Looking At Mice And Men English Literature Essay

John Steinbeck, writer Of Mice and Men ( foremost published in 1937 ) , is one of the greatest and most important American authors in the twentieth century. Besides, he is praised more the award of California as: “ most celebrated novelist and has been called “ Monterey County ‘s favourite boy ” and he put Monterey county on the map and gave in its family name ‘Steinbeck Country ‘ ” ( Morgan Neville, 1999 ) . His composing manner is metaphorical symbolical, conceivable, allegorical, nonliteral, every bit good as straightforward, conversational, unpretentious, earnest. Steinbeck ever put them reflecting in the characters of his novels through his portraiture.

Of Mice and Men is merely the represented Steinbeck-style masterpiece won him the Nobel Prize for Literature in 1962 for it “ can be classified as societal novels covering with the economic jobs of rural labour, but there is besides a run of worship of the dirt in his books, which does non ever hold with his prosaic sociological attack ” ( Horst Frenz, 1969 ) . This research will examine into the unnatural societal position such as race, favoritism, position etc. , during the Great Depression in the United Stated and its history through an analysis of racism in the “ play-novella ” Of Mice and Men. The organic structure of the reappraisal will chiefly concentrate on three parts, severally, the paly-novella, racism and John Steinbeck. The analysis of the fresh contains construction, characters, symbol land subject ; the history of racism in American, particularly in South American will be explained in the racial-related as background, every bit good as its significance will be defined ; in the last portion, John Steinbeck life will be provided to assist understand proposal of the novel. Followings are issues I have summarized from Steinbeck survey bookmans as represents.

First, about Of Mice and Men. Bing one of Steinbeck ‘s most acclaimed plants every bit good as one ferociously citied, Of Mice and Men taking him to the height power of his life, catching legion bookmans and critics ‘ eyes with their surveies following and commentaries. From the angle of construction, Of Mice and Men is a narrative taking topographic point in a spread in Soledad, California, with merely four scenes, Salinas Riverbank, The Bunk House, Crooks Room and The Barn, in a few yearss about two migratory workers George Milton and Lennine Small ‘s unfortunate experience. Steinbeck designed it simple and easy plenty that the novel even being staged for infinite clip since 1937 that and adapted into an opera. Steinbeck presents the tragic narrative about racism, friendly relationship, solitariness, societal struggles, feminism etc. , with such a few words and simple secret plans, an unexpected nevertheless rich in contents made it a great influential work during the period. As for the work itself, George ‘s lovingness to Lennine in the beginning and his hiting Lennine in the terminal is dramatic in construction as wll. Harmonizing to Of Mice and Men: Contemporary Reappraisals and Critical Reception from The Martha Heasley Cox Center for Steinbeck Studiesi?s

Harmonizing to a 1937 reappraisal by the New Republic, Of Mice and Men “ [ … ] has that common denominator of most good imaginative authorship, a shadow of the action that means something beyond the action ” ( qtd. in Chaudet ) .A Furthermore, the New Republic states, “ [ T ] he book is good contrived and efficaciously compressed, driving in front with consecutive and rapid motions, as excellently written as Steinbeck ‘s other four California novels ” ( qtd. in Chaudet ) .

It shows its specific construction and the influences of the construction to both the novel itself and about the whole society. And Zheng, Yanhong ( 2001 ) remarks Of Mice and Men

contains rich dramatic elements which named the ‘play-novelette ‘ , was a new signifier integration novel and drama in one entity. By this new signifier, Steinbeck intended to utilize the construction and some techniques of the drama to do the novel more tight, and to utilize the narrative characteristics of the novel to augment the drama and convey the drama more readers.

From the position of characters, the combination of the two supporters George and Lonnie are ever the spotlight among related surveies. By and large, bookmans pay attending to dissect their duologue and actions. Arguments ever arise when discoursing approximately character characteristics of George. Elaine Steinbeck & A ; Robert Walls 10, stand foring George ‘s protagonists, dainty him as the mirror of justness at that clip as they quoted: “ George [ Milton, in OMM ] is a hero and merely heroes are deserving composing approximately. Boileau said that a long clip ago and it is still true “ ( qtd. In Steinbeck, 1957, p.563 ) . On the contrast, many referees cited George a dissembler for his accidently hiting Lennie in the terminal and doubted about the being of their alleged friendly relationship. One of them is Carolin Kollwitz ( 2001 ) , who did a survey of the topic “ The Relationship between George and Lennie in Of Mice and Men ” and seemed to keep the opposite points in his subject. Others like Fontenrose, Joseph ( 1963 ) is so at a loss about it that he even could n’t judge the truth as his statement presented: “ It is… a most careful and defendable manuscript, much the most acute I have seen. It might even be true… My work life is broken up into subdivisions or episodes and I have ne’er taken the clip to work out their relationship one to the other. ” All statements above are chiefly focus on the last sense of the novel and the action of George and his personality, possibly the societal position and background that clip work every bit good. Actually, harmonizing to my apprehension, George is a tragic historical hero. All those he did is aimed at protecting deceit Lennine including his stoping action. In the Great Depression of American, favoritism was all the fury. Peoples in low societal position lived a difficult life and decease minute by minute. As a disabled, Lennine could n’t hold survived for both his ain lacks and the society, what was worse is that he was a “ liquidator ” . He might hold been more suffering without George ‘s economy. George tried his best to protect Lennine although what he received most was questioned without any apprehension. These are all my points summarized from different referees ‘ issues.

From the position of symbolism of subjects, the most specific in Of Mice and Men is Steinbeck ‘s technique of utilizing carnal imagination reflecting in each character which evaluates subjects of the novel. There ‘s no uncertainty that the chief subjects are the elusive American Dream, Race, People with Differences Ostracized by Society which shows societal struggle, obvious friendly relationship, and solitariness. About race, it can be found everyplace in the novel from all angle such as the causes of character characteristics and dramatic stoping in construction, every bit good as symbolism and subjects. From the individual angle of subject, most referees consternate on solitariness which is reflecting in all facets in the novel as racism. A duologue from the character George good expresses it:

Guies like us, that work on spreads, are the loneliest cats in the universe. They got no household. They do n’t belong no topographic point… … With us it ai n’t like that. We got a hereafter. We got person to speak to that gives a darn about us. We do n’t hold to sit in no saloon room blowin ‘ in our doodly-squat jus ‘ because we got no topographic point else to travel. If them other guys gets in gaol they can decompose for all anybody gives a darn. But non us ( Steinbeck, 1937, p.81 ) .

And another duologue from another character Cooks, in whom racism in this novel is largely reflecting:

I seen hunderds of work forces come by on the route an ‘ on the spreads, with their bindles on their back an ‘ that same damn thing in their caputs. Hunderds of them. They come, an ‘ they quit an ‘ go on ; an ‘ every darn one of ’em ‘s got a small piece of land in his caput. An ‘ ne’er a God damn one of ’em of all time gets it. Just like heaven. Everybody wants a small piece of local area network ‘ . I read plentifulness of books out here. Cipher ne’er gets to heaven, and cipher gets no land. It ‘s merely in their caput. They ‘re all the clip talkin ‘ about it, but it ‘s jus ‘ in their caput ( p.121 ) .

We can recognize profound solitariness from Crocks words of look. As for the symbolism, Lennie ‘s Death is focus more for it

Can stand for a figure of things:

1. George ‘s release into “ freedom ” .

2. Duty and power that George has over Lennie.

3. The decease of George and Lennie ‘s dream, and the realization that this could ne’er turn into a world.

4. Reality ever comes back to hit you, no affair how hard you try and barricade it out or disregard it.

5. The slug itself symbolizes the abrasiveness of society in which Lennie lives, and the deficiency of general apprehension that people of those times had. George had no pick but to slay Lennie ( lesser of two immoralities ) and salvage him from an even more barbarous decease at the custodies of Curley and his work forces.

6. The gunfire could besides stand for George ‘s love for Lennie as he does non desire Lennie to decease ; nevertheless he feels he should be the lone individual who is allowed to harm Lennie as he is the lone individual who genuinely understands him.

7. Equally, the gun that is found in George ‘s manus could stand for the intense force per unit area in such a society ( Daniel Jones, retrieved June 20, 2012 )

Besides, one of the most of import carnal imagination coneies in this fresh base for Lennie which plays chief hint throughout the novel.

The last portion is about John Steinbeck. For his proposal of the work Of Mice and Men, Steinbeck ‘s address for Nobel Prize in 1962 has clearly explicated it:

the author is delegated to declare and to observe adult male ‘s proved capacity for illustriousness of bosom and spirit – for heroism in licking, for bravery, compassion and love. In the eternal war against failing and desperation, these are the bright mass meeting flags of hope and of emulation.

Having taken God-like power, we must seek in ourselves for the duty and the wisdom we one time prayed some divinity might hold. Man himself has become our greatest jeopardy and our lone hope. So that today, saint John the Apostle may good be paraphrased: In the terminal is the word, and the word is adult male, and the word is with adult male.

Furthermore, as has referred above, John Steinbeck plays an of import function in CaliforniaA and remained write for his hometown, it ‘s one of the points straightly impact the contents of his authorship for California has a long history of settlement. Particularly during the period of the Great Depression, an Anti-African American motion was in advancement. And his married woman is a factor influenced his manner, subject and esthesia in his plant non merely for Of Mice and Men, but besides all of them during the period. Whatever, the inclination to portal the darkness of society remained the chief subject in Steinbeck ‘s plants.

In decision, the being of proposal of Of Mice and Men is one of inevitablenesss of history sing both factors from all facets like history, societal background and his personal experience. All stuffs listed above are contributed to Steinbeck surveies and back up his authorship every bit good.

Theory Of Caring In Nursing Essay

Introduction

In latest old ages more than a few issues pertinent to the enlargement of nursing information have been addressed. These comprise of bring outing experiences considered innermost to nursing and the nursing theories and theoretical accounts that have stemmed from them ( Meleis 1997. Fawcett 1993. 1995. Chinn & A ; Kramer 1995 ) . Caring as an imperative perceptual experience within nursing is deriving increasing concentration in the text ( Kyle 1995. Lea & A ; Watson 1996. McCance et Al. 1997 ) . Additionally. a assortment of theories have been offered in the prose. which have caring as a critical idea and are based on a human cognition point of position.

These embracing Leininger’s ( 1991 ) Theory of Culture Care. Watson’s ( 1985 ) Theory of Human Caring. Boykin & A ; Schoenhofer’s ( 1993 ) Theory of Nursing as Caring and Roach’s ( 1984 ) theory on caring. However. it is the purpose within this paper to explicate the theory of caring in nursing as in a signifier that focuses in the construct of transpersonal. humanity and caring wellness attention suppliers. I will be utilizing this theory on Acute Care Advance Nurse Practioner. in the Critical Care puting. Further I will pull comparings transversally four caring theories as exposed in Table 1. with the purpose of analyzing them in footings of their similitudes and disparities and to believe their helpfulness in nursing pattern.

Theory ON Lovingness

The theoretical perceptual experiences on caring have been explained in the text reciprocally as casts and as theories. McKenna ( 1997 ) highlights the uncertainness among these footings and classifies two schools of contemplation in connexion to the attack they are defined. Descry A backed by Fawcett ( 1995 ) . supports a ladder of theoretical growing with a theoretical account measured more theoretical than a hypothesis. on the other manus. place B advocated by theoreticians such as Meleis ( 1997 ) and Stevens-Barnum ( 1994 ) . advocates the position that all conceptualisations are hypothesis. but at diverse phases of advancement.

WATSON’S THEORY OF HUMAN CARE

Jean Watson’s premise on lovingness was first available in 1979 in a manuscript entitled Nursing: The Philosophy and Science of Caring. This volume symbolized premature phases in the betterment of her hypothesis that was to be prolonged 6 old ages afterwards in Nursing: Human Science and Human Care ( Watson 1985 ) . Watson expresses nursing as a psyche scientific discipline. with the chief limelight being the pattern of human attention for individuals. households and groups. Her hypothesis is based on a form of humanitarianism and has its beginning in metaphysics ( point of view of life signifier and knowing ) .

The purpose of nursing inside Watson’s ( 1985 ) caring theory. as offered in Table 1. has its axis about assisting public to accomplish a higher degree of harmoniousness within the mind. organic structure and spirit. She preserves that this intent is achieved through lovingness concern. Watson’s ten carative characteristics. referred to as the intervention of the theory. are accessible in Table 2. She in add-on refers to transpersonal lovingness which is expressed as ‘an superlative of intersubjectivity in which in cooperation individuals [ nurse and tolerant ] are drawn in’ ( Watson 1985 p. 60 ) . Transpersonal lovingness is established in an happening or echt lovingness circumstance.

Neil & A ; Schroeder ( 1992 ) and Schroeder ( 1993 ) . who articulated the Denver Nursing Project. show an illustration of the reasonable entry of Watson’s theory on single lovingness. The strategy limelights on an outpatient hub for people bing with HIV and AIDS which makes usage of Watson’s attempt as the foundation for learning. clinical pattern and follow a line of probe. The occupation declaration for the Center reflects Watson’s doctrine. jointing ‘esteem for the exceptionality and independency of each human being and religion that fittingness and comfort are multidimensional’ ( Neil & A ; Schroeder 1992 p. 105 ) .

The idea that human being’s remedial procedures can be supported through echt caring relationships is besides cardinal to the labour carried out in the Center. The force of the mission together in footings of monetary value and in excellence of life for individuals bing with HIV/AIDS has been assessed utilizing every bit qualitative and quantitative techniques. The effects specified that the possible monetary value nest eggs of the Center are of import due to. for case. decreased length of remainder place stay and nurses’ aptitude to set off infirmary entree. Findingss from the appraisal mission’s high spot. more conspicuously. the abridged degree of individual enduring end point from a caring bond.

COMPARISON OF THEORIES

In order to contrast and contrast theories Stevens-Barnum ( 1994 ) talked about the exercising of ‘commonplaces’ . a phrase that points to a expansive bowl without stipulating its substance. When the elements of a figure of theories are arranged into platitudes. so it is likely to contrast and compare them.

In add-on. she states that at the same clip as hypothesis analysts make their single sets of platitudes there is no 1 correct set. The world of this preserve noted if one looks at the occupation of nurse meta-theorists ( Meleis 1997. Fawcett 1993. 1995. Steven-Barnum 1994. Marriner-Tomey 1994 ) .

In comparative to the premises on caring. Leininger and Watson’s hypothesis have been examined by Fitzpatrick & A ; Whall ( 1996 ) . Marriner-Tomey ( 1994 ) . Fawcett ( 1993 ) and George ( 1995 ) . Boykin & A ; Schoenhofer’s attempt. which is measured a reasonably new caring theory. has merely been evaluated in a new text by George ( 1995 ) . This paper offers to judge against and contrast the ‘caring’ theories in relation to persons platitudes that the writers regard as relevant. Table 1 current the platitudes used for association intents. numeration: beginning of theory ; graduated table of theory ; categorization of lovingness ; account of nursing ; cardinal perceptual experiences of the theory ; and aim/outcome. in add-on. easiness is besides considered and argued in relation to each hypothesis.

Scope

Span. harmonizing to McKenna ( 1997 ) . relates to how the hypothesis can be functional and its measure of abstraction. On trial of the four lovingness guesss. Watson’s and Leininger’s theories are more superior in their growing than those of Roach and Boykin and Schoenhofer. This is obvious non merely from the capacity of the theories. but besides from a contrast of other criterions.

For case. Table 1 exemplifies that Roach and Boykin describe caring instead theoretically and Schoenhofer weighed against to those definitions offered by Leininger and Watson. Nevertheless. it should be outstanding that there is incongruousness among meta-theorists as to the capacity of Leininger and Watson’s theories. Fawcett ( 1993 ) categorizes Leininger’s speculation as a brilliant theory and Watson’s as in-between assortment expressive theory. on the other manus. Marriner-Tomey ( 1994 ) analysis Leininger’s theory as a in-between scope guess and Watson’s as a thought. While sentiments differ from doctrines to magnificent theories to focus on scope theories it would be factual to talk that Watson’s and Leininger’s works present caring in a lesser sum of conceptual manner.

Explanation OF Lovingness AND Nursing

The metaphors of caring accessible in Table 1. and as a consequence the significance of nursing. copy the humanistic environment of nursing. Nursing is besides definite in footings of caring behaviour that fit in a assortment of accomplishments. For case. Watson ( 1985 ) high spots expert. personal. proficient. aesthetic and moral human attention traffics. while Roach ( 1984 ) things to see cognitive. effective. scientific and managerial accomplishments. Furthermore. on appraisal of definitions of gentle and nursing one can acknowledge a double component to caring in intervention — attitudes and criterions on one manus and actions on the other.

KEY CONCEPTS

On assessment of the account constructs inside Roach and Watson’s theories. the dual component becomes obvious. For case. Roach’s five Cs of caring include rules and capableness. foregrounding attack and cognition. Likewise. Watson’s carative issues comprise values vital in the assisting connexion. in concert with the accomplishments obligatory in nursing such as crisis resolution and the judicial admission of physical attention. A shutting point to be stressed is the significance and appraisal placed on the nurse-patient bond contained by the four theories on caring. This places involvement on the indispensable human facet within nursing and. as confirmed once. the humanistic focal point of these givens.

Beginning

While the beginning of the lovingness theories vary to some extent. they all draw from from human skill ordinances such as anthropology. It is besides obvious that everyone has been based upon the rule that nursing is a psyche scientific discipline. Watson ( 1985 p. 16 ) draws a measure of chief beliefs on which a human scientific discipline background is founded:

  • a point of view of human independency. pick. answerability ;
  • a natural scientific discipline and psychological science of holistic theory ( non-reducible people interrelated with others and environment ) ;
  • an epistemology that permits non merely for empirics. but for enlargement of aesthetics. moral values. inherent aptitude. and process determination ;
  • an ontology of point in clip and autonomy ;
  • a background of inter-human proceedings. classs. and associations ;
  • a logical universe vision that is unbarred.

Watson ( 1985 ) obviously states that the importance construction associating to her premise is based on the criterions cardinal to human attention and single scientific discipline in nursing. Likewise. Boykin and Schoenhofer ( 1993 p. 15 ) affirm that their given positions nursing as a form of human subject that ‘focuses on the information needed to grok the fullness of what it means to be single and on the techniques to corroborate this knowledge’ .

Leininger ( 1991 ) and Roach ( 1984 ) . while non openly saying the sight that nursing is a individual subject. show thoughts regular with this thought. Roach rows that caring is the individual manner of life signifier. with nursing as the specialisation of human lovingness. Leininger besides analysis caring as a ‘humanistic signifier of life form’ and footing her attempt on holistic theory and the thought that caring can merely be exposed from an emic or people-based point of view.

The generation from which the four theories are attendant and the undermentioned method in which caring in nursing is distinguishable has suggestions for the acquisition of caring. It may be compeling to inspect this from the point of view of Parse’s ( 1987 ) entireness and simultaneousness paradigms. The whole paradigm limelights on the normal scientific discipline mentality and varies from the simultaneousness paradigm in three notable ways — in the predications about the ego and fittingness. in comparative to the purpose of nursing. and in the suggestions for research and application.

The simultaneousness pattern views the person as farther than and diverse from the add-on of the parts. as a release being free to prefer. who gives importance to state of affairss. Healthiness is measured within the simultaneousness theoretical account as a development of flattering and as a place of value precedence’s and the intent of nursing focal points on the distinction of life from the person’s point of position.

Therefore. public presentation nursing from a thoughtful or human scientific discipline perceptual experience is reliable with the simultaneousness example. The ambition/outcome in three of the four theories ( Roach does non visibly utter an stoping ) topographic points prominence on civilizing and heightening attention from the angle of the tolerant. This has allegations for the acquisition of caring which. to be factual to the simultaneousness form. would back up qualitative promotions.

Simplicity

Interior agreement. harmonizing to McKenna ( 1997 ) . comprises concerns associating to clearness and straightforwardness. It is planned to inspect how each of the four theories reproduce effortlessness. This was selected because. as McKenna ( 1997 p. 227 ) provinces. ‘if we wish for theory. public presentation and probes to associate decently. theory should be effortlessly inexplicit if it is to spread out the consciousness and confidence of difficult pushed clinicians’ .

The complication of Leininger’s theory is manifest when measuring the abundant constructs considered cardinal to her effort. Alexander et Al. ( 1993 ) observed that the guess is non undemanding and calls for cognition and positive response of transcultural and anthropological imminents. George ( 1995 ) besides sustained that it is neither effortless nor merely mute. peculiarly upon first apprehension. Nevertheless. she hassles that once the interrelatednesss among constructs are grabbed. simpleness is more obvious.

Underneath this. Leininger herself summits that one time her bookman and graduate student nursing scholars have conceptualized the premise. they locate it ‘highly realistic. related. and more trouble-free than intricate’ ( Alexander et al. 1989 p. 436 ) . Shortly. Leininger maintained this announcement in her 1995 diction where she explains that ‘nurses are sing many benefits of utilizing the hypothesis to construct up and give culture-specific attention and attention that is important to consumers who are ethnically unlike’ ( Leininger 1995 p. 110 ) .

In that it illustrates on a numerical of other subjects. Watson’s speculation is comparable to that of Leininger’s. For the ground that. Barnhart et Al. ( 1994 ) disagree that the individual who reads must hold an accepting of a multiplicity of capable affair in order to recognize the theory. In disparity. Talento ( 1995 ) respects Watson’s theory to be unsophisticated because it uses theories from added orders. which she feels are known to nurses.

However. nurses’ eloquence with all the constructs contained by Watson’s theory. chiefly the existential-phenomenological factor. would be unfastened to question. This tip is tinted by both Barnhart et Al. ( 1994 ) and Talento ( 1995 ) who have the same sentiment that nurses may non embrace the open-minded humanistic disciplines background to give the basis for accepting some of Watson’s rules. Additionally. Sourial ( 1996 ) in her scrutiny of Watson’s hypothesis high spots unfavorable judgments aimed at at the address Watson uses in her theorizing.

Decision

The expansion of elaborate theories centre on caring in nursing is analytical of the ever-increasing recognition being given to caring as an interior feeling within the restraint. The scrutiny of four caring theories inside this paper highlights a numerical of similarities and unsimilarity. An test of the beginning of these theories show that they are beached in humanitarianism and the thought that caring in nursing is footed on a individual scientific discipline point of views. in add-on. the images of nursing and caring inside the theories imitate a double component to nursing — viewpoint/values and actions.

The humanistic character of nursing as replicated inside these theories has a force per unit area on the strategies used to detect their effect to nursing. assisting chiefly qualitative progresss. Besides. they’re supposed simpleness and use in nursing would come out to depend on nurses holding or geting acquaintance in other controls such as anthropology and manner of life. For that ground. the instruction of the important constructs within these theories is important if they are to be used in existent universe. One can end that the sympathetic of the thoughts gettable in these hypothesis and their winning entry in pattern is critical if lovingness is measured a cardinal portion of the nurse’s duty.

Mentions

Alexander J. E. . Beagle C. J. . Butler P. et Al. ( 1994 ) Madeleine Leininger: Cultural Care Theory. In Nursing Theorists and Their Work 3rd edn ( Marriner-Tomey A. ed. ) . Mosby. St Louis. pp. 423-444.

Barnhart D. A. . Bennet P. M. . Porter B. D. & A ; Sloan R. S. ( 1994 ) Jean Watson: Doctrine and Science of Caring. In Nursing Theorists and Their Work 3rd edn ( Marriner-Tomey A. ed. ) . Mosby. St Louis. pp. 148-162.

Barry C. & A ; Kronk P. ( 1993 ) Nursing Guatemalan households utilizing Leininger’s Culture Care Theory. In Patterns of Nursing Theories in Practice ( Parker M. E. ed. ) . National League for Nursing Press. New York. pp. 142-156.

Boykin A. & A ; Schoenhofer S. ( 1993 ) Nursing as Lovingness: A Model for Transforming Practice. National League for Nursing Press. New York.

Chinn P. L. & A ; Kramer M. K. ( 1995 ) Theory and Nursing: A Systematic Approach 4th edn. Mosby Year Book. St Louis.

Cohen J. A. ( 1991 ) Two portrayals of lovingness: a comparing of the creative persons. Leininger and Watson. Journal of Advanced Nursing 16. 899-909.

Fawcett J. ( 1993 ) Analysis and Evaluation of Nursing Theories. F. A. Davis. Philadelphia.

Fawcett J. ( 1995 ) Analysis and Evaluation of Conceptual Models of Nursing 3rd edn. F. A. Davis. Philadelphia.

Fitzpatrick J. J. & A ; Whall A. L. ( 1996 ) Conceptual Models of Nursing: Analysis and Application 3rd edn. Appleton & A ; Lange. Stamford.

George J. B. ( 1995 ) Nursing Theories: The Base for Professional Nursing Practice 4th edn. Prentice-Hall International. London.

Kearney C. & A ; Yeagar V. ( 1993 ) Practical applications of nursing as caring theory. In Parker. M. E. Patterns of Nursing Theories in Practice ( Parker M. E. ed. ) . National League for Nursing Press. New York. pp. 93-102.

Kyle T. V. ( 1995 ) The construct of lovingness: a reappraisal of the literature. Journal of Advanced Nursing 21. 506-514.

Lea A. & A ; Watson R. ( 1996 ) Caring research and constructs: a selected reappraisal of the literature. Journal of Clinical Nursing 5. 71-77.

Leininger M. M. ( 1985 ) Transcultural attention diverseness and catholicity: a theory of nursing. Nursing & A ; Health Care 6. 209-212.

Leininger M. M. ( 1988 ) Leininger’s Theory of Nursing: cultural attention diverseness and catholicity. Nursing Science Quarterly 1. 152-160.

Leininger M. M. ( 1991 ) Culture Care Diversity and Universality: A Theory of Nursing. National League of Nursing Press. New York.

Leininger M. ( 1995 ) Transcultural Nursing: Concepts. Theories Research & A ; Practice 2nd edn. McGraw-Hill. New York.

Marriner-Tomey A. ( 1994 ) Nursing Theorists and Their Work 3rd edn. Mosby. St Louis.

Mayeroff M. ( 1971 ) On Caring. Harper Row. London.

Meleis A. I. ( 1997 ) Theoretical Nursing: Development and Progress 4th edn. J. B. Lippincott. London.

McCance T. V. . McKenna H. P. & A ; Boore J. R. P. ( 1997 ) Lovingness: dealing with a hard construct. International Journal of Nursing Studies 34. 241-248.

McKenna H. P. ( 1997 ) Nursing Theories and Models. Routledge. London.

Neil R. M. & A ; Schroeder C. A. ( 1992 ) Evaluation research within the human lovingness model. In The Presence of Caring in Nursing ( Gaut D. A. ed. ) . National League for Nursing. New York. pp. 103-111.

Parse R. R. ( 1987 ) Nursing Science: Major Paradigms. Theories and Critiques. W. B. Saunders. London.

Roach S. ( 1984 ) Lovingness: The Human Mode of Being. University of Toronto. Toronto.

Roach S. ( 1987 ) The Human Act of Caring. Canadian Hospital Association. Ottawa.

Schroeder C. ( 1993 ) Cost effectivity of a theory-based nurse-managed Centre for individuals populating with HIV/AIDS. In Patterns of Nursing Theories in Practice ( Parker M. E. ed. ) . National League for Nursing Press. New York. pp. 159-179.

Sourial S. ( 1996 ) An analysis and rating of Watson’s theory of human attention. Journal of Advanced Nursing 24. 400-404.

Stevens-Barnum B. J. S. ( 1994 ) Nursing Theory: Analysis. Application. Evaluation 4th edn. J. B. Lippincott. Philadelphia.

Talento B. ( 1995 ) Jean Watson. In Nursing Theories: The Base for Professional Nursing Practice 4th edn. ( George J. B. erectile dysfunction. ) . Prentice-Hall. London. pp. 317-334.

Watson J. ( 1979 ) Nursing: The Philosophy and Science of Caring. Little Brown. Boston.

Watson J. ( 1985 ) Nursing: Human Science and Human Care -A Theory of Nursing. National League of Nursing Press. New York.

A Black Girl By Patricia Smith English Literature Essay

The two selected plants from literature are discussed in item below. The chosen plants are poems associating race and ethnicity. One verse form is Country Lovers written by Gordimer and other one is “ What ‘s it like to be a Black Girl ” by Smith. The verse forms are summarized in the following subdivision and so subsequently on are compared and contrasted in footings of ethnicity and race.

Summary of Selected Works:

In the verse form What It ‘s like to be a Black Girl by Patricia Smith, there was several different tones that came to me when I read the verse form. In this verse form I felt a batch of hurting, agony and bravery. After I read the verse form I thought about a small miss losing her artlessness, a small miss acquiring raped. “ it ‘s dropping nutrient colourising in your eyes to do them turn bluish and enduring the burn in silence ” . In this line it shows how much hurting she was in. Droping nutrient colourising in your eyes will fire, nevertheless to make it in silence is a statement that non much people can do. I personal would be shouting in hurting. Besides I believe that the colour blue plays a critical function in this line. The bluish colour can stand for many things including hurting, unhappiness, and even decease. “ It ‘s perspiration and Vaseline and slugs ” , this was another powerful line in the verse form. This was the line that originally gave me the thought of a violent colza. This was where the agony came in. For person to digest this intervention over and over once more is enduring to the upper limit. I find that this small miss has been through much more than what we can conceive of. For every dark cloud there is a silver liner. It may be difficult to believe about a Ag liner in this narrative, nevertheless there is one. One of the best things a colza victim can make to get down header after the fact is speaking about it. I believe that composing this verse form was a really good start to covering with this tragic job that many work forces and adult female face.

State Lovers is a short narrative about a black miss and a white male child who lives in the same town. The scene of the narrative is in South-Africa. At the clip this narrative happens, South Africa was under a rigorous apartheid regime.A

The miss works on theA farm of the male child ‘s male parent. Her name is Thebedi. Thebedi is a really good individual, but lives under difficult fortunes. Her household is hapless and she has to work alternatively of traveling to school. The male child ‘s name is Paulus. Paulus is a tall, generous and rich male child, but he is besides selfish and ruthless. Thebedi and Paulus was friends for a long clip. They used to play together when they were childs, but when Paulus started at school they did n’t see each other more. They merely met when he was place for vacations.

When Paulus was 15 old ages old he started to run into other misss from the school. He meets a miss at a nuptials. They are kiping together in a sleeping room in the house. But even though he meets new misss, he buys gifts for Thebedi. When he comes place, Thebedi and Paulus meet at the river where they used to play together when they were childs. Paulus Tells of all the things he has done at school and how the school is. One twenty-four hours in the summer they meet at the river once more. After a bath in the river Paulus and Thebedi make love on the river bottom. After that dark they meet a batch of times that summer.

When Paulus is 18, he gets his driver ‘s licence and the parents start to allow him take attention of the farm when they are gone in the weekends. Then Paulus and Thebedi stays a batch in the house together. When Thebedi is 18 she gets married to a adult male called Njabulo. At the same clip Paulus is traveling to a veterinary college and does n’t cognize about the matrimony.

Two months after the matrimony Thebedi gets a girl. The babe is non dark as other African babes are. When Paulus comes place from school and finds out that Thebedi has got a babe, he gets really angry. He walks directly to the house where Thebedi lives. He sees the babe and gets really huffy. He says he wants to perpetrate self-destruction.

Two hebdomads subsequently, when Paulus ‘ parents are off, he walks down to the babe and takes toxicant in the milk that Thebedi feeds the babe with. Later Thebedi finds her babe dead and goes to the constabulary to state what has happened. After one twelvemonth the instance comes up in tribunal. But the tribunal does n’t hold adequate cogent evidence to state that Paulus is guilty. The consequence was “ non guilty ” .

Comparison and Contrast:

Racial background and ethnicities are represented in the short narrative “ State Lovers ” and the verse form “ What It ‘s like to be a Black Girl ” . Both this short narrative and this verse form have a chief character or protagonist black female. Both of these adult females deal with to some grade of favoritism because of their race.

Racism is something that we see, hear, and experience in our mundane lives. It may be something that we do non talk about, merely like in the short narrative “ Country Lovers “ . The short narrative entitled “ State Lovers ” was written by Nadine Gordimer in 1975 ” ( Clugston, 2010 ) . This short narrative is about a out love between a immature black miss named Thebedi and a immature white male child named Paulus Eysendyck ; which took topographic point on a South African farm.

The chief characters Paul us and Thebedi were raised together since they were childs. Paulus was a white male child and Thebedi, a black miss. The two of them played together and spent much of their childhood yearss with one another. As clip passed they begin to turn up and the distances between the two besides grow apart.

Paulus Eysendyck was the boy of the farm proprietor and Thebedi ‘s male parent worked on Mr. Eysendyck ‘s farm. They both knew they could non be together publically. Throughout this short narrative there are many dramatic effects. The first takes topographic point when the storyteller negotiations about Paulus traveling off to school “ This usefully coincides with the age of 12 or 13 ; so that by the clip early adolescence is reached, the black kids are doing along with the bodily changes common to all, an easy passage to adult signifiers of reference, get downing to name their old playfellows missis and baasie small maestro ” ( Clugston, 2010 ) .

However, the bond created between them as kids is still at that place. Both Paulus ‘ and Thebedi ‘s parents ne’er forbid them from seeing one another but there was ever this mute cognition that they knew it was incorrect because they ever seemed to be concealing the fact that they did pass a batch of clip with one another. An illustration of this would be when Paulus came place from school and brought Thebedi a gift. “ She told her male parent the missis had given them to her as a wages for some plants she had done-it was true she sometimes was called to assist out in the farmhouse. She told the misss in the kraal that she had a sweetie cipher knew about, intertwine off, off on another farm, and they giggled, and teased, and admired her. There was a male child in the kraal called Njabulo who said he wished he could hold brought her a belt and ear-rings ” ( Clugston, 2010 ) .

There ‘s loss of artlessness and out love as described here when Paulus watches Thebedi Wade in the H2O “ The schoolgirls he went swimming with at dikes or pools on neighboring farms wore Bikini but the sight of their dazzling abdomens and thighs in the sunshine had ne’er made him experience what he felt now when the miss came up the bank and sat beside him, the beads of H2O beading off her dark legs the lone points of visible radiation in the earth-smelling deep shadiness. They were non afraid of one another, they had known one another ever ; he did with her what he had done that clip in the storage room at the nuptials, and this clip it was so lovely, so lovely, he was surprised. . . and she was surprised by it, too-he could see in her dark face that was portion of the shadiness, with her large dark eyes, shiny as soft H2O, watching him attentively: as she had when they used to huddle over their squads of clay cattle, as she had when he told her about detainment weekends at school. ” ( Clugston, 2010 ) .

The racism sets in difficult towards the terminal of this short narrative when Paulus Eysendyck arrived place from the veterinary college for the vacations. This is where he finds out that the immature black miss Thebedi had given birth to a babe. When he finds out about the babe he goes to Thebedi ‘s hut to see for himself. When he reaches the hut and see ‘s the babe foremost manus “ He struggled for a minute with a face of cryings, choler, and self-pity. She could non set out her manus to him. He said, “ You have n’t been near the house with it? ” ‘ ( Clugston, 2010 ) . By his reaction when happening out that the two of them had created a life during their forbidden relationship shows how he knew that such thing was non tolerated in his community.

As the narrative goes on Paulus returned to the hut where Thebedi and the infant kid lived ; and it states “ She thought she heard little oinks from the hut, the sort of baby oink that indicates a full tummy, a deep slumber. After a clip, long or short she did non cognize, he came out and walked off with sloging pace ( his male parent ‘s pace ) out of sight, towards his male parent ‘s house ” ( Clugston, 2010 ) .

As you read on you get the realisation that Paulus killed the baby kid that twenty-four hours when he returned to Thebedi ‘s hut. “ The babe was non fed during the dark and although she kept stating Njabulo it was kiping, he saw for himself in the forenoon that it was dead. He comforted her with words and caresses. She did non shout but merely sat, gazing at the door ” ( Clugston, 2010 ) .

Reading this portion of the narrative tells me that Paulus was really afraid that the community would happen out about the relationship between the two and attempts to cover it up as if nil of all time happened between the two of them. Which show ‘s you how hard life must hold been back so with the racial favoritisms.

At the very terminal of this narrative the constabulary had dug up the babe and brought charges against Paulus for slaying. Thebedi up on the base said “ She cried hysterically in the informant box, stating yes, yes ( the gilding hoop ear-rings swung in her ears ) , she saw the accused pouring liquid into the babe ‘s oral cavity. She said he had threatened to hit her if she told anyone ” ( Clugston, 2010 ) . Over a twelvemonth had gone by when Thebedi returned to the tribunal house ; but this clip she told the tribunal that “ she said she had non seen what the white adult male did in the house ” ( Clugston, 2010 ) . Because of her testimony “ The finding of fact on the accused was “ non guilty ” ( Clugston, 2010 ) .

The verse form “ What It ‘s Like to Be a Black Girl ( For Those of You Who Are n’t ) ” ( Clugston, 2010 ) , which was written by Patricia Smith in 1991. An account in its purest signifier of “ What it ‘s like to be a Black Girl ( for those of you who are n’t ) ” by Patricia Smith, is merely that, an account.

From the first three syllables “ First of all, ” the writer gives a sense of a narrative being told. She uses jaggy sentence construction and strong forceful linguistic communication to besides demo the reader the earnestness of her subject. Smiths verse form gives the audience an insider ‘s position into a immature black miss ‘s passage into black woman-hood at a clip where both being a black miss and a black adult female was non as welcomed.

Puberty is normally defined by the biological alterations a immature miss ‘s organic structure undertakes around the age of 9 up until about 14. “ It ‘s being 9 old ages old and experiencing like you ‘re non finished, ” writes Smith, “ like your borders are wild, like there ‘s something, everything, incorrect. ” ( Smith, 4 ) These ideas run through the heads of pubescence stricken immature miss.

The verse form, “ What ‘s it like to be a Black Girl ” , is a expression into the head of a black miss in a society that is fueled with racism and favoritism, both of race and gender. This individual is transitioning from a immature black miss into immature black adult females and seeking to accept the alterations that are taking topographic point within her organic structure. She has been taught to be ashamed of who she is, what she looks like, and where she comes from. She wants her characteristics to look like those who are accepted in society.

Nadine Gordimer was born in 1923, “ She has lived in South Africa since birth and, except for a twelvemonth spent in university, has devoted all her grownup life to writing-completing 13 novels and 10 short narrative aggregations, works that have been published in 40 linguistic communications. Her strong resistance to apartheid, the socioeconomic system that oppressed the bulk black population in South Africa ( 1949-1994 ) , is a dominant subject in her authorship, with her ulterior plants reflecting challenges attach toing the altering attitudes in the state toward racial relationships. She was awarded the Nobel Prize for Literature in 1991 ” ( Clugston, 2010 ) . Patricia Smith who was born in 1955, was an African American poet and public presentation creative person, has won the National Poetry Slam four times.

The adversities that these adult females suffer during their life can be suffered by anyone but turning up in a discriminatory atmosphere creates a more dramatic narrative or out come. The great thing about reading is that it brings you to another topographic point, clip and feeling. At times a narrative can do you smile with the character, and other times make you cry with him. Even with some narratives and poems the literature may even let the reader to place with the characters.

In decision, world can frequently be a batch like a piece of literature, in that a individual may be traveling through the exact same thing, or something similar, and be experiencing the same manner. It is effortless to see the tough and mute racism demonstrated in Nadine Gordimer ‘s “ State Lovers ” every bit good as how the miss feels in Patricia Smith ‘s What It ‘s Like to Be a Black Girl ( For Those of You Who Are n’t ) . In both readings you get a sense of the adversity ‘s that both the characters had faced because of racism ; the things that people may make or let occurrence because it is so difficult.

10 Years From Now Essay

Ten old ages ago. I was in in-between school. and was a child that merely wanted to make prep after school. eat. watch telecasting and drama with friends. I was a child that did non care about the hereafter and. if you had asked me what I wanted to be. I would hold merely answered that someday. I will be a racecar driver. Now. I am able to clearly conceive of the place I want to be in 10 old ages. In 10 old ages. I will hold completed my bachelor’s grade in Bussiness disposal major in fiscal direction. After my graduation at dlsl. I would hold gotten a good entry-level occupation in the fiscal industry We are believing excessively much. It seems uneven at first. but the lone manner that you’ll be proud of yourself ten old ages from now is to halt believing about clip and to get down concentrating on the now.

Sea And Water Imagery English Literature Essay

Urban society imposes on the characters from Sister Carrie a force per unit area to which many of them succumb. The urban landscapes serve as puting for the narrative, characteristic of naturalism. In this scene, the characters are compared to elements of the sea, as they are undistinguished in the huge sea, merely like bantam “ wisps ” . This sea serves non merely as an image for crowds of people, but for forces stronger than adult male, in this instance capitalist economy. It is inevitable and all the lives of the characters turn around either the attainment of money or the calculated screening off of it. Feelingss and emotions bead in importance compared to the tide of uncontrolled capitalist economy and there is ever another chance in the sea of people. Carrie goes with the tide through several relationships, none long-lasting, each of them altering. As if contrary to her will, but if the sea image is seen as the “ tide of capitalist economy ” so it is clear that Carrie is merely following the pledge of stuff comfort and non love. Although the surface events of the fresh appear to parallel those of many a narrative of passion, love as it is plays no echt function in Carrie ‘s life. Sister Carrie depicts a complicated narrative about endurance and deficiency of experience “ giving up of one ‘s head to the powerful sea of capitalist forces and selfish desires ” . ( Smith, web )

As an illustration of naturalism, particular and considerable attending is given by Dreiser to sea and H2O imagination. Here, the sea base for the sea of people that gather together in urban countries, this is an tremendous topographic point where one can acquire lost or become drowned rather easy. The sea is shelter for many types of fish and few battle to reflect and non mix with those that are swept by the current. In the sea, nevertheless, there is simply the great attempt to remain drifting and non acquire lost.

When Carrie is swept to “ the sea of humanity in the metropolis ” ( Smith, 2010: web ) , she is lost and disserted. Even if she has optimistic ideas about her hereafter, she tends to compare herself with the other “ fish ” and realizes that what she has accumulated as experience at place does non use in the metropolis. Home in Wisconsin she was an single, but here she is one of the many that struggle in society. This idea is portrayed in a quotation mark, “ Work force and adult females hurried by in long, switching lines. She felt the flow of the tide of attempt and interest-felt her ain weakness without rather recognizing the wisp on the tide she was ” ( 18 ) . It is now that she realizes that she belongs to the sea and that she is bound to happen her topographic point in it. The rapid motion of people does non allow reason and exposure of feelings. It is place characterized by shallowness and Carrie shortly acknowledges her insignificance within it. ( Smith, 2010: web )

Carrie ‘s topographic point in the urban sea is bit by bit changed with the added capital. Drouet helps her separate from the remainder of the crowd and when meeting the misss from her former work topographic point “ Carrie felt as if some great tide had rolled between them ” ( 59 ) . Drouet ‘s entreaty proves overpowering and Carrie shortly outputs to his seduction. However Dreiser does non render Carrie ‘s seduction straight ; alternatively he suddenly shifts attending to Minnie, who is kiping at place dreaming of Carrie and herself in a series of crisis. In the dream the two adult females find themselves “ by unusual Waterss ” , standing on “ something that reached far out ” ( 61 ) Minnie ‘s dream paints the funny bend Carrie ‘s life had taken one time accepting Drouet ‘s offer. Eventhough ab initio she seemed swept by the sea she found her manner to the surface. This is merely the consequence of what Hurstwood noticed as being a strong point in Carrie: “ She possessed an unconditioned gustatory sensation for imitation and no little ability ” ( 112 ) . She possesses a unusual adaptability to the ways of the metropolis and sometimes she pretends to make so in order to suit the forms of the capitalist society. ( Smith, 2010: web )

Dreiser fills with dry item chapters 14-15 when depicting Carrie as insecure and afloat. In the presence of Drouet, who one time made her experience she had found a unagitated topographic point in a “ sea of problem ” , Carrie feels “ all at sea mentally ” ( 106 ) when discoursing Hurstwood. It is with farther dry turn, so, that Carrie is shown have oning a crewman chapeau when she meets her new lover in the park. The imagination of sea continues in the scene between Carrie and Hurstwood. Hurtwood wants to “ immerse in ” and expostulate with Carrie, but finds himself “ angling for words. ” For Carrie the “ floodgates ” are unfastened, and she finds herself “ still illogically floating and happening nil at which to catch ” , “ driftingaˆ¦on a borderless sea of guess. “ ( 114-115 ) Hurstwwood beats on against the current of Carrie ‘s indecisiveness. The imagination reveals Drouet ‘s purpose to demo the nature of adult male ‘s being in a universe of flux and resistless alteration. Man is dominated and controlled by the forces of nature. At those times when he most needs it, his ground wantonnesss him. ( Balling,1967: 50 )

Besides Carrie, Hurstwood besides acknowledges that the environment has shaped him excessively. Not long after he leaves his place town to get down “ downstream ” with Carrie we are given the writer ‘s sentiment sing his determination: “ Whatever a adult male like Hurstwood had been in Chicago, it is really apparent that he would be but an invisible bead in an ocean like New York. In Chicago, whose population still ranged about 500,000, millionaires were non legion ” ( 214 ) . “ The sea was already full of giants. A common fish must necessitate disappear from view-remain unobserved. In other words Hurstwood was nil. ” This comments foreshadow the full battle Hurstwood gives from the minute he leaves the known Waterss of Chicago.

Possibly the lone clip one manages to asseverate his individualism is when he attains capital and the ability to command the environment in which he lives. From the minute Carrie gets money she acknowledges that this is the lone manner she can last. Economic stableness is what she longs which brings with it societal security. “ In the position of a certain stratum of society, Carrie was comfortably established-in the eyes of a starveling, beaten by every air current and puffy sheet of rain she was safe in a Alcyone seaport ” ( 69 ) . Dreiser uses the sea imagination throughout the full narrative demoing Carrie ‘s lasting impetus. She eventually has left the unsteady seas with “ air current and puffy sheet [ s ] of rain ” reach the seashore and a “ halcyon seaport ” ( 69 ) stressing the fact that with suited agencies one can get the better of the sea. ( Smith, web )

Dreiser draws his imagination in the following chapters from barbarous nature. The vision of day of reckoning discoveries look in images of stormy conditions and “ darkening cumulonimbus ” pouring forth “ a rain of wrath. ” In the storm of his married woman ‘s barbarian green-eyed monster, Hurstwood is “ like a vas, powerful and unsafe, but turn overing and staggering without canvas. ” Similarly, in the onslaught of Drouet ‘s find about her and Hurstwood and her ain find about Hurswood ‘s matrimony, Carrie is shaken free from her forenoon of logic ” and becomes “ an anchorless, storm-beaten small trade which could make perfectly nil but impetus. ” Through such imagery Dreiser demonstrates his “ realistic ” doctrine, demoing his belief that adult male is simply an object battered about the dark forces of the natural existence. The ship, a conventional image of adult male ‘s impermanent but epic victory over nature is cast adrift and battered about mercilessly.A ( Balling, 1976: 52 )

A Dreiser opens chapter 29 “ the Solace of travel: The boats of the Sea ” with a treatment of travel. To the untravelled, new topographic points are intriguing. Travel “ consolations and delectations ” . New things and topographic points to see are so intriguing that they can non be neglected, and the head, which is a mere contemplation of centripetal feelings, succumbs to the inundation of objects. ” One forgets lovers, puts aside sorrow, and suspends impending jobs. Thus Carrie is fascinated by her entry into New York with its boats and main roads, and particularly the East River, “ the first mark of the great sea. ” ( Balling, 1963: 59 )

In Dreiser ‘s universe position such a drastic alteration in conditions is portion of the extraordinary flux of life. At one minute Carrie drifts along on stormy sea ; the following minute she finds herself on the crest of a moving ridge siting toward success. Looking over her shoulder, she sees Hurstwood stealing beneath the stormy surface.

In the urban landscape the sea of people seems endless. Some people are urgently seeking to remain afloat but others dare to trust for more and even dream of making the “ halcyon seaport ” -the promise of wealth and satisfaction. In Dreiser ‘s universe the paradigm “ endurance of the fittest ” is exemplifying for that specific trait that many “ fish ” deficiency: adaptability. This is what pushes Carrie to the pinnacle of success and what draws Hurstwood back into the deep Waterss of humanity.

The universe that Dreiser portrays is a ceaseless flux, a fluid, wide-open existence in xhich people are invariably lifting and falling – quality which he seeks to propose by the bunch of H2O images he employs in the novel, his infinite description of Carrie “ floating with the tide ” his summing up of Hurstwood in New York as “ an invisible bead in the ocean ” , and his assorted comparings of the metropolis to the sea. In such a universe the lone world is motion, the merely good is upward motion, the lone objects worth holding are those one can non afford. ( Lynn, 1991: 503 )

?Salinas V. Texas Essay

Facts:
Two brothers were shot and killed in their place. Police recovered shotgun shells that led them to look into the suppliant. The suppliant handed over his gun and agreed to travel to the constabulary station for oppugning. The suppliant answered all of the inquiries the constabulary had, but when it came to the inquiry about the shells fiting the petitioner’s gun he went soundless. So the constabulary asked a few more inquiries to which the suppliant answered. The suppliant did non attest at the test, so the prosecuting officer used his silence as grounds of guilt.

Procedural History:
Petitioner was convicted of slaying and sentenced to 20 old ages. This was straight sent to the Texas State Court of Appeals who rejected the statement. The Texas Court of Criminal Appeals took up the instance and affirmed the same judgement.

Issue:
Was the petitioner’s Fifth Amendment right violated when prosecutor’s used his silence as grounds of guilt, when he was non in detention and had non had his Miranda rights read to him? Holding/Rule:

No, because the suppliant did non show that he wanted to raise his privilege to remain soundless, and non attest. Reasoning:
Neither of the two recognized exclusions to the supplication demand applies here. One is that a suppliant is non required to take the base and asseverate the privilege against self-incrimination at his ain test. The other is that a witness’ failure to raise the privilege may be pardon where authorities coercion made his forfeiture of the privilege involuntary. It is undisputed the petitioner’s interview with the constabulary was voluntary. He admitted that he was free to go forth at any clip, so nil prevented him from stating he refused to reply the police’s inquiries. The 3rd exclusion was non even considered, because the demand for this one would be the informant would stay soundless and diminution to give an reply that the officers would surmise incriminating.

Sophocles Greek Tragedy Oedipus Rex English Literature Essay

Lorraine Hansberry wrote the drama A Raisin in the Sun in 1959. It revolved around the racial challenges of African americans, through WalterYounger ‘s household. The writer nowadayss Walter, his female parent Lena, his married woman Ruth and his boy Travis, populating in poorness. To better the life of his household, Walter decides to put in a spirits concern, but his concern spouse runs off with the money.

Sophocles uses the literary device of reversal, when depicting the minute when Oedipus, while seeking for the slayer of his predecessor and male parent, learns that he is so the perpetrator. This is a reversal because he learns what he did non anticipate to. Similarly, in Lorraine Hansberry ‘s drama, she uses reversal to foreground the minute when Walter ‘s concern spouse, who is supposed to assist him establish his spirits concern, runs off with his capital. As Robert DiYanni ( 2002 ) notes “ Reversal is the point at which the action of the secret plan turns in an unexpected way for the supporter. ”

The calamity Oedipus Rex reflects the cultural individuality of Sophocles as a Grecian. This is because the focal point of the Grecian tragedians was on the human being and, in peculiar, how he reacts to enduring. Their involvement was to analyze whether the human spirit is able to get the better of affliction or non. In add-on, Sophocles ‘s drama seems to propose that human existences are persons who have no control over their lives and destinies. In contrast, it is the Gods who have godly power over human existences and as such, the latter can non get away from them. This is the instance with Oedipus, who learns that the prophets prophesied that he would kill his male parent and get married his female parent, and this is precisely what happens. Indeed, the drama advocates that human existences can merely happen damages and peace in enduring when they accept the destiny the Gods have predestined them for.

In the drama A Raisin in the Sun, Lorraine Hansberry explores the troubles that African-Americans face due to their black beginnings. It is apparent that the writer grew up in a household set-up that embraced its African heritage. We see indicants of the writer ‘s cultural individuality through the immature female college pupil called Beneatha. This miss ‘s hunt for her true individuality attracts her to Asagai, a Nigerian indigen. Beneathea is interested in African civilization, linguistic communication, music, and frock. Hansberry is able to chase away many of the myths about Africa, and shows that both Africans and African-Americans do confront similar battles.

Both cultural individualities of the two writers are similar, in that, they focus on the foreigner. While Sophocles shows involvement in the battles of Oedipus, who is coming to Thebes, Lorraine Hansberry explores the jobs of inkinesss who have immigrated to the United States of America.

In A Raisin in the Sun, Lorraine Hansberry depicts George Murchison as an African who is westernized. This is because he denies his black beginnings and does non desire to tie in with other Africans. Walter Younger comes out as a adult male who is hapless but in hunt of wealth and mercenary additions. His female parent plays the function of the traditional married woman who is faithful to her hubby and submissive, digesting his unfaithful character. Walter ‘s married woman Ruth plays encourages her hubby, but is vocal when it comes to giving her sentiments. Beneathea, on the other manus, portrays the image of today ‘s vocal adult female, who is buttonholing for equal socio-economic chances for her sort.

In Oedipus Rex, Sophocles depicts the struggle state of affairs where King Oedipus has a misconception that he is the boy of King Polybus and Queen Merope, whereas his male parent is the defunt King Laius and his female parent is Queen Jocasta. In add-on, he declares that the liquidator of his male parent be sent off from the land of Thebes, whereas he is the 1 responsible. He is hence reprobating himself, which brings out the facet of sarcasm. It is besides ironical that King Oedipus ‘s boies do non support their male parent from the people of Thebes who cast him out of his land, yet they are one household.

In A Raisin in the Sun, Lorraine Hansberry depicts the struggle state of affairs where Walter Younger loses the capital he intends to utilize to establish a spirits shop. It is ironical that his concern spouse is the 1 who runs off with the money, yet he is the 1 who is supposed to assist him get down the concern. Another struggle state of affairs is where Mr. Lindner, a neighbour of the Walter Younger household, approaches them to offer to purchase out their house. Walter is faced with the quandary of taking money over his household ‘s comfort and security.

Apart from sarcasm, Sophocle ‘s uses the literary device of imagination, where the characters, through their words, make the readers recall to their heads images of objects. For illustration, King Oedipus calls Teiresias the blind prophet a female Canis familiaris, because he has a caput resembling that of a adult female and a organic structure like that of a king of beasts.

One of the major subjects in the drama Oedipus Rex is old age and decease. We see this through the fact that this is Sophocles ‘ last drama Oedipus at Colonus, which he wrote when he was 90 old ages old. In add-on, Oedipus, populating his last yearss, inquiries whether old age brings with it wisdom. He admits that he has accepted his destiny as the Gods have dictated, which indicates a important turnaround from his enterprises to pull strings the prognostications of the Delphic prophet during his vernal old ages. As a immature adult male, Oedipus displayed deficiency of wisdom when he directed his choler at the inexperienced person and at the Gods. However, Oedipus besides shows deficiency of wisdom in old age when he makes effusions of choler towards his boies who refused to support him when the people of Thebes banished him from their land.

Another subject is that of destiny and prognostication. The prophet of the God Apollo prophesies that Oedipus would kill his male parent and get married his female parent and that the grove of the Furies will be Oedipus ‘s concluding resting topographic point. The destiny of Oedipus is that he is banished from Thebes and lives as an castaway due to his actions. His boies reject him after his ostracism. The prophet prophesies once more that the work forces who cast Oedipus out of Thebes will reconstruct him back, because his presence would protect their metropolis. The prophet besides prophesies that Polynices, who is Oedipus ‘s younger boy, will neglect and decease while he is seeking to kill his senior brother Eteocles.

Guilt is another subject that stands out in Sophocles ‘s drama. Oedipus blinds himself due to the compunction he feels after recognizing that he has killed his male parent and married his female parent. He besides demands that people of Thebes send him off.

Redemption and Atonement are other subjects that Sophocles ‘s drama high spots. First, Oedipus receives forgiveness for his actions through accepting and digesting his penalty. It is through sightlessness and ostracism that Oedipus atones for his actions and the Furies and the Gods grant him salvation. In add-on, though the people of Thebes garbage to let him back into their metropolis, they want him to settle merely outside it so that he could protect it. To pacify the Furies, and have forgiveness after go againsting their sacred land, Oedipus asks his girl Ismene to execute a ritual. This will assist him obtain salvation and expiation for his actions.

The subject of justness comes out when Oedipus girl Antigone entreaties to the Athenian audience to allow their male monarch make up one’s mind what penalty to harmonize to her male parent for his actions. Oedipus pleads that the people of Athens do non project him out because he committed his actions unwittingly. The audience agrees to allow the male monarch of Athens Theseus have the concluding word. The male monarch allows Oedipus to remain and promises that no 1 will drive him off against his will. He besides rescues Oedipus ‘s girls when the guards of his brother-in-law nobble them.

The subject of dreams is apparent in the drama A Raisin in the Sun. The Younger household receives through mail, a $ 10,000 check. This money gives them an chance to recognize their dreams, hopes, and programs of traveling into a better place and populating a better life. The drama explores the jobs the household comes across while trying to do their dreams a world. Walter, one of the characters in the drama, displays an erroneous adoration of wealth and power that money can convey. His female parent objects to Walter ‘s concern spouse ‘s offer of running a spirits shop. She besides inquiries his character, but Walter is stubborn and insists on doing the concern thrive. On the other manus, Walter ‘s concern spouse runs off with the capital he intends to utilize to put in a spirits shop.

Another subject that stands out is that of race. A Raisin in the Sun depicts ordinary Black Americans and explores how the fact of their race hinders them from carry throughing their dreams. In other words, A Raisin in the Sun demonstrates how race can perplex the American Dream. Beneathea is ambivalent towards her rich fellow George Murchison, because of his tegument colour. Her concern stems from the fact that though both of their households are black, there are category differentiations between them ; she is non from a rich household as her fellow is.

Lorraine Hansberry depicts a positive angle of the subject of pride. The Younger household is non affluent, but despite material deficiency, they maintain their pride and confirm their worth as human existences. When Karl Lindner turns up at their door and offers to buy their house, the household rapidly sends him off. They choose pride over money.

The subject of enduring due to poorness is apparent in the Younger household, which lives in a really little flat and finds it hard to run into their mundane demands. This is because Walter, Ruth, and Lena do non hold well-paying occupations. However, despite their agony, they keep trusting for a better twenty-four hours. It is besides due to their agony and dissatisfaction with their province of poorness, that Walter considers accepting Karl Lindner ‘s offer to buy their place.

Lorraine Hansberry explores the subject of gender, through the facets of maleness and muliebrity. Walter, for illustration, strives to be the adult male of the household, through pacifying his boy, married woman and female parent with gifts and a better life. This thrust for philistinism about causes him to degrade himself by accepting Mr. Lindner ‘s offer, but when he rejects it, he recovers his image of an honest adult male, in the eyes of his boy, married woman and female parent.

The drama besides includes female characters that belong to different coevalss. Walter ‘s female parent Lena, a widow, portrays the image of the traditional female parent who tries to make a better life for her household, instead than for herself. She does non object to her hubby ‘s extra-marital personal businesss and remains loyal to him during their matrimony life. Walter ‘s married woman Ruth is supportive of her hubby ‘s concern, and she is willing to gain excess income for the wellbeing of the household. Beneatha is a immature female college pupil, who voices her defeats against society ‘s unequal intervention of adult females. She invariably defies Walter ‘s male jingoism and challenges work forces who do non esteem adult females ‘s thoughts. Consequently, it is clear that adult females are easy altering the image they have of themselves.

The subject of pick comes out when the characters in A Raisin in the Sun are depicted as doing determinations without inquiring for the sentiments of other household members. Walter ‘s married woman Ruth, for illustration, pays a sedimentation for the abortion of her unborn kid without stating anyone. Lena, Walter ‘s female parent, pays for a household house, besides without discoursing with her boy and daughter-in-law. Walter decides to put in a spirits shop, despite the expostulations of his household. All of these picks pit values against money, but in the terminal, the characters stand on their rules.

The writer portrays drugs and intoxicant as a agency of safety from life ‘s emphasiss in A Raisin in the Sun. To get by with their emphasis and defeat, Walter for illustration, turns to alcohol, whereas Beneatha fumes coffin nails. In decision, both dramas explore different subjects, but they have in common the subject of agony.

Academic Degree and College Essay

Is college truly deserving it? A inquiry many pupils start to inquire as the college cost additions and occupations are tougher to acquire. When sing college you have to reflect more about what you want out of it instead than what you have to make to finish it. Although acquiring accepted into a good college is a great start. acquiring a college grade may look intimidating in footings of the educational duty. tuition. fees. and clip committednesss involved. However. there are many other ways in which a college grade can be a utile investing ; with heightening the value of your life in several ways.

In the hereafter. the instruction received from college will be really helpful to people in several ways. College is going a major determination with grownups in America today because people are oppugning whether or non if college is really deserving it. Peoples are non making their research on how a college grade is more good than if you did non gain one. Numerous surveies have revealed that a college instruction can take to long-run fiscal returns and increase a student’s success in the hereafter.

Harmonizing to Deanna Mascle “Individuals with unmarried man grades earn about 60 per centum more than those with merely a high school sheepskin. who in bend earn about 40 per centum more than high school dropouts” ( 2012 ) . Receiving a college grade and conveying what you learned to the existent universe will profit you in your chase for fiscal success. If you do non hold a mentality that you are traveling to set your full potency in college. Cooper. argues that there is no ground to blow your clip and money.

In our society now a college instruction is no longer a pick or privilege. but instead a necessity or demand. We are fundamentally raised and accustomed to believe that one needs a higher instruction in order to win in life. The major ground why people go to college is non because they want to. but because they basically have to. In the article “College is still deserving it” . Anthony Carnevale provinces. that concerns pay more money to workers with grades than to those without because employers believe that postsecondary educated workers are more valuable ( Carnevale 8 ) .

Even though society has began to alter that it’s fundamentally a necessity to hold a college grade to acquire a good occupation its good worth the money in the terminal. There are a legion sum of waiters/waitresses. barmans. pipe fitters. and so on who have college grades and are working in occupations that don’t require advanced grades. A teller. for illustration. earns $ 19. 000 on norm. but with a college grade. earns $ 29. 000 on norm. Similarly. pipe fitters without a grade earn $ 37. 000 on norm. but earn $ 52. 000 with a college grade.

About all high school seniors are pressured by their counsel counsellors and parents to travel to college because it is “the right thing to make. ” In Caroline Bird’s essay “College is a Waste of Time and Money” . she states that pupils go to college because “Their female parents wanted them to travel. ” ( 481 ) The undergraduate may hold different dreams about what he or she desires to make in life. but because they believe that these “mentors” make out what is best for them. they about surely end up making something that they do non desire to make. ensuing in being unhappy with their life.

Bird makes some good points in her essay. but if kids did non acquire pressured they would hold no thought about college. and likely would non even think about traveling. Bird argues that college is a waste of money because childs do non cognize what they want. No 1 wants parents. instructors or counsellors stating high school pupils to take low and skip college. College is expensive we all have established that. but it doesn’t have to be. If you have to take out. or program on taking out more than $ 50. 000 to travel to college. you should see seeking for other colleges that will be able to suit your budget.

Harmonizing to Cooper. he has finished college and has a great occupation. He goes on to speak about how if he ne’er decided to travel to college and pay the high tuition that goes along with it. The Public Policy Institute of California concurs and predicts that “41 per centum of occupations in 2025 will necessitate a college grade. ” If these counsellors and parents did non force these pupils into looking. and traveling to college. so the inquiry is who would? Even when using for a occupation that will non utilize your exact grade. merely holding that degree gives you an advantage over the other appliers who do non possess a grade.

The bulk of the employers of the company are looking for pupils with a college grade since employers are looking for pupils who have the accomplishment to larn new things which is indispensable in order to work in the corporate universe. The grade reassures the employers that a pupil with a grade can be engaged since finishing a grade. that means that he/she can manage the work environment. and besides has the accomplishment to settle in to changeless alteration. A grade is said to be more important than the degree type as such. so as long has one has the ability to larn. so they will hold a more prone opportunity of acquiring employed.

The bulk of college pupils would experience that college is a waste of money because they do non larn what they want to. Alternatively they have to take categories that have nil to make with what they are majoring in. and are merely taking these categories to finish the educational demand to get down their existent major. With the increasing costs of college tuition. every bit good as necessities such as books a college instruction becomes a load slightly more than an investing.

Tuition costs continue to lift. and for a batch of fighting Americans. acquiring an instruction now means old ages and old ages of monthly debt payments. Alexander Thomas Public. biennial college tuition has gone up 7. 3 per centum since last twelvemonth and will no uncertainty go on to lift ( 2012 ) . Thomas says “there are decidedly ways to cut down the cost of college. and educating yourself on the federal pupil loan procedure in general is highly utile in the long run” ( 2012 ) .

Although college is expensive. if it is approached the right manner. pupils can acquire the instruction they need and desire without acquiring buried in dozenss of debt. Americans merely necessitate to be smart and do their research when it comes to paying for college. The chief ground for go toing college is to acquire a well-paying calling. while being happy with that calling pick. College prepares you with educational apprehension in order to carry through something in the hereafter. Harmonizing to Dale Coye the “New American College” . higher instruction is necessary for you future.

He states that “In spacial footings. instruction and acquisition may get down in a schoolroom. but class work besides spills over into the life of the campus and the community. Students engage in experiential acquisition and co-curricular activities that take abstract thoughts and ground them in real-life problems” ( Coye 20 ) . Time and committedness are really of import in wining with acquiring a college grade. Harmonizing to Cooper. if you are be aftering to hold kids you should wait until you finish college. as it is a large committedness and clip devouring even without kids.

Rearing pupils tend to finish four-year grades at rates far slower than other college pupils. “More than half ( 59 per centum ) of parents go toing college earn less than $ 10. 000 a year” ( Sorensen 30 ) . Parents can non afford to back up their kids without acquiring some kind of instruction. Copper. explains that he likely would non hold finished school if he decided to hold childs before he graduated. The resistance to acquire a nice occupation is increasing ; it is near to impossible to accomplish a high paying occupation without at least a bachelor’s grade.

Numerous sums of occupations that merely used to desire their employees to hold a high school sheepskin now necessitate some type of college instruction. College is worth the money. however. is because it is one of the rare associations that often holds people of different cultural and racial backgrounds. This allows one to progress their societal and communicative accomplishments because they are exposed to unaccustomed civilizations. College helps you to go a responsible grownup because for the first clip most people are about on their ain.

College helps pupils get ready for major linked accomplishments. Therefore. college helps in accomplishing accomplishments linked to the concern one looks to acquire into. It helps a pupil in calculating out how to make their occupation. It is wholly different from high school ; you have to pull off your private clip and fiscal province as good. Continuing with college Teachs persons how to manage their lives. Most college pupils are pull offing their college life between analyzing for their tests and gaining money through low paying occupations to keep their college tuition.

In add-on to this. they are basking the benefits of a good societal life. parties and tonss of friends. The experience one has in college truly helps adolescents turn into grownups. Traveling off to college you have to confront state of affairss like holding to pay measures. clip has to be managed good. and cutoff day of the months have to be met. merely like the “real universe. ” College is merely non about obtaining a good occupation. but about deriving cognition. Sometimes it is good to be an intelligent individual alternatively of being person who merely makes a batch of money.

There are rather a few grounds why college is deserving it in the terminal. the tuition and college costs are expensive in the beginning. but it pays off one time you are gaining the money in the hereafter. Researching colleges and happening out the best option for you will merely profit yourself in the terminal. doing wise picks and make up one’s minding if get downing a household with your fundss without a college instruction will be deserving it in the long tally. and making research for yourself to see what will break profit you and your household by acquiring some kind of college instruction.

An instruction gives people an apprehension of what they can make for themselves and how they can do needful alterations in their lives. Simply merely giving away money would non learn the accomplishments or values that come with having an instruction. This is the value of instruction: that it makes permanent alterations in the lives of those who seek it. Works Cited Bird. Caroline. “College is a waste of clip and money. ” The Case Against College ( 1975 ) : n. pag. Print. Carnevale. Anthony. “College is Still Deserving it. ” Inside Higher ED 14 Jan. 2011: 8-10. Print. Cooper. Edward. Veterinarian.

Personal Interview. 27 Oct. 2012. Coye. Dale. “Ernest Boyer and the New American College. ” Connecting with the Gulfs 29. 3 ( 1997 ) : 20. Print. Mascle. Deanna. “A College Degree in about a necessity. ” Thinking about college? We can assist! : n. pag. College Tidbits. Web. 29 Nov. 2012. & lt ; hypertext transfer protocol: //www. collegetidbits. com/prep4college/A-College-Degree-is-Nearly-a-Necessity. hypertext markup language & gt ; . Sorensen. Kia. “Unmarried Parents in College. ” Fragile Families 20. 2 ( 2010 ) : 28-50. Print. Tutiion Breakdown: Is college worth it? HLNtv. com Turner Broadcasting System Inc. 16 Aug. 2012. Web. 19 Nov. 2012.

Differences In Realism And Naturalism Periods English Literature Essay

There are many similarities and many differences between the two literary periods of Realism and Naturalism. Naturalism is the darker extreme of Realism that took the doctrines of the Realism literary period and skewed them even further into the positions of scientific discipline. In the Realism literary period, the characters were pulled from the in-between category and in the literary plants of the Naturalism period ; the characters were pulled from the lower category. Realism besides criticized the societal environment and morality where naturalism criticized that adult male is simply an animate being who is motivated by his chemical science, heredity and the environment or fortunes in which they lived. The concluding contrast between Realism and Naturalism is that Realism emphasized humane understanding while Naturalism stated that life is deterministic and mechanistic. We can see these contrasts vividly when we compare the two literary plants of “ Life on the Mississippi ” by Mark Twain to the literary work of “ The Lost Phoebe ” by Theodore Dreiser.

In “ Life on the Mississippi ” written by Mark Twain, the chief character began as a small male child from a in-between category household with the dream of going a captain of a steamboat on the Mississippi River. We can state that he is in-between category because he had the freedom to roll and play with his friends instead than being made to work or to analyze societal graces. In direct contrast to this is the character of Henry in “ The Lost Phoebe ” by Dreiser. Dreiser gives us a really graphic history of how he and his household were lower category. They had ne’er been able to afford new furniture, they lived in the house that his gramps had built, the farm edifices were falling down because they could non afford to repair them and they had the au naturel lower limit of farm animal that they needed to run the farm. By the clip that the narrative was written, the lone farm animal that they had left was a Equus caballus that no 1 else would purchase because he was so old and so sickly. Every twenty-four hours the Henry and Phoebe were married was a battle merely to hold plenty nutrient to eat and to last to populate another twenty-four hours.

The storyteller of the literary work “ Life on the Mississippi ” , which was written during the Realism period, had the excess money to be able to afford to take a trip on a riverboat, even though his trip was non in an excessive room, he was still able to afford to pay the transition. Not many people in this clip had the excess money to be able to pay to travel on a trip like this. It was less expensive, though more clip consuming, to do the trip by land. Therefore, most households or travellers would really take the excess clip to do the trip because they could non afford to pay the transition for the riverboat. In “ The Lost Phoebe ” , written during the Naturalism literary period, it is apparent that there was no excess money for anything. Whatever money that Henry and Phoebe had went straight towards their support. The contrast between these two different literary periods and the Stationss of life which are portrayed in straight correlated to the differences in the rules of the Realism and Naturalism literary periods. In the piece by Mark Twain, there is hope given for lifting above where the character came from to a higher societal standing. In contrast, in the literary piece by Dreiser, the characters began their life together in the lower category and they were ne’er able to better it and no hope was given that they of all time would hold been able to make so.

Another difference in the rules of the Realism and Naturalism periods were that in Realism they criticized the societal environment and morality where the Naturalism period criticized that adult male is simply an animate being who is motivated by his chemical science, heredity and the environment or fortunes in which they lived. In “ Life on the Mississippi ” , the chief character had grown up in a town straight on the Mississippi River. He grew up watching the boats come through every twenty-four hours and his full life became centered around obtaining the end of a life on the river, as the captain of a riverboat. He did non merely desire the occupation of haling lading up and down the river. Rather, he merely wanted the occupation that had the most prestige and glorification associated with it. In contrast to this mentality on life, shown in the Realism period is the 1 that is portrayed during the Naturalism period, which is black and dejecting with the characters being given no hope. As shown in “ The Lost Phoebe ” , Henry was destined to be a hapless husbandman by heredity. Due to being hapless, he likely had non been able to keep a proper and alimentary diet during his life-time, which likely led to his mental diminution. After he lost his life mate, when Phoebe died, his environment dictated that she was everyplace in the house that they had shared. Due to the fortunes of his life, it is portrayed by Dreiser that he has no option but to seek for her everyplace. The balance of his life, and even his decease, were dictated by this hopeless hunt for her. Without her, he had no ground for anything, so happening her was the lone action that held any significance for him. To do the events even more black, his neighbours kept giving him hope instead than stating him the truth. They merely sat back and watched, other than giving him the occasional repast, as he searched and searched for her. His neighbours were able to discourse his state of affairs between them but they would non make anything to assist his state of affairs.

A 3rd contrast in rule between the Realism and Naturalism period was that in Realism there is an accent on humane apprehension and in Naturalism that life is deterministic and mechanistic. The accent on humane apprehension is shown clearly in the literary piece “ Life on the Mississippi ” . The steamboat Captain knew what it is like to woolgather about being a captain on a riverboat and how difficult that the dream was to obtain. Alternatively of turning down the chief character, the captain decided to take him under his wing and learn him how to captain a boat on the Mississippi River. The captain gave the chief character hope and a intent for his life. The chief character may non hold been able to make the occupation in the terminal but the captain did give him the chance to at least attempt, even if it meant that he would neglect. To seek and to neglect is better than to hold ne’er tried at all. The Realism literary period portrayed life as the characters holding the option of making for their dreams and accomplishing more than making the same thing that their parents did.

In direct contrast was the rule of Naturalism that life is deterministic and mechanistic. In “ The Lost Phoebe ” Henry had no hope. He was born to a hapless husbandman and when he got married, his bride moved into the house with him and his parents. Every twenty-four hours of his life was basically the same. He was born to a hapless husbandman and it was determined by that birth that he would stay as a hapless husbandman. That every twenty-four hours of his life was basically the same, except for births and deceases, made his life really mechanistic. It is really cheerless to believe that every twenty-four hours of your life would dwell of acquiring up highly early and eating breakfast. Then, traveling out and laboring and fighting all twenty-four hours on a farm that hardly supports the household and so traveling to bed late each dark. To travel through life each twenty-four hours with no hope of today being better than yesterday was or this twelvemonth being better than last twelvemonth makes it highly hard to acquire up each forenoon and maintain seeking.

The very rules of the Realism and Naturalism literary periods were highly different which we can see in the literary plant of “ Life on the Mississippi ” by Mark Twain to the literary work of “ The Lost Phoebe ” by Theodore Dreiser. The rules of the Realism literary period had characters that were pulled from the in-between category, criticized the societal environment and morality and besides emphasized humane apprehension. In direct contrast to these rules, the rules of the Naturalism period pulled their characters from the lower category, criticized that adult male is simply and animate being who is motivated by his chemical science, heredity and the environment or fortunes in which they lived and that life is deterministic and mechanistic. To hold the Naturalism literary period follow the Realism period, the rules which dictated the elements and tone of the Hagiographas was drastically different. While there are many similarities between the two literary periods, the differences in the rules are so drastic that the Hagiographas are drastically different. The difference between the two periods was between hope and despair or between a cheery twenty-four hours and a stormy dark. The events happening around the universe must hold been really drab to the people that were populating them for at that place to hold been such a drastic alteration in the literature.

Voices To Opposing Moral Viewpoints English Literature Essay

What I propose to make is to analyze the representation of adult females in Renaissance play. To state that in Elizabethan drama adult females about ever figure as helpless victims would be a instead deceiving statement, as it implies that they were weak ownerships. Society at this clip was male dominated, so of course the dramas will picture the unjust intervention of adult females. My focal point will be on Shakespeare ‘s plants as I feel he is the most influential playwright nevertheless I will besides do mention to other playwrights when suited. Shakspere illustrates through his female characters that although adult females were ruled by work forces they were frequently strong, they could travel against traditions in society and significantly his characters have depth. It would nevertheless be pathetic to state he was a women’s rightist because the term did n’t even be during this period. Shakespeare merely takes both a masculine and feminine point of position, to show an overall cognition of society at this clip ; on occasion showing what an equal society could be like. Shakespeare may be picturing his ain feelings towards the inanity of unequal gender functions. In this essay I will analyze of import scenes from A Midsummer Night ‘s Dream, Hamlet, and Titus Andronicus ; in an purpose to unknot from Shakespeare ‘s plays the enunciation of a baffled cultural response to adult females. I will besides do mention to dramas by other playwrights during this period to exemplify an overview of adult females in Renaissance play non merely written by Shakespeare. For the intent of this essay, audience will mention to non merely a actual audience but besides readers of the dramas.

I believe it is besides of import to observe that even though the histrions executing were male, the theater would hold besides been for the amusement of adult females ; the feminine gender was hence displayed through costumes. The theater was non intended to portray adult females as hapless and helpless, after all the state was run by a female, Queen Elizabeth I. Phyllis Rackin describes how

the theater provided an sphere where altering gender definitions could be displayed, deplored, or enforced and where anxiousnesss about them could be expressed by dramatists and incited or repressed among their audiences.

I would propose this was Shakespeare ‘s purpose. He wanted to research the feminine gender, their functions in society every bit good as the cultural response towards them, without simple portraying them as helpless victims. This is immediately demonstrated in the opening scene of A Midsummer Night ‘s Dream ; where Shakespeare portrays Hermia as a developed female character, instead than a hapless ownership. He presents a caput strong adult female who is restrained by society. Egeus attempts to maintain his girl Hermia under his ownership, he describes her as a ‘form of wax ‘ ; Here Egeus is exteriorizing his girl as ‘wax ‘ , which is strictly a substance. He besides states ‘As she is mine, I may dispose of her ‘ ( 1.1.42 ) . The usage of the word ‘dispose ‘ aligns Hermia with an object that can merely be thrown off. Egeus would instead hold his girl killed than allow her get married the adult male she loves. He is seeking to non merely command his girl ‘s emotional life but besides her sexual 1 every bit good, as she would hold to ‘endure the livery of a nun ‘ ( 1.1.70 ) . The usage of ‘nun ‘ clearly signifies a alone life for Hermia without a hubby or kids. The audience nevertheless can non take Egeus quandary earnestly as there is no difference in wealth between Lysander and Demetrius ; so alternatively we align with froward Hermia, who will non fall victim to her male parent commands. By non giving up her virginity to person she does n’t love, she illustrates the power of female gender. Even though the drama contains powerful emotions the amusing representation reminds audiences it is a comedy. If Shakespeare wanted to portray a incapacitated victim certainly Hermia would immediately get married Demetrius ; alternatively he illustrates the societal restraints every bit good as portraying a brave adult female, who is willing to run off. The fact that Demetruius that is following Hermia clearly shows she is non a weak adult females, and he is in fact helpless because she wo n’t love him. A amusing consequence is created when Hermia goes against outlooks of her fearful quandary and alternatively says ‘O snake pit, to take love by another ‘s eyes! ‘ ( 1.1.140 ) .The repeat of ‘O ‘ when she replies to Lysander with ‘O cross! ‘ , ‘O spite! ‘ and ‘O snake pit! ‘ depicts how she will non give him up.

A similar state of affairs is presented in Thomas Dekker ‘s comedy, The Shoemaker ‘s Holiday, where Rose ‘s father likewise interferes by indicating out that ‘Too mean is my hapless miss for this high birth ‘ ( 1.1.11 ) ; his girl can non be with her lover Lacy because she is from a lower category. Shakespeare was non the lone author to stand for society ; Dekker besides tried to portray the intervention of adult females within his drama.

In Shakespeare ‘s A Midsummer Night ‘s Dream, Hermia is non the merely strong female within the drama ; Titania besides illustrates power and the strength of female relationships ( despite being a faery ) . In Act 2 Scene 1 she justifies to her hubby Oberon why she should maintain the orphan, she states ‘ [ … ] for her interest do I rise up up her male child, / And for her interest I will non portion with him. ‘ ( 2.1.136-137 ) Titania ‘s relationship with the orphan ‘s female parent appears to intend more to her than the 1 with her hubby. Titania challenges her hubby unlike the traditional Elizabethan married woman, making a balance between male and female. In Act 2 Scene1 the audience are presented with Oberon, oppugning her responsibility to him ; he asks ‘Tarry, rash wanton. Am non I thy lord? ‘ ( 2.1.49 ) ; the usage of ‘wanton ‘ mentioning to her unprompted behavior for waiving ‘his bed and company. ‘ ( 2.1.63 ) Titania so accuses him of holding another lover, Hippolyta ; once more exemplifying a caput strong, brave female. One must observe that Titania ‘s power is besides reflected in the construction of the drama, where Titania amongst other females drive the drama frontward in moving brave against ordering males.

Titania besides describes how Oberon ‘s ‘forgeries of green-eyed monster ‘ ( ) are halting her from seeing other faeries, possibly implicating that if work forces were non in the universe, upseting the peace so society would be a happy topographic point. It could be said that the attitudes of work forces in Elizabethan society caused adult females to be condemned and perceived as helpless victims. Simone de Beauvoir describes in ‘Woman and the Other ‘ a typical male perceptual experience of adult females saying that:

Humanity is male and adult male defines adult female non herself but every bit comparative to him… she is the minor expense, the unessential as opposed to the indispensable. He is the Subject, he is the Absolute- she is the Other.

This is precisely how Oberon perceives his married woman ; she is an object to him, but she is strong plenty to contend back. Oberon is perceived by audiences as being in the incorrect for demanding the kid from Titania ; after all she has cared for him since his female parent passed off. It could hence be interpreted that in Shakespeare ‘s dramas it is the work forces who are weak for taking their ain mistakes out on their adult females. This is besides the instance in Shakespeare ‘s calamity Hamlet.

In Act 3 Scene 1 Hamlet criticises adult females for conveying out the mistakes in work forces. He uses makeup to propose adult females paint their faces to mask the ugly, which besides acts as a metaphor to propose that adult females are dishonest, but conceal it good. He states ‘I have heard of your pictures excessively, good plenty. God/ has given you one face and you make yourselves another. ‘ He believes that her misrepresentation ‘hath made [ him ] … mad ‘ ( 3.1.146 ) . It is of import to retrieve that this conversation is a trial of Hamlet ‘s insanity ; the audience are cognizant from Claudis ‘s and Polonius ‘s ‘withdraw [ Al ] ‘ ( 3.1.57 ) earlier on in the scene, that they are watching Hamlet. This leaves the audience inquiring, is Hamlet merely moving mad or is he genuinely insane? Are these his true feelings for Ophelia even though he may merely be moving? I believe he is strictly faulting Ophelia for his ain mistakes ; he has lost his male parent and does n’t cognize how to cover with it. Linda Bambe in her book Comic Women, Tragic Men describes how ‘The hero ‘s position of adult females ranges bottom at the minute when he is out of control of himself and his universe. ‘ This doubtless could be the instance ; and could be a ground behind the mistreatment of adult females in Elizabethan society. It is easy to fault the people closest to you and accordingly as a signifier of penalty the adult females became objects to their work forces. I would travel as far to state that it was the work forces who were incapacitated victims, and dealt with it by reprobating adult females ; adult females were hence basically microcosms of a baffled society.

Hamlet ‘s female parent Gertrude stems his torture, as she seems to hold no control over herself. His male parent has died and his female parent has immediately fallen for his uncle. The audience gets a sense of how rapidly Gertrude has moved on, when Hamlet describes how the ‘The funeral baked meats/ Did in cold blood supply the matrimony tabular arraies. ‘ ( 1.2.179-180 ) He jokes that the nutrient from his male parent ‘s funeral could besides provide for the nuptials. Hamlet is so fed up with his female parent, that he distances himself from her ; this is clearly depicted through the usage of a 3rd individual narrative. Gertrude hence has power over Hamlet her actions are commanding his head, feelings and actions. On the other manus Gertrude could be interpreted as ‘helpless ‘ because she clearly ca n’t be without a adult male.

Shakespeare depicts how adult females enabled work forces to hold a sense of power. In Titus Andronicus he uses powerful imagination of Lavinia ‘s organic structure as a ‘changing piece ‘ to demo how different work forces try to possess her. In the gap of the drama Titus perceives his girl as his ownership as she is chaste. Bassianus and Saturninus desire Lavinia as she is ‘Rome ‘s rich decoration ‘ ( 1.1.52 ) ; she is chaste, she is the girl of Titus ( the possible emperor ) and no 1 in society seems to oppugn her virtuousness. Therefore any adult male that makes her his married woman is traveling to hold the power of ownership, by taking her valued virginity, and will be a measure nearer to power if he marries the girl of the likely following emperor.

Lavinia illustrates the virtuousness of adult females by being soundless. In the gap act Saturninus claims her for himself, saying ‘Lavinia will I do my empress ‘ ( 1.1.240 ) , the audience are cognizant she is on phase but she remains soundless. She has the power to give any of the three work forces the power of ownership, she could stay chaste and hence remain the belongings of Titus or she could get married Bassianus or Saturninus. Her silence leaves the audience unable to cognize for certain her feelings towards Saturninus. As a chaste adult female she is valuable in society. Shakespeare so depicts what could go on if adult females were to bury their virtuousnesss, so creates a societal upset through the colza of Lavinia in the Act 2.

In this act Shakespeare represents a three-dimension character, audiences learn that Lavinia is non all perfect and accordingly her despicable linguistic communication ends up in her losing her whole individuality. Whereas old Lavinia was vitreous and decided to stay soundless, here she illustrates that she does hold the power to talk. Lavinia says to Tamora ‘ [ … ] you have a goodish gift in tusking ‘ ( 2.3.67 ) . The footer informs readers that ‘horning ‘ refers to ‘The hubbies of unfaithful adult females were supposed to turn staglike horns ‘ ( p.425 ) . Lavinia is naming Tamora an extramarital. She is so raped and a phase way in the following scene informs readers that she has had ‘her custodies cut off and her lingua cut out, and ravished ‘ ( 2.4 ) . I would propose that the mutilation of her organic structure is a literary device instead than an existent mutilation picturing Lavinia ‘s loss of power. In the gap of the drama she could take if wanted to talk, now she is unable to. She had her virginity now it has been taken off. Her organic structure now symbolises a black female in Elizabethan society. The colza besides signifies the societal and political upset in this period, where virginity was a contradiction. Men wanted adult females untouched, by their indispensable purpose was to derive power through taking a adult females ‘s virginity. Sexual appetency nevertheless would hold played on a adult male ‘s anxiousness, because adult females would hold a sense of control. I would propose Shakespeare uses flooring imagination of Lavinia to educate adult females into moving virtuous as a warning that society will alter them into ‘helpless victims ‘ .

The power of this scene would nevertheless depend on the directorial representation of Lavinia. Directors may take to picture a strong adult female still seeking to contend back despite the colza and mutilation ; others may take to do her a delicate female, who accepts licking and the loss of her individuality.

I would besides wish to do mention to Thomas Kyd ‘s representation of Bel- Imperia in The Spanish Tragedy ; as it is similar to Shakespeare ‘s word picture of Lavinia and Tamora. Bel-imperia has the same qualities of Lavinia in the gap of ‘Titus Andronicus ‘ , she is chaste and is extremely valued by work forces in society for this. However like Tamora, she seeks retaliation ; Balthazar ‘s concluding behind the violent death of Horatio is because ‘ [ … ] Balthazar loves Bel-imperia. ‘ The audience are subsequently presented with Bel-imperia taking Balthazar ‘s life every bit good as her ain to get away male use. Her terminal shows the strength of her complex character for being able to kill, yet besides is tragic because it was the lone manner she could get away.

To reason, I would wish to hold with R.S White ‘s description that: ‘A playwright ‘s occupation is to give voices to opposing moral point of views [ … ] . ‘ Shakespeare, Kyd and Dekkar all challenge society, whilst leting their audiences to witness the objectification of adult females. These adult females were exploited in society and were ever inferior to work forces except for Queen Elizabeth of class. They create dimensional female characters to picture that adult females excessively were in fact powerful excessively ; it was society that constrained them. Womans in these dramas do n’t merely look as helpless victims they show bravery, personality and are doubtless head strong. The adult females are restrained by society but battle for their desires. But unluckily because of the patriarchal society adult females ever end up as ‘helpless victims ‘ . I hence believe the female gender Acts of the Apostless as a microcosm of the tragic universe outside. It has to be considered that these authors may hold been excessively scared to allow adult females be winning in the terminal, or possibly they merely wanted to portray a realistic overview of the society they lived in. But, within these dramas one thing is certain, the female characters were deriving existent personalities and illustrated that they would no longer let themselves to be pure ownerships of work forces.