Critically Analyse Pakistan International Airline Commerce Essay

A The chief subject of this assignment is to critically analyze Pakistan International AirlineA and to measure the degree of effectivity of the administration. It includes strategic, fiscal and resource direction analysis. This is carried out in three parts. Overall strategic place is scrutinized and external and internal environment is evaluated through different theoretical accounts such asA SWOTA and PESTLE STEEP analysis in the first portion of an assignment. The 2nd portion is an overall reappraisal ofA human resource direction in PIA and different attacks for their employee ‘s keeping and public presentation are exhaustively assessed as to indicate out their failings and grounds for those defects in overall system. The concluding portion is theA ratio analysisA which helps in analyzing the fiscal place of the concern and impact of resource direction determinations on administration ‘s growing and stableness.


Pakistan International Airlines Corporation ( PIAC ) is the premium air hose of Pakistan with its caput office on the evidences of Jinnah International Airport in Karachi. PIA is one of the largest air hoses in Asia, runing scheduled services to 24 domestic finishs and 39 international finishs in 25 states across Asia, Europe and North America. Its chief bases are at Karachi, Lahore and Islamabad. ( Khan A. , 2008 ) .


Relationship between higher and lower degrees of direction is that Planing is done at higher degree and executing is done by the lower degree but the lower direction is non involved in any determination devising and planning in PIA. In fact its Lower direction merely plays function in garnering information for each measure of strategic planning.

Mission Statement:

PIA Corporation has stated its mission statement as “ a symbol of national pride, aspired to be an air hose of pick, runing productively on modern commercial constructs and capable of viing with the best in the International every bit good as Domestic markets ” (, accessed day of the month: 08/10/2010 )

Mission statement of PIA is mentioned in a manner that:

Employee squad will lend towards doing PIA a planetary air hose of pick through:

Offering quality client services and advanced merchandises.

Using province of art engineerings.

Guaranting cost effectual steps in procurance and operations.

Developing safety civilizations.

On Jan 15, 2010 strategic aims of PIA were given in 33rd BOD meeting i.e.

Introduction of new extra flights, existent clip revenue enhancement gross direction system

Introduction and success of Pakistan remittal enterprise

Increasing market portion by 5 %

Successful monitoring of paths

In PIA Mission and aims are set by the higher direction for the overall organisation that provides path to middle and lower degree employees so that they can convey the company at an established place because Higher direction can non straight take portion in bettering client satisfaction so team work is required from ticket reserve to landing of plane. Employees work in different squads such as office staff, land staff, cabin crew and flight attenders as to execute twenty-four hours to twenty-four hours operations and to accomplish overall aims and mission.

2.2 Environmental Scanning:

Goal accomplishment of any company is greatly influenced by the overall environment, so in PIA before making strategic be aftering higher direction besides scans over all environment that involve internal and external environment both along with the analysis of house ‘s industry.

2.3 Strategy Formulation:

Management at the top degree of PIA utilizes all the information gathered by the lower direction and explicate its schemes by utilizing its strengths and availing its chances to get the better of its failings and menaces so as to make competitory border in the air hose industry.

2.4 Strategy Execution:

Execution in any organisation involves restructuring of house ‘s resources and high degree of motive for lower and in-between direction. But in PIA scheme execution becomes truly complicated as they do non alter their constructions harmonizing to their new and modified schemes, and their employees are extremely demotivated as their suggestions are non welcomed in explicating the schemes. Ultimately the schemes are misunderstood by them.

2.5 Evaluation and Control:

Execution of schemes are evaluated and controlled by PIA ‘s higher direction but they are really much rigid in doing accommodations in their overall schemes.

2.6 Vision:

PIA Corporation has stated its vision as “ To be ferociously competitory, systematically transcending client outlooks and be the pick employer that embraces modern engineering in all domains of its activities ” .


Mission, vision, values and ends for PIA have great influence over its stakeholders that involves:

3.1 Customers:

In the vision and mission statements of PIA ; their clients outlooks and satisfaction is extremely focused so they are increasing their market demand by offering different services such as:

Magazines like “ hamsafar ” and newspapers are given to all clients of PIA

Different circular plans besides attract clients as they can acquire free tickets and extra luggage verifiers etc

PIA continuously changes its plane design after every 3 old ages as to derive more and more client attending

PIA besides introduces lading service viz. “ PIA Speedex ” .

PIA is besides making trade name selling through sponsorship to go more and more popular e.g. PIA is patronizing Shandur Polo jamboree, ABN Amro frequenter ‘s trophy, finish Pakistan 2007 festival

PIA besides supports non net income organisations like Al Shifa trust, Zindagi trust etc.

PIA is besides keeping high safety civilization for its clients

3.2 Employees:

PIA believes in squad work and without that they can non accomplish their ends and mission but they do non authorise their employees to take part in determination devising procedure so they are non involved in puting ends, vision and mission for their company.

3.3 Stockholders:

Pia does non concentrate on stockholders income or their satisfaction in its vision and mission statements which shows its low degree of involvement. And it is proved by the fact that it is non accomplishing its ends so confronting fiscal crisis that consequences in loss for its stockholders as portion monetary value lessenings from 3.17 to 2.61 and loss was PAK Rs.5822 million in 2009.


4.1 Strength:

Leading Market Position:

Harmonizing to Annual study of PIA ( 2008 ) , PIA is one of Pakistan ‘s taking air bearers, with more than 800 day-to-day flights. Around 150,000 riders fly a month on PIA, doing it one of the major operators in the domestic market in footings of rider finish.

PIA ‘s international market portion was 43.5 % , In the Domestic market, its market portion was 69.4 % . On a system-wide footing, PIA ‘s market portion was 51.2 % at the terminal of twelvemonth 2009. Its strong market place is driven by systematically low menus every bit good as dependable service, frequent and convenient flights, usage of new engineerings like e-ticketing and self check-in terminuss, comfy cabins and superior client service.

Superior Operating Structure:

PIA has maintained its place as the low cost bearer. It has been first category Pakistani air hose to utilize the latest engineering. Factors ‘ lending consists of different series of Boeing and Airbus and an efficient, high-utilization and point- to-point path construction.

Network Presence:

PIA enjoys a planetary strong web and international finishs. The company ‘s web includes three the major airdromes in Pakistan, every bit good as major international airdrome such as Dubai International Airport. Having a strong web agencies that PIA can bring forth traffic provender for both its domestic and international Flights.

Effective Use Of Technology:

PIA has successfully incorporated latest engineering in all its systems, giving it an border over rivals. PIA takes recognition for presenting most new engineerings to the Pakistani market. It was the 2nd bearer in Pakistan to integrate the c-ticketing system and the 2nd in South Asia to present self look into in systems at the Jinnah International Airport, Karachi.

4.2 Failings:

Worse Govt. Rules:

The cardinal policies, schemes and set of Torahs are designed by the upper direction. The centralised system is one of the biggest obstructions of long term success of PIA. PIA centralizes construction lead to barrel between different degree of direction, decreased motive, and difficult entree to information.


PIA has a important sum of 42 billion debts. Current and hereafter debts could hold of import effects for stakeholders of the company.

Reliance On Oil Monetary values:

PIA ‘s sustainability, growing and grosss straight depend on oil monetary values. A steep rise in oil monetary values can earnestly damage the long term viability of any air hose. Recently many air hoses around the universe went insolvents due to lifting oil monetary values. Airlines need to fudge against this hazard by taking proper steps.

4.3 Opportunities:

Having The Maximum Route And Fleet:

PIA is holding the maximal path and fleet domestic and international finishs web in Pakistan as compared to its Competitors. Route and swift enlargement will positively impact the company ‘s operations by increasing grosss.

Turning Demand For Low Cost Airlines:

The turning demand for air travel is driven by lower menus and consumer assurance. A study by International Aviation Authority showed that ticket monetary value is the figure one standard for riders when choosing a flight, good in front of the handiness of a non-stop service.

Switching Customer Needs:

The demands of air riders are progressively altering, as they are going more and more monetary value medium. If PIA succeeds in doing its monetary values more competitory, so the company will be able to derive important market portion.

Industry Recovery:

Market analysts believe that the planetary air hose industry will see an upturn in lucks over the following few old ages. This represents an chance for PIA, as it could bring forth increased grosss and bid market portion if it capitalizes on additions in demand.

4.4 Menace

High Interest Ratess:

The past few old ages have seen State Bank of Pakistan impose high every bit good as low involvement rates to look into rising prices and the overheating of Pakistani economic system. Inflation in Pakistan may see another rise in the short-run.

Strong Competition By Airblue:

PIA is now viing against bearers such as Airblue and Shaheen Airline. PIA remains Airblue ‘s strongest rival because of the immense market it has gained over clip, strong trade name image and client trueness.

Interest And Foreign Currency Exchange Ratess:

Fluctuating foreign currency exchange rates can hold a important impact on PIA ‘s net incomes. For illustration, as PIA is supplying its services to the UK. Negative or positive effects arise from exchange rate motions as alteration in disbursals.


PESTLE and STEEP factors including political, societal, economic, technological, legal and environmental factors ( Ireland R. et Al 2008 ) .

Political Factor:

Harmonizing to Ireland R. et Al ( 2008 ) , political factors ever have a great influence on the manner where concerns operate in the air hose industry and the disbursement power of clients.

Pakistan has achieved some political stableness in recent old ages. If the direction of PIA believes that the present authorities will execute good ( systematically ) , so there will be more investing in the signifier of purchase of new aeroplanes and latest engineering.

Economic Factor:

Presently, Airlines industry has three major participants: PIA, an Airblue, Aero Asia and Shaheen Airlines. Their mark market includes domestic travelers every bit good as Pakistanis populating abroad peculiarly in the UK and USA. Economically, the new millenary has been extremely volatile ; the September 11 onslaughts revolutionized the whole universe. Consequently, there was a planetary depression in the North America, South America, Australia and Europe.


Customers are more cognizant of market conditions and available options and want to acquire best value for their money ( Johnson & A ; Scholar, 2001 ) . They spend considerable clip and money on amusement hence increasing the demand of in-flight amusement systems.

Hajj attracts a immense figure of clients.

Technological Factor:

Major technological alterations are taking topographic point in the air hoses industry with inventions in the reserves and booking systems. In-flight amusement systems and car cheque in counters are two illustrations of such inventions. Internet plays a cardinal function in e-ticketing as consumer can easy reserve tickets or look into the position of the flight.

Legal Factors:

Airlines statute laws and policies have a direct impact on the public presentation of PIA. PIA has attacked newA statute law which will coerce them to pay greater compensation to clients in the event of overbooking, cancellations and holds.

Environmental FACTORS:

PIA, as a symbol of national pride, should be a pick air hose runing productively on modern commercial constructs, capable of viing with the best in its full international and domestic markets, systematically transcending client outlooks. It should be a pick employer deploying modern engineering in all domains of its activities.


With an apprehension that planetary economic downswing and of all time lifting operating costs farther exacerbated by fluctuating rough oil monetary values. Harmonizing to Greg J. et Al ( 2009 ) , human resource patterns should be focused in PIA to turn to whether a “ brighter hereafter is possible through direction patterns that to the full engage employees and achieve echt partnerships with their brotherhoods ” to deliver an indisposed air hose. Failure to arouse employee committedness through human resource patterns could intend that PIA is doomed to neglect in competitory air power industry in which private sector is increasing its market portion by providing to client satisfaction.

Making a civilization in which employees are closely knit and where top direction focuses on its forces plus by taking attention of them so that they are ready to confront and react to every twenty-four hours ‘s occupation challenges wo n’t be easy unless PIA starts edifice better relationship at assorted degrees within its hierarchal organisation. When an organisation nurtures values of friendliness and trueness among its staff so finally clients benefit from improved service quality and making a customer-centric civilization becomes comparatively easy. High employee morale and high quality bringing of service to clients are both inter-related and inter-dependent variables and air hoses like Southwest Airlines, SWA, that based its concern theoretical account non merely on its clients but besides its employees satisfaction have seen its net incomes turning when others were all losing grosss in station 9/11 period.

Human resource direction section of PIA could be used as a valuable agent of alteration that creates a strategic partnership among different degrees of direction and improves coaction between different sections by specifying policies and processs that finally consequences in a higher degree of service throughout the organisation. Properly trained human resource professionals that non merely understand elaboratenesss of organisational civilization but besides possess cognition of planetary air power industry can make a work environment that promotes self-respect and regard and prepares PIA for twenty-first century challenges. Turnaround of Continental Airlines that used human resource direction as a tool of corporate scheme to change its work and communicating patterns throughout the organisation is another illustration of the polar function that human resource section in PIA can play to better its trade name ‘s strength and change by reversal its fiscal losingss ( Carrig 1997 ) .

To stay competitory in planetary market where engineering can execute many of the operations traditionally performed by human agents, PIA needs to take some steps to cut down its work force by using engineering to its benefit. “ Traveling to online fining… salvage us at least 8-9 per cent in costs, ” the pull offing manager of PIA one time said. This partially resolves over-employment that burdens company ‘s desperate fiscal status. The following measure should be on-line check-in for domestic and international flights. PIA should put farther in its web site to offer options to amend itinerary as and when required.

Political influence and intervention that affects equity of recruitment policies poses challenges for human resource direction when they are forced to do determinations that does non aline with PIA ‘s scheme but serves political intents. I can non stress plenty on the importance of crystalline enlisting. PIA needs to larn the importance of hiring as its success depends on the ability and manner of its people. An organisation that is in despairing demand of leading and function theoretical accounts should adorn its central offices walls by exposure of employees who conform and promote company policies by accomplishing excellence in their well-thought-of functions. This pattern would promote healthy competition within employees and they would work with more dedication to acquire recognized.


Nowadays harmonizing to my point of position any type of wages plays a critical function in employee public presentation either it is fiscal or non-financial.Financial includes addition salary benefits like medical, travel, kids benefits, pension etc and non-financial are personal acknowledgment, grasp, publicity etc. PIA must carry on a employee study in which foremost they identify the demands of different employees like what type of wagess PIA should supply them so that they can actuate and execute better to do it first pick.

Performance Appraisal or Career development treatment is method by which the occupation public presentation of an employee is evaluated in term of qualitative, measures, cost and clip typically by ace ordinate foreman or supervisor Performance assessment is a portion of guiding and pull offing calling development.It is the procedure of obtaining, analyzing and entering information about the comparative worth of an employee to the organisation. Performance assessment is an analysis of an employee ‘s recent success and failures personal strengths and failings, and suitableness for publicity or farther preparation. It is besides the opinion of an employee ‘s public presentation in the occupation based on considerations other than productiveness entirely. Its a tool by which direction can give provender back on employees public presentation identify his/her preparation demands.Facilitate communicating between employee and administration/management.It improve public presentation through guidance, training and development. Simply when of all time you tell any organic structure about his/her failing strengths you he/she will execute better towards accomplishing organisational ends.


The survey is intended to look into the development of employees in the organisation. A good development plan and process are indispensable to accomplish end of the organisation. To get by with hapless public presentation and to retain employee and ever maintain them sustainable we have tonss of schemes but what I found in my research that non all are play a critical function but person plays a important function ( Svend Hollensen, 2005 ) .


Employee will break develop in decentralised determination doing where they feel they are portion of squad whenever you involve employee in determination devising you can easy accomplish you desire nonsubjective in better manner ( Jeston J. & A ; Neils J. , 2006 ) . If we talk about PIA ( Pakistan international Airline ) in PIA deputation of authorization is limited due to centralised determination doing.The governments reserve the right to do determinations in Board meeting or you can state that merely exceed degree direction can do determination in board meeting. The center and lower degree direction is non allowed to talk for against the top degree direction whatever top degree make or implement they have to follow the determination

Job Rotations

Harmonizing to Price A. ( 2005 ) , occupation rotary motion is organic portion of development ; it is practiced to let qualified employees to derive more penetrations into the procedures of a company and to cut down ennui and increase occupation satisfaction through occupation fluctuation. More rotary motion more satisfies an employee. Job Rotation is non common in PIA ( Pakistan International Airline ) that ‘s why PIA employees are non to the full fulfill

Feed back

Feedback plays a critical function in development and Redevelopment of employee and retains them on the occupation ( Mercer, 1996 ) . Peoples need feedback. “ Most people do non see themselves as others see them ” . Feedback is indispensable to larning. If people do n’t to the full appreciate their strengths, how can they utilize them to their advantage? A People who take a professional attitude toward their work want feedback. If we talk about PIA quarterly employee co-ordination meeting are held where all employees can portion their positions with their foremans and subsidiaries and subsidiaries take feedback from ace ordinate ‘s it helps to cut down the struggles within the administration and employee satisfaction.

Training and development Plans

Training leads towards development and when employee ‘s accomplishments more develop administration can easy accomplish its aims preparation is indispensable to do employee more dynamic to execute undertaking ( Price A. 2005 ) . Training is scheme to retain an employee in the administration it is responsibility of top degree direction to reexamine the public presentation assessments of employee and if they feel lack any where they should supply proper preparation to get by with that job. This scheme is some kind of investing on employee. When employee feels that company is puting on he/she they ever try to execute better.


Form March 2009 – March 2010


SL No.


March 09


Sept 09

Dec 09

March 10


Networking Capital

$ ( 683,057 )

$ ( 828,853 )

$ ( 816,306 )

$ ( 616,829 )

$ ( 628,054 )


Current Ratio







Quick Ratio







Cash Ratio






Diagram 1: Table Of Liquidity Ratio March 2009 – March 2010

Diagram 2: Graph Of Liquidity Ratio March 2009 – March 2010

Analysis of the Liquidity Ratio:

It is evident above chart that the PIA is running with a negative on the job capital in both fiscal old ages. Similarly the per centums of current speedy and hard currency ratio are besides really low that reveals the fact that the current asserts of the company is non plenty to run into its current liabilities. Either it should be equal or above the inaugural industry degree or it should be in Positive Percentage.

Leverage RATIO

SL No.


March 09


Sept 09

Dec 09

March 10


Dept to Total Assert







Debt to Equity Ratio

( 3.589 )

( 3.4313 )

( 3.1720 )

( 3.6853 )

( 3.5916 )

Diagram 3: Table of Leverage Ratio March2009 – March 2010

Diagram 4: Graph of Leverage Ratio March 2009 – March 2010

Analysis of Leverage Ratio:

Leverages ratio shows the sum of debt utilized by the house to finance its asserts ( Wight R. et Al, 2009 ) . It can be either by utilizing portion holders equity or by the sum of adoption. Leverage ratio of the PIA shows the greater sum of debt to finance its asserts.


SL No.


March 09


Sept 09

Dec 09

March 10


Fixed Assert Turnover







Entire Assert Turnover






Diagram 5: Graph of Analysis of Activity Ratio March 2009 – March 2010

The figures of the activity ratio indicate the low credibleness of the PIA in using its assets to bring forth the gross revenues. As it is evident from the fact that ratios for both the old ages are quiet low and the company will necessitate a greater period of clip to change over its assets to bring forth gross revenues.


SL No.


March 09


Sept 09

Dec 09

March 10


Gross net income Margin







Operating Net income Margin

( 0.0964 ) :1

( 0.1393 ) :1

( 0.1783 ) :1

( 0.1407 ) :1

( 0.1057 ) :1


Net Profit/Loss Margin

( 0.0964 ) :1

( 0.1287 ) :1

( 0.1685 ) :1

( 0.0615 ) :1

( 0.1107 ) :1


Tax return On Total Assert

( 0.0148 ) :1

( 0.0393 ) :1

( 0.0798 ) :1

( 0.0364 ) :1

( 0.0157 ) :1


Tax return On Equity






Diagram 6: Table of Profitability Ratio March 2009 – March 2010

Diagram 7: Graph of Profitability Ratio March 2009 – March 2010

Analysis of Profitability Ratio:

The fiscal statement shows a little diminution in the gross net income border in the first one-fourth of twelvemonth 10 over the old twelvemonth. Similarly there is little addition for the Return on equity ratio, though it is low but as an investor it is someway encouraging. On the other manus operating net income, net net income border and return on assets are in existent bad status as they are in negative.


Reason for PIA down autumn is that the company is end oriented alternatively of concentrating on agencies used to accomplish those ends. So the job comes at the execution phase as they are non people oriented, intend the company does non affect its center and lower direction in determination devising. That is the ground weaknesses occur and they fail to get by their approaching menaces and unable to make competitory border in their respective

PIA has boosted in last few old ages.Corporate degree is be aftering frontward for following approaching old ages.PIA has to changed organizational construction so that it can convey a alteration and motive in employee ‘s.This will work out all the jobs and struggles among the company construction from corporate degree down to the lower degree.

They should actuate their employees and every bit good as less the over caput cost disbursals and other disbursals like labour cost.It should be like less input and high out put to better the corporate degree they should heir responsible people so that they are good in determination devising and strategic planning. This can be merely done by good selling policies.