Determinants of Job Stress

Preface This book was written under the assumption that not all things are created equal. So my high passion for research, made me to translate this document while adding other aspects from my research on so as to assist Master 1 Management students in the University of Yaounde II-Soa to make an easy pass in Psychophysiology. Cognisant to the fact that job stress is a major challenge worldwide to workers, this handbook comes to alleviate and awake the blindness of Managers and workers who still neglect the causes of stress in the professional milieu and its adverse effects in the enterprise.

This exposure also tries to provide an answer plan on the theme while ignoring statistical data’s, which can be carried out on a later stage by students interested to further their studies on Psychophysiology. CONTENT ? INTRODUCTION ? ORIGINS OF TERM « STRESS» ? WHAT IS JOB STRESS? ? WHAT CAUSES JOB STRESS IN THE PROFESSIONAL MILIEU (CAMEROON CONTEXT)? 1. ANALYSIS OF THEORICAL ORIGINS OF JOB STRESS IN THE PROFESSIONAL MILIEU 2. THE METHODOLOGY APPROACH ADOPTED THE PREVENTION AND SOLVING OF JOB STRESS RELATED PROBLEMS. ? THE EFFECTS OF JOB STRESS? 1. ON INDIVIDUALS 2. ON ORGANISATION ? SYMPTOMS OF STRESS ? CONCLUSION INTRODUCTION Work Stress is recognised world-wide as a major challenge to workers’ health and the healthiness of their organisations. Workers who are stressed are likely to be unhealthy, poorly motivated, less productive and less safe at work. Hence this makes it difficult for their organisations to be successful in the competitive market.

Stress being perceived under the work domain remains a major preoccupation to conscious managers as it influences the competence and behavior of human resource personnel’s constituting the organisation, their motivation and their contributions to attain the objectives of the organisation. Stress can be brought about by pressures at home and at work. Employers cannot usually protect workers from stress arising outside work, but they can protect them from stress that arises through work.

Stress at work can be a real problem to the organisation as well as to its workers. Good management and good work organisation are the best forms of stress prevention. If employees are already stressed their managers will be aware of it and know how to help. ORIGINS OF TERM « STRESS» According to the European Agency of health security at work (2002), stress arises when there is disequilibrium between the perception that a person have following the constrains imposed on him by his environment and the perception of using his own resources to face these constrains.

In 1963, Pieron, identified stress to aggressions or violent actions exercised on an organism moving from electrical to emotional choc or acute frustration. Also, the term « STRESS» may refer to the response of a human organism to factors of physiological and psychological aggression (Hans Seyle, 1956), stress only found its place in management sciences at the end of the 70’s (Gamassou 2004), following the research carried out by some American social psychologists on the “Burn-out” concept which was later considered true by Edelwish and Brodsky (1980) as the ultimate phase of degradation process caused by stress.

Following studies carried out by the international labour office, job stress is on a constant increase and this increase has caused European and Nord Americans enterprises to consider it as a new major risk to which we are faced with. In Africa and notably in Cameroon, when the necessity to reinvigorate human resources seems to be well perceived by many managers, stress management on the other hand remains strangely sibylline and practically excluded from the framework of challenges managers have to overcome in order to increase competivity of the enterprise in a very unstable or turbulent environment.

WHAT IS JOB STRESS? Work-related stress is the response people may have when presented with work demands and pressures that are not matched to their knowledge and abilities and which challenge their ability to cope. Stress occurs in a wide range of work circumstances but it is often made worst when employees feel they have little support from supervisors and colleagues and where they have little control over work and they can cope with its demands and pressures. Pressure and Stress: There is often confusion between Pressure or challenge and stress and sometimes it is used to excuse bad management practices.

Pressure at the workplace is unavoidable due to demands of the contemporary work environment. Pressure perceived as acceptable by an individual, may even keep workers alert, motivated, able to work and learn depending on the available resources personal characteristics. However when that pressure becomes excessive or otherwise unmanageable it leads to Stress. Stress results from a mismatch between the demands and pressures on the person and on the one hand, their knowledge and abilities, on the other hand.

It challenges their ability to cope with work. This includes not only situations where the pressures of work exceeds the worker’s ability to cope but also where the worker’s knowledge and abilities are not sufficiently utilised and that is a problem for them. Despite the preoccupations of personnel’s at work, some managers are still silent to all these challenges, which they see as a taboo and this leaves their enterprises out of any investigations of job stress. WHAT CAUSES STRESS IN THE PROFESSIONAL MILIEU (CAMEROON CONTEXT)?

Faced with the strange blindness of these managers, it then becomes important to find answers to preoccupations which affect the personnel’s, this then give rise to 2 fundamental problematic: • What are the determinants of stress in the professional milieu? • How to mitigate the adverse effects? To answer these questions will mean providing an answer plan on the theme: > To provide an answer plan for this theme we will require a methodology. This methodology has 3 successive steps; – The Introduction (Obligatory) – The Body (Obligatory) – The Conclusion (optional) ? INTRODUCTION

The introduction is the first and most indispensable exercise. It is compulsory and consists of three main steps which include: • A summary of facts (definition of stress/origins) • Raising the problematic (Determinants/Adverse effects) • The announcement of the Plan For the Examiner to be interested in the body, the introduction must be very seductive so as to attract the examiner. A good introduction implies good marks while a poor one insinuates a poor mark. There are 6 items very essential in the introduction namely; ? The putting in place of the question ? The definition of key words The delimitation of the scope ? The problematic ? The interest of the question ? The announcement of the plan. We shall therefore in an attempt to respond to the aforementioned theme envisage in (I) what are the determinants of stress in the professional milieu? and in (II) how to mitigate the adverse effects? (The announcement of the plan) ? THE BODY This is where the candidate has to exigate his understanding of the question given to him. Thus after the announcement of the plan in the introduction, the candidate should skip at least a line of hisher answer sheet to start the body of the work.

The following trend or schema is a detailed outline of how the of the work should look like; I- A- 1- 2- 3- 4- B- 1- 2- 3- II- A- 1- 2- 3- B- 1- 2- 3- 4- 5- ? Conclusion It is an overture or opening of a new debate and it is optional or facultative. Thus from the above question this is what it looks like; I. What are the determinants of stress in the professional milieu? Faced with a strange blindness some managers are cut up in stress due to their poor work organisation, that is, the way they design jobs and work systems can cause work stress.

Excessive and otherwise unmanageable demands and pressures can be caused by poor work design, poor management and unsatisfactory working conditions. All these elements are seen as determinants of stress for which two orientations will help us to explain them. They are; A. Analysis of the theoretical origins of stress in the Professional Milieu. The term job stress or occupational stress is generally applied to design the state of stress of man at work. Work stress was studied according principal distinct approaches (Gamassou, 2002): The American School of behavioral tradition, positivist in its epistemological positioning and rather quantitativist in its methods and the French school inscribed in a current drawing from the works carried out in psycho-analysis such as and psycho-dynamism of work. Numerous investigations where being effectuated by several researchers trying to provide insights into the psychosocial factors of aggression and symptoms of work stress (Mclean, 1974; Cooper and Marshall, 1976, Cox and Mackay, 1981; Sharit and Salvendy, 1982; Cooper, 1985; Cox, 1987).

Certain comparative studies instead tried to characterise the specificity of stress induced by different professional activities (Caplan and al. , 1975) and to propose diverse solutions to reduce the factors of stress and ameliorate the capacity of individual adaptation to working conditions (Mclean and al. , 1978). We shall then present and analyse below the theoretical models explaining the phenomenon A. 1. Selye and the General Adaptation Syndrome Dr.

Hans Seyle studied the first stress phenomena and specified in 1956 the concept of . According to him, the human body only has a limited capacity to respond to stress, which is very important from the medical viewpoint. An excess of stress over a long time period ends up by exhausting the resistance capacity of stress agents. In his model, Seyle instead adopted a biomedical stress approach, which puts to evidence its physiological bases and gives an objective support to the relation between stress and health.

If the effects of stress are good, challenging and allows a good adaptation of the subject, we talk of eustress (good stress, positive stress or motivating stress), if they are instead bad and causes damages to the individuals we then talk of distress (bad stress, negative stress or inhibitive stress). From a previous contribution the (1979), the author suggests that faced with a stressful stimulus, the organism reacts in three phases: this is the triptych of general syndrome known under the name or (S. G. A) syndrome generale d’adaptation.

The different phases are as follows: • Alarm or Alert reaction From a confrontation with the situation assessed as stressful, hormones are liberated by the organism via the adrenal medulla: catecholamine’s (80% adrenaline and 20% noradrenalin). These hormones have as effect to increase the cardiac frequency, blood pressure, the level of vigilance, body temperature, and to provoke a vasodilatation of the muscular vessels. All these modifications have as goal to prepare the organism to combat or to flee. • Resistance If the stressful situation persists, the organism enters into a phase of resistance.

A second neurohormonal axis (or corticotropic axis) is activated, hence preparing the organism for energetic loss which will necessitate the response to stress. New hormones, glucocorticoids are secreted increasing sugar levels in the blood to supply the energy necessary to the muscles, heart and brain while maintaining a constant glucose level. Glucocorticoids have the particularity of halting their own secretion by retroaction; the quantity liberated in the blood is detected by receptors of the central nervous system that adapts the secretion. It is hence a self regulatory system. Exhaustion Exhaustion appears when the system can no longer adapt to stimulus or still when the mechanisms of the phases above are insufficient and the capacity of the organism overflows, this phase is characterised by essentially by a hyper-stimulation of the corticotropic axis: the retroactive loop mentioned above becomes inefficient, the receptors of the central nervous system becomes less sensitive to glucocorticoids which constantly increases in circulation. The organism is submerged with activative hormones capable of causing harm to health.

As a critic to this model, we may note the mechanist stimulus-response type developed by Seyle also have its own explicative limits, in particular sine the psychic dimension of the individual is not taken into account (Gamassou, 2004). A. 2. The Turcotte Model Turcotte (1983) developed a model in which, contrary to Seyle, he integrates a complete definition of stress incorporating subjective, cognitive, physical effects and relative to behaviors. For him, professional and organisational stress supposes the existence of organisational factors, but more contextual and personal factors have to be taken into account or consideration.

The model can be schematise as follows; Source: Turcotte This model show the importance of contextual or personal factors insists on the mental and physical capacity of the individual, according to that capacity is exceeded or not following the pressures exercised by the different stressful factors. The environment then emits sources of stress (perturbations). The individual who has a good tolerance for stress (mental and physical capacities not exceeded) could adapt and instead have a positive stress which will lead to sef-realisation.

On the other hand he may not be able to adapt if his mental and physical capacities are exceeded. In this case, the symptoms of stress then appear (negative stress). A. 3. The Karasek Model The mental tension model presented by Karasek (1979) in his founding article is situated after Gamassous (2004) in a transactional approach even though it was inscribed in an interactional approach where the characteristics of the workers, work functions and their interactions are taken into account.

This model essentially used in epidemiological studies on work stress, presents the advantage of proposing an explanation of work stress while meeting two types of factors of stress: – Psychological demand associated to the constrains linked to the task (quantity, complexity, time constrain etc): – The decisional latitude which recovers on one part the control we have on our work that’s to say the more or less autonomy we have in the organisation of tasks and the participation in decision taking, and on the other part using his competencies: possibility of using his qualifications, capacity to develop new competencies, the meeting of 2 characteristics permitting to define 4 situations of work (see diagram below). | |Psychological demand | | | | | |Decisional | | | |latitude | | | | | |Low |high | | |Low |Passive work e. g. |Very Restrictive work, | | | |night-watch, monitoring |e. g. waiters, | | | |personnel’s |receptionists etc | | |high |Less Restrictive work e. g. |Active work e. g. | | |researcher |medicines, leaders of | | | | |e/se, farmers. | Source: Karasek R. A,” Job demands, job decision latitude and mental strain; implication for job redesign”. The situation exposing more on stress in this model is the fact that it combines at a time a high psychological demand and a low decisional latitude. It is important to note that a third dimension was introduced in the model. It concerns social support at work (socio-emotional and technical support) from colleagues and hierarchical personnel which lessens the disequilibrium (psychological demand/decisional latitude).

A situation combining both a high psychological demand and a low decisional latitude (overloaded work), is better supported if the person is sustained or can count on his professional entourage. Baudelot and Gollac (2003) brought forward the results of their investigations on work and happiness from those obtained by Karasek theoretical and methodological approach. They arrived at a result for which the dynamic situations (high psychological demand/decisional latitude) are close to what they called that’s the situation of those investing themselves more in their professional activity and achieve important psychological gains (eventually material) corresponding as to them to a withdrawal that’s to say the situation for those for which work doesn’t procure happiness but a source of visible misfortune (Baudelot and Gollac, 2003).

The situations of overloading (high psychological demands and low decisional latitudes) corresponding to what they called >. Karasek proposes in his model that increase in work constrains should be counterbalanced by a higher autonomy. A. 4. The Transactional Model of Lazarus and Folkman The transactional model of stress proposed by these authors (1984) lays emphasis on the evaluation of the situation that’s to say on the mental activity (cognitive) of the person in situation of stress. This method said to be of is based on their definition of stress 1984 and which centers on the neo-behaviorist conception where it is considered that there is a reciprocal modification of the individual and his context.

The process of stress is then conceived as a juxtaposition of mediating variables in action under the influence of independent variables (dispositional and situational) and producing consequences more or less harmful to health. The principal mediating variables are stress perceived, conceived as a special relation between the person and the environment, control perceived which reposes on an evaluation relative to a threat and personal resources and the capacity to confront (coping), defined as a stable predisposition to respond to stress in a particular manner. In effect if we hold to their definition: Stress does not reside neither in the situation nor in the individual but in a transaction between the individual and the situation. What causes stress is the particular relation between the individual and his environment.

The model is presented as follows: |Primary (Perceive stress) |Secondary (perceive control) | |Does the situation comprises a | | |stake/ challenge for me? |What then can I do? | |If yes, is it; | | |A loss |Is it possible for me to | |A threat |intervene, to change something to | |A challenge |the situation, taking into account| | |my resources? | Centered on the problem Centered on emotions Source: Lazarus and folkman, stress, appraisal and coping. Face with a situation posing him problems, the person first of all evaluates the stakes of these problems: Does it represent a loss, threat, challenge?

This has to do with stress perceived (or primary evaluation). He evaluates thereafter the resources he has to react, respond and eventually intervenes on the situation at hand. It concerns control perceived (o secondary evaluation). This double evaluation will then determine the response orientations vis-a-vis the situation of stress. We then talk of or stress adjustments (coping). These coping strategies could be orientated towards the resolution of the problem (research solutions, better organization, demand of assistant from colleagues etc) or still towards the management of emotions generated by stress (express anger, or still inhibit, ruminate mistakes etc) .

The examination of the models above we described permitted us to understand that the factors of stress linked to the professional context are diverse and evolves at the same time as the work world. These factors may be regrouped into 5 main categories; the factors linked to the content of work, factors linked to the organisation of work, factors linked to work relations, factors linked to the physical and technical environment of work and those linked to the pertinence of stress in the context of Cameroonian enterprises necessitates it to be explained by a methodology approach. B. The Methodological Approach Adopted. The methodological approach here will consist of describing the sample, on which the investigation was based, the instruments of measurement of stress likewise the statistics used. B. 1. Characteristics of the Sample

The investigation was effectuated with the help of a questionnaire conceived to be filled during an interview with the employees. The major characteristics of a sample to note here will be the duration of the investigation, the areas of investigation e. g. (Douala, Yaounde etc), number of exploitable questionnaires, the category of workers interviewed, sector of activity, sex etc. In addition to these characteristics we also have to calculate from the elements above the rate of response, rate of experienced workers more than 5years and those less than 2 years. The sex percentage and the percentage of the category of workers. B. 2. The Measure of Stress and the type of Personality Numerous scales already approved exist to measure the state of stress. We can ention amongst others the questionnaire of the Middlesex hospital used by Cooper (1984) measuring mental health, the job satisfaction scale (Caplan, 1975) permitting to measure the in-satisfaction at work. , Cooper’s job stress questionnaire, 1981 measuring the level of professional stress. The sources of stress were being measured following from an instrument composed of 26 items adapted by Hellriegel and al. (1992) and Cooper Marshal (1979). The reliability of internal coherence was measured with the Alpha of Cronbach which has to be greater or equal to 0. 6. (See table no 1: sources and measures of work stress page 265 by Jean Douanla). The variable was measure by a nominal scale via 3 categories: be it or not stressful corresponding to a positive stress, stressful and an advanced state of stress.

Those considered to be in a positive stress state are those declared to be undecided, disagrees on the set of 24 symptoms felt when ever we are stressed up and which affects the mental and physical health on professional in- satisfaction and on organisational symptoms. The persons in the state of stress are those who declared being in accord with the set of items proposed meanwhile those in the situation of advanced stress are those who agreed on the set of manifestations of stress subjected to. As to the measure of the type of personality, we have regrouped in type A, supposed to be exposed to stress, persons having acknowledged that the 15 propositions formulated for the circumstance was or > in their case. B. 3. The Statistics Methods Used.

To identify the agents of stress, the nature of the categorical variables present have orientated us mainly towards the methods of factorial analysis and notably that of; the factorial analysis of multiple correspondences (AFCM). The determination of the number of factors to take into consideration is done from the rule of minimum restitution, which permitted us to archive the first 5 factors for a restitution rate of 70. 02% as shown by the histogram on graph no 1: (histogram of the first 10 real values. See page 266 by Jean Douanla). II. How to mitigate the adverse effects? A. The Prevention of Work Stress There are a number of ways by which the risk of work stress can be reduced. These include: A. 1.

Primary Prevention It reduces stress through: • Ergonomics, • Work and Environmental design, • Organisational and Management Development A. 2. Secondary Prevention It reduces stress through: • Worker education and training, and A. 3. Tertiary Prevention It reduces the impact of stress by: • Developing more sensitive and responsible management systems and enhanced occupational health provision. A good employer designs and manages work in a way that avoids common risk factors for stress and prevents as much as possible foreseeable problems. B. Solving Work Problems Related Problems They are various strategies to solve work stress problems: B. 1.

Work Redesign The best strategies for work redesign focus on demands, knowledge and ability, support and control and include: • Changing the demands of work • Ensure that employees develop the appropriate knowledge and abilities to perform their jobs effectively • Improve employees’ control over the way the do their work. • Increase the amount and quality of support they receive. B. 2. Stress Management Training • Ask employees to attend classes on relaxation, time management, and assertiveness training or exercise. B. 3. Ergonomics and Environmental Design • Improve equipment use at work and physical working conditions. B. 4. Management Development Improve managers’ altitude towards dealing with stress, their knowledge and understanding of it and their skills to deal with the issue as effectively as possible. B. 5. Organisational Development • Implement better work and management systems. Develop a more friendly and supportive culture. THE EFFECTS OF JOB STRESS A. On Individuals: Stress affects different people in different ways. The experience of work stress can cause unusual and dysfunctional behavior at work and contribute to poor physical and mental health. In extreme cases, long term stress or traumatic events at work may lead to psychological problems and be conductive to psychiatric disorders resulting in the absence from work and preventing the worker from being able to work again.

When affected by work stress people may: – Become increasingly distressed and irritable – Become unable to relax or concentrate – Have difficulty thinking logically and making decisions – Enjoy their work less and feel less committed to it – Fell tired, depressed, anxious – Have difficulty sleeping – Experience serious physical problems such as: ? Heart disease, ? Disorders of the digestive system, ? Increase in blood pressure, headaches, ? Musculo – skeletal disorders such as low back pain and upper limb disorders. B. On Organisations: If a key staff or a number of workers are affected, work stress may challenge the healthiness and the performance of their Organisation.

Unhealthy Organisations do not get the best from their workers and this may affect not only their performance in the increasingly competitive market but eventually even their survival Work stress is thought to affect Organisations by: – Increasing absenteeism – Decreasing commitment to work – Increasing staff turnover – Impairing performance and productivity – Increasing unsafe working practices and accident rates. – Increasing complaints from clients – Adversely affecting staff recruitment – Increasing liability to legal claims and actions by stressed workers – Damaging the Organisation’s image both amongst its workers and externally. SYMPTOMS OF STRESS There exist many symptoms of work stress, for which can be classified into 3 categories: Physical symptoms |Emotional and Mental |Behavioral Symptoms | | |Symptoms | | | | | | |-Muscular tensions |-Agitation |-The negative perception of| |-Digestive Problems |-Irritation |the reality | |-Sleeping or appetite |-Indecision |-disorgainsation | |problems |-Worries |-Difficulty in relations | |-Headaches |-Anxiousness |-Absenteeism | |-Dizziness |-lack of happiness |-Isolation tendencies | |-Shortness of |-Melancholy |-Abuse of the television | |Breath |-loss of libido |-increased consumption of | |-Fatigue |-difficulty to |tobacco, caffeine, sugar, | | |concentrate |chocolate, alcohol, drugs. | | |-low self-esteem |-Avoiding very demanding | | | |situations. | | | | | CONCLUSION The objective of this work was to identify the causes of stress in the Cameroonian professional milieu given the extent of the phenomena. The interest in such a study resides in the fact that the knowledge of potential factors of work stress permits to intervene to avoid, eliminate or mitigate (ease) their action.

The results of the different investigations serve as prove to the extent of this phenomenon. It is also important to make evaluations on symptoms faced by those interviewed at the moment of investigation for which most of them where organisational symptoms (absenteeism, mostly observed in the public sectors and accidents at work for workers in the private sector) We may also note for the second group, the evident presence of professional in-satisfaction characterised by a lack of motivation and implication at work. Those manifesting the all of symptoms (mental health, physical health, professional in-satisfaction and organizational symptoms), but in non alarming proportions.

It is clear from this research that job stress results essentially from the interaction between working conditions and the personality of the individual. However it should be noted that stress factors do no react in the same way from working environment and personality of the individual. For example the characteristics of the task (repetitive work, monotonous, absence of autonomy, etc) considered as veritable causes of stress, occurs to almost all the employees in the sample as minor stress or exercising no influence on the state of the employee. It is also the same with the quality of relationship with persons outside the enterprise and the ambiguity of the role presented by both being very susceptible to generate work stress (Wisner, 1981; Pratt and Barling, 1988).

However, virtually all the other factors linked to the professional milieu such as work charge, physical environment of work, and certain organisational factors proved to be chronic stress ors in the Cameroonian professional milieu. To prevent job stress the measures put in place should aim at reducing or totally eliminating stress factors and to reduce emotional tensions of the individual. Sharit and Salvendiy (1982) suggest measures of both organisational and psychological forms based on the ergonomic analysis of the professional activity. Moreover an ergonomic conception of the professional activity, an enlargement and enrichment of tasks may lead contribute valuably to the prevention of stress at the professional milieu, even though the enrichment of tasks could influence the production flow.

To ameliorate the psychosocial environment and reduce psychic stress or still psychophysiology stress some authors mentions the participation of the workers to the decisions at work, the encourage for the hierarchy and social support from colleagues. As a man thinks in his heart, so is he. ~Proverbs 23:7 ———————– THE UNIVERSITY OF YAOUNDE II FACULTY OF ECONOMICS AND MANAGEMENT P. O BOX 1365 Determinants of JOB stress in the Cameroonian context OPTION: MASTER’S 1 (GESTION) Produced BY OLIVER LAFEN groupvalidators@yahoo. com 76655032 Exceeded GLORIOUS PRODUCTIONS Individual Capacities Inadaptation Alienation Environ. Demandes (Pertubations) Creative Adaptation Positive stress (self-realisation) Negative stress (symptoms of stress) Adaptation Strategies ———————– 3

Prac Report

Nerissa Govender 209539579 CHEM 310 Experiment 1- Synthesis of Co (acac)3 Date of experiment performed: 03 August 2011 Date of hand in: 10 August 2011 Aim To prepare cobalt (III) acetylacetonate in the laboratory using cobalt (II) carbonate and acetylacetone at room temperature and pressure. Introduction The anion acetylacetone (acac) used in this practical functions as a ligand which forms a complex with the cobalt metal cation in an octahedral array where there is electrostatic bonds between the cobalt metal and both the oxygen’s of the acetylacetone to form a six membered ring1.

Figure1: The 3-D molecular structure of cobalt (III) acetylacetonate 2 Figure2(a): Water formed as a by-product2 Figure2(b): Carbon dioxide formed as a by-product2 The hydrogen peroxide used in this practical as an oxidizing agent to produce the cobalt (III) acetylacetonate from cobalt (II) carbonate and a stoichiometrically calculated amount of acetylacetone3. 2CoCO3 + 6CH 3COCH 2COCH3 + H2O2 2Co(CH3COCHCOCH3 ) + 2CO2 + 4H2O 4 (1) Equation (1) shows stoichiometrically the reaction that occurs between the reagents.

The transition of Co2+ to Co3+ is apparent by the colour change of the new complex formed which is a shiny greenish black colour from a dull brown colour. Experimental Procedure A slurry of cobalt (II) carbonate and acetylacetone was made using (2. 53g, 0. 021 mole) of cobalt (II) carbonate and approximately (20ml, 0. 2mole) of acetylacetone, these were added to an 100ml Erlenmeyer flask and were stirred with a glass stirring rod to produce the slurry. The mixture was then heated to 100°C on a hot plate the temperature was measured using a thermometer placed directly into the slurry.

The mixture was removed from the heat and hydrogen peroxide was added directly to the mixture at a rate of 2ml/min ensuring that the solution did not bubble over from the hydrogen peroxide being added in too fast. The mixture was then placed back on the hotplate where it was heated to incipient boiling i. e. when the boiling of the mixture had just become apparent. The mixture was removed from the hotplate and another 15ml of hydrogen peroxide was added ensuring no bubbling over of the solution.

The mixture was placed back onto the hotplate where it was heated to boiling. The mixture was removed from the hotplate and placed in an ice bath laced with salt to decrease the temperature of the ice bath as a result of decreasing the freezing point of the water. The mixture was left in the ice bath to cool for twenty minutes where a green-black sludge was noted. The sludge was filtered off under suction using a Buchner funnel. The sludge was washed with water first and then cold ethanol in roughly 5ml amounts.

The material was removed from the filter paper and placed on a glass watch-glass where it was heated in an oven at 110°C. The compound was allowed to dry and the mass was determined using a 2-decimal place mass balance and weigh boat. The resulting compound produced was Cobalt (III) acetylacetone which weighed (2. 96g,0. 021 mole, m. p. 212°C,lit5 210-214°C ) and was in the form of a shiny green black powder. Calculations The percentage yield was calculated as follows; 2CoCO3 + 6CH 3COCH 2COCH3 + H2O2 2Co(CH3COCHCOCH3 ) + 2CO2 + 4H2O 4 (1)

Mass of Co(acac)3 obtained: 2. 96g Mole ratio of Co(acac)3 and CoCO3: 1:1 Molar mass Co(acac)3 = 58. 933 + 3[(5 x 12. 011) + (7 x 1. 0079) + (2 x 15. 999)] = 356. 26g/mol Theoretical mass of Co(acac)3 = n x MM = 0. 021mol x 356. 26g/mol = 7. 48g Percentage yield = (actual yield)/(theoretical yield) x 100 = 2. 96g/7. 48 x 100 = 39. 57% Discussion The low percentage indicates that product was lost or the reaction did not go to completion.

The reaction did go to completion as a large amount of product was seen before filtration was performed, most of the product was lost due to adding a larger amount of ethanol to the product than was necessary, since the resulting product was soluble ethanol this resulted in a large amount of product becoming soluble and which was filtered off as a result. Loss of product also occurred due to transferal from glassware from Buchner funnel to watch-glass due to scraping difficulties from scraping product from filter paper and the walls of the Buchner funnel.

An NMR spectrum can be obtained as a d6 complex is formed of low spin, we deduced this as Co3+ being of high oxidation state than its Co2+ state it has a higher splitting energy and therefore is strong field forcing all six electrons into the t2g orbitals, the electrons are all paired (diamagnetic) and does not affect the NMR spectrum as there is no interfering magnetic moment from unpaired electrons. The ligand acetylacetonate is a strong field ligand which also increases the splitting energy and is thus also strong field; therefore Co3+ will always form d6 low spin complexes.

References 1. http://www. molchem. science. ru. nl/molmat/mm-web/srm4. doc, (Accessed: 07/08/2011) 2. http://www. lookchem. com/cas-216/21679-46-9. html, (Accessed: 08/08/2011) 3. http://www. docstoc. com/docs/44965705/Process-For-The-Preparation-Of-Cobalt-(III)-Acetylacetonate—Patent-4338254, (Accessed: 08/08/2011) 4. http://course1. winona. edu/cmiertschin/450/Lab/Acac_lab. pdf, (Accessed: 08/08/2011) 5. Dr G Maguire, Inorganic Chemistry 310 practical manual, University of KwaZulu-Natal, 2011, page 2

Logistics Strategy

Content 1. Logistic also plays a role in customer satisfaction 1. 1 Overview 2. What is a logistic strategy? 3. Why implement a logistics strategy? 4. What is involved in developing a logistics strategy? 5. What is involved in developing a logistics strategy? 5. 1 Strategic 5. 2 Structural 5. 3 Functional 5. 4 Implementation 6. Components to examine when developing a logistics strategy 1. Transportation 6. 2 Outsourcing 6. 3 Logistics systems 6. 4 Competitors 6. 5 Information 6. 6 Strategy review 7. Strategic logistics planning . Risk profiles 9. Strategic logistics planning options 10. The strategic logistic plan 11. Developing the strategic logistics plan 12. Logistic Audit 13. Forecasting tools and techniques of strategic planning 13. 1 Benchmarking 13. 2 Environmental scanning 13. 3 scenario planning 13. 4 SWOT analysis 13. 5 The Delphi techniques 13. 6 Brainstorming 13. 7 product life cycle analysis 13. 8 Trend extrapolations 13. 9 Boston Matrix model 14. References Logistics Also Plays a Critical Role in Customer Satisfaction

Many services organizations make the mistake of focusing the vast majority of their customer service and satisfaction activities on external issues, often to the exclusion of key internal issues such as inventory management and logistics. However, these key internal issues can also play an important role in facilitating – or hampering – desired levels of customer service and satisfaction. This is especially true in a services environment that is becoming increasingly global in nature.

In other words, when looking to support its customers, a services organization should focus not only externally, at its direct customer interface and interaction, but also internally, at its global inventory management and logistics activities as well – especially as they might impact a multinational customer base. As a result of the increasing globalization of services, many larger companies are reorganizing their inventory and logistics operations to be more homogeneous.

Some utilize an organization structure where individual lines of business (LOBs) operate separately, but all come together at a senior level. Others may manage their logistics activities more on a geographically decentralized basis, rather than in an LOB-centric mode. In any case, the primarily criterion for determining what type of logistics operation to employ must ultimately be the way in which it can be expected to support customers in a global market.

Economics, of course, should always be a key consideration; however, all the cost savings and economies-of-scale that may be realized through a centralized structure will not mean a thing if the customers do not believe they being supported in the manner they require. Most services providers are acutely aware that if they do not support their customers with the service, parts and attention they require, they can generally find the level of support they require – elsewhere.

Further, in a truly global services environment, it has become increasingly apparent that each geography has a different range of customers, with different levels of service requirements. As a result, many organizations are trying to evolve to the point where they can respond directly to the customers’ needs; be easy to do business with; command the ability to meet their customers’ wants in every geography; and, whether they know it or not, meet their needs as well.

In order to accomplish this, some organizations have chosen to outsource many of their non-core competency activities, such as warehousing, distribution and certain types of equipment repair, to a select group of outsource vendors. For many years, most services organizations have utilized national and international courier services to handle nearly all of their shipping needs. Over the years, many of these couriers have expanded their portfolios to include different options for delivery (e. . , overnight, second day, same day, etc. ), as well as warehousing and general inventory management. Some are now also assisting their clients in inventory planning and forecasting. As a result, many services organizations no longer believe that they need to perform these activities themselves in addition to the various manufacturing, sales and marketing, and customer service activities that they are already performing on a day-to-day basis.

However, as more services organizations realize that the increasing costs of inventory management and logistics are likely to impact both their bottom lines and their ability to support customers – especially if they are presently running either an outdated or otherwise inefficient operation to begin with – they may have some strong reservations with respect to outsourcing some of these key activities.

The greatest fear among most organizations is that outsourcing will almost immediately result in the lessening of customer service performance, either real or perceived, and therefore, loss of control over an historically critical component of their overall customer service and support equation. Those organizations that have already moved toward outsourcing suggest that there are still many ways in which to ensure that the organization retains control over these critical areas.

It is true that some still believe that there are no outsource vendors that are truly global in terms of their inventory management and logistics capabilities – that some are good at warehousing, some are good at distribution, and some are better than others in certain geographies – but none are able to do it all globally. Still, others believe that there are only one or two superior vendors in each geography, and that it is critical to select the right ones to represent your business in each area.

Where one vendor is judged to be unable to “do it all” in a single geography, some organizations may require them to enter into arrangements where they must work with other local vendors to meet the organization’s specific requirements for supporting customers. Another way to get this type of “shared” scenario to work is to align the outsource vendors in each geography on the basis of their unique capabilities, and incorporate their services directly into the contract bidding process when responding to RFIs or RFPs.

Most organizations using this approach believe that by lining up the appropriate partners as part of the bid process, they can both get both a marketing edge over some of their competitors, as well as avoid the risk of quoting a bid and then not being able to deliver it either satisfactorily or profitably. By lining up their vendors prior to responding to the bid, and knowing what their approximate costs and terms are going to be before even getting the sale, they believe they can protect themselves in many ways, and avoid the risk of negatively impacting customer service.

The secret to success, of course, whether the organization goes it alone, or whether it utilizes the services of one or more outsource vendors in any global geography, is to ensure that all of the players involved work on a “partnership” basis. That is, that they work together as “partners” toward the common, necessary and, ultimately, profitable goal of providing customers with their desired levels of services parts and support, ultimately keeping them satisfied.

And the only way firm’s can enhance is to come up with a business logistics strategy. What Is a Logistics Strategy? When a company creates a logistics strategy it is defining the service levels at which its logistics organization is at its most cost effective. Because supply chains are constantly changing and evolving, a company may develop a number of logistics strategies for specific product lines, specific countries or specific customers. Why Implement a Logistics Strategy?

The supply chain constantly changes and that will affect any logistics organization. To adapt to the flexibility of the supply chain, companies should develop and implement a formal logistics strategy. This will allow a company to identify the impact of imminent changes and make organizational or functional changes to ensure service levels are not reduced. What Is Involved in Developing a Logistic Strategy? A company can start to develop a logistics strategy by looking at four distinct levels of their logistics organization.

Strategic: By examining the company’s objectives and strategic supply chain decisions, the logistics strategy should review how the logistics organization contributes to those high-level objectives. Structural: The logistics strategy should examine the structural issues of the logistics organization, such as the optimum number of warehouses and distribution centers or what products should be produced at a specific manufacturing plant. Functional: Any strategy should review how each separate function in the logistics organization is to achieve functional excellence.

Implementation: The key to developing a successful logistics strategy is how it is to be implemented across the organization. The plan for implementation will include development or configuration of an information system, introduction of new policies and procedures and the development of a change management plan. Components to Examine when Developing a Logistics Strategy When examining the four levels of logistics organization, all components of the operation should be examined to ascertain whether any potential cost benefits can be achieved.

There are different component areas for each company but the list should at least include the following: Transportation: Does the current transportation strategies help service levels? Outsourcing: What outsourcing is used in the logistics function? Would a partnership with a third party logistics company improve service levels? Logistics Systems: Do the current logistics systems provide the level of data that is required to successfully implement a logistics strategy or are new systems required? Competitors: Review what the competitors offer.

Can changes to the company’s customer service improve service levels? Information: Is the information that drives the logistics organization real-time and accurate? If the data is inaccurate then the decisions that are made will be in error. Strategy Review: Are the objectives of the logistics organization in line with company objectives and strategies. A successfully implemented logistics strategy is important for companies who are dedicated to keeping service levels at the highest levels possible despite changes that occur in the supply chain.

Strategic Logistics Planning Companies everywhere are under increasing pressure to improve customer service levels, while at the same time holding or, more likely, reducing the costs of their logistics operations. Meeting the twin challenge of customer service improvement and cost reduction now places distribution network design centre stage as a key business priority. Strategic logistics planning modelling is the best way to simulate the options.

Strategic logistics planning helps you choose the best service, least cost options for your business. Supply has the strategic logistics planning expertise and the tools to help you plan and optimize your distribution operations in ways that will significantly:- Improve customer service Reduce distribution costs By using a selection of sophisticated strategic logistics planning software tools we can model every aspect of your distribution network, including:- Product flows Customer locations Inventory profile and throughput

Sales forecasts Risk profiles We use the resulting data picture to develop potential alternative distribution strategies that reflect both current and optimal network designs. This enables us to develop in relatively short time-scales fully costed strategy options to facilitate effective decision-making. Strategic logistics planning options might include, for example:- Maintaining the present network design Consolidation of existing distribution depots Relocation of depot sites Outsourcing warehousing operations

Whatever the output of the strategic logistics planning modelling process, our clients can feel confident that the distribution strategy decisions they make are based on fact and an ability to see the whole picture. The strategic logistic plan The importance of planning Corporate planning is essential to long-term profitable business development change in the business environment increases the risk of business failure or loss of market position for firms whose management has neglected to consider alternative scenarios There are two types of plans:

The operating plan – which covers a period of one or two years The long-range plan – which covers a period of five or more years Evaluate probability of various scenarios and anticipate possible problems and opportunities By planning for change, management can anticipate capital requirements and, when necessary, arrange financing A major advantage of planning is that managers establish benchmarks, and therefore can measure their progress and take corrective action. DEVELOPING THE STRATEGIC LOGISTICS PLAN

A thorough understanding and appreciation of corporate strategies and marketing plans In order to provide sound strategies planning recommendations and move toward a logistics system that balances cost and service effectiveness • A customer service study • To determine what element of service are viewed as most important • How service is measured • What level of performance are expected • How the firm’s performance compares to competition • Identification of the total costs associated with alternative logistics systems • Identify the lowest cost network that meets corporate, marketing and • customer requirements

LOGISTIC AUDIT Management should establish a ‘task force’ to assist in the review process Management should determine what current corporate strategies and objectives could affect, or be affected by, logistics The task force should construct a list of key questions to serve as a basis for both internal and external audit interviews, for identifying weaknesses in the current system, and for recommending improvements.

Major customer segments must identify and conceptualize critical variable and measurements that are accurate, reliable, and efficient An external audit of customer perspectives and requirements should be undertaken to determine the firm’s performance, its competitive practices, and the specific levels of service required An internal audit of current logistics performance should be conducted.

This should involve two distinct process: Personal interviews with representatives from various functions throughout the firm Sampling of firm records and transaction data so that the existing operating system can be statically analyzed and performance accurately described Cost and service trade-off alternatives must be identified and analysed The questions identified must be addressed, and improvements and changes to the current system identified and recommended to management The new system that will be in operation after the recommended changes have taken place should be described and explained

FORECASTING TOOLS AND TECHNIQUES OF STRATEGIC PLANNING Benchmarking Here the logistician’s company or its products are examined and compared with other companies or products Environmental scanning Good managers scan environment for information daily (they keep their ears and eyes wide open, monitoring the global and local business environment) Scenario Planning The optimistic scenario, often called ‘the high road’ The likely scenario, often called ‘the middle road’ The pessimistic scenario, often called ‘the low road’ SWOT analysis

The strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats facing the company are all put on the table here. The Delphi techniques It involves the development, evaluation and synthesis of individual viewpoints on a specific topic, often lead by a facilitator who steers the discussion and collates all the various points of view under one heading Brainstorming It means exploring the ideas of all the members of the team Product life-cycle analysis This is an evaluation of where a product life cycle (the four phases are Introduction, Growth, Maturity, and Decline)

Trend extrapolations Extrapolating trends means mentally exploring the likely result if a process continues If adequate data is available, then trend can be plotted on a graph and an extrapolation can be made This method helps in marking predictions and corrections The Boston Matrix model This model identifies each business unit or product so as to determine how it is performing from the profitability point of view Competitor Analysis Potential of new entrants into the market

Possibility of your customer’s buying a substitute product The competition within the industry The bargaining power of your suppliers The bargaining power of your buyers REFERENCE Douglas M. Lambert. James R. Stock. Lisa M. Ellram Fundamentals of Logistics Management. A Mcgraw-Hill International Editions. Kent N. Gourdin. Global logistics management: a competitive advantage for 21st century 2nd Edition 2006 William K. Pollock A Customer Service column in the April 1999 issue of AFSMI’s (The Professional Journal. )

Quantum Entanglement Theory

Rev. Richard Ramsey Advanced Theoretical Physics 301 November 26, 2010 1. Introduction Quantum entanglement is ubiquitous, appears everywhere in the microscopic world (See, e. g. , Durt, 2004; Brooks, 2005) and under some circumstances manifests itself Macroscopically (Arnesen, et al, 2001; Ghost et al, 2003 & Julsgaard et al, 2001). Indeed, it Is currently the most intensely studied subject in physics. Further, speculations abound as to Its nature and implications (See, e. g. , Clarke, 2004, Josephson, 1991 & Radin, 2004).

There are many general and technical papers written on the subject. So cutting to the chase, we shall immediately outline our propositions on the subject and then discuss each in some detail with references to existing literature whenever possible. We should point out that our propositions are outside the mainstream physics and other authors may hold similar views on some of the points we shall make in this paper. We will also discuss the roles of Quantum entanglement in spin-mediated consciousness theory (Hu & Wu, 2002, 2003, 2004a-d).

The following are our propositions about the ontological origin, implications and applications of quantum entanglement: 1) It originates from the primordial spin processes in non-spatial and non-temporal Pre-space-time. It is the quantum “glue” holding once interacting quantum entities together in pre-space-time, implies genuine interconnectedness and inseparableness of the said quantum entities and can be directly sensed and utilized by the entangled quantum entities. ) It can influence chemical/biochemical reactions, other physical processes and micro- and macroscopic properties of all forms of matters, thus, playing vital roles In many biological processes and consciousness. It is the genuine cause of many anomalous effects (if they do exist) in parapsychology, alternative medicine and other fields as some authors have already suspected in some cases. 3) It can be harnessed, tamed and developed into revolutionary technologies to serve the mankind in many areas such as health, medicine and even recreation besides the already emerging fields of uantum computation. 2. The Origin and Nature of Quantum Entanglement Popular opinion has it that Erwin Shrodinger coined the word “entanglement” and first used it in 1935 in his article published in the Proceedings of Cambridge Philosophical Society (Shrodinger, 1935). Mathematically, Shrodinger showed that entanglement arises from the interactions of two particles through the evolution of Shrodinger equation and called this phenomenon the characteristic trait of quantum theory (id. ). Einstein called quantum entanglement “spooky action at a distance” in the famous EPR debate (See, e. . , Einstein et al, 1935). Ontologically, we argue that quantum entanglement arises from the primordial self-referential spin processes which are the driving force behind quantum effects, space-time dynamics and consciousness as we have argued previously (Hu & Wu, 2003; 2004a). Pictorially, two interacting quantum entities such as two electrons get entangled with each other through the said spin processes by exchanging one or more entangling photons with entangling occurring in pre-space-time. Such ontological interpretation is supported by existing literature as discussed below.

First, Hestenes showed that in the geometric picture for the Dirac electron the zitterbewegung associated with the spin is responsible for all known quantum effects of said electron and the imagery number i in the Dirac equation is said to be due to electronic spin (See, e. g. , Hestines, 1983). Second, in Bohemian mechanics the “quantum potential” is responsible for quantum effects (Bohm and Hiley, 1993). Salesi and Recami (1998) have recently shown that the said potential is a pure consequence of “ internal motion” associated with spin evidencing that the quantum behavior is a direct consequence of the fundamental existence of spin.

Esposito (1999) has expanded this result by showing that “ internal motion” is due to the spin of the particle, whatever its value. Bogan (2002) has further expanded these results by deriving a spin-dependent gauge transformation between the Hamilton-Jacobi equation of classical mechanics and the time-dependent Shrodinger equation of quantum mechanics which is a function of the quantum potential of Bohemian mechanics. Third, spin is a unique quantum concept often being said to have no classical counterpart (See Tomonaga, 1997) and associated with the “ internal motion” of a point particle.

Unlike mass and charge that enter a dynamic equation as arbitrary parameters, spin reveals itself through the structure of the relativistic quantum equation for fermions that combines quantum mechanics with special relativity (Dirac, 1928). Indeed, many models of elementary particles and even space-time itself are built with spinors (Budinich, 2001; Penrose, 1960 & 1967). Pauli (1927) and Dirac (1928) were the first to use spinors to describe the electron.

Also, Kiehn (1999) showed that the absolute square of the wave function could be interpreted as vorticity distribution of a viscous compressible fluid that also indicates that spin is the process driving quantum mechanics. Therefore, in view of the foregoing it could be said that the driving force behind the evolution of Shrodinger equation is quantum spin and, since quantum entanglement arises from the evolution of Shrodinger equation the said spin is the genuine cause of quantum entanglement. What do we mean by pre-space-time?

Pre-space-time in this article means a non-spatial and non-temporal domain but it is not associated with an extra-dimension in the usual sense since there is no distance or time in such domain (See, e. g. , Hu & Wu, 2002). We have argued before that in a dualistic approach mind resides in this domain and unpaired nuclear and/or electronic spins are its pixels in the reductionist perspective (id. ). So pre-space-time is a holistic domain located outside space-time but connected through quantum thread/channel to everywhere in space-time enabling quantum entanglement or Einstein’s “ spooky action at a distance. It has similarity to Bohm’s concept of implicate order (Bohm & Hiley, 1993). Aerts (2004), Clarke (2004) and others have also expressed the non-space view of quantum nonlocality. Such a non-spatial and non-temporal pre-space-time is a “world” beyond Einstein’s relativistic world but does not contradict with the latter since the latter deals with classical physical events occurring within space-time. In contrast, quantum entanglement occurs within non-spatial and non-temporal omain. Therefore, instantaneous signaling through quantum entanglement in pre-space-time is possible if the entangled quantum entities can directly sense and/or utilize the entanglement. So what is then the essence of quantum entanglement? We propose that quantum entanglement is not merely the correlations of certain observable physical parameters in the process of measurement but genuine interconnectedness and inseparableness of once interacting quantum entities.

It is the quantum “ glue” holding once interacting quantum entities together in pre-space-time and can be directly sensed and utilized by the entangled quantum entities as further discussed below. It can be diluted through entanglement with the environment, i. e. , decoherence. 3. Implications of Quantum Entanglement It is often said that instantaneous signaling through quantum entanglement is impossible because of Eberhard’s theorem that basically says that since local measurements always produce random results no information can be sent through quantum entanglement alone (Eberhard, 1978).

However, there are at least two ways to circumvent this impossibility. The first is to assume that the statistical distribution can be modified and utilized to transmit information. Quite a few authors have expressed this view (Josephson, 1991; Stapp, 1982 & Walker, 1974) especially when discussing the roles of consciousness in parapsychology such as telepathy. The second is to assume that each quantum entity can directly sense and utilize quantum entanglement as already mentioned before.

This latter view is the view we subscribe to and it is permissible in the Bohemian picture (Bohm & Hiley, 1993). The implication of the second view is far-reaching. It means that quantum entanglement can influence chemical and biochemical reactions and other physical processes. Thus, it plays vital roles in many biological processes and consciousness and is the genuine cause of many anomalous effects, if they do exist, in parapsychology, alternative medicine and other fields as some authors have already suspected in some case.

It can affect the micro- and macroscopic properties of all forms of matters such solid and liquid. For example, the results reported by Rey (2003) that heavy water and highly diluted solutions of sodium chloride and lithium chloride behaved differently in the thermo luminescence tests can be explained as the consequence of water molecules forming different hydrogen bonds due to the entanglement of water molecule with sodium chloride or lithium chloride ions being diluted out of existence and its subsequent effect on hydrogen bond formation during freezing.

Indeed, in light of the recent results on observable macroscopic entanglement effects (Arnesen, et al, 2001; Ghost et al, 2003), the explanation offered herein is most likely true. For a second example, the so called “memory of water” effect (Davenas, et al, 1988), which is largely discredited by the mainstream scientists because of non-reproducibility, can be explained as the result of entanglement of the substances being diluted with water and then the subsequent entanglement of water with the quantum entities in the biochemical processes responsible for producing certain visible or detectable result.

Of course, quantum entanglement cannot directly serve as a reagent in a chemical reaction nor can it be recorded or transferred through any classical means such as a digital device within a computer or the telephone wire. So any claim of recordable or telephone -wire-transferable “ chemical signal” cannot be attributed to quantum entanglement.

Similarly, the therapeutic effect of a homeopathic remedy, if it truly exists beyond and above the placebo effect, can be explained as the entanglement of the substances being diluted out of existence through vigorous shaking/stirring with the diluting solvent and then the subsequent entanglement of the solvent with the quantum entities involved in the diseased biological and/or physiological processes and the effect of such entanglement on the latter processes.

Indeed, there are reports in the existing literature exploring the use of generalized entanglement to explain the therapeutic ingredient in a homeopathic remedy (See, e. g. , Milgrom, 2002; Wallach, 2000 & Weingartner, 2003). Further, many other unconventional healing effects reported in alternative medicine such as Qi Gong and other types of bioenergy healing, if they are genuine, can be explained as the results of quantum entanglement between the quantum entities involved in the diseased processes and the quantum entities in the healing sources, such as a healthy biological entity, and the effect of the ormer on the latter processes. For yet another example, all the results from Princeton Engineering Anomalies Research program over the last 26 years (Jahn & Dunne, 2005) can also be straightforwardly explained as the entanglement of the quantum entities controlled by human mind with the quantum entities responsible for the physical processes capable of producing modified random results.

By the same token, many if not all anomalous effects reported in parapsychology such as telepathy and those results reported by Grinberg- Zylberbaum (1987) and the repeaters (For a summary, see, Wackermann, 2005) can be simply explained as the results of quantum entanglement between the quantum entities capable of invoking action potentials in one person and those in a second person and the effect of one on the other through quantum entanglement. Grinberg-Zylberbaum himself speculated that his results had something to do with quantum entanglement (1994). 4.

The Ontological Origin of Quantum Computation Power It is said that the computational speed-up of a quantum computer is due to quantum entanglement (See, e. g. , Steane, 2000). However, the ontological origin of its power over classical computation is very much in dispute due to different interpretations of quantum mechanics (id. ). For example, some argue that, in terms of the amount of information manipulated in a given time, quantum superposition/entanglement permits quantum computers to ‘‘perform many computations simultaneously’’ which invoke the concept of vast numbers of parallel universes (See, e. . , Deutsch & Hayden, 2000; Deutsch, 2002). Others argue that quantum entanglement makes available types of computation process, which, while not exponentially larger than classical ones, are unavailable to classical systems (See, e. g. , Steane, 2000). Thus, according to Steane (2000), the essence of quantum computation is that it uses entanglement to generate and manipulate a physical representation of the correlations between logical entities, without the need to completely represent the logical entities themselves (id. . Do we have anything to add in light of our view expressed in this paper? The answer is “Yes. ” We argue that the types of computation process made available by quantum entanglement are the ones driven by the primordial spin processes in the non-spatial and non-temporal pre-space-time. Or, if you like, the power of quantum computation over classical computation originates from Bohm’ s implicate order driven by the primordial spin processes. 5. Applications of Quantum Entanglement

Recently, quantum computations have been achieved in the laboratory but they are implemented in controlled environment to prevent decoherence through entanglement of the system of interests with its surrounding environment. Indeed, it is also often said that the reason why we don’ t experience quantum entanglement in the macroscopic world is because of rapid decoherence within the macroscopic system. However, this view may rapidly change (See, e. g. , Brooks, 2005).

We are convinced that quantum entanglement can be harnessed, tamed and developed into revolutionary technologies to serve the mankind in many areas such as health, medicine and even recreation besides the emerging fields of quantum computation and communications. For example, once harnessed, quantum entanglement technologies can be used to deliver the therapeutic effects of many drugs to a target biological system such as a human body without ever physically administrating the said drugs to the said system.

Such technology would dramatically reduce waste and increase productivity because the same drugs can be repeatedly used to deliver their therapeutic effects to the mass. By the same token, many substances of nutritional and even recreational values can be repeatedly administrated to the human body through the said technologies. For a second example, the harnessed quantum entanglement technologies can also be used to entangle two or more human minds for legitimate purposes.

Further, the said technologies can be used for instantaneous communications with humans sent to the outer space. Are we delusional? We think not. We predict that the wonders of quantum entanglement technologies will be soon widely utilize to serve the mankind and a new paradigm of science will be born in the near future. 6. Quantum Entanglement in Spin-Mediated Consciousness Theory Our spin-mediated consciousness theory says that quantum spin is the seat of consciousness and the linchpin between mind and the brain, that is, spin is the mind-pixel (Hu & Wu, 2002, 2004a-d).

The starting point is the fact that spin is basic quantum bit (“qubit”) for encoding information and, on the other hand, neural membranes and proteins are saturated with nuclear spin carrying nuclei and form the matrices of brain electrical activities. Indeed, as discussed above, spin is embedded in the microscopic structure of space-time as reflected by Dirac equation and is likely more fundamental than space-time itself as implicated by Roger Penrose’ s work.

In the Hestenes picture the zitterbewegung associated with spin was shown to be responsible for the quantum effects of the fermion. Further, in the Bohm picture the internal motion associated with spin has been shown to be responsible for the quantum potential which, in turn, is responsible for quantum effects. Thus, if one adopts the minority quantum mind view, nuclear spins and possibly unpaired electron spins become natural candidates for mind-pixels (Hu & Wu, 2002; 2003; 2004a-d).

Applying these ideas to the particular structures and dynamics of the brain, we have theorized that human brain works as follows: Through action potential modulated nuclear spin interactions and paramagnetic O2/NO driven activations, the nuclear spins inside neural membranes and proteins form various entangled quantum states and, in turn, the collective dynamics of the said entangled quantum states produces consciousness through contextual, irreversible and non-computable means and influences the classical neural activities through spin chemistry (Hu & Wu, 2002; 2003; 2004a-d).

Existing literature supports the possibility of a spin-mediated consciousness. For example, it was shown that proton nuclear spins in nematic liquid crystal could achieve long-lived intra-molecular quantum coherence with entanglement in room temperature for information storage (Khitrin et al, 2002). Long-ranged (>10 microns) intermolecular multiple-quantum coherence in NMR spectroscopy was discovered about a decade ago (Warren, et al 1993). Long-lived (>. 5 milliseconds) entanglement of two macroscopic spin ensembles in room temperature has been achieved recently (Julsgaard, et al. 2001). Further, NMR quantum computation in room temperature is reality (Gershenfeld & Chuang, 1997). Therefore, according to our theory, consciousness is intrinsically connected to the spin process and emerges from the collective dynamics of various entangled spin states and the unity of mind is achieved by entanglement of these mind-pixels (Hu & Wu, 2002; 2003; 2004a-d).

Our theory is tentative as are all current theories about consciousness. As with other quantum mind theories, decoherence is a major concern as pointed out by Tegmark (2000) but may not be insurmountable (See, e. g. , Hagan, et. al. , 2002). We believe that the solution will be found through the study of the nature of quantum entanglement. Indeed, our dualistic approach adopted earlier (Hu & Wu, 2002) and described in more detail in this paper allows mind to utilize quantum entanglement to achieve the unity of mind in pre-space-time.

The essential question is, then, how does mind process and harness the information from the mind-pixels which form various entangled spin states so that it can have conscious experience. We have argued that contextual, irreversible and non-computable means within pre-space-time are utilized by mind to do this. Furthermore, we recognize that there may not be any large-scale quantum coherence in the warm and wet brain to support those quantum theories of mind that require macroscopic quantum effects. However, our theory does not depend on such a coherence to work in the dualistic approach. 7. Conclusion

In this article, we have discussed the ontological origin, implications and applications of quantum entanglement by thinking outside the standard interpretations of quantum mechanics. We have argued that quantum entanglement originates from the primordial self-referential spin processes in non-spatial and non-temporal pre-space-time, implies genuine interconnectedness and inseparableness of once interacting quantum entities, play vital roles in biology and consciousness and, once better understood and harnessed, has far-reaching consequences and applications in many fields such as medicine and neuroscience.

It follows then that quantum computation power also originates from the primordial spin processes in pre-space-time. We have also discussed the roles of quantum entanglement in our spin-mediated consciousness theory. Finally, the principle of science dictates that a scientific theory/hypothesis should only achieve legitimacy if it is experimentally verified.

Thus, since the summer of 2004 to the present, we have mainly focused our efforts on the quantification of our theory and the designs and implementations of computer simulations and experiments for the verifications of the same. Important results shall be reported as soon as can be practiced. Theory without practice proves nothing, and seeing as how we do not have the advancements needed to put such theories into practice, entanglement cannot currently provide sufficient evidence in Teleportation Theory at this time.

How Smelling of Farts Is Imp in Our Life

we must learn to smell farts as in our life our girl frends will say to smell her ass and then she will fart but if you will do yuck! then she will leave you ssssssssFifteenth of August” redirects here. For other uses, see August 15. Independence Day The national flag of india, on the Red fort in Delhi; a common sight on public and private buildings on national holidays like the 15th of August. Also calledThe Fifteenth of August ??????????? ???? Observed byIndia TypeNational

SignificanceThe day India became independent from British rule. DateAugust 15 CelebrationsFlag hoisting, Parades, Singing patriotic songs, Speech by the Prime Minister, Family reunions, Picnics, Kite flying The Independence Day of India is celebrated on the fifteenth of August to commemorate its independence from British rule and its birth as a sovereign nation in 1947. [1] The day is a national holiday in India. All over the country, flag-hoisting ceremonies are conducted by the local administration in attendance.

The main event takes place in Delhi, the capital city of India, where the Prime Minister hoists the national flag at the Red Fort and delivers a nationally televised speech from its ramparts. In his speech, he highlights the achievements of his government during the past year, raises important issues and gives a call for further development. The Prime Minister also pays his tribute to leaders of the freedom struggle. Contents [hide] 1 Background 2 Celebrations 3 See also 4 References 5 External links [edit]Background

In 1946 the Labour government in Britain, its exchequer exhausted by the recently concluded World War II, and conscious that it had neither the mandate at home, the international support, nor the reliability of native forces for continuing to control an increasingly restless India,[2][3] decided to end British rule of India, and in early 1947 Britain announced its intention of transferring power no later than June 1948. Map of India before Partition As independence approached, the violence between Hindus and Muslims in the provinces of Punjab and Bengal continued unabated.

With the British army unprepared for the potential for increased violence, the new viceroy, Louis Mountbatten, advanced the date for the transfer of power, allowing less than seven months for a mutually agreed plan for independence. In June 1947, the nationalist leaders, including Pandit Nehru, Abul Kalam Azad, Mohammed Ali Jinnah, B. R. Ambedkar and Master Tara Singh agreed to a partition of the country along religious lines. The predominantly Hindu and Sikh areas were assigned to the new India and predominantly Muslim areas to the new nation of Pakistan; the plan included a partition of the provinces of Punjab and Bengal.

Prime Minister Nehru, delivering the speech, Tryst With Destiny, at the house. Many millions of Muslim, Sikh, and Hindu refugees trekked across the newly drawn borders. In Punjab, where the new border lines divided the Sikh regions in half, massive bloodshed followed; in Bengal and Bihar, where Mahatma Gandhi’s presence assuaged communal tempers, the violence was more limited. In all, anywhere between 250,000 and 500,000 people on both sides of the new borders died in the violence. [4] On 14 August 1947, the new Dominion of Pakistan came into being, with Muhammad Ali Jinnah sworn in as its first Governor General in Karachi.

At the stroke of midnight, as India moved into August 15, 1947, Jawaharlal Nehru, read out the famous Tryst with destiny speech proclaiming India’s independence. India, now a smaller Union of India, became an independent country with official ceremonies taking place in New Delhi, and with Jawaharlal Nehru assuming the office of the first prime minister, and the viceroy, Louis Mountbatten, staying on as its first Governor General. [edit]Celebrations This section requires expansion. The Indian flag at Delhi Gate The Prime Minister of India hoists the Indian flag on the ramparts of the historical site, Red Fort (??? ????? , Delhi, on August 15. This is telecasted live on the National Channel Doordarshan and many other News Channels all over India. Flag hoisting ceremonies and cultural programs take place in all the state capitals. In the cities around the country the national flag is hoisted by politicians in their constituencies. In various private organisations the flag hoisting is carried out by a senior official of that organisation. Schools and colleges around the country organize flag hoisting ceremonies and various cultural events within their premises, where younger children in costume represent their idols of the Independence era. [edit]

Gsm Kpi Improvement

GSM KPI Improvement Process / Guidelines Key Performance Indicators – KPIs SDCCH Blocking SDCCH Drop TCH Drop Rate Handover Success Rate Limited Internal 2 NPI Training – Retainability 2005-09-30 Accessibility Definition Call to an MS MSC/VLR 1 TRC 1 BSC 5 3 2 1. MSC/VLR sends paging command to all BSCs belonging to the location area (LA) where MS is located 2. BSC forwards the paging command to all BTSs in that LA, and the BTSs in their turn page the MS on the PCH 3. The MS responds to the BTS on the RACH and the BTS forwards the response to the BSC (forward to MSC) 2 Accessibility 4 4. The BSCs checks with the BTS if it has an SDCCH available and the BTS grants the MS an SDCCH by using the AGCH 5. The MS and the BTS signal on the SDCCH, measurement reports sent on SACCH are forwarded from the BTS to the BSC and once the signalling is done the BSC decides which TCH to use 6. TCH connection established between MS and BTS BTS BTS 3 2 4 6 5 Limited Internal 3 NPI Training – Retainability 2005-09-30 SDCCH Congestion – Overview SDCCH Activities: ? Mobility Management – Normal Location update – Periodic Registration – IMSI Attach / Detach ? Connection Management – – – Call setup SMS Point to Point Fax Setup Supplementary Services Limited Internal 4 NPI Training – Retainability 2005-09-30 SDCCH Congestion – Overview Channel Configuration: ? Channel Configuration can be done as follow – Combined BCCH/SDCCH on 1 TS (SDCCH/4) – Non-Combined BCCH and SDCCH on 2 TS (SDCCH/8) ? Cell Broadcast Channel (CBCH) – – The Cell Broadcast service provides the transmission of an SMS from a message-handling centre to all MSs in the serving area of the BTS. If the Cell Broadcast service is active in a cell, one signaling sub-channel is replaced by one CBCH resulting in a SDCCH/7

Limited Internal 5 NPI Training – Retainability 2005-09-30 SDCCH Congestion – Overview SDCCH Channel Allocation Profile (CHAP) ? ? ? Channel Allocation is the feature that selects and allocates suitable channels when one or more channels are required Channel Allocation Profile (CHAP) is the parameter that provides different channel allocation strategies For SDCCH assignments, CHAP 8 prioritize new assignments as follows: 1. OL/SDCCH 2. UL/SDCCH (if OL/SDCCH is congested) Limited Internal 6 NPI Training – Retainability 2005-09-30 SDCCH Congestion – Overview A new assignment will use the SDCCH in OL first

B S T T T T P P T S T T T T T T T T T T T T T T T T T T T T T T OL (CHGR 0) B S T P BCCH timeslot SDCCH timeslot TCH timeslot PDCH timeslot UL (CHGR 1) If the OL is congested, the SDCCH in UL will be used B S T T T T P P T S T T T T T T T T T T T T T T T T T T T T T T OL (CHGR 0) UL (CHGR 1) Note SDCCH congestion in the OL will increment, but this is not customer perceived since the SDCCH in UL will then be utilized Limited Internal 7 NPI Training – Retainability 2005-09-30 SDCCH Dimensioning Strategy GOS Approach: ? SDCCH should be dimensioned for better GOS compare to TCH.

Typical range is 0. 5% – 1%. ? Immediate Assignment of TCH with “TCH as last option strategy” is recommended. ? It is recommended to add SDCCH when 0. 5 Erlang of signaling traffic is carried by TCH. ? Half Rate penetration, usage of Extended Range cell and HSCSD should be taken into consideration. STS Approach: ? Accurate dimensioning is achieved by using STS cell statistics Limited Internal 8 NPI Training – Retainability 2005-09-30 SDCCH Congestion Optimization Analyze the following issues that could be possible reasons for SDCCH Congestion: ? SDCCH Dimensioning ?

Incorrect use of SDCCH capacity features such as Adaptive Configuration of Logical channels ? TCH Congestion ? Location Areas not optimized ? SMS usage and Cell Broadcast channel ? SDCCH Availability Limited Internal 9 NPI Training – Retainability 2005-09-30 SDCCH Congestion Optimization The following recommendations will have a positive impact on SDCCH congestion ? ? ? ? ? ? Try not to use combined BCCH/SDCCH (SDCCH/4) Use the optional SDCCH capacity features such as the Adaptive Configuration of Logical Channel feature when available. Use Immediate Assignment on TCH, SDCCH first.

For manual dimensioning, use STS cell statistics Configure one SDCCH on the BCCH carrier and the others on the hopping layer (Non-BCCH) Use the Ericsson SDCCH Dimensioning guideline. Limited Internal 10 NPI Training – Retainability 2005-09-30 SDCCH Congestion Optimization The following issues are worth taking into account when analyzing SDCCH Congestion: ? Use LAPD STS statistics to evaluate LAPD congestion and optimize the LAPD Concentration factor ? Analyze border cells with a large amount of random access attempts resulting in SDCCH congestion. – Use Random Access optimization to solve the SDCCH congestion Take into account Timeslot priority when deciding where to configure SDCCH/8 Limited Internal 11 NPI Training – Retainability 2005-09-30 SDCCH Congestion Optimization S D C C H C C h e c k H L Limited Internal 12 NPI Training – Retainability 2005-09-30 SDCCH Congestion Optimization C h e c k c C Limited Internal 13 NPI Training – Retainability 2005-09-30 SDCCH Drops – Overview SDCCH Drops are classified into one of the following categories: ? ? ? ? SDCCH Drops because of Timing Advance SDCCH Drops because of Low Signal Strength SDCCH Drops because of Bad Quality SDCCH Drops due to Other Reasons

Limited Internal 14 NPI Training – Retainability 2005-09-30 SDCCH Drops – Overview Signaling Connection Set-up MSC Too high TA ? Wrong Cause Code? BSC Channel Required Y BTS Channel Request Random Access MS 1 2 3 N N Y Immediate Assignment Reject Too high processor load ? Activation of channel Step related RA counter Free ch. Available? N 4 Y 5n 6n SCCP Conn. Req SCCP Conn. Conf. Limited Internal Channel Activation successful? Channel Activation Ack. Y 5 Chan. Neg. Ack. N Channel Activation Channel Activation Ack. 6 Chan. Neg. Ack. Immediate Assignment Establish Indication

Step CMSESTAB counter 15 NPI Training – Retainability SABM, UA 2005-09-30 SDCCH Drops – Overview Assignment: Assignment to Serving Cell MSC BSC Channel Activation Channel Act. Ack. Y X Channel Act. Neg. Ack. BTS M Possible to assign channel? Assignment Request If TCH Congestion CNRELCONG is stepped (time out). N Assignment Command Establish Indication Assignment Complete Assignment Compl. RF Channel Release, old channel RF Channel Release Ack. SABM UA Limited Internal 16 NPI Training – Retainability 2005-09-30 SDCCH Drops – Overview Connection Release, Normal Disconnection

MSC Clear Command BSC Check Cause codes, if not HO successful or Call Control, step drop call counter, CNDROP BTS MS 1 Clear Complete Channel Release Deactivate SACCH DISC Release Indication RF Channel Release RF Channel Release Ack UA SCCP Rel. SCCP Rel. Ack. Limited Internal 17 NPI Training – Retainability 2005-09-30 SDCCH Drops – Overview Connection Release, Abnormal Disconnection MSC Clear Request Clear Command BSC Step drop call counter, CNDROP BTS Channel Release Clear Complete Deactivate SACCH DISC Release Indication RF Channel Release RF Channel Release Ack SCCP Rel.

SCCP Rel. Ack. Limited Internal 18 NPI Training – Retainability 2005-09-30 UA SDCCH Drop Optimization Analyze the following issues that could be possible reasons for SDCCH Drops: ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? Low signal strength Interference Pathloss Imbalance between UL/DL High Timing Advance MS error or Subscriber behavior TCH Congestion Transmission Congestion (LAPD Concentration) Hardware or Transmission failures Limited Internal 19 NPI Training – Retainability 2005-09-30 SDCCH Drop Optimization The following issues are worth taking into account when analyzing SDCCH Drops: ? ? ? SDCCH Drops and TCH Drops often drop because of the same RF reasons, such as for example insufficient coverage Only use SDCCH power regulation and SDCCH HO when the network has good coverage BSC and transmission problems can impact SDCCH drops so investigate Transcoders, A-interface and LAPD SDCCH Drops on the hopping layer are normally showing worse values than SDCCH on the BCCH Limited Internal 20 NPI Training – Retainability 2005-09-30 SDCCH Drop Optimization C h e c k S C Limited Internal 21 NPI Training – Retainability 2005-09-30 SDCCH Drop Optimization B C Limited Internal 22 NPI Training – Retainability h e 2005-09-30

TCH Drop – Overview Connection Release, Normal Disconnection MSC Clear Command BSC Check Cause codes, if not HO successful or Call Control, step drop call counter, TFNDROP BTS MS 1 Clear Complete Channel Release Deactivate SACCH DISC Release Indication RF Channel Release RF Channel Release Ack UA SCCP Rel. SCCP Rel. Ack. Limited Internal 23 NPI Training – Retainability 2005-09-30 TCH Drop – Overview Connection Release, Abnormal Disconnection BTS Step drop call counter, TFNDROP MSC Clear Request Clear Command BSC Channel Release Clear Complete Deactivate SACCH DISC Release Indication RF Channel Release RF Channel Release SCCP Rel .

SCCP Rel . Ack . Ack UA Limited Internal 24 NPI Training – Retainability 2005-09-30 TCH Drop – Drop Call Reasons The TCH Drop Call reasons has the following priority order: ? ? ? ? ? Excessive TA – – – – – – TA > TALIM cell parameter SSUL < LOWSSUL (BSC parameter) SSDL < LOWSSDL RxQualUL> BADQUL (BSC parameter) RxQualDL> BADQDL None of the above Non radio-related Low signal strength in downlink and/or uplink Bad quality in downlink and/or uplink Sudden loss of connection Other – Limited Internal 25 NPI Training – Retainability 2005-09-30 TCH Drop – Drop Call Reasons

The TCH Drop Call reasons counters: SS uplink -60 MS sensitivity TxDISSDL LOWSSUL -104 -110 -111 -115 -110 Limited Internal TxDISSBL LOWSSDL TxDISSQADL TxDISSQAUL TxDISSQABL TxDISSUL BTS sensitivity SS downlink -104 -104 26 NPI Training – Retainability -60 2005-09-30 TCH Drop parameters ? RLINKT Radio Link Tim e -out Limited Internal 27 NPI Training – Retainability 2005-09-30 TCH Drop parameters RLINKT ? The MS sends measurement reports regarding the signal strength of neighbor cells every 480 ms ? If the BTS does not receive a measurement report the RLINKT timer is decreased by 1. If a new report is received the timer is increased by 2. ? Leaky bucket. When reaches 0 call is dropped Limited Internal 28 NPI Training – Retainability 2005-09-30 TCH Drop – Optimization ? Analyze the following issues that could be possible reasons for poor TCH Drop performance: – – – – – – – – – Low Signal strength on Uplink/Downlink Interference on Uplink/Downlink Excessive TA Incorrect/Not optimum Parameter settings for example power regulation Missing Ncells or Congestion in Ncells MS or MS Battery problems Subscriber Behavior Antenna/Hardware or Transmission faults Incorrect Installations

Limited Internal 29 NPI Training – Retainability 2005-09-30 TCH Drop – Optimization ? The following issues often cause TCH Sudden Drops: – Very sudden and severe drop in signal strength, such as when – subscribers enter into buildings, elevators, parking garages, etc. – Very sudden and severe occurrence of interference or bad quality. – MS running out of battery during conversation. – Handover Lost – BTS HW faults. – Synchronization or Abis link fault (transmission faults). – MS Faults Limited Internal 30

NPI Training – Retainability 2005-09-30 TCH Drop – Optimization D r o C h e c k B Limited Internal 31 NPI Training – Retainability 2005-09-30 TCH Drop – Optimization H Limited Internal 32 NPI Training – Retainability 2005-09-30 C h h a TCH Drop – Optimization L o w s Limited Internal 33 NPI Training – Retainability 2005-09-30 TCH Drop – Optimization Investigate TCH Drop Performance – MOTS: MOTS MOTS_tool Limited Internal 34 NPI Training – Retainability 2005-09-30 TCH Drop – Optimization Investigate TCH Drop Performance – RPMO:

AssignmentRequest HandoverCommand HandoverComplete HandoverCommand HandoverComplete HandoverCommand HandoverComplete HandoverCommand HandoverComplete ClearRequest ClearCommand IL01673 IL01673 IL04071 IL04071 IL00053 IL00053 IL04072 IL04072 IL02752 IL02752 IL02752 IL02752 IL04072 IL00053 IL04071 17:04:49 17:05:15 17:05:16 17:05:27 17:05:27 17:05:57 17:05:58 17:06:37 17:06:39 17:06:49 17:06:49 STSSTSDrop Drop Start Start Drop (Clear Request) because wrong decision to HO from IL04072 to IL02752. Solution: Inhibit that HO relation. : STS pegged drop in IL02752 : Actual drop occured south of IL04072 Limited Internal 35

Actual Actual dropdropposition position NPI Training – Retainability 2005-09-30 TCH Drop – Optimization Investigate TCH Drop Performance – RPMO: BSIC Confusion • • • • In this example mobiles do not handover to the correct cell but to a cell whose frequency it measure previously. In RPMO, this can be seen from the drop table. For example in the map a mobile traveling south needed to handov er from IL0020. 2 to IL1058. 0. IL1058. 0 has BCCH 137, and IL0404. 3 has BCCH is 137. Mobile meas ured IL0404 previously, and this can be seen from RPMO measurement reports. When mobile needed to handover from IL0020. 2 to IL1058. , it act ually makes wrong handover to IL0404. 3. Limited Internal 36 NPI Training – Retainability 2005-09-30 TCH Drop – Optimization Investigate TCH Drop Performance – RPMO: Tier 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 cCallNr 597 14 597 14 597 14 597 14 597 14 597 14 597 14 597 14 597 14 597 14 597 14 597 14 597 14 597 14 597 14 597 14 597 14 597 14 597 14 597 14 EventName C ell IL 0044 2 IL 0044 2 IL 0044 2 IL 0044 2 IL 0044 2 IL 0044 2 IL 00442 IL 0044 2 IL 0044 2 IL 0044 2 IL 0044 2 IL 0044 2 IL 0044 2 IL 0044 2 IL 0044 2 IL 0044 2 IL 0044 2 IL 0044 2 IL 0044 2 IL 0044 2 Tid TA RQUL RQDL RLUL RLDL SQI BTSPR MSPC NrNg p RxLevDLcom

M easurem tR en eport M easurem tR en eport M easurem tR en eport M easurem tR en eport M easurem tR en eport M easurem tR en eport M easurem tR en eport M easurem tR en eport M easurem tR en eport M easurem tR en eport M easurem tR en eport M easurem tR en eport M easurem tR en eport M easurem tR en eport M easurem tR en eport M easurem tR en eport M easurem tR en eport M easure m entR port e C learR que e st C learC m a o m nd 7 :1 :43 3 17 :1 :43 6 17 :1 :43 9 17 :2 :43 1 17 :2 :43 4 17 :2 :43 6 17 :2 :43 8 17 :3 :43 1 17 :3 :43 4 17 :3 :43 7 17 :4 :43 0 17 :4 :43 2 17 :4 :43 4 17 :4 :43 7 17 :5 :43 0 17 :5 :43 3 17 :5 :43 6 17 :5 :43 9 17 :0 :44 0 17 :0 :44 0 10 10 10 10 11 10 11 11 11 11 11 10 11 11 11 11 11 11 2 5 3 0 2 7 4 3 2 4 4 6 3 7 7 7 7 7 6 7 5 7 7 1 5 6 7 7 7 7 1 5 7 1 5 1 5 1 5 1 5 1 5 22 14 19 22 21 10 22 21 21 21 21 18 18 6 6 6 11 12 28 23 27 22 24 255 26 21 24 24 24 255 17 255 255 255 255 255 4 0 4 9 2 55 4 3 2 55 2 55 4 8 2 55 2 55 2 55 2 55 2 55 2 55 2 55 2 55 2 55 2 55 2 55 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 5 6 5 6 6 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2 8 2 3 2 7 2 2 2 4 2 55 2 6 2 1 2 4 2 4 2 4 2 55 1 7 2 55 2 55 2 55 2 55 2 55 Dropped Call due to Bad Quality • • • • • All drops due to bad quality UL/DL can be seen easily from RPMO drop and measurement table. The table below is a example of a short call. Call ID is 59714, and it lasted about 47 seconds. We can easily see that RXQual DL was bad since the call started. In this market, RLINK timer set to 32. Therefore, there may be s ome measurement missing ~16 seconds before the clear command.

The table shows several missing report between starting from 17: 43:44 until 17:44:00. Limited Internal 37 NPI Training – Retainability 2005-09-30 TCH Drop – Optimization Investigate TCH Drop Performance – RPMO: cCallNr 96 48 96 48 96 48 96 48 96 48 96 48 96 48 96 48 96 48 96 48 96 48 96 48 96 48 96 48 96 48 96 48 96 48 96 48 96 48 96 48 96 48 96 48 96 48 96 48 cEventCount Event id EventName Cell Tid TA RQUL RQDL RLUL RLDL SQI BTSPR MSPC NrNg RxLevDLcomp 11 4 12 4 13 4 14 4 15 4 16 4 17 4 18 4 19 4 10 5 11 5 12 5 13 5 14 5 15 5 16 5 17 5 18 5 19 5 10 6 11 6 12 6 13 6 14 6 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 2 3

Ma ue e t e ot e s r mnRp r Ma ue es r mnRp r e t e ot Ma ue e t e ot e s r mnRp r Ma ue e t e ot e s r mnRp r Ma ue e t e ot e s r mnRp r Ma ue e t e ot e s r mnRp r Ma ue e t e ot e s r mnRp r Ma ue e t e ot e s r mnRp r Ma ue e t e ot e s r mnRp r Ma ue e t e ot e s r mnRp r Ma ue e t e ot e s r mnRp r Ma ue e t e ot e s r mnRp r Ma u es r mnRp r e e t e ot Ma ue e t e ot e s r mnRp r Ma ue e t e ot e s r mnRp r Ma ue e t e ot e s r mnRp r Ma ue e t e ot e s r mnRp r Ma ue e t e ot e s r mnRp r Ma ue e t e ot e s r mnRp r Ma ue e t e ot e s r mnRp r Ma ue e t e ot e s r mnRp r Ma ue e t e ot e s r mnRp r C aRq et le r e u s C aC le r o mn m ad I 003 L48 I 003 L48 I 003 L48 I 003 L48 I 003 L48 I 003 L48 I 003 L48 I 003 L48 I 003 L48 I 003 L48 I 003 L48 I 003 L48 I 003 L48 I 003 L48 I 003 L48 I 003 L48 I 003 L48 I 003 L48 I 003 L48 I 0 48 L 03 I 003 L48 I 003 L48 I 003 L48 I 003 L48 : 50 71 : 5 1 : 50 71 : 8 1 : 51 71 : 1 1 : 51 71 : 4 1 : 51 71 : 7 1 : 52 71 : 1 1 : 52 71 : 4 1 : 52 71 : 6 1 : 52 71 : 9 1 : 53 71 : 1 1 : 53 71 : 4 1 : 53 71 : 6 1 : 53 71 : 8 1 : 54 71 : 1 1 : 54 71 : 3 1 : 54 71 : 6 1 : 54 71 : 9 1 : 55 71 : 2 1 : 55 71 : 5 1 : 55 71 : 8 1 : 60 71 : 1 1 : 60 71 : 3 1 : 60 71 : 3 1 : 60 71 : 3 5 6 6 6 6 5 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 5 5 6 4 5 7 7 7 7 7 7 6 6 7 7 5 7 7 7 6 7 7 5 4 6 2 6 1 5 1 5 5 6 1 5 6 4 5 1 5 1 5 5 1 5 1 5 7 1 5 1 5 1 5 9 1 0 7 9 7 3 6 2 2 0 2 2 1 0 1 7 0 5 3 5 2 6 1 2 1 5 1 3 1 4 8 25 5 25 5 2 2 25 5 6 6 8 25 5 25 5 7 25 5 25 5 3 25 5 25 5 25 5 4 1 4 6 4 6 4 6 3 9 3 1 1 8 1 7 1 1 1 6 1 9 3 0 2 7 2 3 1 7 1 7 3 0 1 5 1 9 2 0 2 4 1 9 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 1 0 2 1 2 1 0 0 5 0 0 0 1 2 0 0 0 0 2 3 2 1 2 1 5 1 3 1 4 8 25 5 25 5 2 2 25 5 6 6 8 25 5 25 5 7 25 5 25 5 3 25 5 25 5 25 5 Dropped Call due to Bad SS • • • We can see the calls dropped due to low signal strength in RPMO. From measurement reports, we can see when there is a drop due to low signal strength UL/DL, or both links. In the table, if we look at the part before the clear request, w e can see that RLDL (RX level DL), and RLUL (RX level UL) is quite low. In this example this call d ropped due to low SS RX level both links. Limited Internal 38 NPI Training – Retainability 2005-09-30 TCH Drop – Optimization Investigate TCH Drop Performance – RPMO:

Tier 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 cCallNr 717 63 717 63 717 63 717 63 717 63 717 63 717 63 717 63 717 63 717 63 717 63 717 63 717 63 717 63 717 63 717 63 717 63 717 63 717 63 717 63 EventName H n o rC m le a d ve o p te Mau mn e o e s re e tR p rt Mau mn e o e s re e tR p rt Mau mn e o e s re e tR p rt Mau mn e o e s re e tR p rt Mau mn e o e s re e tR p rt Mau mn e o e s re e tR p rt Mau mn e o e s re e tR p r Mau mn e o e s re e tR p rt Mau mn e o e s re e tR p rt Mau mn e o e s re e tR p rt Ma u mn e o e s re e tR p rt Mau mn e o e s re e tR p rt Mau mn e o e s re e tR p rt Mau mn e o e s re e tR p rt Mau mn e o e s re e tR p rt Mau mn e o e s re e tR p rt Mau mn e o e s re e tR p rt C a e u st le rR q e C a o mn le rC m a d t Cell IL 0 3 021 IL 0 3 021 IL 0 3 021 IL 0 3 021 IL 0 3 021 IL 0 3 021 IL 0 3 021 IL 0 3 021

IL 0 3 021 IL 0 3 021 IL 0 3 021 IL 0 3 021 IL 0 3 021 IL 0 3 021 IL 0 3 021 IL 0 3 021 IL 0 3 021 IL 0 3 021 IL 0 3 021 IL 0 3 021 Tid 1 :5 :4 7 5 1 1 :5 :4 7 5 4 1 :5 :4 7 5 6 1 :5 5 9 7 :4 1 :5 :5 7 5 2 1 :5 :5 7 5 4 1 :5 :5 7 5 6 1 :5 :5 7 5 9 1 :5 :0 7 6 1 1 :5 :0 7 6 4 1 :5 :0 7 6 7 1 :5 :1 7 6 0 1 :5 :1 7 6 2 1 :5 :1 7 6 5 1 :5 :1 7 6 8 1 :5 :2 7 6 1 1 :5 :2 7 6 3 1 :5 :2 7 6 6 1 :5 :2 6 7 6 1 :5 :2 7 6 6 TA 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 RQUL 3 3 5 3 1 4 6 4 7 7 7 7 7 7 4 7 7 RQDL 1 5 6 7 1 2 1 5 5 1 5 1 5 1 5 1 5 1 5 6 1 5 1 5 RLUL 1 6 1 3 6 1 5 1 6 1 7 7 9 4 9 0 2 3 4 8 6 5 RLDL 1 7 1 8 1 1 1 1 4 1 4 1 8 9 7 25 5 25 5 25 5 25 5 25 5 4 25 5 25 5 SQI 4 2 4 9 4 1 25 5 4 4 4 7 3 8 25 5 4 3 2 4 1 2 25 5 1 4 25 5 1 3 25 5 2 0 BTSPR 2 3 1 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 MSPC 5 5 6 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 NrNg 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 2 3 3 RxLevDLcomp 2 1 2 4 1 3 1 1 4 1 4 2 0 9 7 25 5 25 5 25 5 25 5 25 5 4 25 5 25 5 Dropped Call due to RLINK • • • • • In the table we can see drop that happened due to RLINK timer. In this example the call started on cell IL00231, and ended in t he same cell. The call lasted around 45 seconds. If we look at the last 16 seconds of the call, we can see severa l missing measurement reports.

If we see 255 or or RXQual=15 we can assume that these values ar e missing In this example we dropped the call due to low signal strength d ownlink Limited Internal 39 NPI Training – Retainability 2005-09-30 TCH Drop – Optimization Investigate TCH Drop Performance – RPMO: cCallNr me 27 2 27 2 27 2 27 2 27 2 27 2 27 2 27 2 27 2 27 2 27 2 27 2 27 2 27 2 27 2 27 2 27 2 27 2 27 2 Ca n l uy hne s B Hn oeCm a d adv r o m n Hn oeCme adv r o p t l e Ca n l uy hne s B Hn oe adv r Cm a d om n Hn oeCme adv r o p t l e Ca n l uy hne s B Hn oeCm a d adv r o m n Hn oeCme adv r o p t l e Ca n l uy hne s B Hn oeCm a d adv r o m n Hn oeCme adv r o p t l e Ca n l uy hne s B Hn oeCm a d adv r o m n Hn oeCme adv r o p t l e Ca n l hne Bs uy Hn oeCm a d adv r o m n EventNa I 0 53 L2 2 I 3 01 L0 7 I 0 53 L2 2 I 3 01

L0 7 I 0 53 L2 2 I 3 01 L0 7 I 0 53 L2 2 I 3 01 L0 7 I 0 53 L2 2 I 3 01 L0 7 I 0 53 L2 2 I 3 01 L0 7 I 0 53 L2 2 I 3 01 L0 7 I 0 53 L2 2 I 0 21 L4 7 I 0 53 L2 2 Cell I 053 L22 Cellr I 301 L07 I 053 L22 I 301 L07 I 053 L22 I 021 L47 1: 4 2 7 : 01 1: 4 2 7 : 01 1: 4 3 7 : 01 1: 4 9 7 : 01 1: 4 9 7 : 01 1: 4 9 7 : 01 1: 4 5 7 : 03 1: 4 5 7 : 03 1: 4 6 7 : 03 1: 5 1 7 : 01 1: 5 1 7 : 01 1: 5 1 7 : 01 1: 5 8 7 : 01 1: 5 8 7 : 01 1: 5 9 7 : 01 1: 5 3 7 : 02 1: 5 3 7 : 02 Tid essage CauseM 1 1 0 0 1 1 0 0 0 0 1 type subcell T HF ) C(R T HF ) C(R Type Channel T HF ) C(R T HF ) C(R T HF ) C(R T HF ) C(R C aRq et l r eu s e I 0 53 L2 2 1: 5 5 7 : 03 RD AI O I T RE E C NE F RN E MS A E ESG F I UE A R L T HF ) C(R C aCm a d l r om e n I 0 53 L2 2 1: 5 5 7 : 03

RD AI O I T RE E C NE F RN E MS A E ESG F I UE A R L T HF ) C(R Dropped Call due Handover Timer • • • • This timer expires ~11 to 14 seconds after handover command sent . When the timer expire, we can assume that handover command that was sent was not heard either by the cell, or by mobile. The table shows an example of a drop happened due to this reason . If we look the time stamp 17:05:23, we can see that we request channel from IL04271, and h andover was initiated the very same second. However, about 12 seconds after handover command, we can see tha t call drop. As we know, this can not be a RLINK timer drop because it is set to 32 (~16 secon ds).

Limited Internal 40 NPI Training – Retainability 2005-09-30 – T3103B1 TCH Drop – Optimization Investigate TCH Drop Performance – RPMO: Handover Timer – T3103B1 Limited Internal 41 NPI Training – Retainability 2005-09-30 TCH Drop – Optimization Investigate TCH Drop Performance – RPMO: cCallNr EventName 733 ChannelBusy 733 HandoverCommand 733 ChannelBusy 733 HandoverCommand 733 ClearRequest 733 ClearCommand Cell IL02813 IL04293 IL01831 IL04271 IL04271 IL04271 Cellr IL00423 IL01831 Tid 17:04:04 17:04:23 17:19:46 17:19:46 17:19:54 17:19:54 CauseMessage RADIO INTERFERENCE MESSAGE FAILURE RADIO INTERFERENCE MESSAGE FAILURE subcell type 1 1 ChannelType SDCCH TCH (FR) TCH (FR)

Dropped Call due Handover Timer – T3103B2 • • • • This timer usually expires ~ 8 to ~10 seconds after hand over co mmand request. When this timer expires, we can assume that the MS, or target ce ll heard HO command but we do not have any respond from them. In the table we can see that at 17:19:46 we have handover comman d from IL04271 to IL01831. We have clear request coming in 17:19:54 – 8 seconds after handover command Limited Internal 42 NPI Training – Retainability 2005-09-30 TCH Drop – Optimization Investigate TCH Drop Performance – RPMO: Handover Timer – T3103B2 Limited Internal 43 NPI Training – Retainability 2005-09-30 TCH Drop – Optimization

Investigate TCH Drop Performance – RPMO: Cell 973 FR FR FR OL UL Call set -up 17:31:54 Actual drop moment 17:32:53 Call dropped 17:32:59 Cell 2431 HR FR FR FR FR HR Major mistake 17:32:39 17:31:50 :00 :10 Limited Internal 44 :20 :30 :40 :50 2005-09-30 17:33:00 NPI Training – Retainability TCH Drop – Optimization Investigate TCH Drop Performance – RPMO: Cell 973 FR FR HOVERCNT HOVERSUC TFCASSALL TFMSESTB TFCALLS + SUB TFV3CALLS+SUB (TFV2CALLS+SUB TFV1CALLS+SUB TFCONGSHO+SUB? ) FR TFCALLS TFV3CALLS TASSALL TCASSALL HOVERCNT HOVERSUC TFMSESTB+SUB THMESTAB+SUB THCALLS + SUB THV3CALLS+SUB TFCALLS + SUB TFV3CALLS+SUB (TFV2CALLS+SUB TFV1CALLS+SUB TFCONGSHO+SUB? ) Cell 2431

TFCALLS + SUB TFV3CALLS+SUB TFMESTAB (dep)? TFCALLS TFV3CALLS HR FR FR FR TFCALLS TFV3CALLS FR HR HOVERCNT HORTTOCH HOVERCNT HOVERSUC TFMSESTB HOATFRHRAMR HOSUCFRHRAMR HOATHRFRAMR HOAATOL HOSUCOL THMSESTB THV3CALLS THCALLS are not stepped THNDROPSUB TFMSESTB 17:31:50 :00 :10 Limited Internal 45 :20 :30 :40 :50 2005-09-30 17:33:00 NPI Training – Retainability TCH Drop – Optimization Investigate TCH Drop Performance – DIP DIP Limited Internal 46 NPI Training – Retainability 2005-09-30 Handover – Overview ? The fundamental concept of mobile communications is the mobility, where the person using the phone moves around being handed over between cells ?

HANDOVER is the process that ensures that the user is placed on the best server and that the following requirements for mobile communications are fulfilled: – Coverage: to provide a connection with sufficient signal strength – Speech Quality: to avoid disturbances – Capacity: to even out the traffic load ? LOCATING Is the software algorithm that determines Handover Decisions Limited Internal 47 NPI Training – Retainability 2005-09-30 Handover – Overview 1 HODetect BS I BC C, S CH S u eas H M CC SA rt epo re R 2 HO FA Acc CC es H s and mm Co HO CH C FA Or 3 HO FA Com CC pl H ete 3 nd ma m Co HO CH C FA If all signaling goes well, call is established on target cell and old channel is released. Limited Internal 48

Mobile has moved too far away from serving site FACCH can’t reach (C/I-wise) Drop! NPI Training – Retainability 2005-09-30 Handover – Locating Overview For all reported neighbor cells n For serving cell s Locating ? Basic Handover Candidate list Discard n No M inimum level criterion fulfilled? Yes Penalty evaluation W ait until ranking of neighbor cell is done Yes Rank n according to L-criterion including LOFFSET and LHYST Signal strength above SUFFICIENT level including TROFFSET and TRHYST? No Rank n according to Kcriterion including KOFFSET and KHYST L-cells K-cells Yes More neighbors? Best neighbor used for serving cell sufficient condition No No Serving cell is K-cell

Signal strength above SUFFICIENT level? Yes Serving cell is L-cell L-cells K-cells Limited Internal 499702661 NPI Training – Retainability 2005-09-30 Handover – Locating Overview Locating ? Types of cell borders K-K border transition border (K-L border) equal L equal K L-L border B A effective sufficient level from B to A transition border (K-L border) effective sufficient level from A to B Limited Internal 50 NPI Training – Retainability 2005-09-30 Handover – Locating Overview Locating – Basic Ranking: Ericsson 3 ? The first three stages of the algorithm are performed in exactly the same way as Ericsson 1, but Ericsson 3 takes only the signal strength in account: 1.

Correction of the BTS output power for downlink measurements 2. Evaluation of the Minimum Signal Strength condition 3. Subtraction of the signal strength penalties 4. Signal Strength Evaluation 5. Combination into a basic ranking list sorted by a descending order of SS Limited Internal 51 NPI Training – Retainability 2005-09-30 Handover – Locating Overview Locating – Basic Ranking: Ericsson 3 R A N K = S S _ D O WsN s R A N K = p _ S S _ D O W N O F F S EsT – H Y S T,n n n ,n s w h e re H Y S T = H IH Y S T if rx le H Y S T S E P n? v H Y S T = L O H Y S T if rx < H Y S T S E P n le v Limited Internal 52 NPI Training – Retainability 2005-09-30 Handover – Locating Overview

Locating – Auxiliary Radio Network functions evaluation Six auxiliary radio network functions are incorporated in the locating software: • Assignment to another cell • Hierarchical cell structures • Overlaid and underlaid subcells • Intra-cell handover • Extended range • Cell load sharing Limited Internal 53 NPI Training – Retainability Penalty list Initiations Measurement results Filtering Urgency condition Basic ranking Auxiliary radio network functions evaluations Organizing the list Sending the list Allocation reply 2005-09-30 Handover – Locating Overview ? Locating – Auxiliary Radio Network functions evaluation Limited Internal 54 NPI Training – Retainability 2005-09-30 Handover – Locating Overview Sa ii r rd nwku tosr i ula aoe o f ni na xx y i t r c e i crot d t e ctnsfwe n pa i hl a go a: o r en o i t r ?

Locating – Auxiliary Radio Network functions evaluation P a ls e ly t nt i I ii tos na n ti Categorization 1: The candidates in the ranking list are divided into categories. The signal strength is used to •Asetmtt a t ecl for the neighboring cells. The si nthe onh e s e categories g n or l existing categories are: Msrmt eu e aen rsls et u Fe g it r l i n Ueccnii n r n odo g y t Bi r nn acakg s i •Ha– i a esuuCell with a higher ranking value than i rrh lcl t cell:e e ccBetterrcrs l t •Ora aservinga sbthe candidate list. v l i nu e i u e e d dn r cell in ls dl d cl – Worse cell: Cell with a lower ranking value than •I ta – eh d e in the candidate list. clserving cell r l a or nv •Ee –da e cell: The cell serving the connection. xn rServing t d n e g •C l asa g e o hi l d rn l ? Aii r r d ula ai x y o nt o f ni n e r uc s wk to e lan vuto a i s O ni g es r az t l t gi nhi S dg es ei t l t nn h i Actor p lo i nel l a y These categories are later used in evaluations and selection of cause values Limited Internal 55 NPI Training – Retainability 2005-09-30 Handover – Locating Overview Locatingaoe o u tosr Sa ii r rdCell r f ni na i ula – nwk c Sharing Evaluation x x y i t Load e i crot d t e ctnsfwe n pa i hl a go a: o r en o i t r The cell load sharing evaluation is performed after the normal ranking procedure.

The •Aevaluationh cl performed if si ne t a t e e s mt on is only g n or l •Ha–i a esuus i rrh lcl load r e cccelll t c sharing is active for the cell rte •Ora aif u e i sb ls v l i n no urgency conditions apply and e – dn ra u e d dl d cl – if the channel is a TCH where the channel mode •I ta – eh d e n clisa o r r l “speech/data” nv ? xn da e Ae g •Ee channel in a multislot configuration is not t d rn evaluated. •C l asa g Further, no evaluation is e o hi l d rn l performed at request of a candidate list for assignment. Limited Internal 56 NPI Training – Retainability P a ls e ly t nt i I ii tos na n ti Msrmt eu e aen rsls et u Fe g it r l i n Ueccnii n r n odo g y t Bi r nn acakg s i

Aii r r d ula ai x y o nt o f ni n e r uc s wk to e lan vuto a i s O ni g es r az t l t gi nhi S dg es ei t l t nn h i Actor p lo i nel l a y 2005-09-30 Handover – Locating Overview Locatingaoe o u tosr Sa ii r rdCell r f ni na i ula – nwk c Sharing Evaluation x x y i t Load e i crot d t e ctnsfwe n pa i hl a go a: o r en o i t r ? Only candidates that fulfill the following •Aconditionsh clinvolved in the evaluation: si ne t a t e e s mt on are l g n or – •Haha esuus is ranked Worse i rr i lcl candidate e ccThe t cr l rte – The candidate is Internal •Ora aIt u e i inu esame cell layer as serving cell v l i n existsd b ls e – dn ra sthel d dl c •I ta –clIt a o r ‘handover due to cell load sharing’ n – eh d e r l accepts nv ? n da e The g •Ee ern t d evaluation is then performed as a new ranking •C l asa g reduced hysteresis areas e o hi with l d rn l between serving cell and the neighboring cells. Limited Internal 57 NPI Training – Retainability P a ls e ly t nt i I ii tos na n ti Msrmt eu e aen rsls et u Fe g it r l i n Ueccnii n r n odo g y t Bi r nn acakg s i Aii r r d ula ai x y o nt o f ni n e r uc s wk to e lan vuto a i s O ni g es r az t l t gi nhi S dg es ei t l t nn h i Actor p lo i nel l a y 2005-09-30 Handover – Locating Overview Locatingaoe o f ni na Sa ii r rdOverlaid/Underlaid Evaluation i ula – nwku tosr xx y i t r c e i crot d t e ctnsfwe n pa i hl a go a: o r en o i t r ?

The evaluation is only performed if the •Aservinga t ecl an overlaid and underlaid si ne t cell r e s mt onhhas g n o l •Haha esuus i subcell lstructure. er i lcl t cr r cc rte ? An •Ora evaluation b lperformed to determine if a v l i a u e i sis l e dn n ra u e d dl d c s subcell change (overlaid to underlaid or •I ta – eh d e n cl a o r r l nv underlaid to overlaid) is desired. •Ee ern t d g ? xn da e The criterion is based on the downlink signal •C l asa gtiming advance measurements from e o hi l d rn l strength, the serving cell and the traffic load in the cell. Limited Internal 58 NPI Training – Retainability 2005-09-30 P a ls e ly t nt i I ii tos na n ti Msrmt eu e aen rsls et u Fe g it r l i n Ueccnii n r n odo g y t

Bi r nn acakg s i Aii r r d ula ai x y o nt o f ni n e r uc s wk to e lan vuto a i s O ni g es r az t l t gi nhi S dg es ei t l t nn h i Actor p lo i nel l a y Handover – Locating Overview Locating r Overlaid/Underlaid Sa ii r – d nwku tosr Evaluation i ula aoe o f ni na xx y i t r c e i crot d t e ctnsfwe n pa i hl a go a: o r en o i t r ? P a ls e ly t nt i I ii tos na n ti If the serving cell is co-sited with a neighboring cell that has a subcell structure, then locating evaluates if the •Ahandover nh cl proposed to the overlaid or si ne t a t ebe s mt o shall e g n or l •Haha esuus subcell. i underlaidlneighboring er i lcl t cr r cc rte ?

If the MS is located in the overlaid subcell and a bad •Ora a urgencysb ls Locating proposes a subcell v l i nu e i u e e d dn ra occurs, quality dl d cl •I ta – eh d e nchange a o overlaid to underlaid subcell to prevent r cl from r l nv the MS from remaining on connections with bad •Ee ern xn da e t d g quality. •C l timer rn l a his used to prevent an immediate return back to l ? e o sa g A d i the overlaid subcell. Msrmt eu e aen rsls et u Fe g it r l i n Ueccnii n r n odo g y t Bi r nn acakg s i Aii r r d ula ai x y o nt o f ni n e r uc s wk to e lan vuto a i s O ni g es r az t l t gi nhi S dg es ei t l t nn h i Actor p lo i nel l a y Limited Internal 59 NPI Training – Retainability 2005-09-30 Handover – Locating Overview Locatingaoe o f nHandover Evaluation Sa ii r rdIntracellcosr i ula – nwku t na xx y i t r i e i crot d t e ctnsfwe n pa i hl a go a: o r en o i t r ?

The Intracell Handover evaluation is not •Aperformedh cl si ne t a t e e s mt on at assignment and otherwise only g n or l •Haha esuus i performed cr er i lcl t if intracell handover is allowed for r cc l r t e the current subcell. •Ora a u e i sb ls v l i n n ra u e e d d dl d cl ? The criterion for determining if an intracell •I ta – eh d e n cl a o r r l nv handover is desired is based on uplink and •Ee ern quality and signal strength xn da e t d g downlink •C l asa g e o hi l d rn l measurements from the serving cell. P a ls e ly t nt i I ii tos na n ti Msrmt eu e aen rsls et u Fe g it r l i n Ueccnii n r n odo g y t Bi r nn acakg s i Aii r r d ula ai x y o nt o f ni n e r uc s wk to e lan vuto a i s O ni g es r az t l t gi nhi S dg es ei t l t nn h i Actor p lo i nel l a y Limited Internal 60 NPI Training – Retainability 2005-09-30 Handover – Locating Overview

Locating r Intracell Handover Sa ii r – d nwku tosr Evaluation i ula aoe o f ni na xx y i t r c e i crot d t e ctnsfwe n pa i hl a go a: o r en o i t r ? P a ls e ly t nt i I ii tos na n ti The criterion is fulfilled when the quality is worse than could be expected from the signal strength level. There •Aare parameterscl prevent too many consecutive si ne t a t e e s mt onh to g n or l •Haha esuus in a sequence during a connection. i intracell handovers er i lcl t cr r cc l r t e ? If the MS is located in the overlaid subcell and the •Ora a u e i sbconsecutive intracell handovers v l i n of allowede e d dn ra u ls number dl d cl •I ta – eh d e nhave beeno r r cl a executed then Locating proposes a subcell l nv hange from overlaid to underlaid subcell to prevent •Ee ern remaining on connections with bad xn dafrom t dMS g e the quality. •C l asa g e o hi l d rn l ? A timer is used to prevent an immediate return back to the overlaid subcell. Limited Internal 61 NPI Training – Retainability Msrmt eu e aen rsls et u Fe g it r l i n Ueccnii n r n odo g y t Bi r nn acakg s i Aii r r d ula ai x y o nt o f ni n e r uc s wk to e lan vuto a i s O ni g es r az t l t gi nhi S dg es ei t l t nn h i Actor p lo i nel l a y 2005-09-30 Handover – Locating Overview Sa ii r rd nwku tosr i ula aoe o f ni na xx y i t r c e i crot d t e ctnsfwe n pa i hl a go a: o r en o i t r ? Locating – Assignment to Other Cell P a ls e ly t nt i I ii tos na n ti

The normal Locating is used in order to find the most suitable cell at the call setup ? sg e t a t e e •AIf nbetternhthan the serving cell is found during the s amt o cell rcl i n o l call setup signaling, that cell will be the first one in the •Haha esuus list. This is called Assignment to a i Locating lcandidate er i lcl t cr r cc rte •Ora acell. e i sb ls v l i nu ra u e e d dn l d cl d better ? nAlso worse vr •I ta – eh dcells can be found, and at congestion in the r cl a o l n e serving cell or in the better cell, the call can be setup in •Eeworseg This is called Assignment to a worse cell. xn da e t d rncell. a e •C l asa g at a large distance from the nominal l d rn l ? o hi cells However, cell are not allowed to remain as candidates. This is controlled by the parameter AWOFFSET. Limited Internal 62 NPI Training – Retainability Msrmt eu e aen rsls et u Fe g it r l i n Ueccnii n r n odo g y t Bi r nn acakg s i Aii r r d ula ai x y o nt o f ni n e r uc s wk to e lan vuto a i s O ni g es r az t l t gi nhi S dg es ei t l t nn h i Actor p lo i nel l a y 2005-09-30 Handover – Locating Overview Locating – Hierarchical Cell Structures Sa ii rHCS nwku tosr the possibility to give priority x Theyaoe o f provides x i t r c e ? i ula rd feature ni na i crtorcells t e ctnsfwe n pad that aregothe: oot i hl a nott a strongest but provide sufficient en o i r signal strength levels ?

The appropriate level of the sufficient signal strength •Alevelstt a t ecl si nemainly depends on the co- and adjacent s m onh e g n or l •Haha esuus surrounding cells i interference from the er i lcl t cr r cc l r t e ? With low interference it is the noise level with a safety •Ora a u e i sb sufficient signal strength levels v l i nthatra thee e d dn l du ls margin d set cl ? nEach l ashould •I ta – eh d e be associated with a LAYER r ccelln vr l o ? The Layer could be defined by the traffic that the cell •Ee ern with just a basic ranking, how much traffic the xn da e t d g captures cell dimensioned for and how much the cell •C l asa g e o arern l dhi l interfere with the rest of the network ? The lower the layer the higher the priority Limited Internal 63 NPI Training – Retainability P a ls e ly t nt i I ii tos na n ti

Msrmt eu e aen rsls et u Fe g it r l i n Ueccnii n r n odo g y t Bi r nn acakg s i Aii r r d ula ai x y o nt o f ni n e r uc s wk to e lan vuto a i s O ni g es r az t l t gi nhi S dg es ei t l t nn h i Actor p lo i nel l a y 2005-09-30 Handover – Locating Overview Locating – Removal of candidates Sa ii r rd nwku tosr i ula aoe o f ni na xx y i t r c e i crot d t e ctnsfwe of candidates from the n pa n o i removal o reasons a t r The r ei hl for go a: list are: •Ai ne t a t ecl sgmt onh e s n or l •Haha esuus er i candidate rc l rte ? i Theclcl t cr belongs to a system type not •Ora a u eby u emobile. v l i n n ra sb ls e d d dl i thel supported d c ? Evaluation r •I ta – eh d e BSC parameters and timers r cl a o of l nv controlling •Ee ern handover, i. e. if it is allowed to xn da e t d g make i •C l asa g e o hhandover on SDCCH etc. The l d rn l evaluated parameters are IBHOSICH, SCHO, ASSOC, IBHOASS, TALLOC and TURGEN. Limited Internal 64 NPI Training – Retainability P a ls e ly t nt i I ii tos na n ti Msrmt eu e aen rsls et u Fe g it r l i n Ueccnii n r n odo g y t Bi r nn acakg s i Aii r r d ula ai x y o nt o f ni n e r uc s wk to e lan vuto a i s O ni g es r az t l t gi nhi S dg es ei t l t nn h i Actor p lo i nel l a y 2005-09-30 Handover – Locating Overview Locating – Removal of candidates

Sa ii r rd nwku tosr i ula aoe o f ni na xx y i t r c e The reasons for removal of candidates from the list are: i crot d t e ctnsfwe n pa i hl a go a: o r en o i t r Evaluation of co-sited neighbors. Three checks are •Aperformed:oecl si ne t a t r e s mt onh l g n ? – P a ls e ly t nt i I ii tos na n ti Msrmt eu e aen rsls et u Fe g it r l i n Ueccnii n r n odo g y t If average timing advance exceeds the MAXTA value •Haha esuus cell. i rr i for l t co-sited e cclcthercr l te – If average timing advance is less than the TALIM value •Ora a u e i sb and greater than or equal to the TALIM v l i n n ra u e e d for serving cell ls d dl d cl value for the •I ta – cl h d eis worse and in the same cell layer as serving n – e the o r co-sited cell. l a cell nv If •Ee ern and the average timing advance exceeds the xn da e t d cell g TALIM value for the co-sited cell. Bi r nn acakg s i Aii r r d ula ai x y o nt o f ni n e r uc s wk to e lan vuto a i s O ni g es r az t l t gi nhi S dg es ei t l t nn h i Actor p lo i nel l a y •C l asa g removal of candidates if the MS is l d rn l ? e o hi and Evaluation classified as a fast moving mobile (if this feature is used). Limited Internal 65 NPI Training – Retainability 2005-09-30 Handover – Locating Overview Locating – Categorization 2 Sa ii r rd nwku tosr i ula aoe o f ni na xx y i t r c e i crot d t e ctnsfwe n pa i hl a go a: o r en o i t r ?

The cells in the candidate list are then organized in the following three categories: •Ai neAbove ecl sgmtt a t S: e s – nonh Neighboring cell above serving cell in or l •Haha esuus list i rr i lcl candidate e ccthel t cr rte •Ora aBelowl S:sb ls v l i nu e i Neighboring cell below serving cell in e – dn ra u e d d d cl the candidate list •I ta –clS:a o r cell n – ehServing r l nv de •Ee ern xn da e t d g •C l asa g e o hi l d rn l P a ls e ly t nt i I ii tos na n ti Msrmt eu e aen rsls et u Fe g it r l i n Ueccnii n r n odo g y t Bi r nn acakg s i Aii r r d ula ai x y o nt o f ni n e r uc s wk to e lan vuto a i s O ni g es r az t l t gi nhi S dg es ei t l t nn h i Actor p lo i nel l a y Limited Internal 66 NPI Training – Retainability 2005-09-30 Handover – Locating Overview

Locating – Ordering the candidate list Sa ii r rd nwkuRequeste i ula aoDescriptioncosrArrived x Indication i Assignment t na e o f ni t r 1x y i cr2ot d t e ctnsfwe n pa i hAWa go urgency o r e n Excessive TA a: l state t r oi 3 •Ai ne t a t ecl sgmt onh e s n or l •Haha esuus i rr i lcl t cr e cc l r t e •Ora a u e i sb ls v l i n n ra u e e d d dl d cl •I ta – eh d e n cl a o r r l nv •Ee ern xn da e t d g •C l asa g e o hi l d rn l 4 5 detected Bad Quality urgency detected OL/UL subcell change or ICHO requested P a ls e ly t nt i I ii tos na n ti Msrmt eu e aen rsls et u Fe g it r l i n Ueccnii n r n odo g y t Bi r nn acakg s i Aii r r d ula ai x y o nt o f ni n e r uc s wk to e lan vuto a i s O ni g es r az t l t gi nhi S dg es ei t l t nn h i Actor p lo i nel l a y Limited Internal 67 NPI Training – Retainability 2005-09-30 Handover – Locating Overview

Locating – List preparation Sa ii r rd nwku tosr i ula aoe o f ni na xx y i t r c e i crot d t e ctnsfwe n pa i hl a go a: o r en o i t r •Ai ne t a t ecl sgmt onh e s n or l •Haha esuus i rr i lcl t cr e cc l r t e •Ora a u e i sb ls v l i n n ra u e e d d dl d cl •I ta – eh d e n cl a o r r l nv •Ee ern xn da e t d g •C l asa g e o hi l d rn l P a ls e ly t nt i I ii tos na n ti Msrmt eu e aen rsls et u Fe g it r l i n Ueccnii n r n odo g y t Bi r nn acakg s i Aii r r d ula ai x y o nt o f ni n e r uc s wk to e lan vuto a i s O ni g es r az t l t gi nhi S dg es ei t l t nn h i Actor p lo i nel l a y Limited Internal 68 NPI Training – Retainability 2005-09-30

Handover – Locating Overview Locating – Sending the list • If th e can did ate list is em pty (i. e. serving cell is the best) th e cand id ate list is no t sent to the ce ntral processo r. • T h e first ce ll in the ca ndidate list is the “b est” ca ndidate . A t con gestion the n ext cell in th e ca ndidate list is tried. P e n a lty lis t In itia tio n s M ea su re m e n t re su lts F ilte rin g U rg e ncy co n d itio n B asic ra n kin g A u xilia ry ra d io n e tw ork fu n ctio n s e va lua tion s O rg a niz ing th e list S e nd in g th e list Allo ca tio n re p ly Limited Internal 69 NPI Training – Retainability 2005-09-30 Handover – Locating Overview

Locating – Allocation reply • A t s u c c e s s a p e n a lty lis t is tra n s fe rre d fro m th e lo c a tin g in d iv id u a l to th e n e w o n e . If th e h a n d o v e r re a s o n w a s d u e to u rg e n c y a p e n a lty fo r th e a b a n d o n e d c e ll m u s t b e in c lu d e d . T h e o ld lo c a tin g in d iv id u a l is th e n d e le te d . • A t in te r-B S C h a n d o v e r it is n o t p o s s ib le to s e n d th e p e n a lty lis t. H o w e v e r it is p o s s ib le in d ic a te if th e c a u s e o f th e h a n d o v e r w a s d u e to b a d q u a lity o r e x c e s s iv e tim in g a d v a n c e . T h e p e n a ltie s o f th e n e w c e ll w ill th e n b e u s e d

Away by Michael Gow: Character Analysis

Coral: The death of Coral’s son has caused an emotional breakdown as she cannot accept her son’s death. Moreover, Coral has lost her social identity and tends to struggle to find a connection with anyone, as she “can’t think of anything to say” (Act 2, Scene 2). Her husband, Roy, is annoyed by her bizarre attitude and this causes Coral to lower herself to the behavior of a naive child “I’ll be good! I’ll improve! ” When Coral does begin to speak, it is presented as very expressive and mournful. Her tone is filled with emotion as she is constantly “wiping away tears”. Coral finally begins to socialize, with a woman named Leonie.

She seems instigated by the fact that Leonie (the woman) appeared to be hiding something. Leonie (like Roy) attempts to conceal her distress with a social disguise. Whilst dismissing Leonie, Coral visualizes Rick as a duplicate of her son. Rick is similar in context with her son; however he is different in circumstance. By conserving a close-knitted friendship with Rick, she continues to retain the visual memory of her son. Gwen: Gwen is a unhappy woman on the brink of a nervous breakdown. She is a nagging housewife who seems to complain or suggest a certain opinion about the slightest of situations.

Her character displays the type of relationship she has with her loved ones, family, and friends and so on. As she has no intimacy or emotional connection with her daughter Meg, Meg shows no respect or courtesy towards Gwen. “Meg: When you’re married to someone, do you ever wish they were dead? ” Jim: Please don’t be harsh towards your mother”. Meg despises Gwen because she is always nagging, seems materialistic, acts bossy and manipulative as well as being a snob in general. Gwen’s insecurity relates to her obsession with materialism, as she feels she has to always be in control of the situation.

As much as being emotional, Gwen is just as economic and fearful. “Roy: We stuck to our plans like the Bible. And we’re getting there… My plans were for me but your mother… hers are for all of us” (Act 2, Scene 2). Gwen’s journey on the caravan to the beach is her personal turning point. The storm is symbolised as a purifier of the soul, washing away her material possessions. The storm is also considered destructive as well as renewing life for mankind. The struggles against the storm were worth the price to pay, as the obstacles she had faced earlier, no longer exist. Tom: Tom is the most important character, yet he is not a flawless figure.

Tom is irritated and annoyed easily, impatient and ignorant. His anger is clearly displayed in scenes with Gwen who expresses illiterate and disrespectful comments towards Tom’s family. Tom develops to acquire his own appealing death, during the course of the play. He has been hesitant to speak about his death, as he ignores Meg’s attempt to begin a conversation on the matter: “Are you afraid? / You coming to the concert tonight? ”. Gow signifies Tom’s acceptance by giving him King Lear’s lines about crawling towards death. Tom is envisioned as Puck in his role, from A Midsummer Night’s Dream.

Tom is a unique individual, compared to Puck, he has similar magical powers. Tom has the ability to transform people by reviving love, can enliven people to a new insight on reality. The utmost evident example of his power is his task in the recovery of Coral, as he was the only one to foresee Coral as Kim Novak. “I knew who she was the second I saw her” (Act 4, Scene 2). Tom’s warmful attitude and friendly manner towards Coral has led to her confiding in him. He has inspired confidence in Coral and his gentle but effective concern has displayed pathways in which Coral can come in terms with the death of her son.

Economic Terms and Health Care

Economic Terms and Health Care History Introduction These days, the health care system is constantly changing in an attempt to meet the demands of an ever changing economy. Despite economic fluctuations, health care organizations must adjust its financing, organizational structure, and delivery of medical services to meet patient needs. Resources, however, are limited. As a result, it is vital that health care organizations understand their financial limitations all the while meeting patient demands. The following essay discusses the evolution of economics and how economics pertains to the health care system. Economics

Economics can be defined as the science that is concerned with the production, distribution, and consumption of goods and services. In essence, it is the study of the material welfare of humankind (Apollo Group, 2010). Economics in health care is concerned not only with the financial aspects of the system, but how those financial elements impact patient care. Like general economics, economics in health care makes two general hypotheses: one, people are directed by their goals and will act in their own best interest; two, although resources are limited, human needs and the potential for meeting those needs is limitless.

According to Scott, Solomon, and McGowan, “Two basic points are 1) economics is about resource allocation, and 2) efficiency in resource use (getting the most from available resources) in health care can be understood by identifying production functions representing health-care services” (CDC, 2001). Therefore, those in the health care field have needed to be concerned with ensuring that resources, including material and human, are appropriately allocated to meet the needs of patients.

Given that needs are limitless, while resources are not, health care managers must be careful not to exhaust the goods and services that are available. Microeconomics and Macroeconomics Microeconomics is concerned with how individuals and organizations decide how to allocate the resources that are available to them so that they can meet their own or consumer demands. Macroeconomics, on the other hand, concerns the general population or, in this case, health care system as a whole, rather than individual consumers or organizations.

Micro and macroeconomics explain the supply and demand of the population. Microeconomics is focused on individual product costs in any given market. On the other hand, macroeconomics helps to explain the prices of the products that are sold. Additionally, macroeconomics is influenced by several causes, including consumer consumption, inflation, and employment rates In microeconomics, for instance, individuals who may need medical care, but do not have insurance, may choose to forgo treatment until it is absolutely necessary.

The part of the health care system—a hospital or clinic–that can assist them, perhaps through Medicare or Medicaid may also may be short on resources and therefore must allocate them sparingly to meet the demands of other patients. However, microeconomics directly affects macroeconomics. For each individual or organization that has demands that are unmet, the entire system becomes strained. Supply and Demand Supply and demand has played a role in society since the dawn of man. In any given market, supply and demand has influenced prices and the quantity of goods available.

This in effect determines micro and macroeconomics. If there is not a demand for products, then the supply is affected, in either an overage or a shortage. Without a demand for products, there would be no reason to supply them. Consequently, at times, if the demand is too great, then the supply would also be limited. Supply establishes a connection between how much a product is sold for and it also establishes the quantity that a supplier can or will sell. Consumers consider costs of a product or service and its relative value to them and ultimately determine supply and demand.

Gross Domestic Product Gross domestic product, or GDP, consists of the total market value of all goods and services produced within a nation’s border during specific periods of time (Apollo Group, 2010). In other words, this comprises all of the goods and services that are produced along with their market values in a country over the course of one fiscal year. There are three ways that gross market value is determined: through expenditures, income approach, or product approach. Despite the different approaches, the outcomes are identical.

In addition, the foundation of a nation’s gross domestic income determines the standard of living. It is established through a country’s total investments, government expenditures, and consumer spending. Elasticity and Inelasticity Consumers also determine elasticity as well as the costs of products by way of supply and demand. If consumers determine that a product or service is important or essential to them, then the cost may be higher, given that they will continue to purchase it out of necessity and thus willing to pay a higher price.

Furthermore, if one product or service is in great demand and will be purchased regardless of its cost, it is considered to be inelastic. Elasticity is important in economics because it is related to consumer and government surplus. Conclusion Economics can be used to determine and predict costs within the health care industry based on supply and demand, micro and macroeconomic trends, and service elasticity or inelasticity. For instance, if a physician constantly refers patients for off-site tests, then it can be determined that that having the capabilities to do on-site tests could meet the patient demand.

Health care managers must identify what consumers need. They must not only look at the microeconomic picture, but also the macroeconomic picture to determine trends in supply and demand. In essence, without an understanding of economic principles and how to apply them, it would be difficult for society to effectively meet their wants and needs. References Scott, R. , Solomon, S. , & McGowan, J. (2001). Applying Economic Principles to Health Care. CDC. Retrieved on May 9, 2011 from http://www. cdc. gov/ncidod/eid/vol7no2/scott. htm.

Informal Networks: the Company Behind the Chart


N 93402 93409 O INFORMAL NETWORKS: THE COMPANY BEHIND THE CHART REINVENTING LABOR: AN INTERVIEW WITH UNION PRESIDENT LYNN WILLIAMS HOW BELL LABS CREATES STAR PERFORMERS 93406 93410 HBR CASE STUDY IS THIS THE RIGHT TIME TO COME OUT? WORLD VIEW MANAGING RISKS IN MEXICO FIRST PERSON MADE IN U. S. A. : A RENAISSANCE IN QUALITY IN QUESTION WHATEVER HAPPENED TO ROSIE THE RIVETER? PERSPECTIVES IS THE DEFICIT A FRIENDLY GIANT AFTER ALL? T 93405 CO 93411 93403 93404 PY 93407 93401 Mapping employees’ relationships can help managers harness the real power in their organizations. D Informal Networks: The Company y David Krackhardt and Jeffrey R. Hanson Many executives invest considerable resources in restructuring their companies, drawing and redrawing organizational charts only to be disappointed by the results. That’s because much of the real work of companies happens despite the formal organization. Often what needs attention is the informal organization, the networks of relationships that employees form across functions and divisions to accomplish tasks fast. These informal networks can cut through formal reporting procedures to jump start stalled initiatives and meet extraordinary deadlines.

But informal networks can just as easily sabotage companies’ best laid plans by blocking communication and fomenting opposition to change unless managers know how to identify and direct them. Learning how to map these social links can help managers harness the real power in their companies and revamp their formal organizations to let the informal ones thrive. If the formal organization is the skeleton of a company, the informal is the central nervous system driving the collective thought processes, actions, and reactions of its business units.

Designed to facilitate standard modes of production, the formal organization is set up to handle easily anticipated problems. But when unexpected problems arise, the informal organization kicks in. Its complex webs of social ties form every time colleagues communi- Copyright © 1993 by the President and Fellows of Harvard College. All rights reserved. O N O cate and solidify over time into surprisingly stable networks. Highly adaptive, informal networks move diagonally and elliptically, skipping entire functions to get work done.

Managers often pride themselves on understanding how these networks operate. They will readily tell you who confers on technical matters and who discusses office politics over lunch. What’s startling is how often they are wrong. Although they may be able to diagram accurately the social links of the five or six people closest to them, their assumptions about employees outside their immediate circle are usually off the mark. Even the most psychologically shrewd managers lack critical information about how employees spend their days and how they feel about their peers.

Managers simply can’t be everywhere at once, nor can they read people’s minds. So they’re left to draw conclusions based on superficial observations, without the tools to test their perceptions. Armed with faulty information, managers often rely on traditional techniques to control these netDavid Krackhardt is associate professor of organizations and public policy at the H. John Heinz III School of Public Policy and Management at Carnegie Mellon University. Jeffrey R. Hanson is president of J. R. Hanson & Company, a management consulting firm in Bronxville, New York.

DRAWINGS BY GARISON WEILAND T CO PY D Behind the Chart works. Some managers hope that the authority inherent in their titles will override the power of informal links. Fearful of any groups they can’t command, they create rigid rules that will hamper the work of the informal networks. Other managers try to recruit “moles” to provide intelligence. More enlightened managers run focus groups and host retreats to “get in touch” with their employees. But such approaches won’t rein in these freewheeling networks, nor will they give managers an accurate picture of what they look like.

Using network analysis, however, managers can translate a myriad of relationship ties into maps that show how the informal organization gets work done. Managers can get a good overall picture by diagramming three types of relationship networks: The advice network shows the prominent players in an organization on whom others depend to solve problems and provide technical information. The trust network tells which employees share delicate political information and back one another in a crisis.

The communication network reveals the employees who talk about work-related matters on a regular basis. Maps of these relationships can help managers understand the networks that once eluded them and leverage these networks to solve organizational HARVARD BUSINESS REVIEW July-August 1993 O N O problems. Case studies using fictional names, based on companies with which we have worked, show how managers can bring out the strengths in their networks, restructure their formal organizations to complement the informal, and “rewire” faulty networks to work with company goals.

T CO The Steps of Network Analysis We learned the significance of the informal network 12 years ago while conducting research at a bank that had an 80% turnover rate among its tellers. Interviews revealed that the tellers’ reasons for leaving had less to do with the bank’s formal organization than with the tellers’ relationships to key players in their trust networks. When these players left, others followed in droves. Much research had already established the influence of central figures in informal networks.

Our subsequent studies of public and private companies showed that understanding these networks could increase the influence of managers outside the inner circle. If they learned who wielded power in networks and how various coalitions functioned, they could work with the informal organization to solve problems and improve performance. 105 PY INFORMAL NETWORKS The Formal Chart Shows Who’s on Top Leers (CEO) Software Applications Field Design Integrated Communications Technologies Lang (SVP) Muller Jules Baker Daven Thomas Zanado

O’Hara (SVP) Bair Calder (SVP) Harris Benson Fleming Church Martin Lee Wilson Swinney Carlson Fiola Stewart Ruiz Hoberman Mapping advice networks, our research showed, can uncover the source of political conflicts and failure to achieve strategic objectives. Because these networks show the most influential players in the day-to-day operations of a company, they are useful to examine when a company is considering routine changes. Trust networks often reveal the causes of nonroutine problems such as poor performance by temporary teams.

Companies should examine trust networks when implementing a major change or experiencing a crisis. The communication network can help identify gaps in information flow, the inefficient use of resources, and the failure to generate new ideas. They should be examined when productivity is low. Managers can analyze informal networks in three steps. Step one is conducting a network survey using employee questionnaires. The survey is designed to solicit responses about who talks to whom about work, who trusts whom, and who advises whom on technical matters.

It is important to pretest the survey on a small group of employees to see if any questions are ambiguous or meet with resistance. In some companies, for example, employees are comfortable answering questions about friendship; in others, they deem such questions too personal and intrusive. The following are among the questions often asked: Whom do you talk to every day? Whom do you go to for help or advice at least once a week? With one day of training, whose job could you step into? 106 Whom would you recruit to support a proposal of yours that could be unpopular?

Whom would you trust to keep in confidence your concerns about Data Control Systems a work-related issue? Some companies also find it useful to conduct surveys to deterStern (SVP) mine managers’ impressions of inHuttle formal networks so that these can Atkins be compared with the actual netKibler works revealed by the employee questionnaires. In such surveys, questions are posed like this: Whom do you think Steve goes to for work-related advice? Whom would Susan trust to keep her confidence about workrelated concerns? The key to eliciting honest answers from employees is to earn their trust.

They must be assured that managers will not use their answers against them or the employees mentioned in their responses and that their immediate colleagues will not have access to the information. In general, respondents are comfortable if upper-level managers not mentioned in the surveys see the results. After questionnaires are completed, the second step is cross-checking the answers. Some employees, worried about offending their colleagues, say they talk to everyone in the department on a daily basis. If Judy Smith says she regularly talks to Bill Johnson about work, make sure that Johnson says he talks to Smith.

Managers should discount any answers not confirmed by both parties. The final map should not be based on the impressions of one employee but on the consensus of the group. The third step is processing the information using one of several commercially available computer programs that generate detailed network maps. (Drawing maps is a laborious process that tends to result in curved lines that are difficult to read. ) Maps in hand, a skilled manager can devise a strategy that plays on the strengths of the informal organization, as David Leers, the founder and CEO of a California-based computer company, found out. D O N O T

CO Whom Do You Trust? David Leers thought he knew his employees well. In 15 years, the company had trained a cadre of loyal professionals who had built a strong regionHARVARD BUSINESS REVIEW July-August 1993 PY al reputation for delivering customized office inforin the advice network – meaning that many emmation systems (see “The Formal Chart Shows ployees relied on him for technical advice (see Who’s on Top”). The field design group, responsible “The Advice Network Reveals the Experts”). But for designing and installing the systems, generated he had only one trust link with a colleague (see the largest block of revenues.

For years it had been “But When It Comes to Trust…”). Leers concluded the linchpin of the operation, led by the company’s that Harris’s weak position in the trust network technical superstars, with whom Leers kept in was a main reason for the task force’s inability to close contact. produce results. But Leers feared that the company was losing its In his job, Harris was able to leverage his position competitive edge by shortchanging its other diviin the advice network to get work done quickly. As sions, such as software applications and integrated a task force leader, however, his technical expertise communications technologies.

When members of was less important than his ability to moderate field design saw Leers start pumping more money into these divisions, they worried about losing their privileged position. Key employees started voicing dissatisBair faction about their compensation, Church and Leers knew he had the makings of a morale problem that Baker Jules could result in defections. Thomas To persuade employees to supZanado Muller Leers (CEO) Swinney port a new direction for the company, Leers decided to involve Harris Lang (SVP) Daven them in the planning process.

He Lee formed a strategic task force comO’Hara (SVP) Martin posed of members of all divisions Fiola Calder (SVP) and led by a member of field deRuiz sign to signal his continuing comWilson Carlson Stern (SVP) mitment to the group. He wanted Fleming Huttle a leader who had credibility with his peers and was a proven perBenson Kibler Atkins Hoberman former. Eight-year company veteran Tom Harris seemed obvious for the job. Leers was optimistic after the first meeting. Members generated good discussion about key competitive dilemmas. A month later, Church Lee however, he found that the group had made little progress.

Within O’Hara (SVP) Lang (SVP) Huttle two months, the group was comRuiz Calder (SVP) Stewart pletely deadlocked by members championing their own agendas. Benson Leers (CEO) Although a highly effective manDaven Carlson ager, Leers lacked the necessary Hoberman distance to identify the source of Bair Baker his problem. Fiola Swinney An analysis of the company’s Fleming Thomas trust and advice networks helped Harris him get a clearer picture of the dyMartin Kibler namics at work in the task force. The trust map turned out to be Atkins most revealing. Task force leader Muller Tom Harris held a central position HARVARD BUSINESS REVIEW

D O The Advice Network Reveals the Experts N July-August 1993 O T But When It Comes to Trust… CO PY 107 INFORMAL NETWORKS conflicting views, focus the group’s thinking, and win the commitment of task force members to mutually agreed-upon strategies. Because he was a loner who took more interest in computer games than in colleagues’ opinions, task force members didn’t trust him to take their ideas seriously or look out for their interests. So they focused instead on defending their turf. With this critical piece of information, the CEO crafted a solution. He did not want o undermine the original rationale of the task force by declaring it a failure. Nor did he want to embarrass a valued employee by summarily removing him as task force head. Any response, he concluded, had to run with the natural grain of the informal organization. He decided to redesign the team to reflect the inherent strengths of the trust network. Referring to the map, Leers looked for someone in the trust network who could share responsibilities with Harris. He chose Bill Benson, a warm, amiable person who occupied a central position in the network and with whom Harris had already established a solid working relationship.

He publicly justified his decision to name two task force heads How the CEO Views the Trust Network Fiola The Trust Network According to Calder as necessary, given the time pressures and scope of the problem. Within three weeks, Leers could see changes in the group’s dynamics. Because task force members trusted Benson to act in the best interest of the entire group, people talked more openly and let go of their fixed positions. During the next two months, the task force made significant progress in proposing a strategic direction for the company.

And in the process of working together, the task force helped integrate the company’s divisions. A further look at the company’s advice and trust networks uncovered another serious problem, this time with the head of field design, Jim Calder. The CEO had appointed Calder manager because his colleagues respected him as the most technically accomplished person in the division. Leers thought Calder would have the professional credibility to lead a diverse group of very specialized design consultants. This is a common practice in professional service organizations: make your best producer the manager.

Calder, however, turned out to be a very marginal figure in the trust network. His managerial ability and skills were sorely lacking , which proved to be a deficit that outweighed the positive effects derived from his technical expertise. He regularly told people they were stupid and paid little attention to their professionMartin al concerns. Harris Leers knew that Calder was no Church diplomat, but he had no idea to what extent the performance and Calder (SVP) morale of the group were suffering Wilson as a result of Calder’s tyrannical Lee management style.

In fact, a map Hoberman based on Leers’s initial perceptions of the trust network put Benson Calder in a central position (see Fleming “How the CEO Views the Trust Swinney Network”). Leers took for granted that Calder had good personal relationships with the people on his Carlson team. His assumption was not unusual. Frequently, senior managers presume that formal work ties will yield good relationship ties over time, and they assume that if they trust someone, others will too. The map of Calder’s perceptions Fleming Hoberman was also surprising (see “The Trust Network According to Calder”).

He saw almost no trust D 108 O N O T CO HARVARD BUSINESS REVIEW PY July-August 1993 links in his group at all. Calder was oblivious to any of the trust dependencies emerging around him – a worrisome characteristic for a manager. The information in these maps helped Leers formulate a solution. Again, he concluded that he needed to change the formal organization to reflect the structure of the informal network. Rather than promoting or demoting Calder, Leers cross-promoted him to an elite “special situations team,” reporting directly to the CEO.

His job involved working with highly sophisticated clients on specialized problems. The position took better advantage of Calder’s technical skills and turned out to be good for him socially as well. Calder, Leers learned, hated dealing with formal management responsibilities and the pressure of running a large group. Leers was now free to promote John Fleming, a tactful, even-tempered employee, to the head of field design. A central player in the trust network, Fleming was also influential in the advice network.

The field group’s performance improved significantly over the next quarter, and the company was able to create a highly profitable revenue stream through the activities of Calder’s new team. Whom Do You Talk To? When it comes to communication, more is not always better, as the top management of a large East Coast bank discovered. A survey showed that customers were dissatisfied with the information they were receiving about banking services. Branch managers, top managers realized, were not communicating critical information about available services to tellers. As a result, customers’ questions were not answered in a timely fashion.

Management was convinced that more talking among parties would improve customer service and increase profits. A memo was circulated ordering branch managers to “increase communication flow and coordination within and across branches and to make a personal effort to increase the amount and effectiveness of their own interpersonal communications with their staffs. ” A study of the communication networks of 24 branches, however, showed the error of this thinking. More communication ties did not distinguish the most profitable branches; the quality of communication determined their success.

Nonhierarchical branches, those with two-way communication between people of all levels, were 70% more profitable than branches with one-way communication patterns between “superiors” and staff. HARVARD BUSINESS REVIEW July-August 1993 The communication networks of two branches located in the same city illustrated this point. Branch 1 had a central figure, a supervisor, with whom many tellers reported communicating about their work on a daily basis. The supervisor confirmed that employees talked to her, but she reported communicating with only half of these tellers about work-related matters by the end of the day.

The tellers, we later learned, resented this one-way communication flow. Information they viewed as critical to their success flowed up the organization but not down. They complained that the supervisor was cold and remote and failed to keep them informed. As a result, productivity suffered. In contrast, Branch 2 had very few one-way communication lines but many mutual, two-way lines. Tellers in this branch said they were well-informed about the normal course of work flow and reported greater satisfaction with their jobs.

After viewing the communication map, top management abandoned the more-is-better strategy and began exploring ways of fostering mutual communication in all the branches. In this case, management did not recast the formal structure of the branches. Instead, it opted to improve relationships within the established framework. The bank sponsored mini-seminars in the branches, in which the problems revealed by the maps were openly discussed. These consciousness-raising sessions spurred many supervisors to communicate more substantive information to tellers.

District managers were charged with coming up with their own strategies for improving communication. The bank D O N O T CO The manager didn’t know that there were two distinct cultures in his branch until he saw the communication network map. surveyed employees at regular intervals to see if their supervisors were communicating effectively, and supervisors were informed of the results. The communication network of a third branch surfaced another management challenge: the branch had divided itself into two distinct groups, each with its own culture and mode of operation.

The network map showed that one group had evolved into the “main branch,” consisting of tellers, loan officers, and administrative staff. The other group was a kind of “sub-branch,” made up primarily of tellers and administrators. It turned 109 PY INFORMAL NETWORKS out that the sub-branch staff worked during nonpeak and Saturday hours, while main-branch employees worked during peak and weekday hours. The two cultures never clashed because they rarely interacted. The groups might have coexisted peacefully if customers had not begun complaining about the sub-branch.

The main-branch staff, they reported, was responsive to their needs, while the sub-branch staff was often indifferent and even rude. Subbranch employees, it turned out, felt little loyalty to the bank because they didn’t feel part of the organization. They were excluded from staff meetings, which were scheduled in the morning, and they had little contact with the branch manager, who worked a normal weekday shift. The manager, who was embedded in the main branch, was not even aware that this distinct culture existed until he saw the communication network map. His challenge was to unify the two groups.

He decided not to revamp the formal structure, nor did he mount a major public-relations campaign to integrate the two cultures, fearing that each group would reject the other because the existing ties among its members were so strong. Instead, he opted for a stealth approach. He exposed people from one group to people from the other in the hopes of expanding the informal network. Although such forced interaction does not guarantee the emergence of stable networks, more contact increases the likelihood that some new ties will stick. Previously planned technical training programs for tellers presented the opportunity to nitiate change. The manager altered his original plans for riod. By increasing his own interaction with the sub-branch, the manager discovered critical information about customers, procedures, and data systems. Without even realizing it, he had been making key decisions based on incomplete data. D 110 Network Holes and Other Problems As managers become more sophisticated in analyzing their communication networks, they can use them to spot five common configurations. None of these are inherently good or bad, functional or dysfunctional. What matters is the fit, whether networks are in sync with company goals.

When the two are at odds, managers can attempt to broaden or reshape the informal networks using a variety of tactics. Imploded relationships. Communication maps often show departments that have few links to other groups. In these situations, employees in a department spend all their time talking among themselves and neglect to cultivate relationships with the rest of their colleagues. Frequently, in such cases, only the most senior employees have ties with people outside their areas. And they may hoard these contacts by failing to introduce these people to junior colleagues.

To counter this behavior, one manager implemented a mentor system in which senior employees were responsible for introducing their apprentices to people in other groups who could help them do their jobs. Another manager instituted a policy of picking up the tab for “power breakfasts,” as long as the employees were from different departments. Irregular communication patterns. The opposite pattern can be just as troubling. Sometimes employees communicate only with members of other groups and not among themselves. To foster camaraderie, one manager sponsored seasonal sporting events with members of the “problem group” assigned to the same team.

Staff meetings can also be helpful if they’re really used to share resources and exchange important information about work. A lack of cohesion resulting in factionalism suggests a more serious underlying problem that requires bridge building. Initiating discussions among peripheral players in each faction can help uncover the root of the problem and suggest solutions. These parties will be much less resistant to compromise than the faction leaders, who will feel more impassioned about their positions. Fragile structures. Sometimes group members communicate only among themselves and with HARVARD BUSINESS REVIEW July-August 1993

What matters is the fit, whether networks are in sync with company goals. on-site training and opted instead for an off-site facility, even though it was more expensive. He sent mixed groups of sub-branch and main-branch employees to programs to promote gradual, neutral interaction and communication. Then he followed up with a series of selective “staff swaps” whereby he shifted work schedules temporarily. When someone from the main branch called in sick or was about to go on vacation, he elected a substitute from the sub-branch. And he rescheduled staff meetings so that all employees could attend.

This approach helped unify the two cultures, which improved levels of customer satisfaction with the branch as a whole over a six-month pe- O N O T CO PY employees in one other division. This can be problematic when the contribution of several areas is necessary to accomplish work quickly and spawn creativity. One insurance company manager, a naturally gregarious fellow, tried to broaden employees’ contacts by organizing meetings and cocktail parties for members of several divisions. Whenever possible, he introduced employees he thought should be cultivating working relationships.

Because of his warm, easygoing manner, they didn’t find his methods intrusive. In fact, they appreciated his personal interest in their careers. Holes in the network. A map may reveal obvious network holes, places you would expect to find relationship ties but don’t. In a large corporate law firm, for example, a group of litigators was not talking to the firm’s criminal lawyers, a state of affairs that startled the senior partner. To begin tackling the problem, the partner posed complex problems to criminal lawyers that only regular consultations with litigators could solve.

Again, arranging such interactions will not ensure the formation of enduring relationships, but continuous exposure increases the possibility. “Bow ties. ” Another common trouble spot is the bow tie, a network in which many players are dependent on a single employee but not on each other. Individuals at the center knot of a bow tie have tremendous power and control within the network, much more than would be granted them on a formal organizational chart. If the person at the knot leaves, connections between isolated groups can collapse.

If the person remains, organizational processes tend to become rigid and slow, and the individual is often torn between the demands of several groups. To undo such a knot, one manager self-consciously cultivated a stronger relationship with the person at the center. It took the pressure off the employee, who was no longer a lone operative, and it helped to diffuse some of his power. In general, managers should help employees develop relationships within the informal structure that will enable them to make valuable contributions to the company.

Managers need to guide employees to cultivate the right mix of relationships. Employees can leverage the power of informal relationships by building both strong ties, relationships with a high frequency of interaction, and weak ties, those with a lower frequency. They can call on the latter at key junctures to solve organizational problems and generate new ideas. Testing the solution. Managers can anticipate how a strategic decision will affect the informal organization by simulating network maps. This is particularly valuable when a company wants to anHARVARD BUSINESS REVIEW icipate reactions to change. A company that wants to form a strategic SWAT team that would remove key employees from the day-to-day operations of a division, for example, can design a map of the area without those players. If removing the central advice person from the network leaves the division with a group of isolates, the manager should reconsider the strategy. Failure to test solutions can lead to unfortunate results. When the trust network map of a bank showed a loan officer to be an isolate, the manager jumped to the conclusion that the officer was expendable.

The manager was convinced that he could replace the employee, a veteran of the company, with a younger, less expensive person who was more of a team player. What the manager had neglected to consider was how important this officer was to the company’s day-to-day operations. He might not have been a prime candidate for a high-level strategy team that demanded excellent social skills, but his expertise, honed by years of experience, would have been impossible to replace. In addition, he had cultivated a close relationship with the bank’s largest client – something an in-house network map would never have revealed.

Pictures don’t tell the whole story; network maps are just one tool among many. The most important change for a company to anticipate is a complete overhaul of its formal structure. Too many companies fail to consider how such a restructuring will affect their informal organizations. Managers assume that if a company eliminates layers of bureaucracy, the informal organization will simply adjust. It will adjust all right, but there’s no guarantee that it will benefit the company. Managers would do well to consider what type of redesign will play on the inherent strengths of key players and give them the freedom to thrive.

Policies should allow all employees easy access to colleagues who can help them carry out tasks quickly and efficiently, regardless of their status or area of jurisdiction. Experienced network managers who can use maps to identify, leverage, and revamp informal networks will become increasingly valuable as companies continue to flatten and rely on teams. As organizations abandon hierarchical structures, managers will have to rely less on the authority inherent in their title and more on their relationships with players in their informal networks.

They will need to focus less on overseeing employees “below” them and more on managing people across functions and disciplines. Understanding relationships will be the key to managerial success. Reprint 93406 111 D O N July-August 1993 O T CO PY Harvard Business Review HBR Subscriptions D Permissions HBR Article Reprints HBR Index and Other Catalogs HBS Cases HBS Press Books HBS Management Productions Videos HBR Custom Reprints O Harvard Business Review U. S. and Canada Subscription Service P. O. Box 52623 Boulder, CO 80322-2623 Telephone: (800) 274-3214 Fax: (617) 496-8145 Outside U. S. nd Canada Tower House Sovereign Park Lathkill Street Market Harborough Leicestershire LE16 9EF Telephone: 44-85-846-8888 Fax: 44-85-843-4958 N American Express, MasterCard, VISA accepted. Billing available. Harvard Business School Publishing Customer Service – Box 230-5 60 Harvard Way Boston, MA 02163 Telephone: U. S. and Canada (800) 545-7685 Outside U. S. and Canada: (617) 495-6117 or 495-6192 Fax: (617) 495-6985 Internet address: custserv@cchbspub. harvard. edu Harvard Business School Management Productions videos are produced by award winning documentary filmmakers. You’ll find them lively, engaging, and informative.

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Barilla Spa Case – the Value of Information

BARILLA SpA Case The Value of Information COMAPNY BACKROUND ? Founded by Pietro Barilla in 1875 ? O Opened shop i Parma, Italy d h in l ? Subsequently run by son Ricardo, passed to his own sons Pietro & Gianni ? 1990 ? Largest Pasta maker in world g ? During 1960 constructed . 25 million sq. m. Pasta sq m Pasta plant in Pedrignano Background cont……… ? 1971 ? company sold to W. R. Grace,Inc. USA p y , ? 1979 – Grace sold the company back to Pietro ? 1980 – annual growth rate of 21% ? Growth achieved through expansion of existing business & acquisition of new business ?

Brands – BARILLA, VOIELLO & BRAIBANTI ? 1990 – 7 Divisions – 3 Pasta division, Bakery Product di i i P d division, F h b d di i i C Fresh bread division,Catering i division & International division INDUSTRY BACKGROUND ? Origin of pasta unknown ? Per capita Pasta consumption in Italy averaged 18 kilos per year ? 1980 – market grew by less than 1 % ? 1990 – Semolina & Fresh Pasta only growth segments ? export market was experiencing record g growth PRODUCTS ? Fresh Products –Fresh Pasta shelf life of 21 days,fresh days fresh bread shelf life 1 day ?

DRY Products – Medium shelf life of 10 to 12 weeks or Long shelf lif of 18 to 24 months k L h lf life f h CHANNELS OF DISTRIBUTION SALES & MARKETINGS ? Advertising ? Trade Promotions d i ? Sales representatives JITD Program ? 1980 – Barilla witnessed Fluctuating demand ? Extreme demad variability strained Barilla manufacturing and logistic operatons ? 1987 – Brando Vitali then Barilla director of logistics felt both l i i f l “ b h manufacturers & retailers f il were suffering fron thinning margins” ? Early 1988 he thought of JITD Program

JITD cont…. ? Rather than send product to the distributor as per their internal Planning ? He suggested they should send only what is needed at the stores ? To consider distributor shipment data for forecasting ? He suggested sending product only as it is needed rather than building huge inventory at both areas JITD cont…. ? He suggested they reduce distribution & inventory cost to ultimately reduce manufacturing costs ? R i Resistance f from within the company S l & i hi h Sales marketing Personnel Remarks of Sales & marketing Our sales level would flatten ? We run risk of not being able to adjust our shipment sufficiently quickly to meet demand ? objection from distribution channels ? we would not be able to run Trade promotions with JITD ? It is not clear what cost would be reduced Vitali Counter to concerns ? JITD should be considered selling tool ? We offer coustomers extra service at no extra cost ? Program will improve Barilla Visibility ? It would improve relations with Distributors ? Distributor data would improve our Planning p g process Change 1988 – Giorgio Maggiali appointed as director of logistics as Vitali promoted ? Maggiali appointed Vincenzo to help develop JITD Program ? I l Implementation was diffi l as manager of i difficult f one distribution said “ managing my stock is my J b” Job” Two Important Issues ? Extreme variations in distributors order patterns have caused severe operational inefficiencies and cost penalties for Barilla ? In JITD program Barilla’s own Logistics organisation will specify delivery quantity to distributor whereas normal process is reverse.


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