# Papers for Free Archives - Page 3 of 318 - Signifiance

Adoration of Jenna Fox

Would you save someone who is very close to you even if it is illegal? In The Adoration of Jenna Fox, by Mary E. Pearson, Jenna gets into a horrific accident. In an accident so severe as this one, most people would have been killed or crippled for the rest of their lives. Jenna’s parents, Matthew and Clair Fox, take the choice to save her. They basically remade Jenna into a new one. This was dangerous and illegal but they thought it was the right decision. I also very strongly think that saving Jenna was the best decision for Jenna’s parents to make.

Jenna Fox was in a coma while her parents were reconstructing her into almost a whole new Jenna. It was an illegal procedure but if it weren’t done, Jenna would most likely have died. Any parents would have made this same Calzone 2 decision for their own child, even it was legal or not. They only gave made Jenna 10% of her real self but this is better than nothing. She could have died from the accident and her parents decided to save her illegally instead of her dying. This was the best decision for Matthew and Clair Fox to make for their daughter. After the surgery Jenna didn’t have much of her memory at all.

People think that this is bad because Jenna lost nearly all of her memory. I think it was good because it gave Jenna the opportunity to find out who she actually was. It also allowed her to realize she no longer wants to only please others. This was also a very big advancement for science in the future. Without Jenna’s parents trying this and successfully completing it this may not have ever been done. They basically recreated a human using biogel. This has never been done before until Jenna. They took part of her brain and stored it in a hard drive. They then took it Calzone 3 and put it as a microchip and inserted it into her head.

This could lead to many possibilities in the future of science. They can almost program humans to do whatever they want. It could possibly lead to the perfect super race, or the dominant destructive super race of humans, depending on whose hands it gets into. The complete reconstruction of the human race could make it so people will live forever. This could totally change the world. People can program other people to do jobs for them, almost like slave robots. If it does not work where people will live forever, it will surely mean they will live a lot longer than the average human today.

This could be a big government military issue. If a leader produces an almost robot like army, he could have the most powerful force in the world. The leader could make humans with no fear and all the qualities of a perfect soldier, and possibly take over the world. This could be a very good thing for civilization or the total opposite. Calzone 4 In conclusion, it was definitely the best decision for Jenna Fox’s parents to make for her. It could cause a great advancement in the future of science too. People can live almost forever and have no problems. This could possibly cause the perfect world.

The Mind and Life of Fitzgerald and the Great Gatsby

Karlyn Steadman Mrs. Shaw Jr/Sr Honors English 8 May 2009 The Mind and life of Fitzgerald and the Great Gatsby: A Psychoanalytical Criticism Like many writers today F. Scott Fitzgerald either consciously or unconsciously wrote about himself in the book known as The Great Gatsby. Many of the books characters such as Daisy, Nick and even Gatsby himself show characteristics similar to people in Fitzgerald’s life and also Fitzgerald himself. Nick and Gatsby show lifestyles and desires of Fitzgerald’s, when Daisy and Daisy’s daughter show the actions and the thoughts of Fitzgerald’s own beloved wife and Daughter.

In this text it is clearly seen how Fitzgerald’s life is shown and stated in his book, The Great Gatsby. In Fitzgerald’s life there were many different influences for his lifestyle and his literature. In a biography title A Brief Life of Fitzgerald they say “the dominant Influences on F. Scott Fitzgerald were aspiration literature, Princeton, Zelda Sayre, Fitzgerald and alcohol” (Bruccoli pg1). In Fitzgerald’s when attending Princeton he met Father Sigourney who helped push him into his ambitions for personal distinction and achievement. Fitzgerald used this and wrote many books and article.

So in writing the Great Gatsby, He even stated in the beginning of the book how family and the representation of a father is so important. In the very first chapter of the book it states “In my younger more vulnerable years my father gave me some advice” (Fitzgerald pg 5). In the book we also see Nick, a party man and a light drinker show signs of being influenced by the same thing as Fitzgerald. Nick loved being on the richer side, so he went where he knew the money was, bond selling on the west egg (Fitzgerald pg 7). Fitzgerald was also easily influenced by money and partying and drinking also.

Fitzgerald lived a life of high style parties drinking and writing for the money. Even Zelda his wife, wouldn’t marry him because he then didn’t have enough money (Bruccoli Pg1). So influences always are present in the writer himself and his writings also. In 1918 Fitzgerald was still in the army, and was assigned to Camp Sheridan, that is where he met his wife Zelda Sayre. You can see that in The Great Gatsby because, Jay Gats meets Daisy right before he leaves for the war. He then falls in love with at the time, her and all of a sudden she believes she’s in love with him.

When you keep reading the book you then find that Gatsby only falls in love with the thought and the life style that he wanted, and Daisy only fell in love with his money. Well if you read about the biography of Fitzgerald you will see that when he had no money Zelda would not marry him. That then makes it seem that she was only falling in love with his money, just like Daisy. Zelda, after spending a near 11-13 years in different mental hospitals and extended the extent of the bad relationship that her and Fitzgerald had, gave birth to their daughter Scottie (Buccoli pg 3).

Daisy also had a daughter during a non stable relationship with her husband also. While Zelda was in the mental hospitals Fitzgerald then ran around with other women (Portway). Now even though Daisy was not admitted into a mental hospital her husband, that character Tom had an affair with a women just as Fitzgerald did, And as Tom stated in chapter two to Nick “I want you to meet my girl” (Fitzgerald pg 28). In this stating his love and possessiveness of Myrtle, the women he was having the affair with.

Now it is unknown that Fitzgerald had a true possessive relationship with a mistress, but if there is any hints in his writing that is where it would be. In Fitzgerald’s life, he was highly involved in the life style of money. He was born into money, and lived as a spoiled kid. So it’s only natural for him to write about the pros and cons of that in his book. In the first chapter, you can see that Nick is also born in the same situation, but he can never live the life of a common person because of it. And that is also how Fitzgerald was also. Daisy in the Great Gatsby was born into amazing, wealth.

That being the only reason Jay Gats fell in love with her. She lived the life of money and wealth, and that is how Zelda was raised also. She was then raised in a very rich family, and not only did Fitzgerald think she was the most beautiful women alive, calling her the golden girl (as Gatsby called Daisy in the book) but also married into a wealthy family. As Fitzgerald was writing this, the envy of his writing is noticeable in the writing of the love of Gatsby and Daisy, as in his personal life with Zelda In the Great Gatsby, there are many parties being held.

That is even where Nick had met Gatsby. In the book Gatsby would throw elaborate parties so he could attract the attention of Daisy. Well in Fitzgerald’s life he went to multiple parties also. He and Zelda were always the main invites for every party around, till they drank their welcome away from everyone. Now Fitzgerald did not attend parties to attract Zelda, it still shows how his life is a direct and indirect influence on the plots, themes and settings of his writings. Now in this book there is a lot of originality and also imagination in the writings of this book.

But also with all of Fitzgerald’s life situations such as the problems with his wife, and the many good and bad influences, made a huge impact on his book. In reading so, Fitzgerald’s book can be seen as a psychological reading of his life. And Even if he does say not to read it that way, it seems to be the main eye catcher of the book. Works Cited “A Brief Life of Fitzgerald. ” University of South Carolina. 08 May 2009 . Fitzgerald, F. Scott. Great Gatsby. New York: Scribner Paperback Fiction, 1995. F. Scott Fitzgerald. Dir. Bob Portway. dvd. BBC Worldwide Television, 2004. Film.

Dabhol Power Project

Stakeholders: Identify all the major stakeholders in the DABHOL power project. What are the intended benefits and costs of this project for the stake holders? Analyze the roles, responsibilities and reward structure of the stake holders. Based on the case study do you foresee a need to change the reward structure? Enron, Bechtel Enterprises, and General Electric—through offshore subsidiaries—formed Dabhol Power Company to build the first phase of a major power plant in Maharastra state in India.

Later, part of the equity was sold to the Maharastra State Electricity Board. Enron is also a stakeholder as fuel supplier and as the operator of the plant. Bechtel’s construction arm has engineering, procurement, and construction stakes; General Electric is a major equipment supplier; and the Maharastra State Electricity Board is the electricity purchaser. There are also other major sponsors of IPPs, such as AES Corporation, whose sole business is developing, owning, and operating electric power facilities.

Moreover, the Asian Develop- In India’s Dabhol project, for example, the owners are Enron, Bechtel, and GE Capital. Shareholding Pattern [pic] Investment by Stake Holders | | | |Foreign lenders (ABN AMRO, Standard Chartered, BNP Paribas, Calyon, CSFB, etc. |USD 325 million | |Domestic lenders (the largest being IDBI, ICICI, SBI, Canara Bank and IFCI) |Rs. 62 billion | |Export Credit Agencies (JBIC, US EXIM, Belgium OND) |USD 480 million | |Overseas Private Investment Company (OPIC), USA |USD 250 million | Counter guarantee by Govt. of INDIA Ownership stake Stake Holder |% stake | |Enron (indirectly through a series of shell companies) |65% | |GE (indirectly through a series of shell companies) |10% | |Bechtel (indirectly through a series of shell companies) |10% | |Maharashtra State Electricity Board (MSEB) |15% | Responsibilities & Rewards Enron ? Phase 1 • Construction of a 695MW gas-fired power station to generate electricity constantly at Dabhol, Guhagar taluka, Ratnagiri district, Maharashtra scheduled to commence production in December 1997. • Capital cost- $920 million. ? Phase 2 • Expand the capacity of the plant to 2015MW and involved in the construction of a 1320MW gas-fired plant, re-gasification facility, and an LG carrier as well as corresponding port facilities including a fuel jetty, navigation channel, and breakwater.

It was scheduled for commissioning at the end of 2001. • Switch the entire plant to LNG for fuel upon the completion of Phase II. • Capital Cost – $1. 9 billion ? Renegotiated deal • Enron cut the price of the power by over 20 percent, cut total capital costs to $2. 5 billion and increased output to 2184MW. • Enron suggested switching from distillate fuel to naphtha or LNG from domestic suppliers. • Devolving of the re-gasification plant into a separate venture. • Enron offered MSEB a 30% share in DPC. This would reduce the project’s annual cash outflow by US$ 150-170 million. ? Annual return promised to investors in the Qatar facility was 15%. Power purchase agreement assured DPC of an internal rate of return of 16% which as per industry observers was calculated as DPC’s real post-tax interest rate of return to be between 26% and 32%. MSEB ? Take-or-pay contract – MSEB to buy a minimum amount of electricity at a plant load factor of 90% as per 20yr contract irrespective of amount of energy used. ? MSEB to bear any increase in fuel price. ? MSEB to pay DPC $ 220 million per year. ? MSEB was required to build transmission lines from the power station to its power grid. ? MSEB to receive 30% profits of DPC annually. State Government ? Guarantee from the state government in the form of Letter of credit for credit support also waived sovereign immunity. Main recipient of electricity due to the paucity of energy in the state. ? Provide land for construction of the power station, power, communications, water, and approach roads during construction. Central Government ? Central government provided counter-indemnities. ? Escrow account over some of MSEB payments. Oman Gas Company ? Entered into a contract with the DPC to supply gas. Business Plan viability and Execution: Identify and discuss the original business plan of this project. Given the data of this case, was the DABHOL power project a feasible and worthwhile business proposition? In view of the business plan, critically comment on the project execution strategy.

Dabhol Power Company was a unlimited liability special purpose company (SPC) incorporated to execute the project. The power project at Dabhol was one of the eight fast track power projects identified by GOI post the liberalization of the Indian economy. An MOU was signed between Enron and Maharashtra Govt in June 1992 which marked the beginning of the project. Salient Features of the project were as follows – |  |Phase 1 |Phase 2 | |Capacity |740 MW |2015MW | |Cost |USD 920 M |USD 1. B | |Fuel |Naphtha |LNG (Sourced from Qatar) | |Planned Completion |Dec-97 |End of 2001 | Right from the inception the project was criticized by masses and viewed to be highly in favour of Enron (Majority stake holder in DPC). Even the World Bank turned down Maharashtra govt’s loan application terming the project as “not economically viable”. Some of the critical objections were as follows – 1. The govt hurried in closing and the deal, and no other vendors were considered. 2. No EIA was carried out. 3. The project would produce too much power as compared to the state demands.

And given the poor transmission system between the regional grids this would imply much higher costs for the govt. 4. The MOU required the state to pay DPC at 90% load factor irrespective of the demand; this was highly in favour of DPC and virtually assured the company of zero business risk. 5. As per the MOU, the govt had agreed to pay DPC as per base load independent of the actual demand. This was heavily criticized as the state faced shortage of power only during peak hours. 6. The structure of payments did not confirm to earlier guidelines issued by the central govt. 7. Naphtha wasn’t a cheaper source of power as compared to the orthodox sources like fuel. 8. Sufficient audit measures were not assured, to regulate the cost of power. 1.

MSEB had guaranteed a minimum fuel purchase from the supplier (Enron had heavy investment in the company) but the supplier wasn’t bound to provide a minimum quantity of fuel; In addition to it, MSEB had agreed to bear any further increase in the fuel price! 2. All currency risk was taken by MSEB and not by DPC. All these guaranteed an extraordinary IRR of 26 to 32% (post tax) to DPC. Project Financing: Identify the possible sources of financing for a major infrastructure power project of this nature? Critically examine the financing options used by the DABHOL power project. What was the impact of the financing decision for the overall risk and success of this project? Explain, with rationale, what should have been done differently to finance this project?

The possible sources of financing for a major infrastructure project of this nature are: Combination of debt and equity: Debt could be raised through a syndicate loan or loans from commercial banks and financial institutions. Equity could be pooled in by the promoters/sponsors 1. Securitization of the receivables i. e. in this case, the proceeds from running the power plant 2. Subordinated debt or mezzanine debt (multi-tranched) 3. External commercial borrowings 4. Equity financing using QIBs, strategic investors, or private placements 5. Bridge financing for short term requirements Dabhol Power Project used the following financing structure for the 2 phases: Phase I |$ mn | |Phase II |$ mn | |Equity |276 | |Equity |414 | |Debt | | |Debt | | |Syndicate Loan (BankAm-ABN Amro Led) |150 | |Syndicate Loan – IDBI Led |333 | |US Exim |298 | |Syndicate Loan – Domestic & Offshore lenders |497 | |OPIC |100 | |OPIC |60 | |IDBI |98 | |Jexim |258 | |Debt/Equity Ratio |2. 4 | |Commercial Banks |175 | | | | |US Exim |90. 8 | | | | |Debt/Equity Ratio |1. 75 | As is evident, Dabhol Power Company raised a large amount of debt to finance the project and a large portion of it was also from the export credit corporations. Phase I had a D/E ratio of 2. 34, while Phase II had a D/E ratio of 1. 75. DPC depended solely on MSEB as a consumer.

If MSEB were to default on its payment, it would struggle to pay back its debt obligations. On the other hand, given the excruciating clauses in the PPA, it was very likely that MSEB would not be able to purchase power from the Dabhol Power Plant and sell it profitably. It would have to incur a loss and have the state & if required central governments provide cover. The alternative that Dabhol Power Company could have taken in terms of financing the project was to raise more equity from the sponsors or through the market (though this might have been relatively difficult given the long incubation period typical of these projects). They could also have opted for the securitization route.

This was, the interest expenditure on debt would have been manageable. Also, based on the revised terms, MSEB received a 30% stake in the company. The equity stake was a double-edged sword. While on the one hand, it gave MSEB an opportunity to partake in the profits; on the other hand, it also made it difficult for MSEB to negotiate, since it was the sole customer too – implying a conflict of interest. Lessons Learnt and exit strategy: What are the crucial lessons of the DABHOL power project for other strategic initiatives in India? How do you address the risk inherent in such enormous global projects? How do you immunize against such risks?

What other strategic, financial and regulatory initiatives would you recommend for such projects to succeed? Lessons The Enron Dabhol project has offered many lessons for any future strategic initiatives in India and it is imperative that the mistakes made in the DPC agreement must not be repeated. In order to avoid such situations from arising in the future, it is crucial to learn lessons from the shortcomings of the agreement. This will protect future stakeholders and provide benchmarks to examine other future agreements. 1. A surplus of power is as harmful as a shortage of power. Under certain circumstances, it may be cheaper to have no power than buy exorbitant unaffordable power.

It is crucial to study the tariff implications of any supply-demand matching exercise. 2. Competitive bidding procedures rather than MoUs and counter-guarantees are the most effective method of getting the best terms from investors. The PPAs may come in the way of merit order dispatch, which is the most cost-effective way of supplying electricity to meet demand. 3. The broader developmental implications of expansion must be kept in mind. The given sector must pursue the goal of universal access to affordable utility. A stress on self -reliance as a central developmental objective to avoid control being taken over by foreign forces can be essential at times. 4.

To protect against exchange rate volatility, the forex indexation of a given project costs must be avoided as far as possible. For instance, to protect against the impacts of international oil price rises, fuel policy must be based, ceteris paribus, on indigenous resources. 5. There must be not only competitive bidding in the process, but also transparency, accountability and participation. The right to information is crucial tool in the hands of people which they must exercise with the assistance of public-interest organizations. The DPC episode demonstrates that despite the presence of certain safeguards, the lack of transparency in the agreement inevitably resulted in its failure.

It also clearly reveals the extent of Government and investor indifference to consumer interests. Risks There is a high risk inherent in such enormous global projects. It could vary from political and economic risk to country and lending risks. Some of the risks involved would be: 1. Industry cycle and the prospects of growth of the industry over a longer period 2. Competitive positioning that would determine the market share, substitutes, variable costs of production etc 3. Regulation that would impact quickness and smoothness of decisions and actions and transparency in the process 4. Tariff structure and Government support 5. Repayment risk 6. Currency risk

To generalize, it can be said that the large-scale projects require massive capital investment with long completion times, and they carry political, economic, legal, regulatory and financial risk. A key issue becomes how to attract private investors willing to participate in projects given their complex and risky nature. Cases of corruption and political and economic risk in the developing country make investors hesitate. To mitigate these risks and fears, the Government must ensure that a clear investment policy, structured process flow, transparent mechanism is established which makes the investment environment conducive. Tools of project financing must be appropriately employed.

In addition, keeping in mind the learning from the past can go a long way on making the project successful. Recommendations The following recommendations will help future agreements to avoid the difficulties that have arisen in the Dabhol case: 1. Any potential problem in agreements should be thought about, planned for, and dealt with in the first set of negotiations, rather than rectified time and again later. 2. Transparency is the key to the successful implementation of any agreement. 3. Negotiating with investors is a task that needs an expert panel that can professionally handle a given situation and can ensure stakeholder representation 4. Investors have a legitimate right to maximize their gains. 5.

Government must recognize that the best incentive to investors is credible policy and a transparent investment environment, not the unsustainable artificial incentives. 6. While protecting the interests of the electorate should be the government’s top priority, the consumers must not take it for granted that the Government will protect their interests. 7. Consumers need to become more organized and vocal and push for a greater role in policy decisions. 8. Investors must understand that unrealistic commercial agreements result in enhanced risks and are likely to fail. 9. Investors must understand and accept the commercial risks of the investments accompanied by high rates of return. ———————– Dabhol Power Project

Price Hike

Price hike:- Price rise send family budgets haywire NEW DELHI: Even as India’s economy is said to boom, millions of its citizens are groaning under soaring prices of vegetables and food grains and | | wish the government would do something about this, reports from across the country say. From Chandigarh in the north, to Ranchi in the east and from Bhopal in central India to Kerala in the south, a cacophony of voices has been raised against the relentless price rise, with the common man wondering when things would return to normal.

While the poor have been worst hit, the middle class is also feeling the pinch. Tomatoes are selling at up to Rs 50 a kilo, cauliflower at Rs 42 a kilo and chillies at Rs 70 a kilo, playing havoc with household budgets and forcing people to drastically scale down purchases of non-essential commodities. Finance Minister P Chidambaram, at a news briefing here Thursday, made a passing reference to rising prices of vegetables, even as he focused on steps the government was taking to control the prices of food grains.

But, even more than wheat, sugar and pulses, it is the rising prices of vegetables that have hit the common man the hardest. The national capital is no exception to the rising trend, with tomatoes costing over Rs 40 per kilo against Rs 15 a couple of weeks ago, cauliflower at over Rs 42 per kilo and okra at over Rs 22. Among pulses, moong dal is selling at Rs 60-70, an increase Rs 3-13 against a week ago. “For the past two weeks the prices of vegetables are affecting our budget. Looking at the high tomato price, we have curbed its use,” said housewife Romi Dash. Earlier we used to consume over three kg of tomatoes every week, but for the last two weeks we are managing just one-and-a-half kilo,” Dash added. Traders said that while un-seasonal rain and a severe heat wave had affected production, the hike in fuel prices was also responsible for the rising prices. “Low production coupled with high transportation costs due to the fuel price hike is the main reason for soaring prices,” said Praveen Khandelwal, secretary general of Confederation of All India Traders (CAIT). Tomato prices have touched a new high of Rs 50 a kilo in Chandigarh. The government at the centre has failed to check the price hike. After the fuel prices were raised, we now have to face the burden of increased prices of all commodities. Is the government sleeping? ” complained housewife Anjana Thakur. Raghav Puri, an executive in a private firm, had a novel way out. “If the government cannot control the price hike, let them bring a law that binds all employers – whether government or private sector – to increase salaries by a corresponding percentage so that people do not suffer,” he maintained. Even the retailers have begun to feel the pinch. I have observed over the last few days that most customers have been cutting down on purchases. They are not even buying bread and milk as regularly as before,” said grocery shop owner Satya Prakash. “With the local crop sold out, tomatoes are being imported from Karnataka resulting in a sharp rise in its price due to the increased transportation cost,” said vegetable vendor Ashfaq. “Papa has stopped bringing fruits because they are too costly,” complained school-going Hani Saxena. Prices of vegetables have more than doubled in Jharkhand, forcing most housewives to drastically cut down on vegetables in the daily menu. The heavy rains in the first week of June destroyed vegetables in the field. The monsoon is generally expected in the second or third week of June and farmers harvest the vegetables by June 15,” said Vishal, a horticulturist. “This year, farmers did not get time to harvest the vegetables from the field and put them in cold storage. ” The situation is critical in Kerala, which is almost fully dependant on neighbouring states like Tamil Nadu, Karnataka and Andhra Pradesh for supply of food items, including vegetables. Ever since the assembly elections got over (in May), the price of food items have been going up from 10 per cent to 75 per cent,” said Rajendran Nair, manager of the Kerala State Civil Supplies Corporation that imports food items and acts as the second line of the public distribution system. Price of chillies has shot up from Rs 40 to Rs 70, while the price of pulses has shot up by 25 per cent and that of rice by 10 per cent. Food inflation jumps to 15. 58% as potato prices soar Food inflation shot up to 15. 58 per cent for the second week of November on he back of potato prices, which have more than doubled in the past one year. Other essential items like pulses and onion rose by more than 25 per cent in the wholesale market, government data on inflation for week ended November 14 showed. “Food inflation is incredibly high… The drought has aggravated the situation and I expect the wholesale price- based inflation to rise to around 7 per cent by March next year,” said HDFC Bank economist Jyotinder Kaur. With inflationary pressure building up, the RBI in its next policy review may take steps to check easy money. It is likely that RBI in its January policy might go for monetary tightening measures and raise Cash Reserve Ratio (CRR) or policy rates,” Kaur said. According to the inflation data, potato prices rose by 111 per cent, pulses by 35 per cent and onion by 27 per cent in the one-year period ending November 14. Staple items like wheat and rice rose by 12 per cent each during the period. Vegetable too continued to stalk consumers registering a 12 per cent rise during the same period. However, among fuels petrol prices fell by 12 per cent, cooking gas by 7 per cent and diesel by 6 per cent.

Food inflation for the week ended November 14 was higher significantly even when compared on weekly basis. Axis Bank Economist Saugata Bhattacharya said the nature of persistence of higher food prices is worrying. “I expect wholesale price inflation to rise between 7 and 8 per cent by March-end,” he said. Among other items urad and poultry chicken prices rose by 15 per cent each, eggs by 8 per cent, moong by 6 per cent, arhar by 5 per cent and fruits & vegetables by 3 per cent. Led by costlier food prices, wholesale inflation rose to 1. 34 per cent in October from 0. 50 per cent in the previous month.

Inflation had remained in the negative for 13 straight months before trudging into positive in the first week of September at 0. 12 per cent. Among non-food articles, raw silk rose by 3 per cent and fodder and groundnut seed by 2 per cent each. Barley, however, fell by 2 per cent and tobacco by 3 per cent. Fuel index, on the other hand, remained unchanged at the previous week’s level. The primary articles index rose by 1. 2 per cent on weekly basis and 11. 04 per cent on annual basis. Food inflation shot up to 15. 58 per cent for the second week of November on the back of potato prices, which have more than doubled in the past one year.

Other essential items like pulses and onion rose by more than 25 per cent in the wholesale market, government data on inflation for week ended November 14 showed. “Food inflation is incredibly high… The drought has aggravated the situation and I expect the wholesale price- based inflation to rise to around 7 per cent by March next year,” said HDFC Bank economist Jyotinder Kaur. With inflationary pressure building up, the RBI in its next policy review may take steps to check easy money. “It is likely that RBI in its January policy might go for monetary tightening measures and raise Cash Reserve

Ratio (CRR) or policy rates,” Kaur said. According to the inflation data, potato prices rose by 111 per cent, pulses by 35 per cent and onion by 27 per cent in the one-year period ending November 14. Staple items like wheat and rice rose by 12 per cent each during the period. Vegetable too continued to stalk consumers registering a 12 per cent rise during the same period. However, among fuels petrol prices fell by 12 per cent, cooking gas by 7 per cent and diesel by 6 per cent. Food inflation for the week ended November 14 was higher significantly even when compared on weekly basis.

Axis Bank Economist Saugata Bhattacharya said the nature of persistence of higher food prices is worrying. “I expect wholesale price inflation to rise between 7 and 8 per cent by March-end,” he said. Among other items urad and poultry chicken prices rose by 15 per cent each, eggs by 8 per cent, moong by 6 per cent, arhar by 5 per cent and fruits & vegetables by 3 per cent. Led by costlier food prices, wholesale inflation rose to 1. 34 per cent in October from 0. 50 per cent in the previous month. Inflation had remained in the negative for 13 straight months before trudging into positive in the first week of September at 0. 2 per cent. Among non-food articles, raw silk rose by 3 per cent and fodder and groundnut seed by 2 per cent each. Barley, however, fell by 2 per cent and tobacco by 3 per cent. Fuel index, on the other hand, remained unchanged at the previous week’s level. The primary articles index rose by 1. 2 per cent on weekly basis and 11. 04 per cent on annual basis. Centre puts ball in states’ court over rising food prices The Centre on Thursday put the onus on the states to bring down prices of essential commodities saying unless they take action against hoarding, it would be difficult to provide relief to people.

Agriculture Minister Sharad Pawar offered no immediate hope from inflation attributing soaring prices of potato and onion to bad monsoon and pest attack on crops in West Bengal. “I have written to the Chief Ministers that if the state government machinery is not alert, it will be difficult to provide relief to the people,” he said replying to a special discussion in the Lok Sabha on rising prices. Finance Minister Pranab Mukherjee too in his intervention earlier asked the state governments to activate the Public Distribution System and provide relief to people suffering from soaring prices. The states have to take action… it is the responsibility of the state governments to take action,” Pawar said, regretting that some states have not taken adequate action to check hoarding. With sugar prices touching unprecedented levels, the Minister especially wanted states, particularly Uttar Pradesh, to pay over Rs 200 per quintal to cane growers, as was being done in southern states. The food inflation, according to the latest data, soared to 15. 58 per cent for the week ended November 14, on back of rising prices of potato, onion

Organizational Design

Key Concepts of Organizational Design University of Phoenix Key Concepts of Organizational Design This paper will provide key concepts of organization design. It will describe the five best design choices and also will provide information regarding some common organizational structures. An organization will have to continuously look at the design and structure it uses to ensure that it is going to establish its goals and vision. Importance of Organizational Design Choices Organizational Design will allow an organization to improve itself.

With organizational design, employee satisfaction is improved, customer satisfaction is improved, financial performance is improved and a competitive edge is gained. In order for an organization to have innovative success the best design choices are hierarchy, integration, control, formalization, and authority. Hierarchy According to Jones (2004), “Hierarchy is the classification of people according to authority and rank” (p. 101). With a hierarchy, individuals at the top level have more authority and rank. Each level down form the highest rank is under the control of the higher rank.

A hierarchy provides an organization with structure. An organization can structure itself by vertical differentiation or horizontal differentiation. According to Jones (2004), “ Vertical differentiation is the way an organization designs its hierarchy of authority and creates reporting relationships to link organizational roles and subunits, horizontal differentiation is the way an organization groups organizational task into roles and roles into subunits” (p. 102). Employees are able to become more specialized with horizontal differentiation. Vertical differentiation allows for chain of authority.

It gives more control to the organization. Integration According to Jones (2004), “Integration is the process of coordinating various task, functions, and divisions so that they work together and not at cross-purposes “(p. 104). Integration allows for departments to work together. This strengthens the organization and improves communications within the organization. There are seven integration mechanisms that can be used as differentiation increases; they are the hierarchy of authority, direct contact, liaison role, task force, team, integration role and integrating department.

Hierarchy of Authority separates individuals by how much authority they have. Direct contact allows for managers and leaders to meet so that they may coordinate activities. When communications increases amongst different units, one or more managers must take on a liaison role. Task forces and teams are established to address issues and solve problems. Control According to Jones (2004), “Control is the ability to coordinate and motivate people to work in the organization’s interest (p. 99). Control allows for employees to be motivated and allows for coordination within the organization.

A great leader will have more ability to motivate and control his or her subordinates. Formalization According to Jones (2004), “Formalization is the use of written rules and procedures to standardize operations” (p. 112). Part of my organizations responsibilities is to follow written rules and procedures. Without them we would not be certified by the FAA to perform maintenance and without them we would not be able to meet the safety requirements and standards set by the FAA. With these types of procedures, like the military, there is no slack to stray from the written rules and procedures.

Authority According to Jones (2004), “Authority is the power to hold people accountable for their actions and to make decisions concerning the use of organizational resources” (p. 99). Authority allows for each individual to clearly understand their roles and responsibilities, According to my classmate Kevin Bragg (2009), “where would the military be without authority” (discussion posting). Authority and control go hand and hand and when a person clearly understands his roles and responsibilities, control can be established. Organizational Structures

Organizational structures can be defined as the way or method through use of a hierarchy that a group, business, organization, people or objects collaborate to achieve success on One common goal (http://organizationalstructure. net). The type of organization structure used depends on the size of the organization and what the goals of the organization are. It includes what the organization is looking to accomplish. Most often, all organizations start out as a functional structure and will branch out into another structure or a combination of structures.

Functional Structure According to Jones (2004), “Functional structure is a design that groups people on the basis of their common expertise and experience or because they use the same resources” (p. 160). Functional structures have two advantages. Functional structures allow employees to learn from one another, they become more productive and are more specialized. Highly skilled employees can train new employees and they also can be promoted within the organization to supervisors and managers. By doing this, an organization is able to maintain its skills and abilities.

In a functional structure people are grouped together by their skills. They can supervise each other and have some control over each other’s behavior. Many disadvantages exist in a functional structure. They include control problems, communication problems, measurement problems, location problems, customer problems and strategic problems. Control problems exist because as an organization grows it is hard to keep control of the new activities that it faces due to the growth. Communication problems exist because of the separate groups that are created in a functional structure. Communication is lacking amongst the groups.

Measurement problems exist because in a functional structure, the organization does not have the capability to evaluate itself. Location problems can become a factor if the organization expands to other locations because of the way the functional structure is designed to group individuals together by expertise and experience. Customer problems become an issue because it is difficult to service the needs of new customers. Strategic problems exist because managers do not have the time to plan for the future, they are spending too much of their time trying to solve day to day problems. Multidivisional Structure

According to Jones (2004), “Multidivisional structure is a structure in which support functions are placed in self-contained divisions. Self-contained division is a division that has its own set of support functions and controls its own value-creation activities” (p. 170). A multidivisional structure can provide a large organization with many advantages. The advantages are increased organizational effectiveness, increased control, profitable growth, and internal labor market. Because there is a clear division of labor between corporate and divisional managers, organizational effectiveness is increased.

Because the corporate managers are responsible reviewing the performance of the divisional managers, increased control is gained. Because each division is its own profit center, corporate can decide what divisions will give the greatest return on its investments. Divisional managers are motivated because they have the opportunity to be promoted to corporate managers. Disadvantages of multidivisional structures include managing the corporate-divisional relationship, coordination problems between divisions, bureaucratic costs, and communication problems.

If the corporate-divisional structure is not managed on a continuous basis, the organization can fail. Because each division can be measured separately, divisions may begin to compete for resources and this competition may not allow them to work together. Multidivisional structures are expensive and it must be measured and evaluated to ensure the benefits outweigh the cost. Because the organization is centralized, communication will be a problem. Matrix Structure According to Jones (2004), “Matrix structure groups people and resources in two ways simultaneously: by function and by product “(p. 83). The advantages of a matrix structure are the use of a cross-functional team, it opens communication, maximizes its use of skilled professionals and it focuses on quality and is also able to keep cost down. The cross-functional team allows the entire organization to work together. Communication is improved because the organization is working together. The major disadvantage to a matrix structure is that it lacks the advantages of a bureaucratic structure. Conflict can exist because of the lack of authority in a matrix structure. Network Structure

According to Jones (2004), “Network structure is a cluster of different organizations whose actions are coordinated by contracts and agreements rather than through a formal hierarchy of authority” (p. 197). Network structures of usually complex because organizations form agreements with many suppliers and manufactures. They also outsource many activities. Advantages of a network structure include lowering production cost because an organization is able to utilize a network partner which reduces cost. A network structure is able to survive organically.

If the environment changes, the organization is able to respond quickly with new products, processes and services. A disadvantage to a network structure would be an organization that provided high-technical products or services because it would be very hard for the organization to outsource this work. My organization, Pratt & Whitney would be an example of an organization where a network structure provides a disadvantage. Due to the high-technical repairs my organization performs, many other organizations are unable or not certified to perform certain repairs.

We are limited to the work we out-source. Strategy, Structure, and Process in Organizations Organizational Strategy, Structure, and Process focuses on how an organization is able to adapt to their environment. An organization that has elements of being organic is more likely to be able to adapt to its environment. An organization needs to look at it strategy to ensure that it is effectively aligned with its environment. Organizational Design and Decision-Making Processes An organizational that as a well though out organizational design will have improved communications, productivity, and innovation.

Employees will work effectively. Organizational design allows for an organization to look at what it wants for results and to change its structure and processes to establish its goals. Long-term commitment is needed and you must constantly make design choices that have an impact on your organization. Conclusion While each structure has advantages and disadvantages, an organization must choose the structure that will provide them with the best operational design elements. An organization will need to continuously look to use decision making to improve and change its organizational design.

References Davila, T. , Epstein, M. , and Shelton, R. (2006). Making innovation work: How to manage it, measure it, and profit from it. Retrieved from the University of Phoenix eBook Collection. Jones, G. (2004). Organizational theory, design, and change. Retrieved from the University of Phoenix eBook Collection Miles, R. , and Snow, C. (2003). Organizational Strategy, Structure, and Process. Tucker, R. (2001). Innovation: The new core competency. Strategy & Leadership, Retrieved on November 24, 2009 from Emerald database.

Analyze How Should Mcthai Maintain Its Market Competitiveness During the Global Recession with Specific References to the “Porter’s Five Forces Analysis”

{draw:frame} {draw:frame} World’s largest carmaker Toyota has announced that it will reduce its worker’s working hour and wages in the UK by 10% (BBC Business). The aim of this strategy is to reduce its high labour turnover which is caused by the global recession. Toyota announced from its annual report that during the year of 2008 the company has experienced difficulties in its sales, production and marketing, which lead to the loss of $ 1. billion (see Toyota Announces Results for January 2009 for latest update). “This would be Toyota’s first operating loss since 1950”, Toyota spokesman Steve Curtis said (CNNMoney. com). This announcement will take effect on the 1st of April 2009 and has been described as a “positive move” by the Unite union as they were the representative for the workers who negotiated this plan. This plan will provide stability to the Toyota workers as they will not be made redundant and a steady income will still made.

On the other hand, Toyota can still maintain a high-level skilled work force ready when the upturn comes. Toyota tries to maximize its profitability by reducing costs and even downsizing as a measure to counter the global recession. In the UK, Toyota has already suspended a night shift production line for a total of four weeks in order to reduce operating costs. Toyota is also considering downsizing in the UK, it has already cut 200 temporary jobs and opened a voluntary redundancy scheme.

A voluntary redundancy scheme is a financial incentive offered by an organization to its employees with the purpose of attracting volunteers to leave the organization, due to downsizing or restructuring situations. The purpose is to circumvent union employee regulation laws. {draw:frame} {draw:a} The advantages of this plan would be that it has provided a motivation towards its workers as they only lose 10% of their wages rather than being made redundant which fits the Taylor’s motivation (Wikipedia, Scientific management) as money is the basic motivator of all workers.

This plan can be seen as a paternalistic style of management as Toyota has put its workers into a greater deal by only making a small decrease in wages rather than making them redundant. Also this plan can help Toyota to maintain its good reputation compare to its competitors as many other carmakers have already made many workers redundant due to profit loss. The disadvantages of this plan would be if the global recession continues to decrease Toyota will have to eventually make most of its workers redundant and continues the process of downsizing, in order to void further profit losses. Also workers could become de-motivated as they are unsure of their own future, and workers are not achieving their full potential which does not match the basics of Maslow’s hierarchy of needs, physiological and safety needs. Therefore worker feels insecure and becoming de-motivated. In evaluation, I think Toyotas plan to reduce the working hour and wages of its workers by 10% is a reasonable cut which will provide some decrease in costs and profitability will increase.

But in order for Toyota to stop losing profits and avoiding downsizing cutting jobs it’s not the best option. Toyota must find an alternative solution which will give customers the confidents to purchase their cars. In order to do this Toyota must transform its existing products into new products which will provide them with a unique selling point or a competitive edge. Therefore Toyota must carry out a deep market research for their product development, examples could be eco-cars, or ultra-cheap cars such as the TATA Nano.

Tokyo — TOYOTA MOTOR CORPORATION (TMC) announces today its production, domestic sales and export results, including those for subsidiaries Daihatsu Motor Co. , Ltd. and Hino Motors, Ltd. , for January 2009. Bibliography http://money. cnn. com/2008/12/22/news/companies/toyota/index. htm BBC Business, last updated at 13:41 GMT, Wednesday, 11 March 2009 http://news. bbc. co. uk/2/hi/business/7936397. stm Wikipedia, Scientific management, http://en. wikipedia. org/wiki/Scientific_management Toyota Announces Results for January 2009 http://www. toyota. co. jp/en/news/09/0225. html

Computers in 2020

Thinking about the future is the thing that takes a lot of our time and efforts being computer oriented. We have to imagine, try to figure out what the future will bring us. We are supposed to lead our generation in looking for new and life enhancing technologies to make man’s life easier and more enjoyable. How will it look like? [pic]THIS IS THE MOST IMPORTANT QUESTION THAT CAME TO OUR MINDS. • Will we be able to talk to our computers in the future? • Will they respond freely? Can they understand us and do what we need before we ask for them? • Will screens be always touch sensitive? • Can computers of the future read our minds and maybe face expressions? Although we are not sure, but we will have to wait to see Environmental Friendly? WILL COMPUTERS IN THE FUTURE HELP PRESERVE THE ENVIRONMENT AND MAKE OUR LIFE BETTER OR WILL THEY DESTROY OUR NATURE? Will the rapidly advancing technology make our life easier and more enjoyable and help us live a better life, or will they lead to the destruction of mankind?

A lot of controversy arises when this topic is discussed in any community, so what do you think? 2020 – Future of Computing [pic] In this focus: Current research | Links | Archive | Sponsor In the last two decades advances in computing technology, from processing speed to network capacity and the internet, have revolutionized the way scientists work. From sequencing genomes to monitoring the Earth’s climate, many recent scientific advances would not have been possible without a parallel increase in computing power – and with revolutionary technologies uch as the quantum computer edging towards reality, what will the relationship between computing and science bring us over the next 15 years? This Nature web focus combines commentaries from leading scientists and news features analysis from journalists assessing how computing science concepts and techniques may transform mainstream science by 2020. Visit News@nature. com’s newsblog to read and post comments on the future of computing. Image: Joe Magee http://www. futureforall. org/computers/computers. htm Future Computers |Computers of Tomorrow | |[pic] |Today’s computers operate using transistors, wires and electricity. Future | |  |computers might use atoms, fibers and light. Personally, I don’t give a | |The Personal Computer Assistant |byte what makes it tick, as long as it does the job.

If I could | |[pic] |accidentally spill my coffee and not have it cost $848, that would be a | | |cool feature. | |I must admit that in some ways I envy Donald Trump. Not because of all the real |But let us assume that you are not still bitter from a recent laptop | |estate he owns or even for his cool private helicopter. No, what I envy most about |replacement.

You might stop to consider what the world might be like, if | |”The Donald” is his apprentice. Who wouldn’t appreciate giving any chore that comes |computers the size of molecules become a reality. These are the types of | |to mind, to an eager and competent assistant? After time, a good apprentice might |computers that could be everywhere, but never seen. Nano sized | |even anticipate your needs. “Pink tie today, Mr. Trump? “. Now apply this same kind |bio-computers that could target specific areas inside your body.

Giant | |of relationship model to the future of computing. |networks of computers, in your clothing, your house, your car. Entrenched | |Future of Computing |in almost every aspect of our lives and yet you may never give them a | |In the future, the number of tiny but powerful computers you encounter every day |single thought. | |will number in the thousands, perhaps millions. You won’t see them, but they will be|Complete understanding of the theories behind these future computer | |all around you.

Your personal interface to this powerful network of computers could |technologies is not for the meek. For example, my research into quantum | |come from a single computing device that is worn on or in the body. |computers was made all the more difficult, after I learned that in light of| |Aside from providing one 24/7 interface to the myriad of computers and sensors that |her constant interference, it is theoretically possible my mother-in-law | |you will have access to, like a good apprentice, this computing device would come to|could be in two places at once. |know your personal preferences and sometimes make decisions on your behalf. |If you have the heart, take a gander at this collection of articles and | |The above article is my own vision of the future of computing. Here are views from |links on the most promising new computer technologies. If not, dare to | |more knowledgeable sources |imagine the ways that billions of tiny, powerful computers will change our | |Future of Computing Articles |society. |Essential Computing – Intel |Quantum Computers | |2020 – Future of Computing |Optical Computers | |The super-fast future of computing |DNA Computers | |Microsoft Research Offers Behind-the-Scenes Look at Future of Computing |[pic] | |Computers to be ‘oxygen of the future’ Moore’s law | |The Future of Computing |Visit any site on the web writing about the future of computers and you | |The Computer Of The Future |will most likely find mention of Moore’s Law. Moore’s Law is not a strictly| |[pic] |adhered to mathematical formula, but a prediction made by Intel’s founder | |Future Computer: Atoms Packed in an “Egg Carton” of Light? |co-founder Gordon Moore in 1965. | |Scientists at Ohio State University have taken a step toward the development of |Moore predicted that computing technology would increase in value at the | |powerful new computers — by making tiny holes that contain nothing at all. The |same time it would decrease in cost.

More specifically, that innovations in| |holes — dark spots in an egg carton-shaped surface of laser light — could one day |technology would allow a doubling of the number of transistors in a given | |cradle atoms for quantum computing. [pic] |space every year, the speed of those transistors would increase and | |[pic] |manufacturing costs would drop. | |A Computer Like Your Brain |A computer transistor acts like a small electronic switch. Just like the | |A new NASA-developed computing device allows machines to work much like the brain. |light switch on your wall, a transistor has only two states, On or Off.

A | |This technology may allow fast-thinking machines to make decisions based on what |computer interprets this on/off state as a 1 or a 0. Put a whole bunch of | |they see. A planetary rover might use this technology to avoid obstacles, select |these transistors together and you have a computer chip. Intel’s newest | |scientifically interesting spots to explore just by what it sees and navigate |processor has nearly 1 billion transistors. | |through terrain on its own without review from ground controllers. A spacecraft |Shrinking transistor size not only makes chips smaller, but faster. One | |might use the technology to avoid azards and identify a pre-selected landing site |benefit of packing transistors closer together is that the electronic | |with very high precision. |pulses take less time to travel between transistors. This can increase the | |“This may well be recognized as a quantum leap in the pursuit of intelligent vision,|overall speed of the chip. | |allowing machines to be significantly more autonomous,” said Dr. Anil Thakoor, |Not everyone agrees that Moore’s Law has been accurate throughout the | |supervisor of the Bio-Inspired Technology and Systems Group at NASA’s Jet Propulsion|years, (the prediction has changed since its original version), or that it | |Laboratory in Pasadena, California. |will hold true in the future. But does it really matter?

The pace at which | |The device works much like the brain, whose power comes from the complex networks of|computers are doubling their smarts is happening fast enough for me. | |interconnections called “synapses” between brain cells. Networks of these brain |Thanks to the innovation and drive of Gordon Moore and others like him, | |cells, called neurons, allow humans to make instant decisions based on an observed |computers will continue to get smaller, faster and more affordable. [pic] | |image or scene. The new processor captures the same capability to process images in |[pic] | |real time as a scene unfolds. IBM moves Moore’s Law into the third-dimension | |A Computer Like Your Brain |IBM announced a breakthrough chip-stacking technology in a manufacturing | |[pic] |environment that paves the way for three-dimensional chips that will extend| |Nano chip |Moore’s Law beyond its expected limits. The technology – called | |The blueprint for a tiny, ultra-robust mechanical computer has been outlined by US |”through-silicon vias” — allows different chip components to be packaged | |researchers. much closer together for faster, smaller, and lower-power systems. [pic] | |Antique engines inspire nano chip |[pic] | |[pic] |Researchers now able to stop, restart light | |Phase-change memory |”Two years ago we slowed it down to 38 miles an hour; now we’ve been able | |Phase-change memory (also known as PCM  Memory), is a type of non-volatile computer |to park it then bring it back up to full speed. ” | |memory. Researchers now able to stop | |Phase-change memory |[pic] | | |youTube video of touch screen software  [pic] | | |Video of wall size interactive touch screen  [pic] | | |World’s TOP500 supercomputers | | |Cloud-computing platforms | http://www. futureforall. org/computers/quantumcomputers. htm Quantum Computers |The Potential and Power of Quantum Computing | |[pic] |This rather difficult concept is perhaps best explained through an | |What are Quantum Computers? |experiment. Read more at CalTech  [pic] | |A quantum computer is a computer that makes direct use of distinctively quantum |[pic] | |mechanical phenomena to perform operations on data. |Quantum Computers: What Do They Mean to Us? | |In a lassical (or conventional) computer, the amount of data is measured by bits; in a |This white paper discusses an overview of the quantum computing world, | |quantum computer, the data is measured by qubits. |and what it means to the computing industry. [pic] | |[pic] |[pic] | |The Bloch sphere is a representation of a qubit, the fundamental building block of |Today’s Quantum Computers | |quantum computers. |Here’s a look at a few of the quantum computers that have been | |Source: Wikipedia |developed.

Easy to read article found at How Stuff Works  [pic] | |The basic principle of quantum computation is that the quantum properties of particles |[pic] | |can be used to represent and structure data, and that quantum mechanisms can be devised |Quantum Computer Links | |and built to perform operations with these data. |Vibrating ions get entangled | |[pic] |Introduction to Quantum Theory | |Why Quantum Computers? Quantum computing: Entanglement may not be necessary | |Researchers have discovered that several classes of computational problems can be solved|Questions for David Deutsch | |in ways that take advantage of quantum parallelism. WhipTech. com  [pic] |A quantum leap in computing | | |IBM’s Test-Tube Quantum Computer Makes History | | http://www. futureforall. org/computers/opticalcomputers. htm |What is a Quantum Computer? | | |Instant Expert: Quantum World | | |World’s smallest storage device lies in he nucleus of an atom | | |Computer chips give new spin on saving energy | | |Quantum Memory Leap | |Optical Computers |Photonic Crystals | |[pic] |Researchers at the University of Alberta are developing photonic | |What are Optical Computers? |crystals designed to replace transistors in computers of the future. | |The computers we use today use transistors and semiconductors to control electricity. |All-Optical Computers Could Soon be a Part of Our Life | |Computers of the future may utilize crystals and metamaterials to control light. Optical|[pic] | |computers make use of light particles called photons. Optical Computer Made from Frozen Light | |[pic] |NASA-funded research at Harvard University, Cambridge, Mass. , that | |NASA scientists are working to solve the need for computer speed using light |literally stops light in its tracks, may someday lead to | |Light travels at 186,000 miles per second. That’s 982,080,000 feet per second — or |breakneck-speed computers that shelter enormous amounts of data from | |11,784,960,000 inches. In a billionth of a second, one nanosecond, photons of light |hackers. pic] | |travel just a bit less than a foot, not considering resistance in air or of an optical |[pic] | |fiber strand or thin film. Just right for doing things very quickly in microminiaturized|IBM milestone demonstrates optical device to advance computer | |computer chips. |performance | |[pic] |IBM announced that its researchers have built a device capable of | |Dr. Donald Frazier monitors a blue laser light |delaying the flow of light on a silicon chip, a equirement to one day | |used with electro-optical materials |allow computers to utilize optical communications to achieve better | |”Entirely optical computers are still some time in the future,” says Dr. Frazier, “but |performance. | |electro-optical hybrids have been possible since 1978, when it was learned that photons | | |can respond to electrons through media such as lithium niobate. Newer advances have |Researchers have known that the use of optical instead of electrical | |produced a variety of thin films and optical fibers that make optical interconnections |signals for transferring data within a computer chip might result in | |and devices practical.

We are focusing on thin films made of organic molecules, which |significant performance enhancements since light signals can carry more| |are more light sensitive than inorganics. |information faster. Yet, “buffering” or temporarily holding data on the| |Organics can perform functions such as switching, signal processing and frequency |chip is critical in controlling the flow of information, so a means for| |doubling using less power than inorganics. Inorganics such as silicon used with organic |doing so with light signals is necessary. The work announced today | |materials let us use both photons and electrons in current hybrid systems, which will |outlines just such a means for buffering optical signals on a chip. | |eventually lead to all-optical computer systems. |[pic] | | |[pic] | |”What we are accomplishing in the lab today will result in development of super-fast, |Era of High-Speed Optical Computing is Approaching | |super-miniaturized, super-lightweight and lower cost optical computing and optical |Physicists at Oregon State University have discovered a way to | |communication devices and systems,” Frazier explained. |manipulate the transmission of optical signals in tiny wires, | |Article and image from: Science@NASA |dramatically slowing, stopping or even speeding them up to velocities | | |faster than the speed of light – a major advance that could open the | | |door to a new era of computing and information processing based on | | |optics. pic] | | |[pic] | | |Optical Computer Links | | |Scientists Move Optical Computing Closer to Reality | | |Optical Computers | | |Optical Components and Storage Systems | | |How They Work and Why We Will See Them | | |Light shines in quantum-computing arena – optical device produces | | |quantum computing | |http://www. futureforall. org/computers/dnacomputers. tm |Using ‘Nature’s Toolbox,’ a DNA Computer Solves a Complex Problem | |DNA Computers |A DNA-based computer has solved a logic problem that no person could | |[pic] |complete by hand, setting a new milestone for this infant technology | |What are DNA Computers? |that could someday surpass the electronic digital computer in certain | |DNA computers use DNA to store information and perform complex calculations. DNA has a |areas. | |vast amount of storage capacity computers might tap the vast storage capacity that |The new experiment was carried out by USC computer science professor | |enables DNA to hold the complex blueprints of living organisms. The storage capacity of |Dr.

Leonard Adleman, who made headlines in 1994 by demonstrating that | |a single gram of DNA can hold as much information as one trillion compact discs. |DNA — the spiraling molecule that holds life’s genetic code — could | |[pic] |be used to carry out computations. | |DNA Computing |DNA Computer | |Is there a computer in your genes? A team led by Dr. Leonard Adleman has shown that DNA |[pic] | |can be used to solve complex mathematical problems.

In Adleman’s lab at USC, |Purdue researchers stretch DNA on chip, lay track for future computers | |one-fiftieth of a teaspoon of deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) has solved two modestly |Researchers at Purdue University are making it easier to read life’s | |difficult problems—the “Hamilton Path,” or “Traveling Salesman,” problem and the |genetic blueprint. They have precisely placed strands of DNA on a | |”Customer Satisfaction” or “NP-complete 3-SAT” problem. His experiment has been heralded|silicon chip and then stretched out the strands so that their encoded | |as the “start of a new era,” forging an unprecedented link between computational science|information might be read more clearly, two steps critical to possibly | |and life science. [pic] |using DNA for future electronic devices and computers. |[pic] |DNA on chip | |‘DNA computer’ cracks code |[pic] | |A ‘DNA computer’ has been used to find the only correct answer from over a million |DNA Computer Links | |possible solutions to a computational problem. [pic] |A Glimpse at the Future of DNA: | |[pic] |M.

D. ‘s Inside the Body | |Living computers |DNA basis for new generation of computers | |Researchers genetically engineered the bacterium E. coli to coax its DNA into computing |DNA computers to fight diseases | |a classic mathematical puzzle known as the burned pancake problem. [pic] |Computer Made from DNA and Enzymes | | |Will Future Computers Be Made of DNA |

Mary Crow Dog, and Religion

Katy Teasdale Mrs. MacDonald World Religions; Per 3 9/20/09 A Search for Belonging The story of Mary Crow Dog can be interpreted two ways, as an autobiography about her struggle to gain racial equality and religious freedom, or as an autobiography where we can learn where Mary finds herself in her place. Mary first introduces herself as an ignorant child, content only because she didn’t know how bad things were. As a child, she wasn’t very religious; the only true religious figures in her life were her uncle Bill and her grandparents, who still lived in the Sioux way.

She was still very young when the “do-good” white people took her away from her family to the Catholic school. Catholicism was forced upon her often in abusive ways. Abusive priests and nuns distorted the meaning Catholicism, an impression like that is very hard to reverse. Conditions not much better than the reservation and racial prejudice everywhere caused young Mary to realize that Catholicism is not where she belonged. She knew she had to leave the school, and one day, after a particularly bad incident, she simply dropped out.

From here, Mary returned to the reservation, as a troubled teen, not unlike most other adolescents on the reservation. Drinking excessively, smoking cigarettes and marijuana, speeding around the reservation in unsafe vehicles; their lifestyle said, “I don’t care if I die; I have no reason to live anyway. ” Mary feels aimlessness, a roaming sensation that then turns into restlessness. She had to do something – go somewhere – but she didn’t know what or where. She didn’t share her mother’s values, and she certainly was not returning to the Catholic school.

I think it was the internal confliction that caused her to go in the criminal direction that she did for a while. She shoplifted and attempted to justify it by stating it reenacted her people’s history. She found her moral slipping, and that she didn’t feel guilty. Her eyes were opened the second time she was caught shoplifting, when the store manager released her for fear of her friends. She realized “it’s no wonder these white hate Indians so much if this is how they perceive us. ” her aimlessness ended, when she encountered AIM, (American Indian Movement. )

She first saw Leonard Crow dog with his novelty long hair at an AIM meeting. She felt AIM working inside of her, changing her from the inside out. She found a sense of belonging in the old ways. When she went on the tour with AIM, which included protesting on the lawn of the White House, she first tried Peyote. Mary experienced many peyote-induced visions. She was seeing meaning in life that hadn’t been there before. She looked upon different ancient Indian religions as different aspects of one great overall power. She saw that all Indians prayed for visions or “crying for a dream. Most Indians used peyote; also she saw it as a “hot-line” to the Great Spirit. Even as a small girl she took a lot of peyote, not considering it a drug, but a key to dreaming, or visions. Mary had her first Peyote experience at Wounded Knee; also her son was born there. Mary sort of saw having the baby the Indian way within the perimeters of Wounded Knee as a type of religious pilgrimage. After Wounded Knee when Mary Crow dog became Leonard’s wife she became first woman, meaning a medicine’s man wife. She has a peyote experience where she watched her formal self die, and finally she felt release from the rough past she has suffered.

She could escape from the unbearable memories she had dealt with, from the catholic school, the suffering and poverty she’d trudged through at the reservation and the horrible unfair treatment of Leonard in his different trials at jail. “Look at reality beneath the sham realities of things and gadgets,” Leonard always said to Mary. “Look through the eye in your heart, that’s the meaning of an Indian religion. ” Even after marrying Leonard, Mary still felt like the eye of her heart was blind, probably because she was not very knowledgeable in the traditional way.

To Mary it seemed that Leonard was a little uncomfortable to tea his own wife the old ways, but they became most religiously strong through the issue of Leonard’s arrest. It was shocking to learn that at the start of Mary and Leonard’s marriage, Mary did want part of that. She said yes, she was in awe of him, but he was twelve years older, an entire generation. It was her parent’s objection to their marriage that drove Mary closer to her husband. Her grandparents had been significantly aged apart, and they lived in the traditional way.

If the old ways approved of it, so did she. It was the closeness to Leonard that made the separation so hard for Mary. “I watched the marshals dragging him off in handcuffs and leg irons. We just kept looking at each other until the iron bars snapped shut, and he disappeared from my view. ” Leonard Crow dog was sentenced to twenty-three years for breaking the jaw of a member of the swat team. Mary found comfort in prayer. “I’ll go on praying for with the pipes, making tobacco ties. Mary turned to tradition appealing to the Great Spirit to help Leonard.

Although he was released eventually, the time separate from Leonard, made her lonely, leaving her to survive through her spiritual power. Mary mentions she knows she couldn’t have made it through the trials, and prejudice, without her knowledge of the old ways. Lakota Woman is a journey, not so much about fighting racial prejudice, more of a personal story about a young woman finding herself, finding her place in life, after a childhood of confusion and being lost. Following Mary Crow dog through the first twenty years of her life, it was interesting to see how much she changed.

Watching her relief in learning the traditional ways, and the way she yearned for a place in society. Learning about a woman’s role in Lakota, which was actually important. Her joy at her young son’s early interest already with learning traditional ways. Mary never would’ve reconciled the unfairness and poor treatment that she dealt with were it not for her Lakota religion. Works Cited Brodd, Jeffrey. World Religions: A Voyage of Discovery. Second Edition. United States: St. Mary’s Press, 2002. Print. Crow Dog, Mary. Lakota Woman. New York: Harper Perennial, 1990. Print.

Buying Center

James Sass BPA-125 Marketing Principles Stephan Berry What is a buying center? Describe the roles assumed by people in a buying center and what useful questions should be raised to guide any analysis of the structure and behavior of a buying center. A buying center is a group of people in a organization howe participate in the buying process. They share the same risks, goals, and knowledge about the product in which there going to buy. Members of the group usually include the president of the company and the the vice president.

Usually if there is a product that a certain department within the business is going to purchase, people skilled in that department that know the equipment well will be in the buying center. There are ? ve main roles in the buying center that people take during the process. These groups are the users, in? uencers, buyers, deciders, and gatekeepers. Each play a key role in the buying center. The users role are the people in the company that use the product. They will be the ones who will judge the product when it comes to the company.

The in? uencers help de? ne the speci? cations for what is bought. An example from the text would be “The information systems manager would be a key in? uencer in the purchase of a new mainframe computer. ” The deciders are the guys who actually decide wether to accept the contract from the supplier. The people in this role are usually from the R&D, engineering, or quality control departments. The gatekeepers manage to ? ow of information. The gatekeepers include secretaries, technical experts,and purchasing personnel.

Gatekeepers block information from getting to the other four roles in the buying center. There are four main questions in which analysts can use to analyze a buying center. The questions are Which individuals are in the buying center for the product or service? What is the relative in? uence of each member of the group? What are the buying criteria of each member? How does each member of the group perceive our ? rm, our products and services, and our salespeople? With these questions anylist can get a much better understanding of the groups.

System Software

System software is computer software designed to operate the computer hardware and to provide and maintain a platform for running application software. The most important types of system software are: • The computer BIOS and device firmware, which provide basic functionality to operate and control the hardware connected to or built into the computer. • The operating system (prominent examples being Microsoft Windows, Mac OS X and Linux), which allows the parts of a computer to work together by performing tasks like transferring data between memory and disks or rendering output onto a display device.

It also provides a platform to run high-level system software and application software. • Utility software, which helps to analyze, configure, optimize and maintain the computer. System software is usually not what a user would buy a computer for – instead, it can be seen as the basics of a computer which come built-in or pre-installed. In contrast to system software, software that allows users to do things like create text documents, play games, listen to music, or surf the web is called application software. Types of system software

System software helps use the operating system and computer system. It includes diagnostic tools, compilers, servers, windowing systems, utilities, language translator, data communication programs, data management programs and more. The purpose of system software is to insulate the applications programmer as much as possible from the details of the particular computer complex being used, especially memory and other hardware features, and such accessory devices as communications, printers, readers, displays, keyboards, etc.

Specific kinds of system software include: Loaders, Linkers, Utility software, Desktop, environment / Graphical user interface, Shells, BIOS, Hypervisors, Boot loaders If system software is stored on non-volatile memory such as integrated circuits, it is usually termed firmware. References 1. ^ http://depts. alverno. edu/cil/mod1/software/system. html 2. ^ http://searchsoa. techtarget. com/sDefinition/0,,sid26_gci213024,00. html 3. ^ http://www. webopedia. com/TERM/S/systems_software. html 4. ^ W. W. Milner, Ann Montgomery-Smith (2000). Information and Communication Technology for Intermediate Gnvq. p. 126