. Though we are not sure why this is it is proven that it is, oddly enough, a good symbol for this. This actually does sell a lot of these products thought this method. In conclusion, I hope that these examples have greatly increased your knowledge of at least three of the techniques used by advertisers today in their ads.

There is a lot to be said about these advertisements, but they can be very tricky to read and see at the same time. Now that you have been informed on these points, you should be able to pick these things up and understand the advertisements better. Just as there is to everything else in life, there are costs and benefits to advertising. Advertising plays a major role in our lives. Everywhere you turn there is some form of advertising taking place. Companies spend outrageous amounts to get the attention of the viewer and hold it long enough to increase sales of there product. An example of this is a Chevy truck commercial.

They use a more masculine approach to make you believe the truck gives off the same idea. The costs of advertising are many. For one the increase in advertising raises consumer prices. The company needs to pay for it somehow so guess who the cost is pushed on? The consumer. Another bad point in advertising is that it often makes you buy things you don’t need or didn’t even want. The worst aspect of advertising is probably the fact that it controls the media. Think if a radio station is sponsored by dorittos it is unlikely they would ever negatively refer to the product. People protect their advertisers.

Its power has a majority of the media wrapped around its finger. The benefits of advertising are many as well. Advertising can give you price information, availability of it, and improvements that may have been made on a product. Without advertising compassion would be slim. Advertisers try to impress the consumer and draw them in. If one product is more appealing advertisers work on launching a bigger and better campaign to make their product appear to be better. Without advertisements paying for radio and many news papers it is possible that we wouldn’t be so informed on breaking news and public issues.

I was impressed by the truck commercial because it targets more to a male audience. It makes the truck seem like the high point of being a man. Without the truck it seems like they are trying to say you are not as much of a man. Most likely I wouldn’t by something just because of a commercial. Trucks are nice and maybe they do make you appear to be more manly, but if I was to buy a truck its quality and care it had received would rank above its affects on my image. Ring around the collar,” “Once you pop, you can’t stop,” “Just do it. ” Television viewers today are ombarded with increasing commercial content. From the barrage of 15-second commercials every seven minutes, to product placement, to infomercials, when the viewer watches television, they are constantly exposed to some form of advertising. Beyond the minor annoyance, very few people think that much is wrong with advertisements. What viewers do not realize is how much advertising influences the content of television, often in a negative manner. In his article Conscientious Objections Neil Postman states “The anarchy in television news is a direct result of the commercial structure of broadcasting. When the Government granted television stations the right to broadcast over American airwaves, there was an agreement that stations would serve the public interest. Slowly but surely, things have changed. Television no longer serves the public, what goes on the air is now determined largely by advertisers. Many of the changes in television occurred because of the government deregulation of television in the 1980s, when the head of the Federal Communications Commission under Reagan rolled back the principle components of broadcast regulation.

Two major components of the deregulation where the elimination of the “three-year rule,” which stated that broadcast entities could not be sold for three years after the date of purchase; as well as allowing more commercials in a broadcast hour. The deregulation changed the television industry forever. The three-year rule had ensured that a station remained viable and intact. The deregulation changed the status of many television stations. In the article Consumer Culture and TV Programming, Robin Andersen writes: “Before deregulation, corporate speculators did not purchase stations solely for the purpose of commodity trading.

After deregulation, however, speculators who had no interest or experience in the media bought and sold stations simply to make a profit. Corporate investors would often cut corners to make a profit, this included cutting news departments, and giving in to many advertiser demands. ” (Andersen, 19) The other major step taken during the deregulation of the 1980s overwhelmed viewers with advertising, and diminished advertising s effectiveness. Before the deregulation, advertising had a firm grip on viewer attention. Viewers watched advertisements with vigor, and research revealed that they remembered a great deal of what they saw.

Along with more commercials per hour, the standard 30-second commercial gave way to more short 10- and 15-second spots. After the deregulation the number of commercials on network TV in an average week tripled to more than 5,000. (Andersen, 20) Just as viewers were being bombarded with commercials in the 1980s, remote-control technology showed viewers an escape route. With the help of the remote control, viewing habits changed. Audiences began to change the channel, mute, or fast-forward their recordings during television advertisements.

Advertisements lost a great deal of the persuasive power when viewers began to disregard them. Since then, marketers have searched for ways to bring back advertising s persuasive power. One result of this search has been increased demands that programming content supports and reinforces advertising messages. Another consequence has been the advent of subtle advertisements that disguise their promotional character such that viewers will be more accepting of the persuasive messages. A good example of one such practice would be product placement, in which brand names are strategically placed into the television program.

As advertisers became more demanding of television support of advertising, television became dependent on advertisers financial support. Andersen states that in the 1980s, the costs of prime-time programming escalated, while revenues plateaued. This led to forcing all programs to become more cost efficient. At the same time, the advent of cable television in the 1980s gave advertisers more channels in which they could run their commercials. Therefore, networks had to lower their advertising costs to compete with the cable stations.

With cheaper advertising, stations became increasingly dependent on ad revenues for their livelihood. With stations more dependent on advertising dollars, and advertisers more desperate to reach viewers, big business advertisers gained more influence into the content of the media. Advertisers would refuse to advertise during shows that were not “receptive to advertising. ” With slim budgets, stations could not afford to cross these advertisers. Therefore, any content to which certain advertisers might take offense with was often omitted from television programs.

News and public affairs directors are made aware that advertisers are monitoring their programming and that to contradict corporate sponsors or their advertising messages would have a negative financial impact on the station and their jobs. Because of this pressure the media must tiptoe around any issues advertisers may find offensive. In his article Censorious Advertising Milton Glaser exposes Chryslers advertising policy which requires that magazines submit articles in advance for screening by Chrysler to determine whether they contain any editorial content that may be construed as provocative or offensive.

Censorious policies such as Chryslers are not at all uncommon in the advertising business. In her article Sex, Lies, and Advertising, Gloria Steinem chronicles her experiences as head of Ms. magazine. In her article she gives examples of many companies with advertising policies similar to Chryslers. For example S. C. Johnson & Son orders that its ads “should not be opposite extremely controversial features or material antithetical to the nature/copy of the advertised product. Procter & Gamble states that advertisements for its products were “not to be placed in any issue that included any material on gun control, abortion, the occult, cults, or the disparagement of religion. Caution was also demanded in any issue covering sex or drugs, even for educational purposes. ” (Steinem, 226) Advertisers have made the message clear that they want the media to be as non-controversial as possible, in order to maintain an optimal consumer environment. Although Steinem’s particular situation involves print media; there are many similarities between the two genres.

In her aforementioned article, Andersen cites this example of advertiser influence: When CNN s Capitol Gang was summoned to carry out a mock program in front of a group of advertisers, the producers and commentators were sent a clear message, namely, that the programs content will be monitored with great interest. Under these circumstances it is unlikely that information unacceptable to CNN advertisers will be included. (Andersen, 24) With such a clear message sent to the cast of Capitol Gang, it is obvious that advertisers have a substantial influence on the programs content. Advertising power can be especially damaging to news content.

In 1994, ABC news reported on Philip Morris’ manipulation of tobacco levels, an issue that had been advanced by the U. S. Food and Drug Administration. Although the information was true, Philip Morris brought a $10 billion libel suit against ABC. Philip Morris, through its Kraft Foods, is a major advertiser. Not wanting to lose precious ad revenues, ABC apologized on air for telling the truth. (Andersen, 27) The threat of libel suits, and the withdrawing of advertisement is a powerful one that prevents many newscasts from airing controversial material involving large advertisers. As the late dvertising executive Howard L. Gossage stated “[Advertiser] control is not by intent, but through the simple ability of advertising to bestow or withhold favors. ” (Lowenstein and Merrill, 77) It is painfully clear that advertising can have a negative influence on television content, but is there a solution? Gloria Steinems solution for Ms. ‘ problems was to become commercial-free. After having tried various methods of dealing with advertising, to no avail, Ms. magazine became a commercial free publication. PBS also operates as a commercial free entity, being partially funded by the U. S. Government. The U. S.

Government partially funds this form of Public Television. PBS represents an alternative in the television media system, and at a low cost for taxpayers. The author of The Future of Public Television argues that the media must be democratized. He believes that Public Broadcasting is an important step in the democratization process. “In important respects, particularly its partial removal from market forces and the early articulation of its commitment to diversity, our current system of public television provides a concrete example of both the vast potential and the increasing necessity of a more democratic mass media. (The Future of Public Television, 167) Unfortunately, Steinem and PBS’ solutions are not viable for most forms of television media. In order to maintain television as a “free” service to the viewers, stations need advertiser support. It is unlikely that the government would be able to fund such a large number of stations. Lowenstein and Merrill offer a different solution than Steinem and Miller, stating that advertisement has a right to broadcast its message. The authors state that the broadcaster has an “obligation to provide a program at the lowest possible cost to the consumer. However, Lowenstein and Merrill state that Government agencies must regulate advertising s misleading and unfair policies. The authors believe that only through government intervention can the effects of advertising be controlled. The current media system needs to be repaired. However, as the author states, changes in the media system “Certainly will not be completed overnight ” (The Future of Public Television, 167). Solutions such as Steinems and PBS’s are not feasible at this point. Commercial television is a multi-billion dollar business.

Many jobs depend on this enormous industry, and to transform television to a commercial free format would cause economic problems. Renovating the media system is unfeasible because of its large size. The system is too complex to be drastically changed. A small step must be taken first, I propose that a government agency should be created to oversee and regulate advertising. This agency would look into advertisers to make sure that program content was not subverted, that deceptive advertising did not happen, and that advertisers would not be allowed to preview programs before deciding whether or not to advertise.

These steps will diminish the influence which advertisers have on television broadcasters. In order to keep advertisers and broadcasters from breaking these rules, this agency would be given the power to fine any corporations and broadcasters that did not follow the rules. This government agency would be the first step in freeing the media from advertiser influence. Although it may not cure television of all advertiser influence, it is the first step towards that goal.


Iam a die hard fan of Rajnikanth since childhood.. Even today i never miss to watch his films on the first day of release. If you turn the pages of this person’s life… you will get to know that his superstardom is no cake walk.. He struggled his way to succeed in his life. He suffered humiliation, defamation, ill -treatment in the beginning…. But, used all the stones thrown at him to build his own empire. The Carpenter-turned-Coolie-turned-conductor-turned Super Star says: “I couldn’t have asked God for more”. Ego and starry airs are unknown to Rajinikant.

During breaks he hardly ever rushes to his air-conditioned makeup room. Instead, he prefers to sleep on the sets, even without a pillow, merely covering his eyes with a wet cloth. He never comes to functions with a retinue behind him and even  prefers to drive his own car. You can always see him wearing dhoti and white shirt or kurtas whilst attending functions, never uses gold.. He always wears a copper bangle and an ordinary wrist watch. Such a simplicity!! He regularly visits [pic]Himalaya to rejuvenate himself. He is so spiritually inclined and believes that whatever he is now is because of GOD.

An avid devotee to Shri Raghavendra Swamy. Even today he makes it a point to visit mantralaya in karnataka once in a year. There are three important aspects that differentiate a normal man from a yogi. A true yogi has no ego. He is one who follows the path of love. Above all, he surrenders himself unto God by putting him before all else – success, power, money. Considering these things, Rajinikanth  is a yogi. He has all these three qualities that spiritual gurus say make a yogi. He was actually quoting this in a function about AR. Rahman. But, this is also applicable to rajinikanth himself.

He is a real yogi who never cares about his image or fame. Just behaves like a common man and above all success has reached his heart, not head. I admire him a lot. I do not know as to whether it is a coincidence, but i should say there are few similarities between me and rajinikanth… I also wear a copper bangle from child hood, iam a devotee of raghavendra swamy and i never like to wear gold. I may not reach his level in life;  i will be happy if can reach at least 50% of what he has achieved in his life. When telling this, iam not talking about money, iam talking about the goodwill and respect in the society.

Segmentation, Targeting and Positioning

SEGMENTATION-TARGETTING-POSITIONING Table of Contents Chapter 1 1. 1 Overview………………………………………………………………………………………….. 3-4 Chapter 2 2. 1 0 STP Process- segmentation and different bases………………………………4 2. 11 Segmentation of B2C markets………………………………………………………….. 4-6 2. 12 Differences between B2B and B2C market segmentation…………………6-7 Chapter 3 3. 10 Target marketing……………………………………………………………………….. 7-8 3. 11 Marketing mix………………………………………………………………………9 Chapter 4 4. 10 Positioning………………………………………………………………………………9-10 4. 11 Branding…………………………………………………………………………………. 1 4. 12 Value Proposition…………………………………………………………………….. 11-12 Chapter 5 5. 10 Conclusion- Benefits of STP ………………………………………………………12-13 References OVERVIEW “A deep understanding of a group of potential customers and a marketing plan specifically tailored for that group helps to ensure the success of a product”(Penny M Simpson, Marketing Best Practices,P. 197) In today’s context, consumers greatly vary in their location, needs and purchasing behavior. Companies cannot satisfy all the consumers nor have an appeal over all of them in the similar way.

Hence arises the strategy of market segmentation, targeting and positioning. Instead of competing in a whole market, the companies select or identify sectors of market where they can sell their products profitably. The first step is market segmentation- dividing markets into smaller segments, target marketing- determine the significance and select the target segments and market positioning- evolve positioning and marketing mix for each segments. It is difficult to target a consumer group without first identifying the various consumer segments present in a particular market.

Brand positioning is also not eligible before knowing who the targets are. STP analysis helps a company or marketer to more conveniently identify the groups of buyers they are aiming at and also how to offer their products more desirably and attractively. It also surfaces unexplored or omitted niches within widely scattered markets. The effectiveness and implementation of STP vary widely with companies. In the same market various companies may device multiple ways to view the segments and approach them.

Some companies identify one or two sub segments and starts targeting that segment with exclusive positioning attracting the consumers. For example PUMA started selling its shoes to mainly athletes and soccer players. Puma had a great impact in those sub segments that their products gained popularity in other segments and wide spread. Now the company has broadened their product range to fashion wear, trainers, sailing, golf motorsport, etc. Some companies like P&G, Unilever, Pepsi co, etc create sub brands for competing in different segments. STP PROCESS

Segmentation and different bases Kotler says that every individual is unique and different, the purpose of segmentation involves grouping customers, buyers, etc into more definite and realistic groups that share similar characteristics. By doing so the marketer can easily target and serve this sub population with what they desire. Segmentation of B2C markets Already developed tools like ACORN, PRIZM classifications provide segmentation assistance for marketers. ACORN classifies UK population based on geodemographics and PRIZM classifies US population into segments based on lifestyle.

Various bases and variables used to segment consumer markets are given below: Geographic * World region: Game consoles manufacturers like Sony, Nintendo, Microsoft Xbox targets countries like US, Japan and Britain consisting of die hard gamers. PUMA concentrates Latin America, Europe and Africa for its soccer accessories sales. * Climate: Air conditioning manufacturers like Carrier, Voltas, etc aggressively target Middle East, Australia, etc where the climate is hot. Snow plough manufacturers similarly go for regions where it snows. Demographics Age and life cycle: Procter and Gamble sells its Pampers range of baby products with segments like new baby (0-4months), baby (6-12), toddler (13-23) and preschool (24+). * Gender: Puma has wide range of footwear and accessories for both men and women. * Family size: whole sale retailers would target a larger family size. * Income: a person earning more than 40000 pounds could afford a ROLEX watch than one earning 15000. * Education: a company like CASIO manufacturing sci-fi calculators aims primarily college or university going students. Occupation: Caterpillar has a range of safety shoes aimed at chemical industry workers with heat resistant, oil and acid resistant soles. * Nationality/ Race: A small South African meat selling shop like Snoggy targets mainly immigrant South Africans in the UK. Behavior * Loyalty: Apple and Blackberry targets a niche of buyers loyal to their brand. * Attitude towards product: Unilever promotes its Marmite food product through “love or hate it” campaign; depicting positive or negative attitude of consumers. * Occasions: Thomas Cook holidays have special travel packages intended for spring.

Kellogg, a cereal company has approached summer with its “love your summer red dress, look slimmer” campaign. * Benefits: Volvo car manufacturers aim at customers who prefer quality, service and safety in automobiles. * Usage rates: Fast food companies like McDonalds and KFC target customers who are ready to spend and visit restaurants more often. Psychographics * Personality: puma targets achievers with its slogan “winners choose puma”. Internet sites like Facebook, twitter, MySpace, etc utilize social character of customers. * Life style: quicksilver targets surfboarders, skaters who lead fashionable and adventurous lifestyle. Social class: Mercedes Benz, luxury car manufacturers with its slogan “I’m Mercedes Benz” creates a class distinction. According to Kotler, segmentation is most effective when the following are satisfied: Measurable: the size, profiles and purchasing activities in the segments can be quantified Differentiable: the needs of the consumer similar within the segment and different from others. Accessible: the company can reach its products or services to the customers with ease and efficiently Relevant: the segment should be profitable enough to serve.

Feasible: the company must have proper knowledge of the segment and sufficient resources to act upon it. Differences between B2B and B2C markets segmentation Author Michael. D. Hutt says in his book Marketing the best practices (p. 162), “In business marketing, customers are organizations: commercial enterprises, governments and institutions”. According to Kotler most of the similar bases could be used to segment consumer and business markets, in addition to variables like operational features, mode of purchasing, situational and personal traits.

The main segmentation bases employed are: Geographic: depending on customer’s location, growth rate of industries regionally, macroeconomic factors. Customer profile: size of organization and its industry, its position in the value chain. Buying behavior: size of orders, mode of purchasing (e. g. e-procurement), etc. The business market is larger than a consumer market since a single buyer in business market is very high in purchasing activity. For example, P&G spends $83. 5 billion for purchases of raw materials annually (ref www. urchasing. com). In a consumer market the company’s profits mainly rely on the collective purchasing activities of the buyers in their segments. In a business market the activity of each individual buyer can have high implications on the company’s profits owing to high volume of purchases. Comparatively there is a more closer buyer-seller relationship existing in B2B markets. For example there is a long standing relationship between microprocessor manufacturers Intel and Dell computers. Targeting Target marketing refers to the choice of specific segments to serve and is a key element in marketing strategy” (Jobber and Fahy, Foundations of Marketing, 2nd edition, pg 121). Choosing a particular segment to serve than going for the whole is less economical since: * It is less expensive for a company initially to focus product/services promotions to a selected group of consumers than the whole market. * There may be groups of people neglected by other companies and could turn out to be a potential segment. * Helps to formulate variable positioning strategies for each segment and hence provide advantage over competitors.

According to Kotler, Targeting involves selecting the one or more of the identified segments which the company considers have the right size, growth characteristics, attractiveness and the company has the required resources and skills to succeed in that segment. For example Puma initially started as a company selling high performance sport shoes. But a survey revealed most people rarely used puma for the intended purpose. Moreover the company faced high competition in the segment from Nike, Reebok and Adidas. Puma lacked resources to compete in the performance segment.

Hence the company started targeting people who used puma as a lifestyle product and turned out to be profitable and successful for the company. Companies adopt 3 preferred approaches to targeting markets: Undifferentiated marketing which involves targeting mass market focusing on what consumers need commonly. Product is developed and marketed to a large number of consumers ignoring needs of unique segments. Not applicable in the present scenario where there is high competition and consumers vary widely in their wants and needs.

Differentiated marketing involves targeting several segments with various products and offers that serve each. Although the process is expensive, the company could increase sales and develop a strong stranglehold within each of the segments. For example coke has its original cola aimed at mass market, diet coke for people with healthy lifestyle, coke zero for diabetic patients and uncola products like sprite, fanta, etc intended for people who don’t prefer cola. Concentrated marketing/niche marketing is employed by companies when they have few resources to gain share of a large market.

Hence the company identifies niches where they can achieve a large share and growth. For example car manufactures like Bentley and Rolls Royce markets its product to a niche of uber wealthy customers. Marketing mix The 4P’s of marketing includes variables such as Product, Price, Place and Promotion. These can be controlled in a target market to achieve the goals of a company in a segment and at the same time satisfy the customers. The physical product offered to the customer can be varied with respect to its appearance, function, quality, brand, warranty, services, etc. his creates a first time impression in the minds of customers. The prices should be appealing to the customer with reference to the competitor pricing, at the same time the company shouldn’t neglect its profit margins. Pricing variable includes offers, discounts, financing, etc. Place functions involve distribution, how the company could efficiently reach its product to the customers by varying distribution channels, logistics, market coverage, etc. Promotions include communicating the benefits of the product/services to the customers via advertising, media, selling in person, etc. Positioning

Kotler says, “Positioning involves implanting the brands unique benefits and differentiation in customer’s minds”. Marketers bombard consumers with lots of information highlighting their products/services. Hence it becomes entirely difficult for the buyer to decide which product to choose or creates a confusion affecting their buying traits. Hence they classify and differentiate products, companies or services and position them in order of preference in their minds. The whole motive of the strategy of positioning is creating an impression and feeling of trust and loyalty in the minds of consumers.

The success of the major brands in the world like Apple, Coke, Nike, Sony, etc depicts how efficient they have been in positioning their products to create an ever lasting impression in the minds of consumers. How a customer perceives the product in his/her mind is more important than actual reality of the product. According to jobber, positioning is linking a company’s product or services to the benefits that a consumer looks for in that particular product or services. When a need arises, the particular company’s brand is what comes into the mind of the buyer.

For example a person looking for safety as a prime feature in his car, his/her prime preference would go for Volvo cars. Similarly for performance sports shoes the first brands that come into mind are Nike, Reebok and Adidas. Effective positioning leads to customer loyalty and higher brand preference. For instance Apple now sells its iPhones more than any other mobile company presently in the world. This was achieved through Apple’s creating a consistent image of its product as highly innovative and technological. Three variables are required to determine which position to occupy in a arket: customers, the competitors and the company. It is very important how the buyers value your product in the market and their point of view determines the success of the product. If the competitors are already established, it is better to seek how the product can be differentiated from theirs’. Finally the company should try to build a position based on its unique profile. Once a positioning strategy is decided, a positioning statement should be developed that is clearly represents the advantages of the product over the competitors and is able to capture the minds of the buyers.

Few examples of positioning statements: “The best sportslifestlye brand in the world” Puma “Let’s do things better” Philips “Make. Believe” Sony “Try something new today” Sainsbury’s “Just do it” Nike Branding “Brands represent consumers’ perceptions and feelings about a product and its performance-everything that a product or service means to consumers” (Marketing: an introduction, Armstrong/Kotler, p. 265). According to jobber a company differentiates their product from the competitors and creates a deep image of preference through the process of branding.

A brand is the trust/promise offered by the company to its customer and the trust/promise expected from the company buy its buyer. When a buyer prefers a brand of product over other, they expect their needs and want to be satisfied. They have faith in the brand over its quality and quantity of product/service. Companies benefit from strong brands by: * Improvement of the financial value of the company. For e. g. Kraft’s acquisition of Cadbury’s brand has given it access to world famous confectionary brand like Dairy Milk. * Leads to consumer loyalty. Consumers tend to buy more and more of the preferred brand. Makes it difficult for new brands to compete. Coca-cola and Pepsi Co dominate the cola market which has resulted in the failure of Virgin coke. * Companies can derive high profits. Brands like Apple, BMW, Coca cola, Virgin Atlantic, etc comes with premium prices. * Provide strong base for extending brands. For e. g. Microsoft office, Microsoft internet explorer, Microsoft X-box, etc Value proposition This includes the final mix of values based on which the company positions itself in the market against its competitors. On the basis of value proposition the buyer decides to purchase the brand.

According to Kotler there are 5 techniques for a company to position their products on the basis of value proposition: More for more: BMW, Nike, Rolex, etc have premium pricing and claims best in class quality, style, performance, durability matching the prices More for the same: Nokia introduced its touch screen phones with more features than iphones at lower price. The same for less: AMD develops microprocessors at less cost than Intel. Less for much less: low cost carriers like Easy jet, Ryan air, etc More for less: McDonalds claim to offer more fast-food options for less price. Conclusion – Benefits of STP The core of marketing is the notion of a customer and the need to understand and respond to the customer’s need” (Foundations of marketing, Jobber and Fahy, 2nd edition, P. 14). If a marketer is able to understand and respond efficiently and effectively to the changing needs and wants of buyers, and is able to develop products that are of best value: in terms of price, services and promotions; to the customer, products are more likely to sell in the market. In order to fulfill the concept of marketing and customer needs, it is essential that different offerings are made to various groups of customers in a market.

Hence STP process is a very efficient tool for companies/marketers to determine the changing demands of the buyers, determine the segments that would be benefited by the products/services intended to sell, select the targets and effectively position your product more superiorly in people’s mind. Buyers usually choose a product depending on how they perceive the products qualities as superior over others in the market. Satisfied customers buy more and promote the product whereas dissatisfied buyers will switch to a different product and at the same time discredit the product to others. The STP process is an effective process nd helps a company satisfy their customers by living up to their expectations. The STP process ensures proper management of a company’s resources by targeting the segment of market with potential customers and achieving a place for their product in their minds, thereby achieving growth and profits. By achieving growth in a particular segment the company could extent its product reach to other segments. Once markets have been identified a company can turn its attention towards better understanding of its potential buyers and real customers, also helps in assessing the extent of demand for their product.

Analysis of the market helps in developing marketing mix which suits unique needs of the market. For example car manufacturers sell their same model cars with varying specifications in different markets according to the needs. References Marketing: An Introduction, Armstrong/Kotler, Seventh edition Foundations of marketing, David jobber/John Fahy, 2nd edition Marketing the Best Practices, various authors, 2nd edition www. quickmba. com Positioning: the battle for your mind, Al Ryes and Jack Trout

Lil Miss Sunshine

| Little Miss Sunshine | The film Little Miss Sunshine, directed by Jonathon Dayton and Valerie Faris, is about a dysfunctional family that take a road trip to a beauty contest, learning about relationships, failure and success, hopes and dreams along the way. Within this film, main topics such as dysfunctional families and personal failures arose as major components that made this movie what it was, along with showing the struggles people in society face today. Little Miss Sunshine is based on the idea of a dysfunctional learning how to get through the impossible struggles that life throws at them.

I believe that many families have issues with each other, such as personalities clashing, and difficult situations arising. In my opinion, my family is the definition of dysfunctional. With recently being the child of parents going through a messy divorce, involving many fights and yelling competitions between all members of my family. This however, helps me have a better understanding of this film, and its lack of steadiness within the family. However, this family is believed to be the over exaggerated version of a dysfunctional family. This family’s problems were first presented in the first family dinner shown in this film.

It shows how all the extreme individual personalities clash, with no-one being united together within members of the family. It beings with everyone coming to the table to eat, following with Grandpa complaining about having chicken for dinner yet again. After this, there is a conversation between Frank and Olive about why Frank had tried to kill himself. With suicide being a very sensitive and complicated topic, there were disagreements between Cheryl and Richard, the parents, about whether Olive, a young child, should hear why her uncle tried to kill himself.

The dinner continues to a significant part in this scene where Cheryl and Olive listen to a voicemail on the answering machine, explaining that due to a disqualification in the Little Miss Sunshine Pageant, Olive had been accepted by default to compete. When this news was announced, Olive became extremely happy and excited, running off to her room to get ready for the trip ahead. Fights began between the parents due to the financial aspects of this trip. This was due to not being able to afford to fly there, resorting to driving their van to Redondo Beach, California.

The fights between the parents became extremely vocal, with sparks flying between the couple, showing past pressures with money due to Richards present failing career in promoting the “9 steps” he is attempting to enforce within society. This situation shows how this family is extremely dysfunctional, with decent communication between family members slipping away, replaced with yelling, fighting and misunderstanding between each other. Personal failures in my opinion help build character within a person, Richard on the other hand believes otherwise.

I know that in my life I would not have learnt as many things as I have, if I did not have my own failures and realise how I should learn from them. Personal failures are something every person must learn to deal with in life. No matter how hard you try, you will not succeed in everything, especially the first time around. Richard is a character that has the inability to be sympathetic towards other people’s failures, even his own. He tries to pressure Olive into a competitive and winning attitude towards the Little Miss Sunshine contest. Richard says in the film, “It’s not about luck.

Luck is the name losers give to their own failings – it’s about wanting to win”. Richard reminds me a lot of my own father, who believes that if you don’t win, they you haven’t accomplished a thing. He also believes that personal failings are only a sign of weakness, and feels no sympathy to those who do not succeed, especially himself. This helps me have a better understanding towards the character due to going through similar situations in my own life with my dad. I believe they are both wrong as sometimes it is not always about winning, it’s about the journey, the experiences, and learning from your mistakes.

Nobody can possibly win at everything in life, but a person can look at the positives within a negative situation. An important quote in the film, I believe should be the real definition of ‘losers’. “Losers are people who are so afraid of winning – they don’t even try. ” Grandpa says this to Olive, and I believe that this is an extremely good quote due to it being so true in society. For myself, I think this is a good thing to teach children. With pressures from society, people at a young age can have the thought drilled into their mind that winning really is everything. In y opinion, children these days need to understand the importance of learning how to lose, how to accept failure, and how to learn from their mistakes. Richard is a father, just like my own, who tries to promote that winning really is everything in life, and that you are a loser if you fail. However, in the film he is considered the biggest failure of all. This is due to the fact that at the end of the day, winning really isn’t everything, it is just a reward for your efforts. Richard is considered as a strong minded, opinionated, and stubborn character, whose views cannot be altered.

Cheryl however, has noticed that this stubborn person is tearing her family apart. The only shining light of hope and happiness in the family is Olive, a young girl who is happy within herself. Cheryl does everything in her power to try to stop Richard for corrupting her young mind with the thought that winning is the only thing worth going for. At the end of the film, just before Olive is meant to go on stage to show her ‘talent’, she says, “We have to let Olive – be Olive”. This is how I believe parenting should be. You have to let your children have a bit of freedom to figure out what kind of person they would like to be.

Cheryl was a smart mother who did not want to promote running away due to being afraid of failure or being laughed at for doing what they loved. The film, Little Miss Sunshine successfully portrays an extremely dysfunctional family that faces many problems and situations throughout its entire journey to Redondo Beach, California. Within their dysfunctional ways, and personal failings, the family still worked together and in the end succeeded in the best way possible. This was not in winning Little Miss Sunshine, but by becoming a true family, accepting each other’s differences and failures, and loving each other regardless.

Maestro Place Analyise

Place Darwin •Mr. Crabbe first regards Darwin with suspicion as ‘A city of booze, blow, and blasphemy’ (p. 9). •Paul’s initial reaction is much more positive: ‘I loved the town of booze and blow at first sight’ (p. 9). •Every thing in Darwin is different. “An unnatural greenness, as if the leaves were a kind of plastic. Huge parrots yattered in the dripping fruit trees. Butterflies of brilliant colours – bright rainbow colours, chemistry set colours, coffee-table book colours-filled the air”(p. 10) •First time to know each other and Paul grows up in Darwin. He was taught piano by Keller.

Not only teach him music lesson, but also teach him life lesson. •Paul moves to Darwin because of his father’s job transaction. •Darwin is a place of escape. For Keller it also represents a place of punishment particularly through its contrast with Vienna. •“A town populated by men who had run as far as they could flee. ”(p. 17) •Keller has chosen Darwin for its absence of beauty and perfection. “We must be on our guard against beauty always. Never trust the beautiful. ” (p. 50) •Mr. Crabbe learns to enjoy the city’s tropical climate as he creates a wonderful garden. •Paul grows up and falls for Megan (p. 2) and has sex with Megan. •1968 After holiday goes back to class. Meet new classmates Rosie. (p. 63) •Keller begins to open up and share his story with Paul. Also give his “Scrapbook”. •Paul join the Band betrayed the class music. (p. 79) •1977 Paul received a letter and then goes back to Darwin. Keller keeps the last breath to see Paul “the medication. He’s usually at his best early in the morning”(p. 145) •And in the end, giving last life lesson to Paul “silent is the purest music” (p. 144) •Memories Paul’s back “a foolish, innocent world, a world of delusion and feeling and ridiculous dreams. ”(p. 49) Paul feel regret about this years. Finally understand Keller “teaching a self-criticism that would never allow me to forget my limits”(p. 148) •“A second-rate perfection is all I have any hope of attaining: technical perfection, not perfection. ”(P. 148) Adelaide •Christmas holidays with parents “in Adelaide at the home of my grandparents.. after 5 days drive”(p. 53) •“And then we were through the desert and into the temperate wheat country, passing through the mid-north towns in which I had once lived – centuries ago, in an earlier life, it now seemed. ” (p. 53) •Keller sends a gift to Paul with a book.

Their relationship become warmer. (p. 54) •Paul goes to library to search more information about Keller. “Bored – finally – with daytime Television…I began visiting libraries, searching for evidence of Keller’s earlier life. ” •Paul associates the city with enjoyable holiday activities such as ‘The Zoo’, ‘the Beach’ and ‘The Show’ (p. 53). •Adelaide also provides the opportunities to see how Paul’s relationship with Keller has developed. •To Paul, Adelaide represents another time in his life, and a time that doesn’t belong to him anymore. It shows the different interpretations and ideas of a child and adolescence. Join the piano competition. (p. 95) •When Paul chooses to go to Adelaide to study law and music. His parents loss of hope of his ever having a career as a performer. •Adelaide is presented as a rather safe and uninspired choice, suggesting the future blandness of his musical career. •“Even then I couldn’t help seeing it in those terms: music to Shit By. ” (p. 91) Through Paul’s experience in playing with the band, he finally understands who he is in terms of music. •“But the artistic direction of the band had passed out of my hands somewhere between Darwin and Adelaide. ” (p. 06) •Keller remains Paul about his Ability “every fish has its depth. ”(p. 107) •“Now I felt a Territorial’s contempt for Adelaide and its neat rows of suburbs. ” (p. 100). • “It was only now that I realised he had not drunk at all in Adelaide. ” (p. 111) Paul is able to have more insight about Darwin and have a deeper understanding of himself and those around him. Adelaide acts as the bridge between Darwin and the reality of the world. •Paul doesn’t have enough ability to be a concert pianist “you are my best student, yes, One in a thousand, But a concert pianist is one in a million. (p. 113) Vienna •The pace that Keller grows up and have a family •Paul goes back to Vienna to discover Keller’s terrible history about wife and son. •Paul faltered in Vienna. He realized why Keller tried to be tough him. “That I knew things that only Keller could have taught me” •“No one in Vienna enjoyed his art. He left a bitter man. Later he came back – with many friends” (p. 116). Melbourne •“Rosie to Melbourne, to study medicine”(p. 114) •“Teaching duties in Melbourne, marriage to Rosie and then the birth of our first child had prevented me making any trip North”(p. 143)

Domino Marketing Plan

Domino’s Pizza Marketing Plan I. Executive Summary Domino’s Pizza’s strong financial performance during 2006 and into 2007 has given the company a significant amount of flexibility and freedom given the increased revenues and earnings in defining its strategies for the future. For continued growth however Dominos has to reduce customer churn, drive up same-store sales, continually reinforce and strengthen their brand, capitalize on the sociocultural shifts occurring in the United States and elsewhere, and finally continually redefine its in-store dining strategies relative to the growing rise of online sales.

What is remarkable about Domino’s approach to marketing is the 14. 6% same-store growth the company has achieved from 2001 – 2005 according to JP Morgan (2006). This is nothing short of phenomenonal. Lesser competitors have higher in-store and same-store sales than Domino’s, and also have a broader mix of lunch and dinner alternatives. In addition, according to Roper (2005) 58% of American households are willing to try a new dinner alternative relative to cooking or ordering out.

Compounding this is the fact that 73% or 3 out of every four households by 4:30pm have not decided what will be served for dinner according to JP Morgan (2006). These two insightful figures provide a glimpse into how volatile the quick-service restaurants (QSR) marketplace is. Clearly the use of up-sell, cross-sell and incentives to drive up same-store sales is critical in this market, as is the continual growth and focus on the brand globally, finally with a focus on innovation. These are the three most critical marketing strategies for Domino’s today. II. Situation Analysis

Today Domino’s is the leader in the delivery segment of pizza sales in the U. S. , second only to Pizza Hut in total pizza sales, as this competitor has 4,000 Red Roof restaurants with over 100-person seating capacity. Domino’s strength in delivery is evidenced by the fact that the company delivers an average of one million pizzas a day and has the greatest market share of the delivery business at 19. 4% at the close of 2005 according to JP Morgan (2006). As of the close of 2006, the company is selling nearly 1 million pizzas a day between domestic and international operations according to JP

Morgan (2006). This delivery-only approach allows Domino’s to focus its marketing and operations strategies on delivery only, without the distractions and potential struggles of a dine-in business, as is the case for Pizza Hut. According to many industry analysts and experts and also by reviewing Domino’s financials and low asset investments and exposure to long-term debt through ration analysis (see Appendix I for ratio analysis) the delivery-only business is the best area in which to operate within the $33 billion pizza market.

Approximately $12 billion of the pizza category’s sales are through delivery, and according to Roper (2005) delivery will continue to gain share in the category as lifestyle trends continually place more and more of an emphasis on time and convenience, and using pizza delivery to overcome the highly hectic times from 4:30pm to 6pm on weeknights. This has also been validated through research completed by Domino’s Market Research (2005). Figure 2 illustrates how the change in families and lifestyles in general provide a favorable backdrop for the pizza delivery business.

Figure 2: The shifting mix of pizza sales favor delivery With the growing amount of last-minute dinner decisions, pizza delivery is a timely and convenient option that gives families a viable meal replacement option for an affordable price. As daily lives become more hectic and people are less inclined to cook, shop, and clean, we would expect this occasion to increase and provide continued demand for pizza delivery III. Product Market Structure

The quick-service restaurant (QSR) pizza category is the second-largest category within the $187 billion QSR sector, with an estimated $33 billion in 2005. The QSR pizza category consists of four components: delivery, dine-in, carryout, and a diminutive drive-thru business. Domino’s operates primarily within the delivery segment of the QSR pizza category. Delivery accounts for 36% of the total U. S. QSR pizza category, with $11. 8 billion in sales for the 12 months ended November 2005. Pizza delivery sales growth in the U. S. was close to flat during that same time frame, although over the ast several years, delivery has grown steadily as a percentage of the pizza category, to 36% of the pizza category sales in 2005 from 29% in 1997 according to NPD (2005) shown in Figure 3. Figure 3: Industry-wide pizza delivery choices by consumers IV. The External Environment The following sections of this marketing plan review industry analysis, competitive pressures, factors leading to economic growth and stability, sociocultural trends, the customers’ environment, and the internal organizational climate. Industry Analysis

Throughout the last five years, Domino’s has outperformed both Pizza Hut and Papa John’s in same-store sales growth. In the most recent surveys from Roper (2006) and JP Morgan (2006) there is clear evidence that Domino’s same store-sales will rebound significantly against by Papa John’s highly effective uses of promotion and new products. 2007’s competitive challenge is to re-invigorate same-store sales and become the industry leader once again. Papa John’s sales out performance has been driven by an improved and consistent delivery-focused marketing message, as well as strong new and limited-time-only products.

Domino’s stressing Cheesy Bread, the Philly Cheese Steak pizza, and last year’s 5-5-5 promotion have all contributed to greater in-store sales yet the company is still struggling relative to competitors. Despite a strong presence in a very competitive category, Domino’s most pressing marketing challenge is to retain same-store sales leadership. The company has been extremely consistent in achieving at least some degree of same-store sales growth each year, an achievement that its peers cannot claim.

Domino’s has had 12 consecutive years of flat or positive same-store sales growth. The most recent 7-7-7 promotion is anticipated to be just as success as 5-5-5 based on the feedback of franchise advisory council members. Porters’ Five Forces Model of Competition applied to Domino’s The five forces that comprise Dr. Porter’s model are industry competitors, pressure for substitute products, bargaining power of suppliers, bargaining power of buyers, and the influence of potential entrants.

Diagram 1 shows the Porter Five Forces Model graphically. Each of these areas is now discussed in bullet form in the following series of sections. Assessing Domino’s Industry Competitors • Highly fragmented series of competitors throughout all nations Dominos competes in makes branding consistency and product quality critical. • Strongest global competitor is Pizza Hut. • Significant churn in the smaller mom-and-pop independent shops. Pressure from Substitute Products Significant competition from QSR concepts that include both lunch and dinner, and also have a steady stream of new products and services. • Focus on QSR entrees that are easily delivered by drivers is the major substitute competitive threat. • Instant dinner products in many food stores is also forcing a significant emphasis on innovation over simply relying on price as the competitive strength. Bargaining Power of Buyers • Dominos’ buyers demand innovation in the form of both new menu and food items but also in the definition of new pizza concepts.

Pizza Hut has been slow to innovate on certain product areas and as a result has faced pressure from buyers as they seek out competitor’s newer pizza and dinner offerings. • Domino’s customers demand regional variation and quality. Their most loyal customers are less concerned with price and more concerned with consistent quality and taste. • Domino’s customers are less price-sensitive than the majority of pizza purchasers As a result the customer base has significant influence on future product direction. Bargaining Power of Suppliers Highly dependent on the very volatile commodity of cheese and its price. The price of cheese has a direct impact on the company’s broader profitability. • Domino’s has yet to fully vertically integrate into cheese production, yet has moved aggressively into dough and distribution facilities to gain greater control over their supply chain • Highly dependent on the price of other dairy and cheese products as well, as innovation in this industry centers on how to re-define entirely new product concepts based on cheeses.

Potential Entrants • Apart from Pizza Hut and Papa Johns at a national level, Domino’s has no chain-based competitors today of any size in the United States today. • Secondary competitors include the smaller chains of ten stores or more stores that comprise 40% of the total U. S. pizza market. Competitive Pressures Most Prevalent in Advertising Advertising as a Competitive Weapon Domino’s has the second-largest advertising budget in the pizza category behind Pizza Hut.

Although Domino’s advertising budget is lower than Pizza Hut’s in the aggregate, the company can narrow its focus on promoting its delivery business. Almost every Domino’s Pizza commercial features a delivery driver, and its slogan, “Get the Door, Its Domino’s,” has helped create a top-of-mind awareness that has made the Domino’s brand synonymous with pizza delivery. Recently, the company has been at the forefront of alternative media strategies that use various Internet promotions as well as product placements in movies such as In Good Company and television shows like The Apprentice.

The pizza QSR category is very advertising driven in general, and any additional media weight can be pivotal given that approximately 85% of transactions include an advertised deal, promotion, or coupon according to Roper (2005 and JP Morgan (2006). Franchisees from Domino’s agree with an advertising shift toward national media once again because of the impressive 4. 6% same-store sales growth that it helped generate at franchised stores from 2001 – 2005. Although franchisees are given the option to spend less on local advertising to offset the national increase, the company expects many franchisees to continue prior local marketing levels.

Domino’s sees much higher advertising effectiveness from national media buys versus local media, as the former are 40% more efficient than local media buys, and that national television reaches 20% more of its target customers than local television. Pizza Hut, Domino’s most dominant global competitor, was clearly way behind all three national pizza chains in 2006, with a very weak innovation story on new products to sell, and more re-shuffling of menu items with aggressive pricing and programs to bring in the lucrative in-store buyer.

The net result from this lack of innovation was Pizza Hut losing significant market share. It’s expected that Pizza Hut will be more competitive to be more promotional throughout 2006, and would expect aggressive advertising that accentuates a “value” message. Economic Growth and Stability Critical to the economic growth and stability of Domino’s is the predictable revenue stream from franchisees, which continues to have above average rates of return for franchisees. The ROI for any given franchisee hovers in the 40% range based on an annual sales volume of $650,000.

Figure 4 shows the distribution of franchisees across the United States. Figure 4: Distribution of Domino’s franchisees throughout the US A true competitive strength, franchisees for Domino’s are one of the most potent competitive advantages the company has. The majority of franchise owners come up through the franchise system, have an average length of relationship with Domino’s for 9 years or more. A sure sign of franchisee loyalty is the 99% contract renewal Domino’s is able to generate year over year, and the fact that 98% of the stores purchase all their ingredients and food products from Domino’s Corporate.

There is also a 99% royalty and distribution receivables rate across all franchisees and less than an 8% attrition rate of franchisees globally. Figure 5 provides for an analysis of the dynamics of franchise store ownership. Figure 5: Dynamics of store ownership The Customer Environment Pizza sales are by far most common during the dinner day-part, consisting of more than 53% of Domino’s sales. Late night is a pretty significant piece of the business at 13. 8%, and could continue to be an opportunity in the category. Figure 6 from the Domino’s Annual Report shows the distribution of pizza sales by day part.

Figure 6: Analyzing Pizza Sales by Hour of Day To counter this trend of dinner being by far the most critical time for any pizza delivery business, Domino’s competitors are experimenting with food products to move into other meals. Breakfast is not sold at most pizza operators; however, Papa John’s is in the process of testing breakfast pizzas such as “pizza omelets. ” Interestingly, pizza sales also tend to be skewed toward weekends, when customers order pizzas not only as a meal replacement but also for special occasions.

Weekday sales may also present an opportunity for pizza operators as the demands on people’s time increase and a greater premium is placed on the convenience of ordering pizza on a weeknight. During the week, sales should increasingly benefit from busy households that, when returning home from a long day of work would rather order a pizza than cook and clean. Figure 7 provides an analysis of how Domino’s management sees the opportunity for delivering pizza and other entrees adaptable to home delivery.

Figure 7: Domino’s Value Pyramid Demographically, consumers within the 15- to 34-year-old range are the most pizza-friendly. Based on the 2000 Census, trends in population demographics imply a steady increase in the percentage of people within this age range in the United States. V. SWOT Analysis Strengths Strong and well-diversified franchise system Domino’s has developed a large, profitable, and committed franchise organization that is a critical component of its system-wide success and leading position in pizza delivery.

In addition, Domino’s shares 50% of the pre-tax profits generated by its regional dough manufacturing and distribution centers with those domestic franchisees who agree to purchase all of their food from the company’s distribution system. These arrangements strengthen Domino’s ties with its franchisees by enhancing their profitability while providing the company with a continuing source of revenues and earnings. This arrangement also provides incentives for franchisees to work closely to reduce costs.

The strong, mutually beneficial franchisee relationships are evidenced by the over 98% voluntary participation in Domino’s domestic distribution system, over 99% domestic franchise contract renewal rate and over 99% collection rate on domestic franchise royalty and domestic distribution receivables. Top pizza delivery-company in the US with a leading international presence Domino’s is the number one pizza delivery company in the US with a 19. 5% market share based on reported consumer spending as of the close of 2006.

With 62% of the global 7156 stores located in the all the states in the US, the domestic store delivery areas cover a majority of US households. The company’s share position and scale allow it to leverage its purchasing power, distribution strength and advertising investment across its franchisees. Outside the US, the company has significant share positions in the key markets in which it competes, including, among other countries, Mexico (where it is the largest quick service restaurant (QSR) company in terms of store count in any QSR category), the United Kingdom, Australia, Canada, South Korea, Japan and Taiwan.

Dominos’ has a leading presence in most of these international markets as well. Global brand awareness The Domino’s Pizza brand is one of the most widely-recognized consumer brands in the world and its unique value propositions are instantly recognizable through the series of one-line positioning statements the company relies on for quick name recognition. Consumers associate this brand with the timely delivery of quality, affordable pizza and complementary side items. The Domino’s Pizza brand has been routinely named a MegaBrand by Advertising Age.

Domino’s continues to reinforce this brand with extensive advertising through television, radio and print over the past five years, the company’s domestic franchise and company-owned stores have invested an estimated $1. 3 billion on national, local and co-operative advertising in the US. The company also enhances the strength of its brand through marketing affiliations with brands such as Coca-Cola and NASCAR. For 2006, advertising was increased 25%, from 4% to 5% of Sales dedicated to this strategy.

Approximately 94% of pizza consumers in the US are estimated to be aware of the Domino’s Pizza brand. The brand is particularly strong among pizza consumers for whom dinner is a fairly spontaneous event, which industry research indicates to be the case in nearly 50% of pizza dining occasions. In these situations, service and product quality are the consumers’ priorities, the epitome of Domino’s existence. Weaknesses Dropping Revenue per employee For full financial ratio analysis of Domino’s please see Appendix I.

Domino’s revenue per employee is considerably lower than the industry average in the US. Comparing the revenue per employee of its competitors such as Wendy’s ($3. 7 million) and Yum Brands ($1. 6 million), the closest competitors of Domino’s, the company derives much lower revenues per employees. Lower revenues per employee signify lower productivity for the company as compared to its competitors and the need for more effective use of operations and service programs to get higher levels of productivity from each employee. Over-reliance on US

Domino’s is striving to be a global company yet has strong ties in both company culture and operational performance to the US. In 2005 the company generated less than 10% of total sales from international markets, with US markets comprising the bulk of sales and profits. The US consumer spending is also expected to face a downturn in the light of rising interest rates and fluctuating inflation. Consumer spending accounts for about two-thirds of all economic activities in US, implying its influential role in shaping up US economy.

Any material impact on consumer spending can affect the economy and thus businesses directly. For a company like Domino’s, consumer spending is a very important factor that may affect the business of the company. This reliance on a single market, which faces the threat of declining consumer spending, has increased the company’s risk profile. Opportunities Domino’s plans to continue to promote its successful advertising campaign “Get the Door. It’s Domino’s”, through national, local and co-operative media.

Beginning in 2005 and continuing to today, each of the domestic stores increased its contributions to the advertising fund for national advertising from 3% to 4% of retail sales. The company intends to leverage its strong brand by continuing to introduce innovative, consumer-tested and profitable new pizza varieties (such as Domino’s Philly Cheese Steak Pizza and Domino’s Doublemelt Pizza) and complementary side items (such as buffalo wings, cheesy bread, Domino’s Buffalo Chicken Kickers and Cinna Stix) as well as through marketing affiliations with brands such as Coca-Cola and NASCAR.

The focus throughout all these activities is to drive up same-store revenues and increasingly put pressure on Papa John’s Pizza recent increase in performance on this key metric. Expansion and optimization of domestic store base The company plans to continue expanding its base of domestic stores to take advantage of the attractive growth opportunities in US pizza delivery. The scale of operation allows Domino’s to expand its franchisee base without adding significantly to infrastructure costs.

Additionally, the franchise-oriented business model allows expanding the store base with little if any capital investment, as franchisees pays for their own fixed assets. International business expansion Pizza’s global appeal has on the one hand been a central focus for Domino’s yet on the other has continually frustrated their attempts to move into the global markets more aggressively and with stronger results. Domino’s continues to built a broad international platform, almost through its master franchise model, as evidenced by the nearly 2,900 international stores in more than 50 countries.

These international stores have produced positive quarterly same store sales growth for 44 consecutive quarters. Threats Challenged by rapid cheese cost fluctuations Back in 2004, cheese prices skyrocketed to an all-time high, with Domino’s paying an average of $1. 64 per pound for cheese that year. The company’s gross margins fell by 70 percent, in part due to the higher cost for cheese. The forecasting of cheese prices is capricious and difficult, and yet it is the one single commodity that is critical to the success of Domino’s long-term.

The swings in the popularity of low-carb diets also have impacted the company’s ability to sell given the high cheese content of their pizzas and food items. Increasing retail rental rates Domino’s ability to expand also is dependent on retail locations and their prices as well. In areas where real estate is at a premium, the costs of starting up a new Domino’s are astronomical. The investment required for a new retail location in a large metro area is typically at rents 4% to 6% above what a comparable suburban or rural location can be created from.

Focus towards health consciousness Over the past few years the focus on low carb diets and healthy eating has continually impacted the sales of fast food products, Books and now movies extolling the evils of fast food are also having a direct effect on the sales of food by QSR outlets. Consumers are showing increased preference for fat-free and healthy food products. Food items containing trans-fat are losing market share as they are linked to cardiovascular diseases. This could impact the revenues of the company.

Market saturation By most analysts’ and experts’ forecasts, the US fast food market is close to saturation. This translates into the need for highly unique value propositions, new product introductions every year that grab the attention of the consumer who is open to trying new foods for dinner, and a focus on quality to ensure customer satisfaction with the new products. Between 2004 and 2008, the US fast food market is expected to increase in value by only 1. 7% to reach approximately US$153. billion. Thus, the potential growth for fast-food chains like Domino’s’ does not seem too high. Marketing Plan VI. Marketing Goals and Objectives The following marketing goals and objectives that Domino’s needs to accomplish in 2007 to continue its market leadership: 1. Aggressively drive up same-store sales by 30% through the aggressive use of national advertising and the bundling of pizza and dessert offerings including drinks. 2. Minimize customer churn by 15% through loyalty programs. . Grow web-based ordering by 15% through the use of coupons and specials available only on the web. VII. Marketing Strategies a. Primary Target Market The primary target market for Domino’s Pizza is the hectic household, with a per capita income of $46,000 a year in major metro areas with populations of 1 million or more. This market is further differentiated in that it contains or more children under 18, and the majority of evenings there is confusion and little thought to what is for dinner.

This fits with the statistic of 73% of households do not know what they will have for dinner at 4:30pm every evening. b. Marketing Mix i. Product Definition: A pizza large enough to feed a family of four with several alterative toppings included and a series of vegetarian, beef, chicken or seafood combinations as well. [pic] The following is a perceptual map that shows the relationship of Domino’s relative to other brands in the competitive arena. i. Pricing: Competitively priced with high enough margins for the franchisees to make some margin as well. iii. Promotion: The Family Meal Replacement Strategy starts with the 7-7-7 strategy as defined in earlier parts of this plan, including a focus on the areas of core programming around bundling to reduce customer churn. iv. Place: Primarily a delivery product, this will be a meal served in thirty minutes or less. VIII. Marketing Implementation |Drive up same-store sales by 30%|Minimize customer churn by 15% |Grow web-based ordering by 15% | |Product | | | | |Easy-to-deliver highly nutritious meal | | | | | |X | | | |“finger food” for watching a DVD at home| | | | |(orderable over the Web) |X | |X | | | | | | |Deep fried cinnamon buns for dessert | | | | | | | | | |Sandwiches for lunch by ordering out | | | | | |X |X (as a essert ad-on) | | | | | | | | | | | | | | |X | | | |X (office catering) | |X orderable over the web | |Price | | | | |Stay with price positioning that | | | | |connotes value over cheapness |X |X |X | | | | | | |Define price off couponing to drive up | | | | |web ordering | | | | | | | |X | |Loyalty Program | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | |X | | |Distribution | | | | |Reward franchisees for selling more | | | | |through the web with greater margin | | |X | | | | | |Focus on repeat purchasers and customer | | | | |lifetime value with price breaks for | | | | |loyalty programs |X |X | | | | | | | |Build franchisee locations to focus on | | | | |reducing customer churn through personal| | | | |service | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | |X |X | | |Promotion or IMC | | | | | | | | | |Extensive use of bundling and focus on |X |X | | |promotions for most loyal customers | | | | | | | | | |Define national ads to reward best | | | | |customers | | | | |X |X | | |National ad to launch web-only | | | | |sandwiches and light catering for | | | | |offices with a give-away of a Mini |X | |X | |Cooper | | | | | | | | | IX. Budgets In order to accomplish the three marketing objectives mentioned, two major investments need to be made, and they are a customer lifetime value tracking system, and also an accentuated web ordering system for capturing light catering orders that will be the center of the future go-to-market strategies for moving up-market into businesses. Cost Components |Customer Lifetime value tracking |Web ordering system for light catering | |Application Development |$120,000 |$320,000 | |Professional Services |$260,000 |$640,000 | |Total Costs |$380,000 |$960,000 | |Applications (%) |31. 5% |33% | • Net Present Value and Sensitivity Analysis For the customer tracking system, assuming a 5% discount rate, a 7 year life of the project, and a cash flow of $1M in the first year, followed by $2M in the second year, $2. 5M in the 3rd year, and $3M in the 4th and 5th year, and $4M in the 6th through 10th years yields a NPV of $1,951,375. The present value of expected cash flows is $2,331,375.

For the Web ordering system for light catering, assuming a 5% discount rate and a 7 year life of the project, and the a cash flow of $1M in the first year, followed by $2M in the second year, $2. 5M in the 3rd year, and $3M in the 4th year, and $4M in the 5th through 10th years yields a NPV of $1,449,727 and a present value of expected cash flows of $2,409,727. • Assumptions The following are the significant assumptions behind the revenue figures: 1. Professional services will be highest on order capture due to the extensive integration required to complete this application development. 2. The highest dollar figure for professional services however comes from order management, which includes the most complex integration tasks. 3.

Definition of the internal development costs include outsourcing the development of internal tools and the acquisition of specific tools for the managing of source code and documentation. X. Evaluation, Control, and Contingency Plans In terms of these systems, the following measures of performance will be used. These metrics capture the extent and level of performance possible when integrations are in place, and reflect the stronger levels of ROI possible: 1. The Perfect Order – Defines the number of catering orders correctly filled every day from a franchisee. 2. Lead escalation ratio – Defines the number of leads that are escalated to the top-performing franchisees.

The focus is on moving leads for light catering to the top-performing members of the channel. 3. Gross Margin per Order – This is a critical link to measure the level of profitability per order. 4. Usage rate by franchisee – This is essential to find out if the designed systems and applications are meeting the needs of the external stakeholders they were specifically developed for. In addition, the following metrics will be used to measure the performance of these strategies over time: 1. Monthly same-store sales analysis by region 2. Gross margin by franchisee region and nation 3. Aided and unaided awareness of the new national advertising programs imed at launching sandwich service through catering to lunch working sessions in companies 4. Focus on lifetime value analysis and assessment through new automated systems that track and highlight those customers who show the greatest potential to turn into lifetime customers. This investment in IT is going to make it possible to find the most loyal customers and target them with special promotions. 5. Number of web orders placed, and margin per web order placed – this is going to be critical for measuring the impact of the new system for placing online orders and getting automated fulfillment. XI. Appendices Appendix I: Domino’s Pizza Ratio Analysis 2001 – 2006 |Dominos Pizza Inc. | | | | | |Profitability Ratios |1/1/2006 |1/2/2005 |12/28/2003 |12/29/2002 |12/30/2001 | | | | | | | | |Return on Equity (%) |-21. 19 |-11. 33 |-5. 44 |-16. 11 |- | |Return on Assets (%) |23. 48 |13. 92 |8. 7 |14. 31 |- | |Return on Investment |31. 58 |21. 31 |14. 56 |22. 3 |- | |Gross Margin |0. 025 |0. 024 |0. 026 |0. 026 |0. 025 | |EBITDA of Revenue (%) |15. 52 |14. 58 |15. 75 |15. 38 |13. 21 | |Operating Margin (%) |13. 17 |11. 85 |11. 96 |12. 38 |10. 1 | |Pre-Tax Margin |11. 46 |6. 92 |4. 68 |7. 54 |15. 69 | |Net Profit Margin (%) |7. 16 |4. 31 |2. 93 |4. 4 |13. 83 | |Effective Tax Rate (%) |37. 5 |37. 75 |37. 48 |37. 11 |11. 9 | | | | | | | | |Liquidity Indicators | | | | | | |Quick Ratio |0. 68 |0. 64 |0. 63 |0. 57 |- | |Current Ratio |1. 02 |1 |0. 99 |0. 4 |- | |Working Capital/Total Assets |0. 01 |0 |0 |-0. 02 |- | | | | | | | | |Debt Management | | | | | | |Current Liabilities/Equity |-0. 43 |-0. 34 |-0. 26 |-0. 42 |- | |Total Debt to Equity |-1. 44 |-1. 42 |-1. 34 |-1. 7 |- | |Long Term Debt to Assets |1. 52 |1. 69 |2. 1 |1. 42 |- | | | | | | | | |Asset Management | | | | | | |Revenues/Total Assets |3. 28 |3. 23 |2. 97 |3. 02 |- | |Revenues/Working Capital |381. 62 |-8,218. 3 |-1,057. 35 |-125. 08 |- | |Interest Coverage |4. 55 |2. 64 |1. 84 |2. 59 |-1. 89 | Appendix I I: Domino’s Pizza Business Segment Analysis 2001 – 2006 |Domino’s Pizza Business Segment Analysis | | | | | | | | | | | | |Total Revenues | | | | |Report Date 1/1/2006 |1/2/2005 |12/28/2003 |12/29/2002 |12/30/2001 | | | | | | | | | Domestic Stores |562,865 |537,488 |519,879 |517,200 |496,384 | | Domestic Distribution |935,461 |902,413 |821,695 |779,684 |796,808 | | International |129,635 |116,983 |96,386 |81,762 |69,995 | | Total |1,627,961 |1,556,884 |1,437,960 |1,378,646 |1,363,187 | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | |Operating Income | | | | | | | | | | | | Domestic Stores |148,920 |131,518 |127,082 |126,714 |114,253 | | Domestic Distribution |52,959 |46,110 |45,946 |43,155 |38,068 | | International |36,947 |34,079 |28,117 |25,141 |15,162 | | Total |238,826 |211,707 |201,145 |195,010 |167,483 | XII. References Domino’s Market Research (2005) – From the 2005 Analyst Day Presentation Accessed from the Internet on February 22, 2007 from location: http://media. corporate-ir. net/media_files/irol/13/135383/presentations/DPZ_InvDayAll. pdf JP Morgan (2006) – Domino’s Pizza Inc. JP Morgan Consumer & Retail Holiday Conference Presentation. From the Investor’s Section of the Domino’s website. Accessed from the Internet on February 22, 2007 from location: http://library. corporate-ir. net/library/13/135/135383/items/225605/InvestorPresJPMorgan. pdf [pic]

March, 2005 investor presentation given by Domino’s CEO – Downloaded from the Investor’s Section of the website on February 22, 2007 from location:: http://media. corporate-ir. net/media_files/irol/13/135383/presentations/DPz_052506. pdf Roper (2005) – Roper Starch Worldwide Market Research. Bakery and Pizza Goods Market Analysis, 2005. From a press release at Pizza Marketing Quarterly: http://www. pmq. com/industrynews. shtml accessed from the Internet on February 22, 2007. Roper (2006) – Roper Starch Worldwide Market Research. Bakery and Pizza Goods Market Analysis, 2006. From a press release at Pizza Marketing Quarterly: http://www. pmq. com/industrynews. shtml Accessed from the Internet on February 22, 2007. ———————– Diagram 1: Porters’ Five Forces Model

Criminalisation of Politics

Criminalisation of politics has become an issue of grave concern among the Indian intelligentsia. And though the top leaders of all political parties agree that those with criminal record should be debarred from contesting elections, the number of such people is only increasing. In 2004, about one in five MPs had a criminal record, including some with charges of heinous crimes such as murder, rape, dacoity and kidnapping. Why does it happen?

The most important factor, which determines the ticket distribution, is the “winability” of the candidate. Hence more and more people with money and muscle power are getting tickets from the political parties. Another factor that has played an important role is that the criminal elements think that they can escape punishment by becoming a member of legislative bodies in the states or at the centre. The negative implications As goes the old adage – “There ain’t no such thing as a free lunch”.

A person with criminal background entering politics will demand his pound of flesh from the party in power to which he has extended support. Apart from seeking protection from the criminal cases going against him, he will also want a share from the developmental schemes going on in his areas. Thus the government funds meant for the poor go into the pockets of these people. Is there a way out? In a conference organised by the Public Interest Foundation (PIF) on February 19, 2009, several eminent people expressed their views on how to tackle the problem.

Fali S Nariman, India’s leading constitutional expert, emphasised on having a proper definition of people who can be called a criminal which could be those who are charged with offences that involve a punishment of more than two years. Dr Bimal Jalan, one of India’s renowned economist and former Governor of Reserve Bank of India, who is the Chairman of the Public Interest Foundation gave a novel idea to tackle the problem.

He said that since it is difficult to determine who is a criminal and who is not and many a times the cases filed against the people fighting elections could be politically motivated, it is difficult to bar anyone from fighting elections. Instead, a rule should be made that all the cases against the elected representatives be heard on a daily basis and the final judgment should be delivered within a period of three months. And till the time the courts clear them of the charges, they should not be given oath and denied the privileges accorded to an elected member.

This, Dr Jalan argued, will prove to be a great disincentive to the criminal elements because if they have indeed committed heinous crimes, they will be wary of the cases against them being heard on a daily basis and the verdict being delivered within a span of three months. However everyone agreed that no rational outcome in this regard is possible until the ultimate custodians of democracy in India – its citizens – are made aware of the ill effects of criminals entering political institutions.

Also there is an urgent need to put pressure on all political parties to stop giving tickets to people with tainted records. “It is high time for us to make each and every citizen of India aware of this fact so that they can rise to the occasion and make a sincere appeal to all the political parties from giving tickets to people having criminal charges against them. I urge every citizen of India to join the movement and not to vote for criminals in the forthcoming elections”, said lyricist Javed Akhtar, who was one of the key speakers of the conference organised by the PIF.

Other people who expressed their ideas on the issue in the conference included former Delhi Police Commissioner Ved Marwah and industrialist Rahul Bajaj. The Campaign for NO CRIMINALS in Politics The campaign is an initiative of the Public Interest Foundation. According to the people behind the campaign, the upcoming general elections offer citizens an opportunity to make an appeal to political parties not to give tickets to persons with criminal antecedents.

The core idea is to launch a nationwide campaign to enable citizens to express their opinion on this issue in a visible way. The campaign will cover the whole of India. It will build on the public mood in the country to appeal to all political parties. A series of efforts, including widespread use of audio-visual media, print, internet, mobile phones, etc. , will be made to reach out to a large number of people across the country.

Efforts will also be made to leverage the strengths of existing groups that have done work in the area of not having people with criminal antecedents contest in elections such as the Association for Democratic Reforms, the National Election Watch, etc. Though there is a short window to reach out to the citizens across India given that the general elections will possibly be held in phases beginning in April 2009, the desired outcome of the campaign will be that no political party gives tickets to people with criminal antecedents in the 2009 general elections. For more information about the campaign, visit www. NoCriminals. com

Clinical Governance and Risk Management

Clinical Governance and Risk Management have become increasingly important over the last decade in the various fields of nursing. The development of the concept of clinical governance will be discussed and how it can be facilitated into practice with relation to learning disabilities nursing. Clinical Governance was first introduced in the White Paper ‘The New NHS: Modern, dependable’ (DoH, 1997). Donaldson (1998) viewed clinical governance as the vehicle to achieve, locally, continuous improvements in clinical quality, which will aid the government’s agenda for modernisation of the NHS.

This modernisation includes improving services such as clinical audit, clinical effectiveness programmes and risk management. Donaldson was among many authors in 1998 that contribute to literature, which supported the need for clinical governance at a time when the standards and quality of healthcare provision were in decline. Risk management and assessment will be discussed in relation to learning disabilities to include disabled children in the child protection system. High quality risk assessments and risk management strategies are essential for children and adolescents with disabilities.

It will be shown that barriers faced in the assessment process often lead to disabled children being discriminated against in the child protection system. To understand the development of clinical governance, we must firstly gain knowledge of its origins. During the early 1990’s, government documents and a series of high profile medical disasters such as the National Health Service (NHS) failures in bone tumour diagnosis and in paediatric surgery in Bristol helped to bring quality improvement to the top of the White Paper agenda (Nicholls, S et al 2000).

The Patient’s Charter (1992) and The Citizen’s Charter (1993) are documents that drew the publics attention towards the quality and standards of care been delivered by the NHS. Both these charters gave rise to informing and empowering patients to the standard of care they found acceptable. Upon the deliver of these charters, healthcare professionals and the public became better informed and educated, thus demanded a higher quality of healthcare. The decline in the quality and standard of care by the NHS was now made public. The government had to act upon this.

As mentioned, the term clinical governance became prominent following the publication of the first White Paper report, in which the government set out its agenda for the modernisation of the NHS. Succeeding this a year later was a new White Paper report, A First Class Service – Quality in the new NHS (DoH, 1998) which defines clinical governance as ‘A framework through which NHS organisations are accountable for continuously improving the quality of their services and safeguarding high standards of care by creating an environment in which excellence in clinical care will flourish’.

The evolution of clinical governance, promoted the various sectors of the NHS to embrace and define this new system to their specific field. Dewar (2000) suggests that the official definition has deliberately been left incomplete so that health professionals can define their own systems of clinical governance in their own way. An explosion of clinical governance definitions were circulated through the health sector in relation to specific fields such as, doctors, GPs, nurses, physiotherapists, pharmacists etc.

The Royal Collage of Nursing (1998) defines clinical governance as ‘a framework, which helps all clinicians including nurses to continuously improve quality and safeguard standards of care’. McSherry and Pearce (2007) argue that even though the majority of healthcare professionals welcomed the initial definition, individuals have interpreted, internalised and transferred the meaning of clinical governance to their specific profession.

The definitions supplied by the individual sectors, are in agreement that this is a framework, which pulls all the ranges of organisational departments together, and were individuals and organisations are accountable for clinical quality, service and patient safety. The Health Act (1999) gave chief executives of NHS trusts a statutory responsibility for clinical governance; they are accountable for the successful implementation. However, to achieve the daily high standards of care all staff must acknowledge and understand the components that support clinical governance into their practice.

Boden and Kelly (1999) view these components as Clinical audit, Clinical effectiveness, Clinical Risk management, Quality assurance and Organisational and staff development. Some of the components may or may not be new but they are now placed in an overall framework for quality and assurance. Each element mentioned, must be scrutinised to ensure it is serving both the patient and the organisation. McSherry and Pearce (2007a pg. 59) state that ‘to ensure that an organisation and staff deliver a high quality service, they need to have sound knowledge and well developed skills and competencies to perform their roles efficiently and effectively’.

To attain this, it is essential that each component is lead by a clinician who has respect and confidence in healthcare staff and has the ability to influence, guide and lead through change. Walshe (2000) recognise the growing number of research articles on clinical governance that identify the many challenges that organisations face in its implementation. The barriers affecting the implementing process originate from internal and external sources, which can affect the organisation, teams and individuals (McSherry and Pearce 2007b).

Key themes linked to the barriers affecting the implementation are culture, management, leadership, communication, education and training, knowledge and support (McSherry and Pearce 2007c pg 121). A study by Currie and Loftus-Hills (2002) found that clinicians were aware of the importance of creating a culture in which clinical governance could thrive but felt that they still exist in a blame culture, which seeks to address mistakes and apportion blame to individuals. Creating a culture that inhibits staff to voice their concerns or report when mistakes are made.

This culture that seeks to apportion blame only leads to secrecy, mistrust and a failure to report mistakes, which hinders staff development and learning. For clinical governance to be accepted and practiced with in healthcare, a shift in attitudes and culture is needed. T o achieve this Cullen et al (2000) states that we need to unlearn some old habits and develop some new ones in order to develop a new healthcare culture that works under the guidance of clinical governance. This new cultural will guide staff in reporting mistakes, without prejudice, to the appropriate staff member and reducing clinical risk through learning by mistakes.

Improving the patients experience in healthcare is seen as the central purpose of clinical governance. Roberts (2002) report that each year nearly 28,000 written complaints are made about aspects of clinical treatment in hospitals and the NHS pays out around ? 400 million in settlements of clinical negligence claims. As part of the government’s efforts to improve quality assurance and patient’s safety, the Department of Health (2000) published ‘An organisation with a memory’ which identified areas of healthcare practice that requires change.

Clinical governance and risk management are included in the contents, as they are part of the government’s current strategy for modernisation in the NHS. Risk management is a statutory duty to be carried out by every NHS and other health organisations. It has been defined as ‘ a means of reducing the risk of adverse events occurring in an organisation by systematically assessing, reviewing and then seeking ways to prevent their occurrence. Clinical Risk management takes place in a clinical setting’ (NHS Executive, 2001).

All healthcare professionals must ensure that risk management is a process for identifying the risks that have adverse effects on the quality, safety and effectiveness of service delivery. A risk management strategy provides the framework for assessing and evaluating those risks and takes positive action to eliminate or reduce them. Within a clinical healthcare setting the elimination of risk is paramount, however it will now be argued that the complete elimination of risk for people with a learning disability is not always preferable.

Many definitions of risk are negative and this often leads to the assumption that risks should be completely eliminated. Giddens (1998) argues that risk taking “is a core element in the creation of a dynamic economy and innovative society” (cited in Denney 2005 p. 11). From a more individualist perspective risk can be seen as an opportunity to learn about the implications of our decisions (Sellars 2002). This is particularly true for people with disabilities. Often people with disabilities are over-protected and consequently do not have opportunities for experimentation and learning (Sellars 2002a).

When a person with disabilities is empowered to take risks it can give them a sense of achievement and independence. Taking risks is part of leading a normal life and people with disabilities should be empowered to take risks. Risk in this context is positive. The complete elimination of risk would deny people the opportunity of personal development and learning from mistakes (Sellars 2002b). Therefore it is argued that the complete elimination of risk is undesirable. The Disability Discrimination Act was a key development for people with disabilities.

The Act was a major step forward in determining how statutory services should respond to the aspirations of disabled people (Russell 1996). The Local Authority as a service provider has responsibility for the discriminatory attitudes or omissions of its employees. Another key policy document was The Same as You, a review of services for people with learning disabilities. The publication of this document is to be applauded since it strengthened the view that people with disabilities should be empowered to lead a normal life. There is much emphasis on empowering people to take risks as it is recognised as part of leading a normal life.

Although there has been many improvements in the way in which society views disabled people there is still evidence that they discriminated against. This is clearly evident in the child protection system. There has been an overwhelming body of research conducted in the United States which highlights that children with disabilities are more vulnerable to abuse. A study by Sulivan and Knutson (2000) found disabled children were more likely to be abused and neglected than non-disabled children (cited in Miller 2003). They discovered that “disabled children are 3. times more likely to be neglected, 3. 8 times more likely to be physically abused, 3. 1 times more likely to be sexually abused and 3. 9 times more likely to be emotionally abused. Overall they found that 31% of disabled children had been abused compared to 9% among the non-disabled population” (Miller 2003a pg. 19). Therefore it has been well established in research from the United States that children with disabilities experience an increased risk of abuse. Research in the UK which explores the safeguarding and abuse of children with disabilities is limited (Millar 2003b).

The very fact that there has been little research in the UK seems very telling of the attitudes and cultural norms of British society. This seems to point out that disabled children are less worthy of being protected from abuse. Research literature can be divided into three main categories which indicate increased vulnerability factors for the disabled child. Miller (2003c pg. 20) describes these as: “attitudes and assumptions held by others, inadequacies in service provision and factors associated with the impairment”. Middleton (1996) argues that there is a widespread belief that children with disabilities are not subjected to abuse.

This can lead to a failure to report abuse. Poorly developed services can also increase a disabled child’s vulnerability to abuse (Miller 2003d). For example, disabled children are often taught to be compliant and when their behaviour is seen as non-compliant they are often subject to techniques which ensure compliance. Also, disabled children may not have access to support with communication (Miller 2003e). Lack of support services can leave children with disabilities and their families feeling isolated and Miller (2003f pg. 22) argues “isolation is widely recognised to be a factor for abuse”.

When a child does have access to services they may be more vulnerable to abuse simply because of the multitude of people in their lives (Middleton 1996a). Another concerning problems highlighted by Miller (2003g) is organisational and skills gaps between professionals who work with disabled children and those who work in the child protection system which creates barriers to effective child protection. Also when a disabled child is behaving in a way which may indicate unhappiness more often than not it is associated with the impairment rather than being taken as a sign of abuse (Middleton 1996b).

These factors create barriers in the assessment of risk for children with disabilities. Calder (2002) argues the DOH framework for assessment has changed the focus of assessment. It is based on an ecological approach and expects that assessments are grounded in evidence based practice. The practice guidance for this framework suggests that it has been designed to be inclusive of all children in need and states that it is the duty of social services to ensure that “every child is assessed in a way that recognises the child’s individuality and particular needs” (Department of Health 2000 pg. 73).

The assessment process will involve the systematic collection of information which results in the identification of risks, what they are, and the likelihood of their future occurrence, if there is a need for intervention and if so what that will be (Calder 2002a). Calder (2002b) argues that whilst this framework which was research driven is better than a framework which involves professional consensus he argues that it struggles to ‘embrace the diversity of practice situations’. Calder (2002c) argues that professionals must acknowledge that this framework is merely a tool and it can only aid professional judgement.

This appears to be particularly true when it is applied to the assessment of children with disabilities who face abuse. Some criticism can be applied to the use of this model of assessment in work with children with disabilities. One of the expectations of the assessment process is that it is grounded in evidence based practice (Calder 2002d). As previously mentioned research in relation to the abuse and safeguarding of children with disabilities is limited. This makes the expectation that assessments are grounded in evidence based research almost impossible to achieve.

Middleton (1996c) argues that there is a lack of confidence among disability specialists in the child protection system. Lack of familiarity with the child’s disability can often get in the way of social workers using their child protection expertise (Richardson & Edwards 2003). An adequate assessment will often require the social worker to work in collaboration with many different professionals and other significant people in the child’s life. It may also be important to gather information from a specialist on the child’s impairment (Richardson & Edwards 2003a).

Sufficient time will be required to complete a holistic assessment (Richardson & Edwards 2003b). However, Richardson and Edwards (2003c) argue the current child protection system does not allow for the additional time that may be required to complete a good assessment. Paul and Cawson (2002 pg. 270) argue “it is society’s response to disability that may lead to the increased abuse of disabled people”. This is evidenced in the belief that parents with disabled children are under more pressure than most parents and therefore abuse is seen as more excusable (Middleton 1996d).

Attitudes such as this could lead to reticence in challenging parents which will be detrimental to the risk assessment process. Another major problem in the assessment process is that disabled children are often in contact with many people and it may be difficult to identify the perpetrator (Richardson & Edwards 2003d). Richardson and Edwards (2003e pg. 39) argue “this should not inhibit action to safeguard a child although in our experience it often does”. Sobsey and Doe (1991) argue that disabled children have as much right as any body to experience a safe environment.

They argue that while any environment cannot be totally risk free steps can be taken to reduce risk and any failure on the part of the agency to implement risk management techniques is negligence. Considering the increased risk that children with disabilities face it is essential that risk assessment strategies are identified and implemented. Sobsey and Doe (1991a) identify a number of risk management strategies which could be implemented. For example, “people with disabilities should be taught to discriminate appropriate occasions for compliance and for assertiveness” (Sobsey & Doe 1991b pg. 41). Appropriate sex education is also essential. The belief of keeping sex a secret from people with disabilities is discriminatory. Sobsey and Doe (1991c) found that sexual offences against people with disabilities appear to be similar to other sex crimes. For example the offenders are predominantly male and victims are predominantly female. Sobsey and Doe (1991d) found that there was a similarity in relationships between offenders to victims. There was evidence of an underlying abuse of power (Sobsey & Doe 1991e).

They found that differences such as the increase of incidence were found to ‘exist as extremes on a continuum rather than fundamental differences’ (Sobsey & Doe 1991f pg. 251). Given that offences against disabled children appear to be similar to those against non-disabled children it would seem that developing risk management strategies would be similar. Risk management strategies for non-disabled children appear to have been well established. It follows then that these can be used with disabled children.

Services need to be developed in order to be inclusive of children with disabilities. Support for families and children with disabilities are essential. It will be helpful if “family assessment centres and other support services provide a service for families with disabled children as indeed they are required to do under the Disability Discrimination Act” (Richardson & Edwards 2003f pg. 42) Victims who cannot speak for themselves should be provided with assistance so that the risk of abuse may be decreased (Sobsey & Doe 1991g).

Most importantly our cultural beliefs that often devalue people with disabilities should be challenged and disregarded. It should be brought to the public attention that people with disabilities do add value to our society. Also where people have been subjected to abuse treatment programmes should be provided (Sobsey & Doe 1991h). This will be no easy task and there will be many challenges. In order to protect children increased collaboration between disability specialists and child protection specialists is also of the utmost importance.

Increased awareness of the abuse of disabled children and research will also be essential. The development of risk management strategies is recognition that abuse does occur and is a step forward in countering cultural attitudes towards children with disabilities. It is clear from research that disabled children are more vulnerable to abuse. Currently the child protection system appears to deny the abuse of disabled children. There are many barriers in assessing and managing risk but this does not mean that disabled children should not be provided with the same protection as non-disabled children.

Cultural attitudes need to be challenged and there needs to be recognition that disabled children are victims of abuse. Research about the abuse and safeguarding of disabled children should be conducted in the UK and risk management strategies should be developed. What will it take to get the abuse of disabled children onto the policy agenda, another public inquiry perhaps? Until it is recognised that disabled children are discriminated against in the child protection system there can be no hope of reducing their vulnerability. Word count 3, 186