# March 2018 - Page 10 of 10 - Signifiance

Bike Trail Argument

Biller Essay November 2, 2009 Argument Essay Almost everyone enjoys taking a bicycle ride on a beautiful summer day. Many towns have wisely spent their money on building a bike trail. Mt. Pleasant, the town I live in, has never had a bike trail that I can remember of until recently. The town constructed a historical trail approximately fourteen miles long called the Coke and Coal Trail. Although it is a very grand trail already, it is still only new.

The serious issue at hand is the many problems that action has not been taken on such as dangerous fallen foliage on the track, flooding issues, lack of monuments, and the violations of motorized vehicles prohibited, as well as insufficient numbers of volunteers and donations. Throughout the Scottdale/Mount Pleasant communities, volunteers must be not only aware of the various needs of the bike trail upkeep but be ready and willing to actively and consistently participate in those needs. The Coke and Coal Trailoffers an array of benefits to everyone in the community which qualifies it to receive contributions from everyone in the community.

It is a peaceful and scenicgetaway. Furthermore, it is a place that can be enjoyed by people of all ages while benefiting them socially, mentally, and physically. The trail is also a place promoting unity between different people and places. Tom Balya, the commissioner of Westmoreland County, said “It’s nice that something like a bike trail can bring communities together. ” The trail would not be possible without everyone giving their time and effort. While many participants have already played a role in the trail’s successfulness, there are needs that remain unmet.

The trail is shaded by many graceful trees, however, after a rainstorm or very windy day many tree branches and logs are left lying on and around the trail causing an eventual problem. This could be a potential hazard to riders. A rider could easily fall off his bike and get injured because of loose tree branches or debris. This is especially a problem at dusk when a dark colored log is nearly impossible to decipher lying ahead of you. I suggest an assigned person or two, who has the time, concern and commitment, check and clean a specifiedpart of the track.

This could also apply to garbage such as bags, cans, and bottles thus keeping the trail safer, cleaner, and an asset by maintaining its natural beauty. Flooding can not only be an inconvenience but a true danger to anyone using the trail both forwalking or running. A calm and peaceful creekabundant with wildlife runs along the trail to one side. This creek rarely floods and is a perfect implement to the trail. It adds peacefulness and givesa quiet country feeling where all you hear is the smooth rippling of a steady stream.

However, on the other side, are big eyesores; poolsof sea-blue and orange polluted water. They are so close to the trail that they almost always flood leaving an orange die residue of sulfur behind on the trail when they recede. If there is a day when it really rains hard the swamps of sulfur and chemicals could make their way into the creek polluting and turning it into a lifeless, orange stream of sulfur. It is only a matter of time until this happens. So before spending money on any finishing touches the town should attempt to come up with an effective and cost friendly drainage system.

The town could always hold a contest to see who can come up with the best and most efficiently designed system as many neighborhoods inthe past have done. Matt Junker, Senator Bob Regola’s representative, and Regola himself see the need for major improvement. “The senator has dedicated himself to addressing the infrastructure of the area and ways that might be improved upon,” Junker said. The Coke and Coal Trail is a very historic landmark but it lacks in having any historic remembrance such as coke ovens, fact signs, or any monuments besides the unpleasant mountain of ashes.

The trail runs along certain areas where the major coal mining industries of the town were located. The Coal mining industries were said to have “fed” about thirty-thousand coke ovens! Where are they? Today there is no sign of any cokeovens. A couple coke ovens or even simple monuments could make the trail an interesting, informational, and more memorable spot. I believe there should also be a movement to add at least a couple of signs with facts on them as are on memorial highways, roads,and designated parks.

Although these improvements might cost a little bit of money they are going to make the trail more memorable, educational, and enhance its historical value. The motorized vehicle prohibition does not seem to be in very good order. I believe it is not strictly watched over enough. Many times I have been on the trail when young kids have been carelessly riding their dirt bikes and ATV’s on it. It is not safe for people, when these carless trespassers go flying by you because it could result in a bad injury if hit. It is just a disaster waiting to strike at any time.

By riding motorized vehicles on the trail it also becomes torn up and in many spots creates rutsunstable for a bicycle. There should be a young guard at several spots who watches for this activity or at least goes and checks to see that this kind of activity is not take place several times a day. As I have said before,the trail is only made possible by your contributions. Scottsdale’s mayor, Pat Walker, implied that there were two “magic” words necessary to the trail; money and volunteers. “We wouldn’t have this trail without either of them,” she said.

Another person by the name of Sias replied “Trails are all about partnership. ” “Including the in-kind services provided, we spent about $362,000 on this trail. ” Although the large majority of the trail is completed, the town is short of many volunteers to keep it a fun and enjoyable family and friends place. The Coke and Coal Trail has come a long way since it started and I hope it is not nearly close to being finishedyet. This trail, as I have said, is only able to grow and become the great landmark it should be by everyone pitching in either by giving money or their time and effort.

By simply devoting several hours of your time to the trail you will see a major change and will feel the excitement that comes from knowing you made a difference. You definitely will not be disappointed. I urge you to think of your own ways that might make great additions to these ideas. Contact representatives and see what you can do in volunteering. Ask if there are certain days when groups of volunteers meet and spend the afternoon cleaning or discussing problems and their suggestions. Speak out, make a lasting difference, and help a worthy cause!

Samsung Marketing Strategy

Marketing strategies of Samsung in India Scenario in the consumers Durables sector:- Prior to liberalisation, the Consumer Durables sector in India was restricted to a handful of domestic players like Godrej, Allwyn, Kelvinator and Voltas. Together, they controlled nearly 90% of the market. They were first superceded by players like BPL and Videocon in the early 1990s, which invested in brand-building and in enhancing distribution and service channels. Then, with liberalisation came a spate of foreign players from Samsung to LG Electronics to Sony to Aiwa.

Both rising living standards, especially in urban India, and easy access to consumer finance have fuelled the demand for consumer durables in the country. Also, the entry of a large number of foreign players means the consumer is no longer starved for choice. But this has also resulted in an over-supply situation in recent times as growth levels have tapered off. Major players:- The major players in the consumer durables industry, operating in different sectors such as air conditioners, washing machines, refrigerators & television include: Blue Star Ltd. Mirc Electronics Ltd. , Whirlpool of India Ltd. , Philips (India) Ltd. , BPL Ltd. , Sony Corporation Ltd. , Samsung India Ltd. , LG Electronics India Ltd. , Videocon International Ltd. Entry of Samsung in India Emerging Markets (EMs) with large consumer bases and untapped demand constitute the major growth opportunities for the multinationalsand global companies. However, not all companies are successful in establishing a foothold, leave alone operating profitably, in such markets. For most, it takes years of struggle before they can even breakeven.

Marketing is difficult in such EMs because of little or no market data, non-existent or poorly developed distribution systems, lack of regulatory discipline, and where regulations exist, a propensity to change them frequently and unpredictably. Samsung entered India in December 1995 as a 51:49 joint venture with Reasonable Computer Solutions Pvt. Ltd (RCSPL), owned by Venugopal Dhoot of the Videocon group. In 1998, RCSPL diluted its stake in Samsung to 26% and in November 2002, the FIPB cleared Samsung’s proposal to buy RCSPL’s remaining (23%) stake.

With Samsung buying the total stake of RCSPL, it became a wholly-owned subsidiary of its South Korean parent company. In spite of being a latecomer to India, Samsung was able to become one of the top consumer electronic companies in India, an emerging market was due to a combination of several aspects: Product innovation, Promotion, Pricing, distribution and Positioning; wherein Samsung primarily focused at. The three-pronged objectives of Samsung are: – 1) Strengthening their channel relationships, 2) Enhancing their product portfolio and ) Creating the best service infrastructure, to gain more mindshare. ” Positioning:- Many multinational companies adopt a “less developed countries” mindset, assuming that these markets are at an earlier stage of the same development path followed by the developed countries. To take the example of the automobile industry, Ford and GM launched their outdated models like Ford Ikon and Opel Astra in the Indian market. When these models did not sell well, the companies changed course and decided to launch newer models in India.

In the case of Samsung, the company from the very beginning launched its whole range of high technology products, which included CTVs, audio and video products, information technology products, mobile phones and home appliances in India. It introduced products such as the ‘Bio’ range in CTVs, high-powered Woofer series of colour televisions in 21-inch and 29-inch conventional and 21-inch flat TV segments. And not to forget the lateset DNie television. By positioning itself on the technology platform, Samsung was able to differentiate itself from its competitors.

Differentiation today is the key for a brand to be preferred by the consumers, when there are so many other brands within the same product category. Without differentiation, its loyal customer base cannot be created or sustained. But to be a true differentiator, a company must provide features that are meaningful to customers. Which is what exactly Samsung has been doing. Products: – Samsung’s product range in India includes CTVs, video products, information technology products, mobile phones and home appliances.

Its product range covers all the categories in the consumer’s electronics and home appliances. According, to the analyst’s wide product range of Samsung is one of the main reasons for its success in the Indian market. The wide range products are as follows: – • Home appliances • Microwave Oven • Refrigerator • Air Conditioner • Washing Machine • TV, video & audio • TV • DVD Player • Camcorder • Audio • Home Theater • Digital Audio Player • Digital Still Camera • Mobile Phones • GSM • CDMA • Information technology products • Note PC • HDD CD Rom & DVD Rom Drive • CD & DVD Read & Write Solution • Monitors • Laser Printers & Laser Based MFPs • Fax Samsung by launching innovative products and using proprietory technology was able to gain market share. Samsung has therefore set up Samsung India Software Centre (SISC) and Samsung India Software operations unit (SISO) for software development at Noida and Bangalore respectively. While the Samsung India Software Centre in developing software solutions in Samsung’s global software requirements for hi-end television like Plasma and LCD TVs.

SISO is working on major projects for Samsung Electronics in the area of telecom: wireless terminals and infrastructure, Networking, SoC (System on Chip) Digital Printing and other multimedia/digital media as well as application software. In addition to working on global R&D projects, SISO is also helping Samung India’s CDMA business by focusing on product customization for the Indian market. Market Share: – |Products |Brand |2004 |2005 | |Refrigerator |LG |25. 6 |29. 4 | | |Whirlpool |21. 6 |23. 2 | | |Godrej |19. 8 |16. 3 | |Washing Machine |LG |31. 9 |35. 1 | | |Samsung |14. |13. 4 | | |Videocon |14. 8 |13. 9 | |TV |LG |24. 2 |26. 7 | | |Samsung |16. 4 |15. 4 | | |Videocon |10. |11. 00 | Product features: To sell a consumer durable product a company has to provide unique features i. e. features which other companies are not able to provide. Samsung has been using the same strategy to boost their sales. Samsung provides its consumers with wide range of products with unique features. For example, Samsung was the only company offering a 1000 watts PMPO sound output in the 21-inch flat TV segment. It also introduced a new 5. kg, top loading fully automatic washing machine with features like ‘saree course’ keeping in mind that the majority of the Indian women wear sarees. Refrigerator:- • Bio Ceramic Technology(Bio Fresh Refrigerators) BIO FRESH prevents evaporation of moisture, cell activation; supports antibacterial function and also prevent the alteration of proteins. This keeps the food fresher for a longer time. At the heart of Bio-Fresh refrigerators is Bio Ceramic technology. Ceramics form a part of the raw materials used in the manufacturing of the Vegetable compartment.

Ceramics have the unique property of emitting ‘Far Infrared Rays’ (FIR). The FIR helps retain the moisture content in the vegetables, fruits and other natural products as they are in the natural resonant frequency of water molecules. The ‘FIR’, in combination with technologies like the Bio-Deodorizer, Dynamic Super X Flow cooling system with i-cool and Humidity Controller makes the Samsung Bio-Fresh refrigerator one of the most unique products in the Indian market today. Bio-Vegetable Box is made of the newest Bio-Ceramic material.

Bio-Ceramic material radiates far-infrared rays, which help retain the moisture content in vegetables, fruits and other natural products, keeping them rich in nutrients and essential vitamins for a longer period of time. • Super X Flow technology The Samsung 250 NMB incorporates the Dynamic Super X Flow technology. This technology sets up a smart cold air distribution system to maintain an even temperature throughout the refrigerator! This effectively achieves three clear benefits: Even Temperature, Quick Cooling and Energy Savings. • Samsung’s Twin Cooling System

Samsung’s Twin Cooling System controls and generates cooling air for the refrigerator and freezer independently with two separate evaporators and precise electronic control, thus maintaining each compartment at their optimal cooling conditions. This results in a more efficient refrigerator with powerful performance! Electricity Consumption Comparison These features reduce energy consumption by 30%, compared to previous models, with a high efficiency compressor and better insulation (A class: ISO standard) Another Freezer in Refrigerator Compartment The Twin Cooling System allows the CoolSelect Zone to maintain -5?

C (Soft Freeze mode) in the refrigerator compartment. While food stored in the freezer is not easy to handle, the Soft Freeze mode sets the temperature low enough for easy slicing and allows medium-term storage. This is only possible by the Twin Cooling System. • i-cool TM The i-cool system is an intelligent cooling system with three cold air outlets-at the back, on the right and left sides of the refrigerator interior. Cold air is evenly distributed with multiple outlets on every shelf level. I-cool multi-flow has more air outlets than the general multi flow technologies.

This further ensures that as compared to conventional frost-free refrigerators the Samsung i-cool is more efficient both in terms of cooling and power consumption. With cold air flowing from three sources, the i-cool system cools 40% faster and 50% more improved even cooling than a conventional cooling system. Washing Machine:- •         TORNADO PULSATOR:- SUPER DRY: -Samsung introduced India’s first Semi Automatic Washing machine with a SUPER DRY Feature. The SUPER DRY Feature provides a 10 minute Spin Dry Timer, which gives you the power to ensure that your clothes get the BEST POSSIBLE DRYING.

SUPER DRY is great value; especially for the Monsoon and winter months, when clothes don’t dry easily. This powerful feature is available on the latest models launched recently – WT9300, WT9200, and WT7800. While all other brands will provide the standard 5 minutes Spin Dry Timer, these models give you EXTRA DRYING for full 10 minutes. I-CONTROL SYSTEM:- The Samsung Washing technology is designed to put you in control of the washing process, and the machine action. Samsung Washing Machines are packed with an array of incredible features that come together to make the I – control system.

These include the ‘ECO Wash – that saves water and detergent’, ‘Child Lock – To limit small children with tampering settings and getting hurt’, ‘Auto Restart – that saves you the bother of restarting the washing machine each time the power fails’, ‘Memory backup- enables the washing machine to remember programmed wash cycles and settings’, ‘Delay Start- To enable you to time the washing machine with your water supply and other chores’ and ‘Fuzzy Logic – that makes the washing machine intelligent to adjust automatically to wash loads, water and detergent levels’ etc.

These 6 amazing technologies come together to put you in total control and command of the washing machine and the wash process        HYDROJET WASHING TECHNOLOYG: Samsung Hydrojet gives you a combination of three powerful washing actions: Waterfall Flow: Strong flow of water that streams down from the top. Pushing heavy and light clothes towards the pulsator. CentreJet: A strong gush of water formed right at the center of the washing machine, forcing the dirt out of clothes.

This also ensures that the clothes do not get entangled at the center. Water Pores:- Saves water and detergent and washes clothes from all sides. BIO WASH TECHNOLOYG: Clothes washed in Samsung Washing machines are not only dirt free, they are also ‘germ free’. Samsung has developed this unique Bio-Wash Technology to ensure just that. The Bio-Pulsator is made from some percentage of Bio – Resin, which destroys germs and keeps the environment inside the washing machines, pure and germ free, wash after wash. Air conditioners:-          Turbo power: {BRINGS INSTANT RELIEF FROM HEAT} The Turbo function makes the AC operate under full power for 30 minutes, irrespective of the set temperature, which leads to quick change of the room temperature, instantly bringing the air-conditioning comfort in the room. Turbo operates faster than the conventional system. The new compact range of Samsung Window ACs not only occupies lesser window space but also are more aesthetically appealing. •         Quick power optimizer: {ENSURES LOW ELECTRICITY BILLS} The Samsung Split Air conditioner’s 5-Step Heat Exchangers have 122% larger surface area.

Samsung Window Air conditioners are equipped with a 3-row cooling coil and L bent condenser coil that provide a larger surface area helping the refrigerant to dissipate heat faster. This results in faster chilling and lesser strain on the compressor resulting in lower electricity bills. Micro Oven:- Bio Ceramic Technology: Only Samsung Microwave Ovens come with a unique Bio Ceramic Enamel coating. Bio ceramic enamel produces less oxidation, which helps retain essential vitamins while cooking. The ceramic enamel retains 2. 5 times more heat than stainless steel, leading to faster cooking.

High scratch resistance: Bio Ceramic Enamel’s durability and protective qualities make it far more scratch resistant than other microwave interiors. When scratched with equal force, the roughness of the ceramic enamel surface increases only 7. 5% compared to 106% for the stainless steel. Higher nutrient retention: Food cooked in Bio Ceramic enamel cavity microwave ovens retains significantly greater amounts of vitamin C and F (an essential fatty acid that helps reduce cholesterol and blood pressure) than food cooked in conventional stainless steel cavity microwave ovens.

Exclusive Feature: 3D Showerwave Unlike other Microwave Ovens, only Samsung Microwave Ovens come with the unique 3D Showerwave System, which helps to distribute heat evenly, enabling uniform cooking horizontally and vertically. Television:- The Samsung 70-inch PDP TV (Plasma Display Panel) and at 54 inches is the world’s largest thin film transistor liquid crystal display (TFT-LCD) television and offers the highest picture resolution available anywhere in the world.

The 70-inch PDP delivers high-definition imaging from over two million pixels – a resolution twice the clarity of other models on the market today. Samsung has also applied its proprietary Digital Natural Image engine image-enhancement technology to ensure the highest quality possible image in terms of picture brightness and contrast. Samsung’s 54-inch TFT-LCD TV features a crisp, high-resolution image and excels in performance that ensures a smooth playback of the most action-packed visual content.

The 1920 x 1080 resolution and 16:9 aspect ratios can accommodate future changes in high definition broadcasting. These advanced features and unprecedented screen size, combined with inherent crisp display characteristics of TFT-LCD, make this 54-inch TFT-LCD TV one of the most advanced display products available today. India’s first wireless home theater (Bluetooth technology): Samsung India Electronics Ltd. has introduced India’ s first wireless home theater, Model No. HTDB390 in the Indian market.

The wireless Home Theater in Box (HTiB) uses bluetooth technology to provide a wireless connection to the rear speakers of the 5. 1 channel speaker setup – eliminating the need for rear wires, and giving the user total freedom to setup the rear speakers. Wireless HTiB – rear speakers totally remove the hassles of wiring up the home theater. Extremely convenient they embody the concept of HTiB (Home Theater In Box) – since a user can literally take the system out of the box and place the speakers around his/her room to create a Home Theater.

Add to the feature of “no-wires”, the Samsung exclusive sDSM feature that calibrates sound from each speaker at the touch of a button to give the best sweet spot – and this Home Theater provides a never-heard-before audio experience. DVD:- The highlight of the Samsung DVD Range is the Hypervision DVD, HD 938, which is the world’s first and only HDTV compliant DVD Player. The Hypervision DVD utilizes the world’s first digital visual interface (DVI) output to transmit uncompressed digital video signals without any analogue conversion, preventing image quality loss.

This results in viewers being able to enjoy high definition quality picture quality even for standard DVDs. Bio Colour Televisions:- Samsung India Electronics Ltd. has launched a new, advanced Bio Range of colour televisions in the Indian Market. Termed as the Only Healthy TV, the Samsung Bio TV has Samsung’s internationally patented Bio Ceramic Coating on the Picture tube that emits Far Infra Red rays when switched on. The FIR rays are known as “Light of Life”, since they have been used for centuries by medical practitioners for their therapeutic and curative properties.

The FIR Rays penetrate the skin of the viewer and get absorbed by the human body, leading to the release of body toxins, enhanced metabolization and increased micro blood circulation. Thereby, improving the immunity and protecting the entire body. The Bio TV has also been physiologically tested to increase alpha ray emission from the brain, which indicates a state of relaxation. The Health benefits of the Samsung Bio TVs have been certified by the Indian Board of Alternative Medicine. Silver Nano Technology:-:

Silver Nano has been developed by Samsung Electronics researchers who worked for three years to perfect the technology. With over US$10 million invested in R, Silver Nano is the first technology that combines the disinfectant and antibiotic properties of electrolytic silver nano-particles (Ag+) in washing machines to remove 99. 9% of bacteria. Set on “Silver Wash”, the washer’s sterilization system generates silver particles that kill off bacteria and mold in the laundry load without bringing the water to a boil. Thus, less electricity is needed to achieve a hygienic effect.

This process also treats the inside of the washing machine tub to kill bacteria and mold, suppressing the odor and contamination that accompanies their formation. When the machine is set on “Silver Sterilization” mode, the laundry load is covered with Silver Nano particles during the rinse cycle. After the washing is complete, the clothes have been found to be totally devoid of bacteria and will remain so for up to 30 days, earning the “Sterilization Mark” from the Korea Testing & Research Institute for the Chemical Industry.

Silver Nano is incorporated into refrigerators by coating the inner surface to keep germs from growing. By keeping the cooling environment germ-free, food stays fresher for up to 15 days longer and a Silver Nano deodorizer keeps bad odors from affecting food taste. Air conditioners have a Silver Nano filter that keeps germs from growing inside the machine and prevents allergy-causing bacteria from being blown into the air. Silver Nano coatings greatly reduce the presence of fungi and bacteria within five minutes of operation.

DNIe Technology:- Digital technology leader, Samsung India Electronics Ltd. today announced the launch of its revolutionary ‘Samsung DNIe Vision’ range of Flat colour televisions on 7th April, 2005. The Samsung ‘DNIe Vision’ range comprises of 15 new models in 15’’, 21’’ and 29’’ size categories. The DNIe Vision Range from Samsung delivers performance that is much superior to conventional televisions on account of the DNIe technology. The new technology produces complete image quality; any signal input comes out cleaner and more natural.

DNIe can completely eliminate blurring from movement or image prolongation. A deep contrast can also be achieved. What is more, the finest detail appears sharp, while the vivid natural color is most pleasing to the eye. DNIe Technology in a Nutshell Samsung’s unique DNIe technology encompasses four functions that analyze all signal input, from analog to high definition, in stages. The volume of noise in the signal is detected and the signal level is classified according into analog, SD or HD and then optimized accordingly.

Motion Optimizer: Processes Noise More Completely than Ever Before This noise processing technology integrates temporal and spatial concepts to ensure clear images even when the motion is very fast. Contrast Enhancer: For a Deeper Contrast This technology employs a contrast ratio of one million or more and a new algorithm that can reproduce the optimal contrast to provide a deep and rich image quality. Detail Enhancer: Complete Images, True to the Finest Detail A vastly improved technology for automatically analyzing the picture signal reproduces images in amazing detail, resulting in more lifelike video.

Color Optimizer: Vivid, Natural Colors The video signals being generated are analyzed and the quantities of reds, greens and blues are calculated to provide the colors most natural to the human eye. After Sales Service :- Offering advanced technology products and positioning itself on the technology platform will not help a company sell its products if it fails to give proper after-sales-serfvice. With a focus on strengthening the satisfaction level of the consumer, Samsung India Electronics Ltd (SIEL) has launched its 3S — Speed, Smile and Sure — campaign.

As part of this customer service program, the company is working on a two-pronged strategy. This involves: one, improving the service infrastructure by setting up customer service plazas in key metro locations; and two, improving the skill levels of technicians by setting up a training school with a technical evaluation system for after sales service engineers. Till now, most of the players in the sector have been professing that it’s the relationship with the customer that matters. However, with the competition increasing, customer satisfaction is fast becoming a core issue,” an industry analyst pointed out.

He further stated that Samsung’s current effort “will also strengthen its customer base as most of the players claim that 60 per cent of their sales is repeat purchase. ” Promotion:- Offering advanced technology products and positioning itself on the technology platform will not help a company sell its products if it fails to communicate properly with the potential customers. To raise brand awareness and create strong, favorable and unique brand associations, Samsung adopted various marketing strategies like celebrity endorsements, corporate advertisements, highlighting its technological superior goods and many promotional schemes.

Advertising: – Samsung is involved in aggressive marketing and advertising of its product to develop attitudes, create awareness, and transmit information in order to gain a response from the target market. Their main advertising channels include ‘media’ such as newspapers (local, national, free, trade), magazines and journals, television (local and national) cinema, outdoors advertising (such as posters, bus sides). The initial advertisements communicated presence of Samsung in worldwide markets and its dominance in those markets.

To increase its brand awareness, Samsung went in for celebrity endorsements. Initially, the company signed Hindi film actress, Tabu, to endorse its brand. Till 2002, Samsung’s ads focused on the technological supremacy of its products. But by late 2002, in addition to the technology plank, the company started advertising on the plank of ‘passion for country’ and sports (cricket and football). Its latest ambassador is John Abraham for its mobile phone and Rahul Dravid for its Television range. Sales Promotion:

Along with advertisements, Samsung also focuses on promotional schemes to increase its sales. In October 2001, Samsung launched its highly successful promotional scheme, the Samsung Phod ke Dekho Offer. This offer instantly boosted the sales of the company generating sales of Rs. 2. 75 bn from this offer. The campaign was launched on an all India basis during the festival season. Under the scheme, consumers who bought any Samsung product were given a tamper proof plastic coconut with three coins in it. One out of every 10 coconuts had a lucky coin with a gift printed on it.

As a part of the campaign, Samsung’s brand ambassador, Tabu interacted with the customers and dealers of Samsung in Bangalore and Chennai and handed over the lucky coconuts to select Samsung customers. The prizes included products from the Samsung range. The Phod ke Dekho offer was followed by another promotion scheme in May 2002, Dabake Jeeto offer coinciding with the football World Cup. During the promotion every customer who purchased company’s electronics or home appliances product got plastic football with an alarm clock in it.

The customer had to press the football from the top, and was given the free etched on the tamper-proof anodized sticker. Under this campaign, Samsung gave out gifts worth Rs. 100 mn, which included Samsung digital flat TVs, frost free refrigerators, microwave ovens, Karisma washing machines, mobile phones, cameras and Soccer 2002 official licensed T-shirts from Adidas. This campaign notched up sales worth Rs. 310 Crores during the period of the Promotion. The next major promotional campaign was the Phir Se Phod Ke Dekho offer.

The offer was launched during October-November 2002 generating a sales of Rs. 380 crores. It was a repeat of the earlier ‘Phod Ke Dekho’ campaign. On March 20, 2003 Samsung Launched ‘Samsung Rang De Kismat Offer’ for Frost Free Refrigerators which entitled a customer to Lucky Gifts worth Rs 4 Crores, with the purchase of any Samsung Frost free Refrigerator. This Promotion derives its name from the ‘Rang de Kismat’ glass, which was handed over to a customer with the purchase of any Samsung Frost Free Refrigerator.

The Customer needed to pour chilled water into the glass and wait for the ‘Bio’ logo on the Glass to change colour to find out the gift won by him/her. There were Colour Codes for types of Gifts won by the Customer – For example, a Green ‘Bio’ entitled a customer to a Samsung Microwave oven while a Red ‘Bio’ gets the Lucky winner a Gift Voucher from Tanishq worth Rs 30,000. This offer was launched to capitalize on the sales of its Frost free refrigerators in the summer months. The Company’s market share went up to 21% in the Frost free refrigerator market after the offer.

Following its success with its ‘Samsung Rang De Kismat Offer’ Samsung India come up with another innovative Consumer Offer “Samsung’s Bundling Offer with Reliance IndiaMobile” for the buyers of its Consumer Electronics and Home Appliance Products in the Delhi and NCR Region on 25 July, 2003. A buyer of any Samsung Consumer Electronics or Home Appliance products gets the option of walking away with a sleek, advanced Samsung Mobile Phone N191 model along with a Reliance IndiaMobile connection, without having to pay any activation charges.

Furthermore, the user gets free talk time worth Rs. 600 over a 6-month period. All other payment terms are the standard billing terms and conditions offered by Reliance IndiaMobile depending on the package taken up by the customer. On 6 October 2003 Samsung India Electronics Ltd launched its mega festival promotion called ‘Samsung Pinning Toh Winning Offer’ on an all India basis. In this Promotion, where the consumer stood to win an assured gift on the purchase of any Samsung product, have gifts worth Rs. 100 crores to offer as prizes.

The offer entitled the buyer of a Samsung product, a card with a unique 16 digit alpha-numeric code. All the consumer had to do is SMS “SAM” followed by the 16 character code to 8888 and s/he would immediately get a message showing what gift has been won. The Gifts won in the Promotion include; Samsung Projection TVs, Samsung Mobile Phones, Samsung Yepp Disc Players, Samsung DVD players, Titan Fast Track Glares, Touch Screen Landline Phone, Trendy Portable Travel Iron and Britannica Encyclopedia 3 pack CDs. This offer was basically launched to maximize its sales during the festival season.

Following its success with its ‘Samsung Pinning Toh Winning Offer’ Samsung India Electronics Ltd launched ‘The $-DOLLAR Program’ for its IT Reseller and System Integrator fraternity on June9, 2004. The program meant for the System Integrators (SI) was applicable on Samsung monitors, Hard Disk Drives (HDD) and Optical Media Storage (OMS) products. Each time a SI/reseller purchases Samsung products from a Samsung Star Elite or Samsung Storage Preferred Partner (SSPP), the SI was issued a cheque. The cheque was of one of the four colors – White, Blue, Silver, Gold – depending upon the products bought.

Samsung believes that its SIs and re-sellers play a pivotal role in business growth. They are the ones who provide them the edge that they need in today’s competitive marketplace. This is why they have spearheaded revolutionary programs for them ensuring healthy growth in revenues and profitability. The last sales promotion offer was launched on Feb 3, 2005 called “Fastest Finger First” which was a nation wide contest to find India’s fastest SMSer. The message to be typed reads as follows: “The razor-toothed piranhas of the genera Serrasalmus and Pygocentrus are the most ferocious freshwater fish in the world.

In reality they seldom attack a human”. This SMS had to be typed on the cellphone keypad, complete with punctuation marks and lower & upper case. No predictive text (T9 Dictionary), QWERTY keyboards/ any keyboard was allowed. Sponsorship:- Samsung used sponsorship of events like Olympic series to boost its sales. Samsung was the global wireless communications sponsors at the Athens Olympics. Samsung used the strategy of relating itself directly with the values of the Olympic games, which included attributes like world class, global, excellence, fair competition and peace.

The Olympic series of August5, 2004 was Samsung’s salute to the Olympic values. Samsung was the sponsor of Lakme India Fashion Week held on April21, 2005. Team Samsung cricketers – Irfan Pathan, Mohd. Kaif and Virendra Sehwag launched the World’s Best Handset, Samsung D500 during the Samsung Show at the Lakme India Fashion Week. The theme for the Samsung Show was ‘The Best Thing Says Everything’ in keeping with the positioning of Samsung D500 – Samsung’s latest and path-breaking mobile phone which has been rated as the ‘World’s Best Mobile phone’ by the 3GSM Association World Congress held at Cannes in February 2005.

Samsung sponsored Samsung & MTV Youth Icon 2005 on June10, 2005. The idea behind the sponsorship was that the Samsung Mobiles were targeted at the fun loving, lifestyle oriented and trendy youth of today. By associating with the Samsung & MTV Youth Icon, they are seeking to further strengthen their relationship with the youth. Samsung mobiles make a style statement and by partnering with the Youth Icon, this positioning is further re-inforced. Samsung was even the sponsor of Samsung IIFA Awards held on June 13, 2005.

Popular film actress, Preity Zinta was awarded the ‘Samsung Diva’ award while Hrithik Roshan was conferred the prestigious ‘Samsung Style Icon’ award at the Samsung IIFA Awards 2005. Samsung India had carried out an online voting process on the Samsung India website between May 20th – June 5th 2005 for selecting the recipient of the ‘Samsung Style Icon’ and ‘Samsung Diva’ awards. The same was also promoted extensively on other sites like indya. com and msn. com as well. The Company received a phenomenal response to this online voting contest. The ‘Samsung Style Icon’ and ‘Samsung Diva’ awards which have been growing in popularity year on year, the company uses the response level received every year as its popularity indicator. Direct Mail:- Samsung even uses Direct Mail concept for its product promotion. Samsung sends mail to target consumers depending on the database i. e. the frequency of site visit and on their purchases. Samsung is very actively involved in e- commerce. Distribution Channels:- Samsung uses supply chain to enhance differentiation, increase sales and penetrate new markets and channels.

Its supply chain is beneficial in several ways. It helps the company to deliver products to the customer faster. It efficient supply chain is transparent, so that all the players in the supply chain have the right information at the right time about the movement of the products within the chain. This means lower inventories, elimination of waste, and reductions of costs. In addition to the intangible benefits like quick feedback from customers help in launching new products. Samsung has 24 state-level distribution offices and a direct dealer interface.

The direct dealer interface helps the company to get quick feedback from dealers, and enables it to launch products according to consumer needs. To minimize time overruns, Samsung delivered its products directly from its factories to its Regional Dispatch Centers (RDCs), and from there to dealers. Samsung has sales and service networks all over India and 650 service points. Samsung has implemented an innovative logistics system – Global Logistics Network Systems (GLONETS). GLONET application is used on the B2B i. e. Business to Business front for the vendors.

This involved linking the key vendors, which form the bulk of Samsung’s sourcing (26 domestic and 30 international) through Samsung’s GLONET. This system enables Samsung to connect its purchase department with the Samsung headquarters and international procurement offices through integrated ERP systems. The integrated ERP system enables Samsung to purchase its requirements from its international procurement offices and also from its Indian vendors. This application is also extended to order placement, production plan sharing and invoicing, resulting in shorter business cycles and reduced inventory levels and low waste.

In addition to GLONETS, Samsung also believes in JIT (Just-in-Time) concept to its dealers. To make delivery of products within 48 hours of the expected date of delivery, the company has setup four RDCs, one at each regional location of the country. The distribution channel is structured very systematically wherein all the transactions and business conducted is documented. The program is based on incentives so that dealer payments can be made on time. The Company supplies its goods to the Star Elite who supplies goods to the distributor who in urn sell the goods via their own channel of retailers and distributors. The Samsung Brand shop network complements the over 8500 retail points for Samsung products located across the length and breadth of the country. Samsung plans to continue enhancing its penetration levels in the country to reach out to more and more Indian consumers. They consider the Star Elite partner as their actual product champion as their link with the end customer. As, they have been adding value to the sale to the customer and guiding him to the right purchase decision at a fair price.

Shop-in-shop: Samsung is ensuring a presence in most big malls and multiplexes; even in the multi-brand outlets, as the focus there is to create a shop-in-shop atmosphere. The exclusive showrooms: Keeping its target customer to display Samsung products in a more lifestyle ambience and to communicate the product benefits in a more interactive manner, Samsung India has set up a widespread network of over 80 exclusive showrooms comprising Samsung Digital Zone (focusing on high-end digital audio-video products such as MP3 players, camcorders and LCD/plasma TVs).

The Samsung DigitAllhome goes beyond the concept of a Digital Plaza or a Brand Shop because in the DigitalAllhome, they are trying to create a more interactive environment and providing a more lifestyle orientation to the display, so that the customer can visualize the products in his/her own home settings. The Company plans to supplement its existing Samsung Digital Plazas’ (Brand Shops) by setting up ‘Samsung DigitAllhomes’ in select cities. The Company will also be creating exclusive Samsung corners in multibrand outlets this year. The demands and needs within the distribution channel lead to the establishment of MyMemoryStore. om. The site is more than an ordinary selling site, infact it is an industry portal that allows the business partner to come in and track the relevant industry information within the channel, meaning minimizing the inventory overhead. Samsung is also planning to invest over $1 million in setting up a chain of exclusive outlets called `Samsung Talkies’. The entire Samsung mobile range including the latest handsets will be displayed at the outlets, which will be set up in more than 10 cities across India, including Bangalore, Mumbai and Hyderabad. Distribution Channel in 2005:

Post VAT they have modified in their policies a bit. The most important step was to bring down channel inventory post the Budget impact and the VAT impact. They made a conscious decision to bring down channel inventory, which was at that point of time 60 days, today it is reduced to 11 days, which entails total inventory among dealers, distributors, star elite and SI. This has been done to ensure that the channel stays profitable. Samsung India tied up with PlanetM for displaying its new audio range at the PlanetM Outlets in Delhi, Mumbai, Kolkata, Pune, Chandigarh and Bangalore. Pricing:

Pricing also seemed to have played a significant role in Samsung’s success. Differentiation is the key for a brand to be preferred by consumers, when there are so many brands within the same product category. Samsung believes in providing good products at reasonable prices to its customers. Samsung’s technology plank communications helped the company to gain market share, even though it did not offers any discounts or exchange scheme when it entered India. Samsung focuses on cost-cutting measures to keep its price low which helps to combat the discount schemes of the local companies.

For e. g. – In 2001, due to high competition in the 20”CTV segment, Samsung had to resort to price cuts. The company said that value engineering, new product lines and new chassis development had contributing in combating price erosion. Samsung negotiated with its vendors to reduce costs on cabinets, plastics, speakers, harness coils, remote controls, etc. Samsung’s Brand image seemed to have helped it survive the price erosion. Dealers also agreed to lower margins owing to company’s brand image.

Samsung in the year 2002, drastically reduced its operational costs which enabled the company to keep low prices for certain products and extract higher profit margin from premium products. This helped Samsung to post a turnover of Rs. 30bn, a 2 growth from the year 2001. Samsung is very transparent in functioning. It has a fixed MoP (Marketing Operating Price) whereby the goods are sold to the distributors and to the customer’s at a fixed market price only. The focus of its competitors is to penetrate in the rural and semi-urban mass markets.

But Samsung insists that it’s a high end technology driven player. That’s why the urban areas are still a focus area for it and only 30 per cent of revenue comes from rural and semi-urban India. They have always been a hi-end technology driven player and want to keep that equity. Not surprisingly, the target customer for Samsung products won’t be found in the price-sensitive mass market. Adopting the lifestyle product platform, Samsung’s aiming for the high-end premium market. Hence Samsung has always been keeping premium prices.

Samsung claims it’s never been a price warrior — its focus has always been on the premium market, which is why it has remained a steady No. 2 or No. 3 player in most product categories. It is difficult to achieve the ambitious targets keeping in mind the pricing strategy of Samsung. But, they believe that it takes time to ensure your supremacy in market share. Once you get your brand perception right in the minds of the consumers as a brand that delivers the best technology and gives you value for money, then ultimately market share goes up.

Later on Samsung changed its policy a bit and instead of just remaining a high-end technology driven brand it tried to change its image to sell products to the huge number of middle income families in India. It started pricing its products on the “value for money” concept, keeping in mind the price sensitivity of Indian consumers. But still Samsung has the repute of being a premium brand, aggressive in launching newer models with the latest technology and at economic costs throughout the world Pricing Strategy Post VAT

Post Budget, they have ensured that there is no discounting in the market and also the prices of OMS had to be increased by 4 percent since price stability is of fundamental importance in channel business. This is the biggest marketing stand that the brand could have taken as the brand stands above individuals and the transactions that happen. Price range: – SAMSUNG LG • Mobile Phones:- GSM – 3,649-21,399 4,800-28,000 • TV, video & audio:- TV:- Projection TV

LCD Projection TV – 69,000- 109,000 89,990-99,990 Flat Panel Plasma 265,000- 9,0,000 2,95,000-7,50,000 LCD TV- 59,990- 265,000 75,000-1,69,900 Flat TV 29 inches- 19,990- 31,990 20,290-37,990 21 inches- 8,990- 17,690 9,190-11,990 15 inches- 6,890- 8190 7,990-10,500

Conventional TV 21 inches- 13490 7,990-8,990 20 inches- 7690- 8990 7,890-8,890 DVD Player:- 3,990 – 5,000 3,990-4,990 Audio:- VCD System – 9,900- 26,990 8,500-26,990 DVD System – 16,200- 25,990 13,990-29,990

Home Theater: – 12,990- 68,000 15,990-19,990 • Information technology products:- Note PC – 69,990- 159,990 79,500-1,70,000 CD Rom & DVD Rom Drive CD Rom Drives- 750 1,600 DVD Rom Drives- 1,600- 1,900 3,300 CD & DVD Read & Write Solution

CD Writers- 1,600 4,250 Combo Drives- 3,000-5,000 6,500 DVD Writers- 4,600 7,800 Monitors CRT Monitors 17” magic Bright Range- 8,000 13,750 15” Entry Level Range- 5,450 5,750 LCD Monitors – 15,000- 34,000 19,500-46,800 Home appliances Microwave Oven Solo – 4,990-6,990 5,490-7,990 Grill – 5,990- 10,590 6,990-13,990 Convection – 12,990- 15,590 12,990-18,990 Refrigerator:- Direct Cool – 7,500- 10,200 9,950-11,400 Frost Free Side by side system- 68,000- 1,20,000 69,000-1,25,000

Air Conditioner:- Insta Chill Window – 14,990- 23,990 15,490-20,990 Insta Chill Split – 24,790- 41,990 26,750-42,500 Washing Machine:- Front Loading – 6,690- 34,900 12,990-40,500 Top Loading – 11490- 25,900 12,790-18990 Semi Automatic – 6,990- 8,990 7,090-9,490 .

Future Prospects:- We have done a survey at retail outlets selling Samsung products and one thing that we found out common is that Samsung lacks in after sales service. The drawback in their after sales service strategy is that they have only one customer service centre throughout India which is situated in Delhi. When a customer has a complaint he approaches his retailer who in turn registers the complaint in the Delhi service centre from where the complaints are processed and replacements are made.

The presence of only one service centre makes it very difficult to give timely response as the complaints come throughout India. The complaints are not entertained for a period of 10 -15 days. Hence the customer is not satisfied with the after sales service of Samsung. Marketing Strategy:- Samsung has to improve its after sales service inorder to retain customer and create brand loyalty. The current policy adopted by Samsung is aggressive spending more on advertising and marketing and less on retaining customers that is after sales service.

So the corrective strategy to be adopted by Samsung must be to spend more on retaining customer rather than acquiring them as it costs 5 times more to the company to get to a new customer rather than pleasing existing ones. Moreover it costs 16 times to take the new customer to the loyalty stage. They should have regional service centres in North, South, East, West where the complaints can be received and processed quickly. Moreover they should employ and train the technicians to provide quality and timely sales service. Strategy To Expand Market Share:-

Currently Samsung ranks second in the Indian consumer durable market whereas LG ranks first. The problem with Samsung is that it is a premium brand and focuses only on urban and semi-urban markets whereas the rural market is neglected to a great extent which is why LG is dominating in that market. Samsung earns a revenue of only 30% from rural areas. India being a country of villages, Samsung should focus more in the rural market in order to increase its market share. Samsung should come out with new economic products like LG had taken out “Sampurna” television range aimed only for the rural market.

Hence Samsung could have come up with a conventional range of television models which although are no very technologically advanced but fulfills the basic needs. All these strategies are very practical promising higher gains with less cost pains. Questions for discussions:- 1) Samsungs success is mainly because of its aggressive marketing and advertising. analyze the role of marketing in Samsungs success in the crowded consumer durables market? Explanation:- Samsung not only launched innovative products but is also nvolved in aggressive marketing and advertising to develop attitude, create awareness and transmit information in order to gain response from the target market. The initial advertisement communicated presence of Samsung in the world wide market and its dominance in those markets. Samsung also went in for celebrity endorsement to create brand awareness. Samsung even focused on their technological supremacy to come up with promotional schemes which boosted the sales further leading to Samsungs success in the crowded consumer durable markets. ) Samsung positioned its products on the technology plank. However, as competition increased with most players introducing high technology products, how far do u think Samsungs technology positioning would help the company to gain the market share? Explanation:- Samsung product range covered all the categories in consumer electronics and home appliances which are one of the main reasons for its success in the Indian market. It launched the “BIO-RANGE” of home appliances, bio fresh refrigerator and bio-ceramic micro-ovens.

It also launched the DNIe technology and the Silver Nano technology because of which the demand for the Samsung products have increased by 40% according to our market survey. 3) The marketing mix of a company plays an important role in the success of the company. Discuss the role played by all the elements of marketing mix in Samsungs success. Which element contributed the most to its success? Explanation:- The concept of marketing mix consists of 4p’s (price,place,promotion and product). Out of these the “promotion” factor has mainly contributed to the success of Samsung.

YEAR STRATEGY SALES Oct 2001 “Phod ke dekho” offer Rs. 2. 75bn May 2002 “Dabake jeeto” offer Rs. 310cr Oct-Nov 2002 “Phir se phodke dekho” offer Rs. 380 cr March 2003 “Samsung rang de kismet” offer Oct 2003 “Pinning toh winning” offer June 2004 “The $-dollar programme” offer Feb 2005 “Faster finger first” offer

Short Essay on Deductive Reasoning

Short Essay on Deductive Reasoning Deduction is taught through the study of formal logic. Logic (both inductive and deductive logic) is the science of good reasoning. It is called formal because its main concern is with creating forms that serve as models to demonstrate both correct and incorrect reasoning. The difference is that, unlike induction, where an inference is drawn from an accumulation of evidence, deduction is a process that reasons about relationships between classes, characteristics and individuals.

Deductive arguments start with one or more premises and then reasons to consider what conclusions must necessarily follow from them. In order to understand logic, it is crucial to grasp and analyze key terms that are linked with it and explain its basics. First of all, an argument appears both in inductive and deductive reasoning. Deductive arguments involve premises that lead to a conclusion, whereas inductive ones establish premises based on experience and general evidence. Reasoning is another term linked with logic, and it describes the process of drawing conclusions, judgments or inferences from facts or premises.

Logic arranges deductive arguments in standardized forms that make the structure of the argument clearly visible for study and review. These forms are called syllogisms. Syllogisms are useful for testing the reliability of a deduction according to the rules of logic. A syllogism usually contains two premises and a conclusion. The first one is called major and the second is called minor. They are claims made in an argument that provide the reasons for believing in the conclusion. A syllogism present claims concerning a relationship between the terms given in the premises and those in the conclusion.

Their purpose is to clarify the claims of the premises, to discover and expose any hidden premises and to find out if one thought follows logically from the previous one. In inductive thinking, if the premises are true, the conclusion is only probable and could even be false. In deductive thinking, if the premises are true, and the reasoning valid, then the conclusion can not be false. Finally, the standards used for testing reliability are based on some rules that determine an argument’s validity and soundness.

Validity has to do with reasoning, and soundness with both reasoning and truth. A valid argument is one in which the conclusion has been correctly inferred from its premises whereas a sound one is one in which the reasoning is valid and the premises are both true. Whether we are aware of it or not, our thinking moves back and forth between inductive and deductive reasoning all the time. We just study them separately both for convenience and because of their different structure and standards. Inductive and deductive thinking are not isolated modes.

They interweave in our minds constantly throughout the day as we come across situations and face different problems. Yet, taking conscious notice of how are thinking moves between them has considerable advantages since we can purposely direct our minds to the mode that is more appropriate. Thus, we have a greater probability of arriving at better decisions. And even if we are disappointed with the results of our decisions, at least we know that we made a conscious choice from which we learnt.

Brand Story Mastercard

[pic] [pic] [pic] The world would not be the same without the MasterCard. MasterCard has become a trusted household name since 1966. People use MasterCard on a daily basis. MasterCard created a product that consumers use to pay for goods and services. People use their branded debit and credit cards to make purchases and keep business running. By marketing itself to ordinary men and women, in contrast to Visa’s efforts to capture an upper-income clientele, MasterCard is slowly chipping away at Visa’s market share in both the United States and other areas around the globe.

The MasterCard Vision To advance commerce globally. The MasterCard Mission MasterCard Worldwide is at the heart of commerce. Our understanding of how and why commerce is conducted allows us to create more advanced methods of payment that fuel economic connections and drive real business value. The History of MasterCard [pic] MasterCard is an international corporation based in Purchase, New York. MasterCard’s prime business is to process transactions world wide.

It was originally created by Raymond Tanenhaus and Stanley Benovitz, two entrepreneurs in Louisville, Kentucky, and later sold in 1966 to United California Bank Later in 1966 a number of banks formed the Interbank Card Association (ICA). The name Master Charge was licensed by United California Bank in 1967. Marine Midland Bank and HSBC Bank USA banks joined with the ICA to create “Master Charge: The Interbank Card”. In 1968 the company extended its presence to Mexico, Japan and Europe, marking the start of its commitment to becoming the leading global payments network.

The card was given a significant boost in 1969, when National City Bank joined, merging its proprietary Everything Card with Master Charge. [pic] In 1974, ICA made the magnetic strip an international standard on all its cards in order to speed up authorization and reduce fraud. In 1975, a system called INET was introduced to provide an electronic exchange of transactions among its members, thus reducing the necessity of actually mailing charge slips by automating the entire transaction process.

In 1979, “Master Charge: The Interbank Card” was renamed simply “MasterCard” in order to reflect the broadening of the association’s services beyond the charge card itself. During the mid and late 1970s, Access Ltd. from the United Kingdom, Standard Chartered Bank of South Africa, and the first Australian member became part of the association. In 1980 MasterCard’s strategy was to concentrate on developing and expanding its line of products and services. In 1981, the company introduced MasterCard Travelers Cheques and during the same year brought out the Gold MasterCard card, which was the first attempt by the company at market segmentation. pic] In 1983, MasterCard started its Emergency Card Replacement program and also included a laser hologram on all its cards in order to combat user fraud. In 1984, MasterCard launched Banknet, a global packet-switching network that enables its international card acceptance locations to authorize transactions. MasterCard also implemented an automated point-of-sale program to improve its authorization system worldwide. In 1986, a MasterCard office was opened in Hong Kong, the first in the Pacific Rim region, and one year later MasterCard arranged to become the first credit card issued in the People’s Republic of China.

During this time, the company opened a regional office for Latin America in Miami. In 1988, MasterCard acquires the Cirrus® ATM network In 1990, MasterCard unveils a co-branding strategy and becomes the industry’s co-branding leader. In 1991, Europay and MasterCard launch Maestro®, the world’s first online point-of-sale debit network. [pic] With its aggressive advertising campaign starting in 1991, MasterCard is determined to create a higher profile for itself and, in turn, a larger share of credit card billings around the world.

Sponsorship of the World Cup in 1994 includes sponsoring 269 matches between 1991 and 1994, which contributed to an increased recognition of MasterCard’s name and services. MasterCard’s renowned advertising slogan Priceless was launched. It is virtually impossible to turn on a TV and not see a commercial with this saying in it. This slogan has become a popular term in the world of MasterCard. This slogan was introduces in 1997. The slogan associated with the campaign is “There are some things money can’t buy. For everything else, there’s MasterCard. ” [pic]

In 2001, Launch of MasterCard Advisors professional services, the largest global consultancy focused on the payments industry. In 2002, MasterCard merged with Europay International to create MasterCard International—one worldwide company with one management team and converts to a private-share corporation in June 2002. MasterCard was in the best position to achieve its goals as an industry leader and to help the company’s customers achieve profitable growth. MasterCard launched and completed initial trial of its MasterCard PayPass™ contactless payment program in Orlando, Florida, with Chase, Citibank and MBNA.

The year of 2006 was a busy year for the history of MasterCard. MasterCard changed to a different ownership structure. They began trading on the New York stock exchange. MasterCard managed to raise the largest United States stock sale in two years. In 2006, MasterCard introduces new corporate name, MasterCard Worldwide, and adopts a new corporate signature and tagline, The Heart of Commerce™, to reflect the company’s globally integrated structure and strategic vision of advancing commerce worldwide. [pic]

In 2007, MasterCard Worldwide launched knowledge leadership initiative with the Worldwide Centers of Commerce. In 2008, MasterCard saw double digit revenue growth. This was one of the best years in MasterCard history. There companies’ revenue was expected to double again over the upcoming years. It is hard to imagine daily life without MasterCard being part of society. This company has brought about a new and innovative way to pay for goods and services. MasterCard credit and debit cards can be easily obtained for daily use.

Not only are consumers using there products, but they are part of daily transactions for business. MasterCard has drastically changed the way we purchase item and our business economy. [pic] [pic] [pic] [pic][pic] Welcome to the Grecotel & Classical Hotels – MasterCard® Special Packages. A portfolio of unique high-value packages with global appeal for today’s discerning cardholder. Whether you want to enjoy a relaxing spa treatment, a red carpet reception and VIP perks, or an expertly prepared meal, you’ll find you’ll be cocooned in world-class comfort at Grecotel & Classical Hotels. [pic]

Transfer of Property in Unascertained & Future Goods

TRANSFER OF PROPERTY IN UNASCERTAINED AND FUTURE GOODS INTRODUCTION: Where there is contract for the sale of unascertained or future goods, the property therein does not pass at the time of making of the contract. The property in unascertained goods cannot pass until the goods are ascertained . Similarly, if the subject- matter is future goods , the contract operates as an agreement to sell , i. e. , the buyer does not become the owner at the time of making of the contract. After the goods have been ascertained, the property in them will pass when the parties intend it to pass .

If the parties have expressed the intention, the property in them passes in accordance with the provisions of Sec. 23, which is as under: Section 23(1): When there1 is a contract for the sale of unascertained or future goods by description and goods of that description and in a deliverable state are unconditionally appropriated to the contract, either by the seller with assent of the buyer or by the buyer with the assent of the seller, the property in the goods thereupon passes to the buyer. Such assent may be expressed or implied, and may be given either before or after the appropriation is made.

Section 23(2): Wherein pursuance of the contract, the seller delivers the goods to the buyer or to a carrier as other bailees (whether named by the buyer or not) for the purpose of transmission to the buyer, and does not reserve the right of disposal, he is deemed to have unconditionally appropriated the goods to the contract. As required by Sec. 23(1), the property in respect of unascertained or future goods sold by description passes to the buyer when the following conditions are satisfied: 1. There is appropriation of the goods to the contract either by the seller or by the buyer. 2.

The appropriation of the goods is made by one party with the assent of the other, i. e. , if the seller makes the appropriation it must be with the buyer’s assent and if the appropriation is made by the buyer, seller’s assent thereto is necessary. 3. The goods appropriated to the contract are of same description as given in the contract and are in a deliverable state, and 4. The appropriation is unconditional. Examples – The section may be illustrated by the following examples:- •Sale of twenty hogsheds of sugar out of a larger quantity. The seller fills four hogsheds which the buyer takes away.

Subsequently the seller fills sixteen more hogsheads, and informs the buyer of this, asking him to come and take them away. The buyer promises to do so. The property has passed to the buyer. •A contract to sell to B a certain quantity of liquor out of a big cask containing a much larger quantity. The required quantity is not separated or bottled. The property in the liquor does not pass to the purchaser. •Sale on May 6th of eight hundred and fourteen tins of oil, for which the buyer pays the price. The goods were not in the possession of the sellers at the date of the contract, but had been dispatched to them on April 25th.

Subsequently they received the railway receipt and endorsed it and sent it to the buyers. Afterwards, on May 12th, the goods were destroyed by fire while in transit. The property had passed to the buyers and they had to bear the loss. •Sale of shares. A broker hands certificates to a buyer, together with transfers signed in blank by the registered holders. The shares are ascertained, the sale is complete and the property has passed to the buyer. 1. Appropriation : Appropriation of the goods to the contract means doing of any act by the parties which indicates that certain goods are to be assigned to a particular contract, i. e. certain goods are considered to be meant for the performance of a particular contract. For example, a seller agrees to supply me a wrist watch which he has yet to manufacture, and after manufacturing some watches, he dispatches one of them to me, that particular watch has been appropriated to the contract, by the seller. Similarly, when there is a contract to supply 100 bags out of the 1000 bags of cement lying in the seller’s godown, if the seller subsequently puts some mark of buyer’s name on 100 bags, or otherwise indicates to the buyer that which 100 bags would be delivered to him, or despatches 100 bags to the buyer, there has been ppropriation of the goods to the contract. Generally, the appropriation is to be made by the seller. In some cases, however, the appropriation may have to be made by the buyer. For example, B has 1,000 bags of wheat belonging to A lying in his godown and if A agrees to 100 bags of wheat to B permitting B to select 100 bags out of the 1,000 bags of A which are ready in B’s possession, the appropriation of the goods to the contract would, in this case, be made by B, the buyer. When the goods are destroyed before the appropriation could be mad, the loss has to be borne by the seller as no property in them is deemed to have been passed.

Thus, for example, out of a big heap of coal only 10 tons are to be supplies t a buyer, the seller having a duty to separate and despatch the coal, if before the seller could separate the despatch the 10 tons, the whole of the lot is destroyed by fire, the seller will have to bear the loss for the same as the property in the goods has passed to the buyer. In M/s oriental Fire & General insurance Co. Ltd. V. Union of India , there was a contract for the sale of a transformer on F. O. R. basis. The seller booked the same to the buyer through Rail.

It was held that the property in the transformer had passed to the buyer when the delivery of the transformer was made to the Railway. During transmit, the transformer was damaged, the seller got back the R. R. , again took the delivery and re-booked the same. The consignor-seller had taken out an insurance policy on the transformer. The Insurance Company brought an action against the Railway for damage to the transformer. In this regard, it was held that when the transformer was originally given to the Railway, the property in the same had passed to the consignee-buyer.

The consignor was no more the owner of the transformer, and for damage to the same, neither the consignor, nor the Insurance Company as the assignee of the seller (consignor) could bring an action for damage to the transformer . In United India Ins. Co. v. Jameela Beevi, there was sale of a motor vehicle (jeep). The price stiputed in the agreement was Rs. 10,000 out of which Rs. 2,000 had been paid by the buyer immediately and the document containing the agreement of sale stipulated registration in the name of the buyer, after the balance of Rs. 8,000 was paid. It was also agreed that: 1.

Until the entire price is paid, the ownership in the vehicle shall not pass to the buyer, and 2. The seller was to execute the requisite papers after the payment of the balance of the price. Before the above said conditions were fulfilled, there was an accident, and the question arose as to who was the owner of the vehicle for the purpose of liability of the insurance company. It was held that since the requisite conditions necessary for the transfer of property had not yet been fulfilled, the seller was the owner of the vehicle at the time of the accident. 2. Assent to the appropriation

The appropriation to the goods to the contract is not enough. The appropriation by one party has got to be coupled with the assent of the other party thereto. If the seller makes the appropriation, buyer’s assent to it, and if the buyer makes the appropriation, the seller’s assent to it, is necessary. Unless the assent of the other party has been obtained the appropriation is incomplete and since the property is not deemed to have passed until such an assent has been obtained, the party making the appropriation may change the appropriation by using those goods for some other contract and appropriating some other goods to this contract.

In the words of Person, J…. .the element of common intention has always to be borne in mind. A mere setting apart or selection by the seller of the goods which he expects to use in performance of the contract is not enough. If that is all, he can change his mind and use those goods in performance of this contract. To constitute an appropriation of the goods to the contract, the parties must have had, an intention to attach the contract irrevocably to those goods, so that so that those goods and no others are the subject of the sale and become the property of the buyer. In Pignataro v.

Gilory & Son , the plaintiff purchased 140 bags of rice from the defendants. On February 27, 1918, he sent a cheque for the price of those bags and requested for the delivery of the goods. On February 28, 1918 the defendants sent the delivery order for 125 bags and wrote to the plaintiff requesting that he should collect the 15 bags from there warehouse in Long Acre. The plaintiff sent for those 15 bags on 25th March and then it was discovered that those bags had been stolen. The plaintiff having already paid the price for all the 140 bags filed a suit against the defendants to recover back the value of the missing bags.

It was held that the property in the 15 bags which had been stolen had passed to the buyer and therefore his claim failed. It was observed that the sellers had appropriated those 15 bags to the contract in response to the buyer’s letter requesting for the delivery of goods and the buyer keeping silent for one month, when requested to take delivery, could lead to only inference, that the buyer had assented to the appropriation made by the seller and therefore the property has passed and the goods were at the buyer’s risk.

In Aldridge v. Johnson , the plaintiff agreed to buy 100 out of the 200 quarters of barley lying with knights. The plaintiff was to send his sacks, which were then to be filled by Knights and despatched by rail to the plaintiff. The plaintiff send 200 sacks for the purpose and filled 155 of them, which was only a part of the 100 quarters purchased by the plaintiff. The plaintiff frequently made request for the despatch of the barley but the same was not despatched for the non-availability of the transport.

Later Knights got into financial difficulties and then he emptied the 155 sacks of barley into the bulk. The defendant, Knight’s assignee in bankruptcy removed the whole amount of barley and the plaintiff sued him for conversion, contending that he has already become the owner of the barley removed by the defendant. It was held that the plaintiff had become the owner of as much of the barley as by being filled in the 155 sacks had been unconditionally appropriated to the contract by the seller with the buyer’s assent and the removal of barley by the defendant, therefore, amounted to conversion.

The assent to the appropriation may be expressed or implied and may be given either before or after the appropriation has been made. In case one party has made the appropriation but the other party has not assented to it, the property in the goods does not pass. In Atkinson v. Bell , the buyer ordered for certain machines to be manufactured by the seller according to certain design. After the machines were manufactured, they were packed in boxes for being despatched to the buyer. The seller then wrote to the buyer to enquire by what conveyance they were to be sent. Before the seller could get any reply he became insolvent.

The seller’s assignees sued the buyer for goods bargained and sold, an action which could be possible if the property in goods had passed to the buyer. The buyer refused to take the goods contending that no property in them had passed to him. It was held that property in the machines has not yet passed to the buyer, which could be possible only when the buyer had assented to the appropriation made by the seller; before the buyer’s assent had been obtained the seller was free to change this appropriation and supply these machines to somebody else and appropriate some other machines answering the description to the contract.

The seller’s remedy, therefore, was an action against the buyer for damages for non-acceptance of the offer. 3. Appropriation of the Goods of Contract Description and in a Deliverable State – For the passing of property in unascertained goods, it is further necessary that the goods which are subsequently appropriated to the contract are of the same description as given in the contract and also in a deliverable state. If the goods of a different description or those not in a deliverable state are appropriated to the contract, no property would pass by such an appropriation .

For example, A agrees to supply 100 bags of ‘first quality wheat ‘ to B, which he has yet to purchase from the market. Subsequently, A purchases and despatches to B 100 bags of ‘second quality wheat’. The property in 100 bags of wheat would not paas to B as the goods appropriated to the contract are of a description different from that given in the contract. Similarly, if A’s contract with b is to supply 1,000 litres of oil contained in tins of 10 litres each, the goods appropriated not being in deliverable state, the property in them is not transferred to the buyer.

In Viger’s v. Sanderson , there was a contract for two parcels of swan laths which were to be of specified length and it was provided that they were to be shipped by the seller and the property was to be passed on shipment. The seller shipped the laths which were of a different description. In his action against the buyer to recover the price, it was held that he was not entitled to the same as the property in the goods had not passed as the goods of the description contracted for had not been appropriated to the contract.

Similarly, when the goods in larger quantity than agreed for, are supplied, giving a choice to the buyer to reject the goods in excess, no definite goods are appropriated to the contract and therefore the property in such goods cannot pass to the buyer. Thus, where there was a contract for the supply of 10 hogsheads of claret and the seller sent 15, it was held that the property in the goods had not passed to the buyer and on buyer’s refusal to accept any of these hogsheads, the seller could not sue him for goods sold and delivered . 4. Unconditional Appropriation-

It is also necessary that the appropriation of the goods to the contract should be unconditional. If goods are appropriated to the contract but the appropriation is conditional one, the property in the goods does not pass on such appropriation. When the seller keeps apart certain goods for being supplied to a buyer but requires him to pay before he can take their delivery, or sends a V. P. P parcel to the buyer, or after despatching the goods to the buyer’s destination refuses to endorse or part with the Railway receipt or the bill of lading or other documents until the buyer pays the price, the appropriation is not unconditional.

In such a case, it is deemed that the seller has reserved the right of disposal of goods untill certain conditions are fulfilled. Where the seller has reserved the right of disposal, according to Sec. 25(1), notwithstanding the delivery of the goods to a buyer, or to a carrier or other bailee for the purpose of transmission of the buyer, the property in the goods does not paas until the buyer pays for it and receives the same . Similarly, if the condition set by the seller is that buyer cannot obtain the goods or documents of title, etc. until he has paid for the goods, the property in such goods would paas when the buyer pays for them. Section 23(2) : It gives an example of unconditional appropriation. Where, in pursuance of the contract, the seller delivers the goods to the buyer or to a carrier or other bailee for the purpose of transmission to the buyer without reserving the right of disposal, he is deemed to have unconditionally appropriated the goods to the contract. Thus, when the contract stipulates the delivery of the goods “F. O. R. ” at the place of despatch, the property in the goods together with the risk passes from consignor to consignee as soon as goods are loaded at the place of despatch . If the appropriation is conditional and the intention of the parties is that no property in the goods would pass until some particular act, say the shipment of the goods is done, the property in the goods does not pass until that act is done even though the goods have been appropriated to the contract. The authority for this rule in the case of Carlos Feserspiel & Co.

V. Charles Twigg & Co. In that case the sellers agree to supply a number of cycles to a foreign buyer “F. O. B. I. k. port”. The buyer paid the price and the seller packed the cycles in boxes and marked them with the port of destination in their preparation for the shipment. Before the goods could be shipped the sellers became insolvent. The buyer sued the liquidator for the goods contending that since the sellers had unconditionally appropriated the goods to the contract, the property in the same had been passed to the buyers.

It was held that the buyer’s were not entitled to claim because the property in the goods had not been passed to the buyer. It was observed that from the intention of the parties it appeared that shipment of the goods was the decisive act to be done by the seller and the parties intended that no property in the goods should paas until the act of shipment was performed. Pearson J. said : ….. usually, but not necessarily, the appropriating act is the last act to be performed by the seller.

For instance, if delivery is to be taken by the buyer at the seller’s premises and the seller has completed his part of the contract and has appropriated the goods when he has made the goods ready and has identified them and placed them in position to be taken by the buyer and had so informed the buyer, and if the buyer agrees to come and take them, that is the assent to the appropriation. But if there is a further act, an important and decisive act to be done by the seller, then there is prima facie evidence that probably the property does not pass until the final act is done. Applying those principles to the present case I would say this… he intention was that the ownership should pass on shipment (or possibly at some later date) because the emphasis is throughout on shipment as the decisive act to be done by the seller in performance of the contract. Sec. 25: Reservation of the Right of Disposal The object of reserving the right of disposal of goods is generally to secure that the price shall be paid before the property passes to the buyer. The seller is said to have reserved the right of disposal where his action shows that he does not intend to part with ownership of goods till certain conditions are fulfilled.

Sec. 25(1) provides in this regard that “Where there is contract for the sale of specific goods or where the good are subsequently appropriated to the contract, the seller may, by the terms of the contract or appropriation, reserve the right of disposal of goods until certain conditions are fulfilled. In such cases, notwithstanding the delivery of the goods to a buyer or to a carrier or other bailee for the purpose of transmission to the buyer, the property in the goods does not pass to the buyer until the conditions imposed by the seller are fulfilled. So the seller has been given the right of reservation of the right of disposal. In such cases the property of goods does not pass to the buyer until certain conditions are fulfilled. Even delivery of goods to a carrier or other bailee for the purpose of transmission to the buyer will not make any difference. Example: In Loeschman v. Williams – A piano was agreed to be delivered at a packer’s premises and it was to be delivered to buyer only on payment. Seller left it with the packer on the condition that it was not to be delivered to buyer without getting the payment.

The packer delivered it without payment. It was held that property did not pass to the buyer. Sections 25(2) and (3) mention two methods of reservation of the right of disposal. Sec. 25(2) provides that where the goods are shipped or delivered to railways for carriage, and goods are deliverable to the order of seller or his agent by the bill of lading or railway receipt, the seller is presumed to have reserved the right of disposal. In this way the seller keeps to himself the right of dealing with the goods and may even prevent the buyer from claiming any right under the goods.

Example: In Carona Sahu Co. Pvt. Ltd. V. State of Maharashtra- Goods were sent by sea and seller sent them from Cochin to Bombay. He took bill of lading making the goods deliverable to his own order or to that of his agent at Bombay. He transmitted those goods to his agents with the instructions not to hand them over except on payment of the price. The property in this case did not pass to the buyer as the seller had reserved the right of disposal. Example: In Mirabita v. Imperial Ottoman Bank – A cargo of timber was shipped and bill of lading and bill of exchange were given by seller to his banker.

The banker was to handover the bill of lading to the buyer in his accepting and paying the bill of exchange. Initially the buyer refused payment but subsequently tendered the amount. But then the banker refused to accept the tender and sold the goods. It was held that the property in goods passed to the buyer when he tendered the amount of the bill. The banker’s conduct in selling the cargo was wrongful. LIST OF REFERRENCES •Sales of Goods Act, Polluck & Mulla •Sales of Goods Act, R. K. Bangia •www. vakilno1. com/saarclaw/… /saleofgoodsact/chapter3. htm

Nonverbal Listening Patterns

Nonverbal Listening Patterns January 5, 2007 was the day Linda and I met for a cup of coffee. I had known her for close to half a year and had really come to like her. By this time I realized I never was tense whenever I talked to her and that I could use the date to declare my love for her. I was determined to find out if Linda really liked me. I pulled the chair for her and she sat as I took the other on the opposite side of the coffee table. I looked at her in the eyes; she looked backed at me momentarily and then smiled as she looked down.

I smiled too. Whatever conversation we were going to have was going to be more than just flirtation. I knew she liked watching cartoons so I raised the topic. She raised her cup of coffee and took a sip. I did the same in synchrony. So far everything was moving along smoothly. I stretched out my hand across the table, reached out to hers and looking at her straight in the eyes said, “You’re stunningly beautiful, Linda. ” She gently held the palm of my hand with her both hands and responded, “Wow, thanks, am really flattered. I had not taken my eyes off her by this time and for a moment I thought may be she liked me just as a friend. When I saw her off to the doorsteps of her house I looked out for the signs again. She told me she had a good time with me. I stepped closer and bent my head towards her. She met me half way and our lips touched as we kissed intimately. Through out the conversation I mirrored her behavior. I touched her when she touched me. I kissed her upon the observation that she bent her head towards mine. I, however, kind off missed a positive cue when she fidgeted with her earrings.

Linda was beautiful to look at, but sometimes I got carried away that I didn’t notice the embarrassment in her face as she looked down when I ended up locking eyes with her. A totally different conversation took place between me and my girlfriend’s dad a few years ago. I didn’t know he didn’t like the idea of her daughter being in a romantic relationship. The conversation happened at her father’s house in the living room. As I stepped into the room her father’s eyes stuck on me. I smiled and stole a glance at my girlfriend and then again at her father. My smile wasn’t contagious enough because he didn’t return it.

That was unusual of him. I stretched out my arm to great him. His grip wasn’t as firm as usual. I felt something was wrong but I couldn’t figure out it had something to do with me. I began to feel uneasy. As I walked past him towards where my girlfriend sat, he grabbed my shirt and pulled me down to his couch. I found myself seated. With his voice gaining pitch gradually he said to me, “So you’ve been hitting on my daughter lately, ha? ” I began to sweat and panicked. He grabbed me by my shirt again and shouted, “What the heck do you want to do with my daughter? He continued to yell at me and say things that could only be heard by dogs at search a high pitch. The wrinkles on the upper part of his face told it all. He was mad at me. All that time I looked down in a combination of fear and embarrassment. I tried to establish eye contact with him but his “popping out” eyes stopped me. I think I did well to treat the frown in his face as I entered the living room as a sign of trouble. However, had I been a good listener I’d have traced the source of trouble to myself when he gave me a cold handshake.

His unusually shrilled voice towards me would have been a good indicator of annoyance. I should have explained my self or responded in a way to calm him down (BNET, 2009). In the future I’d try to listen carefully to the messages conveyed through voice, space, eye conduct and gestures so I can respond accordingly (Segal, 2009). References BNET. (2009). Understanding Nonverbal Communication. Retrieved Dec 16, 2009. From http://www. bnet. com/2410-13069_23-95607. html Segal J. (2009). Nonverbal Communication Skills. Retrieved Dec 16, 2009. From http://www. helpguide. org/mental/eq6_nonverbal_communication. htm

Credit Card Fraud

Credit Card Fraud: Prevention How can you prevent credit card fraud? New technology makes it harder and harder to prevent credit card fraud because thieves are always discovering new ways on how to crack and steal credit card and bank account numbers. There is no prevention that can stop credit card fraud 100% of the time, but there are ways of helping prevent this from happening. There are many ways and tips that can help prevent this from happening.

One way is that credit card companies are trying to help their customers have more employees to work full-time for fraud prevention. It helped a lot in the last three years. Many companies have also sent out millions of brochures to people in cities where identity theft is most common. Companies want to educate customers about credit card fraud and preventing this from happening because many people don’t even know that this type of fraud can happen.

Some other little tips on how to prevent this from happening is sign your credit cards as soon as they arrive, carry your credit card separate from your wallet, keep a record of your account and credit card information, void incorrect receipts, destroy carbons, save receipts to compare with billing statements, open bills promptly and notify card companies in advance of a change in address. Different credit card companies have their own way of prevention.

For example, when MasterCard cardholders buy any product or service online a pop up appears and asks the consumer to enter a special password called a secure code to confirm that it’s the right cardholder. Some credit card companies make you confirm a purchase by asking you to enter your mother’s maiden name, social security number or a special password like MasterCard does. Online shopping is just as or even more dangerous than going to a local store and using your credit card.

To help prevent credit card fraud online is to shop from a secure PC. For instance, you shouldn’t use the family computer because your teens use chats and online games that contain spyware. Also you should shop smart and only use websites that you know and trust. You don’t want to give out your credit card information to any site. You should try to use an alternative payment method other than your credit or debit card. There are plenty of other payments like a money order and PayPal.

Every time you purchase a product online you should always make a new email address. You should do this just to make sure you don’t receive spam mail that you can open and it can steal credit card or bank account information if saved on your PC. Preventing credit card fraud is a very difficult task to do. Every prevention system or tip that you use is never going to be 100 percent safe. By using these tips on how to prevent this from happening will help a great deal and you will have a less chance on getting caught by a credit card thieve.

Girl Interrupted

Lisa Rowe ( Angelina Jolie ) is diagnosed as a sociopath, is the most powerful personality on the ward. She apparently takes some pride in her diagnosis. Lisa whose introduction establishes her as an angry, very aggressive rebel prone to escape and recapture. Her disregard for authority makes her a frustrating and entertaining figure in the eyes of the other girls. She is an ex-junkie who never sleeps and barely eats, and enjoys making trouble for the staff. Antisocial Personality Disorder(ASPD or APD) (DSM-IV, 301. ) is defined by the American Psychiatric Association’s Diagnostic and Statistical Manual as a pervasive pattern of disregard for, and violation of, the rights of others that begins in childhood or early adolescence and continues into adulthood. The individual must be age 18 or older, as well as have a documented history of a conduct disorder before the age of 15. People having antisocial personality disorder are sometimes referred to as “sociopaths” and “psychopaths”. Symptoms •Persistent lying or stealing •Superficial charm Apparent lack of remorse[4] or empathy; inability to care about hurting others •Inability to keep jobs or stay in school •Impulsivity and/or recklessness •Lack of realistic, long-term goals — an inability or persistent failure to develop and execute long-term plans and goals •Inability to make or keep friends, or maintain relationships such as marriage •Poor behavioral controls — expressions of irritability, annoyance, impatience, threats, aggression, and verbal abuse; inadequate control of anger and temper Narcissism, elevated self-appraisal or a sense of extreme entitlement •A persistent agitated or depressed feeling (dysphoria) •A history of childhood conduct disorder •Recurring difficulties with the law •Tendency to violate the boundaries and rights of others •Substance abuse •Aggressive, often violent behavior; prone to getting involved in fights •Inability to tolerate boredom •Disregard for the safety of self or others •Persistent attitude of irresponsibility and disregard for social rules, obligations, and norms •Difficulties with authority figures [6]

Lisa is a natural born leader and provocateur, igniting conflicts and crises for fun, while also bringing a bit of excitement and adventure into the ward. The girls fear her, but are also drawn to her energy and her courage. Susanna, the main character diagnosed as borderline personality disorder, avoids Lisa at first. The main parts of the movie depicts the group dynamic that develops among the girls, with emphasis on the bond between Susanna and Lisa. There may be the odd similarity between Susanna and Lisa, as dissimilar as they surely are.

Neither is truly mentally ill, but both are desperate for refuge from the demands of living in the real world. One main scene that I thought they where similar was when Lisa and Susanna find out Daisy’s secret under her bed. Daisy is hurt and affected by their laughing and how embarrassed she is. Neither Lisa nor Susanna felt any remorse for teaming up on Daisy. At the end of the movie, Lisa verbally attacks Daisy at Daisy’s home causing Daisy’s suicide. While Daisy is hung by her neck, Lisa goes through her pockets to get the money Daisy’s father gave her with no care or remorse.

September 11 Attacks and Nationalist Terrorist Groups

Terrorism Paper 11/16/09 There are several terrorist groups throughout the world today. All the terrorist groups have one common goal and that is to rid the world of Americans and western influence from the Muslim world. There is one organization that has ties to most of all the terrorist groups in the world and is the most infamous group in the world today and that is the group called Al-Qaeda The word Al-Qaeda means “the base” in Muslim. As an international terrorist organization led by Osama bin Laden.

The group seeks to rid Muslim countries of western influence and replace them with fundamentalist Islamic regimes. Al-Qaeda grew out of the of the ashes of the Soviet invasion of Afghanistan in 1988, after it helped expel the Soviet occupation. In 1990, Iraqi invasion of Kuwait and the build up of 500,000 troops from the United Sates and its allies enraged the leader of Al-Qaeda and with that he issued a declaration of war on the United States and its interest around the world.

Also in the 1990’s Al-Qaeda stepped up its aggression against the United States with an attack on the World Trade Center and the arming of the AL-Ittihad Al-Islamiyaand attacks in Somalia that killed 18 special operation soldiers during the Battle of Mogadishu. Al-Qaeda was responsible for the US embassy attacks in Kenya and Tanzania. Some of the other attacks that Al-Qaeda was responsible for was the bombing of the USS Cole in Oct 2000, Sept. 11, 2001 attacks on the World Trade Center and the Pentagon, killing over 3,000 people. After those horrific attacks on the United States.

President George Bush sent American troops into Afghanistan to topple the regime “The Taliban” which gave safe haven to the terrorist group and to hunt down the ones responsible for the attacks that killed some many US civilians. Osama Bin Laden and his al-Qaeda terrorist network condone their actions and deem their war as a clash between Islam and Western civilization. The al-Qaeda terrorist campaign against the United States has been classified as a war between the “ummah”—Arabic for the “Muslim community”—and the Christian and Jewish West.

Bin Laden openly perpetuates conflict between Islam and the West. “This battle is not between al-Qaeda and the U. S. ,” the al-Qaeda leader said in October 2001, yet “this is a battle of Muslims against the global crusaders. ” From Bin Laden’s perspective, this “clash of civilizations” between Americans and the West has been under way for centuries and it is just the most recent incarnation of the Christian Crusaders. In October 2001, the Arabic satellite news channel aired an interview in which Bin Laden expressed his views on Huntington’s “clash of civilizations” thesis.

The following is a summary of bin Laden’s points in this interview: “Muslims, Bin Laden argues, must reverse a series of humiliations that they’ve endured since the Ottoman Empire, the last Muslim great power, was dismantled after World War I. Al-Qaeda’s 1998 declaration of a jihad, or holy war, against ‘Jews and Crusaders’ urges Muslims to attack ‘the Americans and their allies, civilian and military,’ supposedly as a response to U. S. policies that al-Qaeda feels oppress Muslims: the stationing of troops in Saudi Arabia; the backing of U.

N. sanctions against Iraq; support for repressive Arab regimes; support for Israel; alleged complicity in Russian attacks on Muslims in Chechnya; and interventions in Bosnia, Somalia, and other Muslim regions that bin Laden sees as attempts to spread America’s empire. These Western policies, according to al-Qaeda, add up to a ‘clear declaration of war on Allah, his messenger, and Muslims. ’” It is important to understand that al-Qaeda’s extremist politicized form of Islam only represents a small segment of the diverse religion of Islam.

Due to its radical beliefs, many Muslims consider al-Qaeda’s beliefs as a “distortion of their faith. ” Al-Qaeda has history of attacking Muslim governments, such as Egypt and Saudi Arabia, because they view their nations as godless, and therefore, in direct conflict with their religious beliefs. For this, and many other reasons, many Muslim countries are part of the U. S. -led coalition against al-Qaeda. September 11th was part of an increasingly deadly trend in the evolution of terrorism. Comparing the present to that of the last decade, there are now fewer terrorist attacks, but their intentions are to kill more people.

Experts attribute this trend of “fewer attacks, more fatalities” to an increase in religiously motivated terrorism. This type of terrorism lacks some of the restraints than that of earlier versions of terrorism. Experts hypothesize that the popularized hijackings and kidnappings in the 1960s and 1970s have been reduced to simpler, but sometimes more deadly bomb operations, due to the world’s increased awareness and security. Before the 1990s, some terrorist groups operated under the belief that too much violence could backfire. In other words terrorist groups wanted to find the proverbial sweet spot: they sought to use enough shocking violence to bring attention to a cause they felt had been neglected, but they did not want to use so much violence that their audiences abroad would become permanently alienated. ” It was the same mentality among nationalist terrorist groups—such as the Palestine Liberation Organization or the Irish Republican Army (IRA); they did not want to lose the support of their own people due to extreme violence. The Key leadership of Al-Qaeda are all on the run from the US forces and its allies that are hunting them down.

The man in charge is known as Osama bin Laden, which is the top financer for the group. Also the number two man is Ay al-Zawahiri, who is the leader of the Al Jihad in Egypt, is also the number two man of the organization. There is Abu Yahya al-Libi, who is the top Al-Qaeda recruiter. Mustafa Abu al-Yazid is an original member of Al-Qaeda and is the top advisor to bin Laden. Abdullah Ahmed Abdullah is a consultation council member and part of the religious/fatwa committee and is the FBI’s most wanted Terrorist for his involvement of the embassy bombings in Kenya and Tanzania.

Saad bin Laden is the son of bin Laden and is believe to be the successor of his father. Al-Qaeda is functional world wide with sympathizers all over and terrorist cell in almost every country of the world. They have several partners and supporters. Some of the most known are the Egyptian Islamic Jihad, which was merged with Al-Qaeda when their leader Ay al-Zawahiri, became the number two man and spokes man for the organization. Lashkar-e-Taiba, is a Pakistani-based Islamic terrorist organization, seeks to drive out Indian security forces from the disputed Jammu and Kashmir regions of South Asia and establish an Islamic caliphate.

Hezbollah is a supporter and it is not yet known if they are actually part of the Al-Qaeda organization. Al-Ittihad is Somalia’s largest militia group and is a member of the organization. Islamic Movement of Uzbekistan is affiliated with al-Qaeda and has embraced Osama bin Laden’s anti-Western global terrorist ideology. Al-Qaeda is well known for its Tactics, Techniques and procedures. Tactics are assassination, bombings, hijackings, kidnapping, and Suicide attacks. Their techincues are listed on a CD-Rom and in a Manual.

Their Procedures are long thought out planning processes that are used to get the most effect out of an attack. By far Al-Qaeda today is still a very dangerous group, with its members on the run and their finances frozen, they are still regrouping and gaining support of other terrorist organizations around the world and Al-Qaeda is still capable to carry out attacks on the United States and it’s Allies to reach there ultimate goal and to drive out western influence out of the Middle East.

Works Cited ; http://www. israelnationalnews. com/news. php3? id=41128; Jenkens, Brian Michael. “ The future Course of International Terrorism. ” World Future Society. 2001. ; http://www. wfs. org/jenkins. htm; http://www. brookings. edu/views/interviews/telhami/20010921. htm Terrorism: Questions and Actions. May 2003. http://cfrterrorism. org/groups/alqaeda. html United Nations Home Page. 2000-2004. ; http://www. un. org/english/;

Tesco Lotus in Thailand

Introduction In the world of business today, the demand and supply of goods and services have become increasingly every years. The competition among sellers is very frightened and excited action. According to the current situation, most business opens their business to respond customers’ needs as much as they can. By the way, the popular demand of customers always are the consumers goods, hence, many major businesses tend themselves to open the hypermarket, which provides a large variety of products such as food and non-food products.

Moreover, the consumer’s market power is growing strong and stable because customers’ trends today tend to shift from basic purchases to value-oriented brands and retailers. By the way, their power creates the new perception among sellers that most customer need a low cost of product whereas keeps a high quality. Then, many hypermarkets always compete each other with the reasonable price and high quality. In sum, most of hypermarkets need to adapt their strategies and operations to be compatible with the customer’s trends, needs, and situations.

Moreover, some of famous hypermarkets expand their business to abroad to be their key strategies in order to generate higher sales and profits (Nielsonwire, 2009). As I mentioned above information, Tesco PLC is one of the best examples of hypermarket that has a reputation in selling low cost of products with high quality. The excellent strategies and operation processes they perform in both domestic and global represent the efficient multinational corporations that I would like to present in this paper.

In summary, due to the increasingly international convenience store of Tesco PLC in the chain of a hypermarket operation, I would select Tesco Thailand in specific three areas as the following •Positioning for greater global competitiveness •Globalization strategies •Compliance to government policies Company Background Tesco Plc is one of the world’s leading international retailers. Furthermore, it is the market leader in the UK with stores throughout the UK, Europe, Asia and the US. . It is the largest British retailer by both global sales and domestic market share. According to the survey, Tesco is currently the hird largest global retailer based on revenue, behind Wal-Mart and Carrefour, however, it is the second largest based on profit, ahead of Carrefour. Besides selling consumer’s product, food and drink, Tesco has diversified in many areas, such as clothing, consumer electronics, financial services, telecoms, home, health and car insurance, dental plans, retailing and renting DVDs, CDs, music downloads, Internet services and software. By the way, the principal activity of the group is food retailing, with over 2,300 stores worldwide, of which around 1,780 are in the UK (Just-food, 2009).

Some of the stores worldwide would be in Czech Republic (84), Hungary (101), Poland (280), Republic of Ireland (95), Slovakia (48), Turkey (30), China (47), Japan (109), Malaysia (19), South Korea (91), and Thailand (370). Furthermore, in December 2007, Tesco made its entry into the US market with the opening of Fresh & Easy neighborhood market stores. Then, by March 2008, the company had succeeded in opening 37 stores across South California, Nevada and Arizona, with a further 19 planned for Sacramento. Most importantly, all Tesco stores cover a range of formats, which the main businesses are supermarkets and convenience stores.

The company also operates online grocery retailer Tesco. com, as well as Tesco Personal Finance and Tesco Telecoms to satisfy customer’s needs. According to international expanding, Tesco currently operates in 13 countries and it will possibly expand into further countries. By the way, Tesco’s international expansion strategy is to joint venture with local partners, such as Samsung Group in South Korea (Samsung-Tesco Home plus), and Charoen Pokphand in Thailand (Tesco Lotus) by appointing a very high proportion of local personnel to management positions (Tescopoly, 2009) Tesco around the world

Source: http://www. tescolpoly. org History of the company (Tesco Plc) (Tesco, 2009) 1919•Jack Cohen founded Tesco, when he began to sell surplus groceries from a stall in the East End of London 1924•The first own-brand product sold by Jack was Tesco Tea – before the company was called Tesco. 1929•Jack Cohen opens his first Tesco store in Burnt Oak, Edgware, North London 1932•Tesco Stores Limited became a private limited company 1934•Jack Cohen bought a plot of land at Angel Road, Edmonton, and North London to build a new headquarters and warehouse.

It was the first modern food warehouse in the country and introduced new ideas for central stock control 1947•Tesco Stores (Holdings) Ltd floats on the Stock Exchange with a share price of 25p 1956•The first Tesco self-service supermarket opens in a converted cinema in Maldon 2000•Tesco. com is launched 2001•Tesco launches ‘Customer Champions’ in many stores and implements a new labor scheduler to further improve service for customers •Tesco becomes the leading organic retailer in the UK 2002•Tesco enters Malaysia •Tesco offers ‘Free-From’ products, designed for customers with special dietary needs 2003 Tesco enters Turkey •Tesco enters Japan 2004 •Tesco enters China •Tesco launches own-brand Fair-trade range •Tesco Broadband is launched •Tesco. com becomes first major British supermarket for music download market 2005•Tesco exits the Taiwanese market in an asset swap deal with Carrefour involving stores and operations in the Czech Republic •Tesco Homeplus launches 2006•Tesco Direct launches 2007•Tesco opens Fresh & Easy in the United States 2008•Tesco announces plans to establish cash and carry business in India •Tesco acquires 36 hypermarkets in South Korea from However •Discount Brands at Tesco launches Tesco Personal Finance acquisition completed 2009•Club card re-launched in the UK with offering customers to double-up vouchers Tesco Lotus in Thailand Thailand is one of Tesco’s largest operations. Tesco entered Thailand in 1998 and operates through 380 stores as part of a joint venture with Charoen Pokphand and named the operation as Tesco Lotus. This partnership was dissolved in 2003 when Charoen Pokphand sold its shares to Tesco. By the way, Tesco has been expanding rapidly in Thailand. It had 420 stores by August 2007, rising from 219 at the end of the 2005/6 financial years.

However, Tesco expected to reach 530 stores by the end of the 2007/8 financial years (Tesco Lotus, 2009). According to the research, the Tesco Core purpose and value is to build satisfaction for customers to earn their lifetime loyalty by giving two wonderful strategies to attract customers and also to compete with others competitor (Tesco Lotus, 2009). 1. No one tries harder for customers: •Understand customers better than anyone. Be energetic, be innovative and be first for customers. Use the strengths to deliver unbeatable value to our customers. •Look after employees so they can look after our customers. . Treat People how we like to be treated: •The Tesco Team trusts and respects each other. Strive to do our very best. Give support to each other and praise more than criticize. Moreover, ask more than tell and share knowledge so that it can be used. •Enjoy work, celebrate success and learn from experience. These strategies are just the beginning of the overall success that Tesco Lotus performs to satisfy customer’s needs and fulfill their requirements. Recently, Tesco’s total floor space in Thailand is the second highest after the UK and also Tesco is the largest international retailer in Thailand.

Moreover, the stores will vary between different formats. A large number of both hypermarkets and Express format stores are more similar to the UK than Tesco’s other Asian operations are whereas Tesco’s smaller stores compete directly with Thailand’s traditional fresh markets, such as Top’s supermarket. As the varieties of products, Tesco Lotus sells a diverse range of products from value food products to electronics to personal finance services. Also, the company is to improve and develop the go green business to protect the environment.

Another fact is Tesco Lotus claims to serve 20 million customers every month and that 97% of its goods are sourced from Thailand (Tescopoly, 2009). Furthermore, the fact of number of Tesco Lotus employees on the end of June 2008 would have about 36,000 employees. According to this number, 32,000 employees are working at stores, 2,300 employees are working at distribution centre, and 1,700 employees are working at head office. Moreover, their main competitors are related with three retail categories including convenience stores, supermarkets and the rapidly disappearing family-run shophouse (Highbeam Research, 2009).

As the above information mentioned, I would like to discuss the three significant areas of Tesco Lotus and also give the recommendation to them. 1. Positioning for greater global competitiveness Due to Tesco Lotus of Thailand is the main hypermarket of Thai people today, the high quality of products and services are very essential things for them to gain a greater global competitiveness. The availability of products has become the most important factor that can satisfy customer needs when they want to purchase products. Hence, Tesco Lotus focuses on the distribution center to run all processes of delivering and stocking the products.

There are 3 DCs. The first DC located at Wangnoi, was opened in 2006. The second is located at Bangbuathong. And the latest DC is located at Samkok and opened in 2008. Moreover, there is a fresh food distribution center in Wangnoi that opened in 2001 to serve customer needs with high quality fresh foods. This distribution center consists of the temperature control room containing over 100,000 crates a day. In addition, all of fresh food is distributed to other branches by a temperature control truck in order to maintain quality and freshness all the way to the destination (Tesco Lotus, 2009).

Due to the high quality of process, Tesco Lotus Thailand is the one of the most sophisticated and efficiency distribution center in Southeast Asia region that distributes products to Tesco Group worldwide. In Additionally, it helps Thai customers to obtain benefit of this efficient logistic so the product price will be less. Most importantly, with the fast and high quality of process, most competitors have to fade away from the efficient service Tesco Lotus performs. Besides deliveries, Tesco Lotus distribution center also supports the vendors in packaging, price tag, and transportation to meet international standard.

This will helps Thai companies to fulfill the needs of world market. It also expands the capacity in exporting through the Tesco Lotus two-ways strategy. Another benefit of the distribution center is the intelligent management such a products check in-out planning that uses only 2-3 trucks to distribute to branches and pick up products from vendors back to the distribution center. Therefore it will cut the cost of transportation and fewer trucks on the road as a result of decreasing accidents. Hence, this can be the positioning for greater global competitiveness for Tesco Lotus Thailand (Tesco Lotus, 2009).

Besides distribution center, the special services that Tesco Lotus provides to customers are very effective way to gain a global competitive positioning. Tesco Lotus provides many services through retail services and store services. For example, Tesco Lotus provides online top-up, Tesco e top-up, and Tesco e-payment to customers when they need to pay their utilities or top-up the mobile credit. It is very convenient method for customers by asking the cashier to do special services beyond purchase products (Tesco Lotus, 2009).

In my opinion, I believe that there is no others hypermarket provide these kinds of services. Then, Tesco Lotus can stand the effective positioning for greater global competitiveness. 2. Globalization Strategies To be the most famous hypermarket today, Tesco Lotus Thailand did many globalization strategies to run the business to be one of the successful company. First of all, Tesco Lotus has developed six alternatives to its giant flagship superstores; hypermarket, Tesco Lotus Value, Talad Lotus, Tesco Lotus Express, Plus Shopping Mall, and Community Mall.

Each place depends on customer’s preferences and style of shoppers (Tesco Lotus, 2009). For hypermarket, it is the biggest store of Tesco Lotus to serve every needs of customers with various of products up to 36,000 items, such as consumer products, fresh foods, hardware and electrical appliances. Also, it provides a parking lot for thousands of cars and hundreds of motorcycles. In some branches, it also provides space for an aerobic activity in the evening everyday. This strategy can attract customer a lot (Tesco Lotus, 2009).

Moreover, besides various products, Tesco Lotus hypermarket also has other services such as shopping carts and baskets, deposit bag, free drinking water, price check points, fitting rooms for men and women, cooking services for fish and seafood, installment purchase, home delivery (for electrical appliance and large size furniture) (Tesco Lotus, 2009). Tesco lotus also provide a special promotion to be their globalization strategy by using the slogan “sell for less” to compete with competitors and to be the leader of hypermarket.

By the way, these promotion will be launched in many medias, such as flyers at the customer service center, Tesco Lotus website, press ads in newspaper, and promotion labels on the shelves. These are very powerful tool to generate sales and profits from customers. For Tesco Lotus Value, it is not only a medium size store that is suitable for community in upcountry provinces but also has various products to serve customers. Moreover, Tesco Lotus Value’s store can contain products over 21,500 items, which are similar to hypermarket.

Also, it provides widely parking lot for cars and motorcycles. In addition, Tesco Lotus Value encourages local vendors to open shops inside market in order to support local business as well. By the way, the services and promotions are provided to customer like hypermarket (Tesco Lotus, 2009). For Talad Lotus, it’s a small Tesco Lotus that provides affordable products for daily needs. It represents the original Thai lifestyle that always live near to “Talad” which has every thing from food to daily groceries and locate next to community.

By the way, Talad Lotus has over 4,500 products to serve our customers. Most of products are food and non-food. However, Tesco Lotus still provides customers with the best services and also a special promotion to attract customer. It is a new way for customers who are regular buyers on consumer goods (Tesco Lotus, 2009). For Tesco Lotus Express, it is a small store open 24 hours a day and emphasize on convenience services, fast and nearby residential areas. The stores are open in Bangkok and big province city. This helps customers can ind everything they want all day and all night. The store contains the product around 2,600 to serve customers. Moreover, At Tesco Lotus Express store, it has an ATM machine to serve customers to make them convenient in using services (Tesco Lotus, 2009). For Plus Shopping Mall, it is a one stop shopping, which customers can have more choices in purchasing. Plus Shopping Mall will provide many zones that respond customer’s needs and satisfactions, such as brand names, gourmets, educations, digital products, and auto zones. This offering can help families spend times together.

This value added services can be one of the globalization strategies to attract customers and increase profits (Tesco Lotus, 2009). Last, Community Mall is one of the location strategies that become a new mall concept to make customer’s satisfaction. In addition, the Community Mall emphasizes easy access at 2-5 minutes driving from home. Also, the mall gives a casual and relaxing feel. Hence, customers can come to do their shopping, relax with a cup of coffee, as well as do their personal business such as make utility payments or mail their letters (Tesco Lotus, 2009).

Besides these alternatives, Tesco Lotus has a go-green project to be its globalization strategies in order to lead the way in energy conservation and environmental management in the retail sector. It will push the solar energy to use in the system and company by launching the innovative design to reduce the heat in the market, the recycled water to reduce the impact on the environment, and the idea to reduce the chemical in painting or sprays used in the market (Tesco Lotus, 2009). I believe that if Tesco Lotus still runs the globalization strategies like these.

Its success and power will come easily. However, Tesco Lotus should always concern about keeping the high quality of products and services and also the customer’s satisfaction. 3. Compliance to government policies In during of doing a global business, Tesco Lotus needs to adapt their strategies to compatible with government policies and regulations. Moreover, in the highly competitive market and complex business operating environment, Tesco Lotus is committed to do everything right at the first time and every time in every aspect of its business in order to grow and sustain its market leadership.

As the regular regulation, all of the Tesco Lotus products need labels that must be approved by the Thai Food and Drug Administration and affixed to imported food products. Furthermore, Specific information is required to be placed on the label and must be printed in the Thai language. By the way, many multinational retailers in Thailand like Tesco Lotus will be charged for listing fees. Also, imports from non-ASEAN countries like UK are subject to customs, tariffs and a value added tax (VAT) of 7% (Seafood export profiles Thailand, n. . ). However, besides the tariffs and labels regulation, governments are still concern about the employee’s policy. According to A UNI Global Union Country Report, it expressed that even though Tesco Lotus will have some basic standards of good employment conduct; the government still has some regulations for it to conduct with employees. Moreover, Thai regulations on health and safety and of Tesco’s own stated and focused policies on employment rights and the treatment of workers.

Some of government regulations are to pay a fair wage reflecting the local markets and conditions and offer a highly competitive package of pay and benefits to all our staff. The government and Tesco Lotus agree that the minimum wage should be adequate to provide a decent standard of living for a worker and family. Next is about working hours, the government and Tesco Lotus have policies to treat fairly with employees. For example, working hours won’t be excessive. They also should comply with industry guidelines and national standards where they exist. Also, employment must be freely chosen and overtime shall be voluntary.

Moreover, there will not employ illegal child labors. In addition, all staff is entitled to reasonable rest breaks, access to toilets, rest facilities and potable water at their place of work, and holiday leave in accordance with the legislation of the country where they work. Besides these regulations, the government and Tesco Lotus always concern about the security in the company, such as, a safe equipment, adequate training, safe vehicle movements, fire exits and fire-fighting equipment, and air quality and pest control (A UNI Global Union Country Report, 2009).

These regulations are very essential for Tesco Lotus because human resource is their major factor to run their business. Hence, employees are people who can judge the overall quality of both products and services. By the way, government policies and Tesco Lotus practices should be done regularly and constantly to create the powerful and successful company to access in the global. Recommendation and Conclusion According to the above information, Tesco Lotus performs their management and strategies in order to be the leader of hypermarket in Thailand and internationals.

Positioning for greater global competitiveness, globalization strategies, compliance to government policies are the major areas that prove the efficiency of Tesco Lotus. However, besides the advantages that Tesco Lotus gains from these areas, there are some recommendations I would propose it to do. Firstly, Tesco Lotus should invest more in advertising and public relation. Indeed, Tesco Lotus has already known for Thai people but it still has many main competitors who are becoming to be the leader of hypermarket. Hence, the advertising should be the key to attract customers more.

For instant, it may find many medias to launch the advertising, such as magazines, leaflets, billboards, television, and spots radio. This can make people absorb Tesco Lotus brand everywhere. Next, I would recommend Tesco Lotus to open late in every store in order to respond night-style customers. This helps customers have more choices in their consumptions. However, Tesco Lotus should manage employees effectively by paying them the overtime’s fairness and also giving them the high facility like relaxing room and dining room.

Moreover, the relationship with customers is my major concern to Tesco Lotus, then I would recommend it to have special activities to customers, such as family car rally, New Year party, and funny trip. These are not only keeping the relationship among customers, but there are also keeping the relationship among family members to spend time together. In addition, customer satisfaction is the keys of running Tesco Lotus so I would recommend Tesco Lotus bring some services into their big stores, such as, salons, spas, travel agency, jewelry shop, and beauty clinic to attract more customers.

It is kind of value added services of Tesco lotus. In conclusion, the significant areas and the recommendations I proposed make me believe that Tesco Lotus Thailand now is becoming the most reputation and efficiency hypermarket, which I believe that Tesco Lotus can bring some powerful strategies to other countries in order to make a success and be a leader among competitors. References Nielsonwire. (2009). “Supermarket Guru” Phil Lempert’s 2009 Retail Outlook. Retrieved December 12, 2009, from http://blog. nielsen. om/nielsenwire/consumer/supermarket-guru-phil-lemperts-2009-retail-outlook/ Just-food. (2009). Background. Retrieved December 12, 2009, from http://www. just-food. com/factsheet. aspx? id=40 Tescopoly. (2009). Tesco Worldwide. Retrieved December 12, 2009, from http://www. tescopoly. org/index. php? option=com_content=view=595=193 Tesco Plc. (2009). Tesco Plc-About us. Retrieved December 12, 2009, from http://www. tescoplc. com/plc/about_us/tesco_story/ Tesco Lotus. (2009). Tesco lotus-About us. Retrieved December 13, 2009, from http://tescolotus. om/left. php? lang=en=corporate_en=profileHighbeam research. (2009). Tesco Lotus eyes lucrative wet market niche. Retrieved December 13, 2009, from http://www. highbeam. com/doc/1G1-129514327. html Seafood export profiles Thailand. (n. d. ). Key regulations and tariffs. Retrieved December 13, 2009, from http://www. seafish. org/upload/file/market_insight/Thailand_SEP. pdf A UNI Global Union. (2009). Tesco’s employment practices in Thailand. Retrieved December 12, 2009, from http://www. uniglobalunion. org/Apps/UNIFiles… /UNI_Thailand_FINAL_LR. pdf